Okunishi, Takuma; Clark, Richard; Takeda, Kyozaburo; Kusakabe, Kouichi; Tomita, Norikazu
2013-12-04
We extend the static multi-reference description (resonant UHF) to the dynamic system in order to include the correlation effect over time, and simplify the TD Schrödinger equation (TD-CI) into a time-developed rate equation where the TD external field Ĥ′(t) is then incorporated directly in the Hamiltonian without any approximations. We apply this TD-CI method to the two-electron ground state of a 2D quantum dot (QD) under photon injection and study the resulting two-electron Rabi oscillation.
The Use of Legendre and Zernike Moment Functions for the Comparison of 2-D PAGE Maps.
Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Demartini, Marco
2016-01-01
The comparison of 2-D maps is not trivial, the main difficulties being the high complexity of the sample and the large experimental variability characterizing 2-D gel electrophoresis. The comparison of maps from control and treated samples is usually performed by specific software, providing the so-called spot volume dataset where each spot of a specific map is matched to its analogous in other maps, and they are described by their optical density, which is supposed to be related to the underlying protein amount. Here, a different approach is presented, based on the direct comparison of 2-D map images: each map is decomposed in terms of moment functions, successively applying the multivariate tools usually adopted in image analysis problems. The moments calculated are then treated with multivariate classification techniques. Here, two types of moment functions are presented (Legendre and Zernike moments), while linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis are exploited as classification tools to provide the classification of the samples. The procedure is applied to a sample dataset to prove its effectiveness.
Moment Invariants for 2D Flow Fields via Normalization in Detail.
Bujack, Roxana; Hotz, Ingrid; Scheuermann, Gerik; Hitzer, Eckhard
2015-08-01
The analysis of 2D flow data is often guided by the search for characteristic structures with semantic meaning. One way to approach this question is to identify structures of interest by a human observer, with the goal of finding similar structures in the same or other datasets. The major challenges related to this task are to specify the notion of similarity and define respective pattern descriptors. While the descriptors should be invariant to certain transformations, such as rotation and scaling, they should provide a similarity measure with respect to other transformations, such as deformations. In this paper, we propose to use moment invariants as pattern descriptors for flow fields. Moment invariants are one of the most popular techniques for the description of objects in the field of image recognition. They have recently also been applied to identify 2D vector patterns limited to the directional properties of flow fields. Moreover, we discuss which transformations should be considered for the application to flow analysis. In contrast to previous work, we follow the intuitive approach of moment normalization, which results in a complete and independent set of translation, rotation, and scaling invariant flow field descriptors. They also allow to distinguish flow features with different velocity profiles. We apply the moment invariants in a pattern recognition algorithm to a real world dataset and show that the theoretical results can be extended to discrete functions in a robust way. PMID:26357255
The general 2-D moments via integral transform method for acoustic radiation and scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Jerry R.; Mirotznik, Mark S.
2001-05-01
The moments via integral transform method (MITM) is a technique to analytically reduce the 2-D method of moments (MoM) impedance double integrals into single integrals. By using a special integral representation of the Green's function, the impedance integral can be analytically simplified to a single integral in terms of transformed shape and weight functions. The reduced expression requires fewer computations and reduces the fill times of the MoM impedance matrix. Furthermore, the resulting integral is analytic for nearly arbitrary shape and weight function sets. The MITM technique is developed for mixed boundary conditions and predictions with basic shape and weight function sets are presented. Comparisons of accuracy and speed between MITM and brute force are presented. [Work sponsored by ONR and NSWCCD ILIR Board.
Analysis of Highly-Resolved Simulations of 2-D Humps Toward Improvement of Second-Moment Closures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeyapaul, Elbert; Rumsey Christopher
2013-01-01
Fully resolved simulation data of flow separation over 2-D humps has been used to analyze the modeling terms in second-moment closures of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. Existing models for the pressure-strain and dissipation terms have been analyzed using a priori calculations. All pressure-strain models are incorrect in the high-strain region near separation, although a better match is observed downstream, well into the separated-flow region. Near-wall inhomogeneity causes pressure-strain models to predict incorrect signs for the normal components close to the wall. In a posteriori computations, full Reynolds stress and explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models predict the separation point with varying degrees of success. However, as with one- and two-equation models, the separation bubble size is invariably over-predicted.
Rogojerov, Marin; Keresztury, Gábor; Kamenova-Nacheva, Mariana; Sundius, Tom
2012-12-01
A new analytical approach for improving the precision in determination of vibrational transition moment directions of low symmetry molecules (lacking orthogonal axes) is discussed in this paper. The target molecules are partially uniaxially oriented in nematic liquid crystalline solvent and are studied by IR absorption spectroscopy using polarized light. The fundamental problem addressed is that IR linear dichroism measurements of low symmetry molecules alone cannot provide sufficient information on molecular orientation and transition moment directions. It is shown that computational prediction of these quantities can supply relevant complementary data, helping to reveal the hidden information content and achieve a more meaningful and more precise interpretation of the measured dichroic ratios. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational method proposed by us recently for determination of the average orientation of molecules with C(s) symmetry has now been replaced by a more precise analytical approach. The new method introduced and discussed in full detail here uses a mathematically evaluated angle between two vibrational transition moment vectors as a reference. The discussion also deals with error analysis and estimation of uncertainties of the orientational parameters. The proposed procedure has been tested in an analysis of the infrared linear dichroism (IR-LD) spectra of 1-D- and 2-D-naphthalene complemented with DFT calculations using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQM FF) method. PMID:22981590
Rey, Michaël; Nikitin, Andrei V; Tyuterev, Vladimir G
2015-05-21
We report the variationally computed infrared spectrum of (12)CH2D2 using our recent potential energy and dipole moment methane surfaces, which have been initially derived in the irreducible tensor representation adapted to the tetrahedral symmetry of the major isotopologue (12)CH4. The nuclear motion calculations are accomplished by combining the normal-mode Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian with isotopic and symmetry transformations. Our direct vibrational calculations are compared to the 93 observed band centers up to 6300 cm(-1). Except for two outliers the root-mean-square deviation is 0.22 cm(-1) and the maximum error is 0.7 cm(-1) without empirical adjustment of parameters. The work aims at filling the gap concerning missing line strength information for this molecule. Theoretical spectra predictions are given up to J = 25 and, for the very first time, ab initio intensity predictions for rovibrational line transitions are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental spectra. PMID:25905903
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchachenko, A. A.; Grinev, T. A.; Kłos, J.; Bieske, E. J.; Szczȩśniak, M. M.; Chałasiński, G.
2003-12-01
Three-dimensional potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the Cl--H2 system are calculated ab initio by means of a coupled cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative correction to triple excitations with augmented correlation consistent quadruple-zeta basis set supplemented with bond functions, and represented in analytical forms. Variational calculations of the energy levels up to the total angular momentum J=25 provide accurate estimations of the measured rotational spectroscopic constants of the ground van der Waals levels n=0 of the Cl-⋯H2/D2 complexes although they underestimate the red shifts of the mid-infrared spectra with v=0→v=1 vibrational excitation of the monomer. They also attest to the accuracy of effective radial interaction potentials extracted previously from experimental data using the rotational RKR procedure. Vibrational predissociation of the Cl-⋯H2/D2(v=1) complexes is shown to follow near-resonant vibrational-to-rotational energy transfer mechanism so that more than 97% of the product monomers are formed in the highest accessible rotational level. This mechanism explains the strong variation of the predissociation rate with isotopic content and nuclear spin form of the complex. Strong deviation of the observed relative abundances of ortho and para forms of the complexes from those of the monomers is qualitatively explained by the secondary ligand exchange reactions in the ionic beam, within the simple thermal equilibrium model. Positions and intensities of the hot v=0, n=1→v=1, n=1 and combination v=0, n=0→v=1, n=1 bands are predicted, and implications to the photoelectron spectroscopy of the complex are briefly discussed.
Improved Quick Disconnect (QD) Interface Through Fail Safe Parts Identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanch-Payne, Evelyn
2001-01-01
An extensive review of existing Quick Disconnects (QDs) mating and demating operations was performed to determine which shuttle part interface identifications and procedures contribute to human factor errors. The research methods used consisted of interviews with engineers and technicians, examination of incident reports, critiques of video and audio tapes of QD operations, and attendance of a Hyper QD operational course. The data strongly suggests that there are inherit human factor errors involved in QD operations. To promote fail-safe operations, QD interface problem areas and recommendations were outlined and reviewed. It is suggested that dialogue, investigations and recommendations continue.
Nadtochiy, A. M.; Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Rouvimov, S. S.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E.
2015-08-15
Heterostructures with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized on vicinal GaAs (001) substrates. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra and threshold characteristics of edge-emitting QD lasers are studied in the temperature range 10-400 K. The structural properties of QDs are examined by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the PL spectra demonstrates the bimodality of the QD array, which leads to an unusual temperature behavior of the PL spectra and threshold current density. A model of the population of a bimodal QD array by carriers, describing the observed phenomena, is considered.
Improved QD-BRET conjugates for detection and imaging
Xing Yun; So, Min-kyung; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Rao Jianghong
2008-08-01
Self-illuminating quantum dots, also known as QD-BRET conjugates, are a new class of quantum dot bioconjugates which do not need external light for excitation. Instead, light emission relies on the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer from the attached Renilla luciferase enzyme, which emits light upon the oxidation of its substrate. QD-BRET combines the advantages of the QDs (such as superior brightness and photostability, tunable emission, multiplexing) as well as the high sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging, thus holding the promise for improved deep tissue in vivo imaging. Although studies have demonstrated the superior sensitivity and deep tissue imaging potential, the stability of the QD-BRET conjugates in biological environment needs to be improved for long-term imaging studies such as in vivo cell tracking. In this study, we seek to improve the stability of QD-BRET probes through polymeric encapsulation with a polyacrylamide gel. Results show that encapsulation caused some activity loss, but significantly improved both the in vitro serum stability and in vivo stability when subcutaneously injected into the animal. Stable QD-BRET probes should further facilitate their applications for both in vitro testing as well as in vivo cell tracking studies.
QD-Based FRET Probes at a Glance
Shamirian, Armen; Ghai, Aashima; Snee, Preston T.
2015-01-01
The unique optoelectronic properties of quantum dots (QDs) give them significant advantages over traditional organic dyes, not only as fluorescent labels for bioimaging, but also as emissive sensing probes. QD sensors that function via manipulation of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) are of special interest due to the multiple response mechanisms that may be utilized, which in turn imparts enhanced flexibility in their design. They may also function as ratiometric, or “color-changing” probes. In this review, we describe the fundamentals of FRET and provide examples of QD-FRET sensors as grouped by their response mechanisms such as link cleavage and structural rearrangement. An overview of early works, recent advances, and various models of QD-FRET sensors for the measurement of pH and oxygen, as well as the presence of metal ions and proteins such as enzymes, are also provided. PMID:26053750
Computing Q-D Relationships for Storage of Rocket Fuels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jester, Keith
2005-01-01
The Quantity Distance Measurement Tool is a GIS BASEP computer program that aids safety engineers by calculating quantity-distance (Q-D) relationships for vessels that contain explosive chemicals used in testing rocket engines. (Q-D relationships are standard relationships between specified quantities of specified explosive materials and minimum distances by which they must be separated from persons, objects, and other explosives to obtain specified types and degrees of protection.) The program uses customized geographic-information-system (GIS) software and calculates Q-D relationships in accordance with NASA's Safety Standard For Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics. Displays generated by the program enable the identification of hazards, showing the relationships of propellant-storage-vessel safety buffers to inhabited facilities and public roads. Current Q-D information is calculated and maintained in graphical form for all vessels that contain propellants or other chemicals, the explosiveness of which is expressed in TNT equivalents [amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT) having equivalent explosive effects]. The program is useful in the acquisition, siting, construction, and/or modification of storage vessels and other facilities in the development of an improved test-facility safety program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Kate
2012-01-01
The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…
Enhanced quantum dot optical down-conversion using asymmetric 2D photonic crystals.
Yang, Fuchyi; Cunningham, Brian T
2011-02-28
Asymmetric 2D photonic crystals were fabricated using polymer embedded PbS quantum dots on plastic substrates for enhancing optical down conversion efficiency from blue to near infrared wavelengths through enhanced extraction and excitation effects. We demonstrate 8x improvement of QD emission at normal incidence extraction from enhanced extraction and 2.5x improvement in power conversion efficiency from enhanced excitation.
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve
2015-03-01
Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe
2014-11-01
A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.
Size effect on the electronic and optical band gap of CdSe QD
Sisodia, Namita
2014-04-24
Present paper deals with a critical and comprehensive analysis of the dependence of photo emission (PE) electronic band gap and optical absorption (OA) excitonic band gap on the size of CdSe QD, via connecting it with excitonic absorbance wavelength. Excitonic absorbance wavelength is determined through an empirical fit of established experimental evidences. Effective excitonic charge and Bohr radius is determined as a function of size. Increase in size of the CdSe QD results in greater Bohr radius and smaller effective excitonic charge. Excitonic binding energy as a degree of size of QD is also calculated which further relates with the difference in PE electronic and OA optical band gaps. It is also shown that with increase in size of CdSe QD, the excitonic binding energy decreases which consequently increases differences in two band gaps. Our results are very well comparable with the established results. Explanation for the origin of the unusual optical properties of CdSe QD has been also discussed.
Tunable microwave signal generator with an optically-injected 1310 nm QD-DFB laser.
Hurtado, Antonio; Mee, Jesse; Nami, Mohsen; Henning, Ian D; Adams, Michael J; Lester, Luke F
2013-05-01
Tunable microwave signal generation with frequencies ranging from below 1 GHz to values over 40 GHz is demonstrated experimentally with a 1310 nm Quantum Dot (QD) Distributed-Feedback (DFB) laser. Microwave signal generation is achieved using the period 1 dynamics induced in the QD DFB under optical injection. Continuous tuning in the positive detuning frequency range of the quantum dot's unique stability map is demonstrated. The simplicity of the experimental configuration offers promise for novel uses of these nanostructure lasers in Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) applications and future mobile networks.
Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2014-01-01
We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2
Single quantum dot (QD) manipulation on nanowire using dielectrophoretic (DEP) force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.; Lee, S. Y.; Suh, J.-K. F.; Park, J. H.; Shin, H. J.
2011-02-01
Au nanowires of 100 nm, 200nm and 400 nm widths with micro scale Au electrode were fabricated as electrodes to apply high electric field gradient for strong DEP force within the nanometer range. Au nanowires were fabricated on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) using lift-off process after e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. E-beam resister (ER) was patterned and a 50 nm thick Au layer. Photo resister (PR) was patterned to make Au microelectrode and did lift-off process. The Au nanowires with microelectrode were covered with SiO2 layer deposited with PECVD resulting in 1 um thick. Opened end of gold nanowires, the target surface for QD immobilization, were formed using etching processes. Single QD immobilization on the nanowire end-facet was accomplished through positive DEP force. Sine wave of 8 Vpp intensity and 3 MHz frequency was applied and it induced electric field of 108 V/m intensity and electric field gradient around Au nanowire to make strong positive DEP. Optical analysis confirmed the attachment of single QD on the nanowire. A single 25 nm diameter QD was manipulated on 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm width nanowires when 8 Vpp, 3 MHz sine wave was applied.
2004-08-01
AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.
Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Cakebread, Andrew; Halket, John M; Kostarelos, Kostas
2009-09-01
The present work describes the pharmacokinetics of recently developed liposome-quantum dot (L-QD) hybrid vesicles in nude mice following systemic administration. Hydrophobic QD were incorporated into different bilayer compositions, and the serum stability of such hybrid vesicles was evaluated using turbidity and carboxyfluorescein release measurements. L-QD hybrid blood profile and organ biodistribution were also determined by elemental (cadmium) analysis. Following intravenous administration, different tissue biodistribution profiles and tissue affinities were observed depending on the L-QD lipid bilayer characteristics. Immediate blood clearance was observed with cationic (DOTAP/DOPE/Chol) hybrid with rapid lung accumulation, while incorporation of PEG at the surface of zwitterionic vesicles dramatically prolonged their blood circulation half-life after systemic administration. Overall, the L-QD hybrid vesicle system is considered a viable platform that allows QD delivery to different tissues through facile modulation of the hybrid vesicle characteristics. In addition, L-QD offers many opportunities for the development of combinatory therapeutic and imaging (theranostic) modalities by incorporating both drug molecules and QD within the different compartments of a single vesicle.
QD co-sensitized and nitrogen doped TiO2 nanocomposite for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hensel, Jennifer; Canin, Max; Zhang, Jin Z.
2010-08-01
Metal oxides are promising for solar energy conversion applications since they are less expensive and easier to produce than conventional single crystal silicon. In this paper we focused on CdSe and CdS quantum dot (QD) co-sensitized and nitrogen doped TiO2 (N:TiO2) nanocomposite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for hydrogen generation. PEC, UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations of the nanostructured films were carried out. The QD co-sensitized and N-doped TiO2 photoanodes exhibits increased photocurrent compared to cosensitized TiO2 without N-doping This is tentatively attributed to enhanced hole transport by oxygen vacancy states that are increased upon nitrogen doping. The enhanced hole transport facilitates overall charge transfer and transport and thereby results in improved photocurrent.
DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.
1992-04-01
DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
PLAN2D - A PROGRAM FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF PLANAR FRAMES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, C.
1994-01-01
PLAN2D is a FORTRAN computer program for the plastic analysis of planar rigid frame structures. Given a structure and loading pattern as input, PLAN2D calculates the ultimate load that the structure can sustain before collapse. Element moments and plastic hinge rotations are calculated for the ultimate load. The location of hinges required for a collapse mechanism to form are also determined. The program proceeds in an iterative series of linear elastic analyses. After each iteration the resulting elastic moments in each member are compared to the reserve plastic moment capacity of that member. The member or members that have moments closest to their reserve capacity will determine the minimum load factor and the site where the next hinge is to be inserted. Next, hinges are inserted and the structural stiffness matrix is reformulated. This cycle is repeated until the structure becomes unstable. At this point the ultimate collapse load is calculated by accumulating the minimum load factor from each previous iteration and multiplying them by the original input loads. PLAN2D is based on the program STAN, originally written by Dr. E.L. Wilson at U.C. Berkeley. PLAN2D has several limitations: 1) Although PLAN2D will detect unloading of hinges it does not contain the capability to remove hinges; 2) PLAN2D does not allow the user to input different positive and negative moment capacities and 3) PLAN2D does not consider the interaction between axial and plastic moment capacity. Axial yielding and buckling is ignored as is the reduction in moment capacity due to axial load. PLAN2D is written in FORTRAN and is machine independent. It has been tested on an IBM PC and a DEC MicroVAX. The program was developed in 1988.
Improving VERITAS sensitivity by fitting 2D Gaussian image parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christiansen, Jodi; VERITAS Collaboration
2012-12-01
Our goal is to improve the acceptance and angular resolution of VERITAS by implementing a camera image-fitting algorithm. Elliptical image parameters are extracted from 2D Gaussian distribution fits using a χ2 minimization instead of the standard technique based on the principle moments of an island of pixels above threshold. We optimize the analysis cuts and then characterize the improvements using simulations. We find an improvement of 20% less observing time to reach 5-sigma for weak point sources.
A multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.
2014-09-01
Multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues with enhanced functional capabilities is proposed. Two-layer optically thin (attenuation coefficient τ <= 0,1 ) biological structures, formed by "muscle tissue (MT) - the dermis of the skin (DS)" histological cryosections for the two physiological states (normal - dystrophy) were investigated. Complex of objective indexes which characterized by 2D polarization reproduced distributions under the following criteria: histograms of the distributions; statistical moments of the 1st - 4th order; autocorrelation functions; correlation moments; power spectra logarithmic dependencies of the distributions; fractal dimensions of the distributions; spectra moments are presented.
OSAKA Trial: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing Tacrolimus QD and BD in Kidney Transplantation
Albano, Laetitia; Banas, Bernhard; Klempnauer, Juergen L.; Glyda, Maciej; Viklicky, Ondrej; Kamar, Nassim
2013-01-01
Background The once-daily (QD), prolonged-release formulation of tacrolimus has been shown to improve adherence versus twice-daily (BD) tacrolimus. Treatment nonadherence in transplant recipients has been associated with poor graft outcomes. Methods This open-label, parallel-group study randomized adults with end-stage renal disease undergoing primary kidney transplantation or retransplantation to an initial dose of tacrolimus BD 0.2 mg/kg per day (Arm 1; n=309), QD 0.2 mg/kg per day (Arm 2; n=302), QD 0.3 mg/kg per day (Arm 3; n=304) all with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids (tapered) over 24 weeks, or tacrolimus QD 0.2 mg/kg per day with mycophenolate mofetil, basiliximab, and corticosteroids given only perioperatively (Arm 4; n=283). The primary composite endpoint (efficacy failure; per protocol set) was defined as graft loss, biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, or graft dysfunction at week 24. Graft dysfunction was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4 formula of less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m2. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 12.5%. Results The per protocol set included 976 patients: 237, 263, 246, and 230 patients in Arms 1 to 4, respectively. Noninferiority of the composite endpoint was demonstrated for Arm 2 versus Arm 1; Kaplan–Meier estimates of efficacy failure were 42.2% and 40.6%, respectively (difference, −1.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −12.2% to 9.0%). Noninferiority to Arm 1 was not confirmed for Arm 3 (difference, −3.5%; 95% CI, −13.6% to 6.6%) or Arm 4 (difference, −7.1%; 95% CI, −16.1% to 1.9%). Graft dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <40 mL/min/1.73 m2) was the main determinant of composite-endpoint efficacy failure across all arms. Conclusions In patients representative of the European kidney transplant population, tacrolimus QD-based immunosuppression (0.2 mg/kg/day), without induction, showed similar efficacy to 0.2 mg/kg per day tacrolimus BD
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney
2012-01-01
Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…
Localization of defects in InAs QD symmetric InGaAs/GaAs DWELL structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casas Espínola, J. L.; Torchynska, T. V.; Velasquez Lozada, E.; Shcherbyna, L. V.; Stintz, A.; Peña Sierra, R.
2007-12-01
The photoluminescence (PL), its power and temperature dependences have been studded for the ensembles of InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in symmetric In 0.15Ga 0.85As/GaAs quantum wells prepared at different QD growth temperatures from the range 470-535 °C. The solution of the set of rate equations for exciton dynamics was used to analyze the nature of thermal activation energies of the QD PL quenching. It is revealed three different stages of thermally activated quenching of the QD PL intensity caused by thermal escape of excitons from the In 0.15Ga 0.85As/GaAs buffer and capping quantum wells (QWs) into the GaAs barrier and from the QDs into the GaAs barrier or into barrier/QW interfaces with their subsequent nonradiative recombination. The variety of activation energies of PL thermal quenching is discussed as well.
Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells
Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.
2015-04-24
We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI_{2}, PbCl_{2}, CdI_{2}, or CdCl_{2}) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI_{2} treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and band positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI_{2} with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.
Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells
Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.
2015-04-24
We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and bandmore » positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.« less
Sensitive QD@SiO2-based immunoassay for triplex determination of cereal-borne mycotoxins.
Beloglazova, Natalia V; Foubert, Astrid; Gordienko, Anna; Tessier, Mickael D; Aubert, Tangi; Drijvers, Emile; Goryacheva, Irina; Hens, Zeger; De Saeger, Sarah
2016-11-01
A sensitive tool for simultaneous quantitative determination of three analytes in one single well of a microtiter plate is shown for the first time. The developed technique is based on use of colloidal quantum dot enrobed into a silica shell (QD@SiO2) derivatives as a highly responsive label. Silica-coated quantum dots were prepared and subsequently modified via the co-hydrolysis with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and various organosilane reagents. Different surface modification schemes were compared in terms of applicability of the obtained particles for the multiplex immunoassay, e.g. stability and simplicity of their conjugation with biomolecules. As model system a multiplex immunosorbent assay for screening of three mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1) in cereal-based products was realized via a co-immobilization of three different specific antibodies (anti- deoxynivalenol, anti-zearalenone and anti-aflatoxin B1) in one single well of a microtiter plate. Mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by labelling their conjugates with QD@SiO2 emitting in different parts of the visible spectrum. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination were 6.1 and 5.3, 5.4 and 4.1, and 2.6 and 1.9µgkg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1 in maize and wheat, respectively. As confirmatory method, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used. PMID:27591588
Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny
2008-09-26
We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.
Pathania, Divya; Kuang, Yuting; Sechi, Mario; Neamati, Nouri
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pancreatic cancer is characterized by alterations in several key signalling proteins, including increased expression and activity of the Src tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which have been linked to its chemoresistance. Sustained Src inhibition reactivates survival pathways regulated by the transcription factor STAT3, also leading to resistance. Therefore, simultaneously targeting Src/FAK and STAT3 signalling could provide an important strategy for treating pancreatic cancer. Recently, we described novel quinazolinediones that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and were cytotoxic in pancreatic cancer cells. Here, we have investigated effects of our lead compound, QD232, on Src/FAK and STAT3 signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The major signalling pathways affected by QD232 in pancreatic cancer cell lines were identified by Kinexus proteomic analysis. Changes in key signalling proteins were confirmed by Western blotting. Cell migration was assessed by Boyden chamber and wound healing assays. Direct inhibition of kinase activity in vitro was assayed with a panel of 92 oncogenic kinases. Safety and efficacy of QD232 were determined in a xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. KEY RESULTS QD232 potently inhibited Src/FAK and STAT3 phosphorylation, decreasing pancreatic cancer cell viability and migration. Furthermore, QD232 arrested cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in these cells at low micromolar concentrations. Effects of QD232 on Src/FAK and STAT3 phosphorylation were blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS QD232 is a novel compound with a unique, ROS-dependent mechanism, effective in drug-resistant cancer cell lines. This compound shows potential as therapy for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25047070
Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.
Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y
2013-01-01
Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.
Generalized qd algorithm and Markov-Bernstein inequalities for Jacobi weight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draux, André; Moalla, Borhane; Sadik, Mohamed
2009-08-01
The Markov-Bernstein inequalities for the Jacobi measure remained to be studied in detail. Indeed the tools used for obtaining lower and upper bounds of the constant which appear in these inequalities, did not work, since it is linked with the smallest eigenvalue of a five diagonal positive definite symmetric matrix. The aim of this paper is to generalize the qd algorithm for positive definite symmetric band matrices and to give the mean to expand the determinant of a five diagonal symmetric matrix. After that these new tools are applied to the problem to produce effective lower and upper bounds of the Markov-Bernstein constant in the Jacobi case. In the last part we com pare, in the particular case of the Gegenbauer measure, the lower and upper bounds which can be deduced from this paper, with those given in Draux and Elhami (Comput J Appl Math 106:203-243, 1999) and Draux (Numer Algor 24:31-58, 2000).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clare, R. B.; Levinger, J. S.
1981-02-01
We use the formalism of hyperspherical harmonics to calculate several moments for the triton photoeffect, for a Volkov spin-independent potential. First, we improve the accuracy of Maleki's calculations of the moments σ2 and σ3 by including more terms in the hyperspherical expansion. We also calculate moments σ0 and σ1 for a Serber mixture. We find reasonable agreement between our moments found by sum rules and those found from the cross sections calculated by Fang et al. and Levinger-Fitzgibbon. We then develop a technique of inversion of a finite number of moments by making the assumption that the cross section can be written as a sum of several Laguerre polynomials multiplied by a decreasing exponential. We test our inversion technique successfully on several model potentials. We then modify it and apply it to the five moments (σ-1 to σ3) for a force without exchange, and find fair agreement with Fang's values of the cross section. Finally, we apply the inversion technique to our three moments (σ-1,σ0,and σ1) for a Serber mixture, and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffects, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator.
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y
2016-09-28
Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic 'gate' representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate. PMID:27437829
Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2016-09-01
Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic ‘gate’ representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate.
Moment inference from tomograms
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.
2007-01-01
Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, HuaJun; Zhu, KaDi
2015-05-01
Majorana fermions (MFs) are exotic particles that are their own anti-particles. Currently, the search for MFs occurring as quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems has attracted widespread interest, because of their importance in fundamental physics and potential applications in topological quantum computation based on solid-state devices. Motivated by recent experimental progress towards the detection and manipulation of MFs in hybrid semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures, in this review, we present a novel proposal to probe MFs in all-optical domain. We introduce a single quantum dot (QD), a hybrid quantum dot-nanomechanical resonators (QD-NR) system, and a carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator implanted in a single electron spin system with optical pump-probe technology to detect MFs, respectively. With this scheme, a possible Majorana signature is investigated via the probe absorption spectrum and nonlinear optical Kerr effect, and the coupling strength between MFs and the QD or the single electron spin is also determined. In the hybrid QD-NR system, vibration of the NR will enhance the nonlinear optical effect, which makes the MFs more sensitive for detection. In the CNT resonator with a single electron, the single electron spin can be considered as a sensitive probe, and the CNT resonator behaved as a phonon cavity is robust for detecting of MFs. This optical scheme will provide another method for the detection MFs and will open the door for new applications ranging from robust manipulation of MFs to quantum information processing based on MFs.
Simultaneous Non-invasive Analysis of DNA Condensation and Stability by Two-step QD-FRET
Chen, Hunter H.; Ho, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Xuan; Mao, Hai-Quan; Wang, Tza-Huei; Leong, Kam W.
2009-01-01
Summary Nanoscale vectors comprised of cationic polymers that condense DNA to form nanocomplexes are promising options for gene transfer. The rational design of more efficient nonviral gene carriers will be possible only with better mechanistic understanding of the critical rate-limiting steps, such as nanocomplex unpacking to release DNA and degradation by nucleases. We present a two-step quantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (two-step QD-FRET) approach to simultaneously and non-invasively analyze DNA condensation and stability. Plasmid DNA, double-labeled with QD (525 nm emission) and nucleic acid dyes, were complexed with Cy5-labeled cationic gene carriers. The QD donor drives energy transfer stepwise through the intermediate nucleic acid dye to the final acceptor Cy5. At least three distinct states of DNA condensation and integrity were distinguished in single particle manner and within cells by quantitative ratiometric analysis of energy transfer efficiencies. This novel two-step QD-FRET method allows for more detailed assessment of the onset of DNA release and degradation simultaneously. PMID:20161048
InAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs QD laser operating at ∼770 nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krysa, A. B.; Roberts, J. S.; Devenson, J.; Beanland, R.; Karomi, I.; Shutts, S.; Smowton, P. M.
2016-08-01
We present a study of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy of ternary InAsP quantum dots in AlGaInP/GaAs for application in laser diodes. The properties of InAsP QD laser structures were compared with reference samples containing binary InP QDs. Based on X-ray diffraction, the molar fraction of arsenic in InAsP QDs was estimated to be ∼25%. Room temperature liquid contact electro-luminescence measurements revealed a long wavelength shift of the InAsP QD emission to ∼775 nm as compared with the InP QD emission at 716 nm and an increased full width at half maximum of the spontaneous emission (71 meV vs 50 meV). As cleaved, 4 mm long and 50 pm wide InAsP QD lasers operated in a pulsed regime at room temperature at ∼770 nm with a threshold current density of 155 A/cm2 and a maximum output optical power of at least 200 mW. The maximum operation temperature was at least 380 K.
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.
Giraudeau, Patrick
2014-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.
High operating temperature midwave quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2012-06-01
The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 μm when operating at ~150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to ~6 μm, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.
High Operating Temperature Midwave Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2012-01-01
The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 ??m when operating at 150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to 6 ?m, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Multiplexed Detection of Epigenetic Markers Using Quantum Dot (QD)-Encoded Hydrogel Microparticles.
Yeom, Sang Yun; Son, Choong Hyun; Kim, Byung Sun; Tag, Sung Hyun; Nam, Eunjoo; Shin, Hyogeun; Kim, So Hyun; Gang, Haemin; Lee, Hyunjoo J; Choi, Jungkyu; Im, Heh-In; Cho, Il-Joo; Choi, Nakwon
2016-04-19
Epigenetic alterations in gene expression are influenced by experiences and environment, resulting in significant variation of epigenetic markers from individual to individual. Therefore, it is imperative to measure various epigenetic markers simultaneously from samples of individual subjects to accurately analyze the epigenetic markers in biological samples. Moreover, the individualized genome-wide analysis has become a critical technology for recent trends in clinical applications such as early diagnosis and personalized medicine screening of numerous diseases. The array-based detection of modified histones, conventionally used for multiplexed analysis of epigenetic changes, requires pooling of samples from many subjects to analyze population-wise differences in the expression of histone markers and does not permit individualized analysis. Here, we report multiplexed detection of genome-wide changes in various histone modifications at a single-residue resolution using quantum dot (QD)-encoded polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microparticles. To demonstrate the potential of our methodology, we present the simultaneous detection of (1) acetylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 (Ac-H3K9), (2) dimethylation of H3K9 (2Me-H3K9), and (3) trimethylation of H3K9 (3Me-H3K9) from three distinct regions in the brain [nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DSt), and cerebellum (Cbl)] of cocaine-exposed mice. Our hydrogel-based epigenetic assay enabled relative quantification of the three histone variants from only 10 μL of each brain lysate (protein content = ∼ 1 μg/μL) per mouse. We verified that the exposure to cocaine induced a significant increase of acetylation while a notable decrease in methylation in NAc. PMID:26974493
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin
Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.
2D materials: to graphene and beyond.
Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix
2011-01-01
This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, David Z.-Y.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Höglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2013-07-01
The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from ˜4.2 μm to 6 μm, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2012-01-01
The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
Antiferromagnetism in 2D arrays of superconducting rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidović, D.; Kumar, S.; Reich, D. H.; Siegel, J.; Field, S. B.; Tiberio, R. C.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.
1996-03-01
An array of isolated superconducting rings at Φ_0/2 applied flux is equivalent to a 2D random field Ising antiferromagnet. The quantized magnetic moments of the rings play the role of Ising spins, and small variations in the rings' areas lead to a Gaussian random field. Using SQUID magnetometry and scanning Hall probe microscopy, we studied the dynamics and antiferromagnetic correlations of arrays of micron-size Al rings, arranged on square, honeycomb, triangular, and kagomé lattices. All the arrays exhibit short range antiferromagnetic order. Spin freezing at low temperatures and the random field prevent the development of long range correlations on bipartite lattices. Effects of geometrical frustration on the triangular and kagomé lattices were also observed.
Interpreting magnetic data by integral moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tontini, F. Caratori; Pedersen, L. B.
2008-09-01
The use of the integral moments for interpreting magnetic data is based on a very elegant property of potential fields, but in the past it has not been completely exploited due to problems concerning real data. We describe a new 3-D development of previous 2-D results aimed at determining the magnetization direction, extending the calculation to second-order moments to recover the centre of mass of the magnetization distribution. The method is enhanced to reduce the effects of the regional field that often alters the first-order solutions. Moreover, we introduce an iterative correction to properly assess the errors coming from finite-size surveys or interaction with neighbouring anomalies, which are the most important causes of the failing of the method for real data. We test the method on some synthetic examples, and finally, we show the results obtained by analysing the aeromagnetic anomaly of the Monte Vulture volcano in Southern Italy.
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimipour, Bahareh Alsadat; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Ramezani, Ali Behjat
2016-09-01
The interlevel absorption coefficient of CdSe/ZnS and ZnS/CdSe core-shell Quantum Dot (QD) in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is reported. By considering the quantum confinement effects, the wave functions and eigenenergies of electrons in the nonperturebative system consists of a core-shell QD have been numerically calculated under the frame work of effective-mass approximation by solving a three-dimensional Schrӧdinger equation. And then the absorption coefficient is obtained under density matrix approximation considering in the polymer sheets of the concentrator including the core-shell QDs. The effect of the hetero-structure geometry upon the energy spectrum and absorption coefficient associated to interlevel transitions was also considered. The results show that the core-shell QDs can absorb the photons with higher energy in solar spectrum as compared to the inverted core-shell. And with a small shell layer diameter, the core-shell QDs produce larger linear absorption coefficients and consequently higher efficiency values, however it is inversed for inverted core-shell QDs. The work described here gives a detailed insight into the promise of QD-based LSCs and the optoelectronic devices applications.
Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric
2015-10-21
We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.
2d index and surface operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei
2014-03-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.
2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.
2015-07-01
We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodrow, Mary Ellen
2000-01-01
Details how an unplanned activity involving spinning wool presented a teachable moment for children in a family child care setting. Notes how activities related to farming, spinning wool, and using wool cloth resulted from following the children's lead. Concludes that everyday activities provide opportunities to listen to children, learn about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Child & Youth Services, 2004
2004-01-01
This chapter presents additional stories and interpretations by John Korsmo, Molly Weingrod, Joseph Stanley, Quinn Wilder, Amy Evans, Rick Flowers, Arcelia Martinez, and Pam Ramsey. The stories and interpretations are presented as teachable moments that are examples of how people are learning to understand youthwork and, as such, are open to…
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-10-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-01-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Additional calculations of triton moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lally, D. F.; Levinger, J. S.
1982-02-01
The formalism of hyperspherical harmonics is used to calculate several moments of the triton photoeffect for a Volkov potential with Serber exchange. The accuracy of Clare's calculations of moments σ0 and σ1 is improved by including more terms in the hyperspherical harmonic expansion of the potential and of the ground state wave function. The moment σ2=8.9×104 MeV3 mb is calculated using one term in the hyperspherical harmonic expansions of the potential and wave function. We invert four moments and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffect, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing
2016-03-23
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
Wang, Huan; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Jue; Fu, Weiling; Yao, Chunyan
2016-01-01
The detection of tumor markers is very important in early cancer diagnosis; however, tumor markers are usually present at very low concentrations, especially in the early stages of tumor development. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used to detect biomolecular interactions; it has inherent advantages of being high-throughput, real-time, and label-free technique. However, its sensitivity needs essential improvement for practical applications. In this study, we developed a signal amplification strategy using antibody-quantum dot (QD) conjugates for the sensitive and quantitative detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in clinical samples. The use of a dual signal amplification strategy using AuNP-antibody and antibody-QD conjugates increased the signal amplification by 50-folds. The constructed SPR biosensor showed a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL for AFP, CEA, and CYFRA 21-1. Moreover, the results obtained using this SPR biosensor were consistent with those obtained using the electrochemiluminescence method. Thus, the constructed SPR biosensor provides a highly sensitive and specific approach for the detection of tumor markers. This SPR biosensor can be expected to be readily applied for the detection of other tumor markers and can offer a potentially powerful solution for tumor screening. PMID:27615417
Wang, Huan; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Jue; Fu, Weiling; Yao, Chunyan
2016-01-01
The detection of tumor markers is very important in early cancer diagnosis; however, tumor markers are usually present at very low concentrations, especially in the early stages of tumor development. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is widely used to detect biomolecular interactions; it has inherent advantages of being high-throughput, real-time, and label-free technique. However, its sensitivity needs essential improvement for practical applications. In this study, we developed a signal amplification strategy using antibody-quantum dot (QD) conjugates for the sensitive and quantitative detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) in clinical samples. The use of a dual signal amplification strategy using AuNP-antibody and antibody-QD conjugates increased the signal amplification by 50-folds. The constructed SPR biosensor showed a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL for AFP, CEA, and CYFRA 21-1. Moreover, the results obtained using this SPR biosensor were consistent with those obtained using the electrochemiluminescence method. Thus, the constructed SPR biosensor provides a highly sensitive and specific approach for the detection of tumor markers. This SPR biosensor can be expected to be readily applied for the detection of other tumor markers and can offer a potentially powerful solution for tumor screening. PMID:27615417
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Chen, Jinsong
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Lin, Jerry
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Lin, Jerry
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.
Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A
2015-01-15
We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837
Wittmann, Marc
2011-01-01
It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or “psychological present.” Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behavior and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence. PMID:22022310
Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana
2003-05-01
We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.
2D materials: Graphene and others
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-01
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.
He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel
2016-07-01
A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui
2015-11-01
Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.
Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Recursive approach to the moment-based phase unwrapping method.
Langley, Jason A; Brice, Robert G; Zhao, Qun
2010-06-01
The moment-based phase unwrapping algorithm approximates the phase map as a product of Gegenbauer polynomials, but the weight function for the Gegenbauer polynomials generates artificial singularities along the edge of the phase map. A method is presented to remove the singularities inherent to the moment-based phase unwrapping algorithm by approximating the phase map as a product of two one-dimensional Legendre polynomials and applying a recursive property of derivatives of Legendre polynomials. The proposed phase unwrapping algorithm is tested on simulated and experimental data sets. The results are then compared to those of PRELUDE 2D, a widely used phase unwrapping algorithm, and a Chebyshev-polynomial-based phase unwrapping algorithm. It was found that the proposed phase unwrapping algorithm provides results that are comparable to those obtained by using PRELUDE 2D and the Chebyshev phase unwrapping algorithm. PMID:20517381
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanbin
Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
Comparison of image patches using local moment invariants.
Sit, Atilla; Kihara, Daisuke
2014-05-01
We propose a new set of moment invariants based on Krawtchouk polynomials for comparison of local patches in 2D images. Being computed from discrete functions, these moments do not carry the error due to discretization. Unlike many orthogonal moments, which usually capture global features, Krawtchouk moments can be used to compute local descriptors from a region-of-interest in an image. This can be achieved by changing two parameters, and hence shifting the center of interest region horizontally or vertically or both. This property enables comparison of two arbitrary local regions. We show that Krawtchouk moments can be written as a linear combination of geometric moments, so easily converted to rotation, size, and position independent invariants. We also construct local Hu-based invariants using Hu invariants and utilizing them on images localized by the weight function given in the definition of Krawtchouk polynomials. We give the formulation of local Krawtchouk-based and Hu-based invariants, and evaluate their discriminative performance on local comparison of artificially generated test images.
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haug, Berit S.
2014-01-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their…
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.
Gliozzi, F
2011-01-21
In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Moments of zeta functions associated to hyperelliptic curves over finite fields
Rubinstein, Michael O.; Wu, Kaiyu
2015-01-01
Let q be an odd prime power, and denote the set of square-free monic polynomials D(x)∈Fq[x] of degree d. Katz and Sarnak showed that the moments, over , of the zeta functions associated to the curves y2=D(x), evaluated at the central point, tend, as , to the moments of characteristic polynomials, evaluated at the central point, of matrices in USp(2⌊(d−1)/2⌋). Using techniques that were originally developed for studying moments of L-functions over number fields, Andrade and Keating conjectured an asymptotic formula for the moments for q fixed and . We provide theoretical and numerical evidence in favour of their conjecture. In some cases, we are able to work out exact formulae for the moments and use these to precisely determine the size of the remainder term in the predicted moments. PMID:25802418
Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven
2006-04-01
Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
2-D Path Corrections for Local and Regional Coda Waves: A Test of Transportability
Mayeda, K M; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D S; Morasca, P
2005-07-13
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. [2003] has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. We will compare performance of 1-D versus 2-D path corrections in a variety of regions. First, the complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Next, we will compare results for the Italian Alps using high frequency data from the University of Genoa. For Northern California, we used the same station and event distribution and compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7 {le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
Point estimates for probability moments
Rosenblueth, Emilio
1975-01-01
Given a well-behaved real function Y of a real random variable X and the first two or three moments of X, expressions are derived for the moments of Y as linear combinations of powers of the point estimates y(x+) and y(x-), where x+ and x- are specific values of X. Higher-order approximations and approximations for discontinuous Y using more point estimates are also given. Second-moment approximations are generalized to the case when Y is a function of several variables. PMID:16578731
Wang Xiaoping; He Dongmei; Cai Jiye Chen Tongsheng; Zou Feiyan; Li Yalan; Wu Yangzhe; Chen, Zheng W.; Chen Yong
2009-02-06
A strategy involving the conjugation of fluorescent quantum dot (QD) with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) acting as fluorescent and topographic probes prior to cell surface staining is developed for fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). This strategy provided at least two advantages: (a) an amplified fluorescence of WGA-QD aggregates, strongly resistant to photobleaching, ensures repeated/real-time observations of the probe-labeled cells by fluorescence microscopy; (b) the enlarged size of WGA-QD probe makes it possible for labeled WGA to be distinguished from other membrane proteins by AFM. Here, the random distribution of WGA-binding sites on non-crosslinked cells and the uneven or polarized reorganization due to WGA-induced crosslinking on cell surfaces were studied using AFM-detectable WGA-QD probe. Moreover, we developed a method to rapidly detect the WGA-induced rigidity alternation of the whole cells, which is efficient and has the potentiality of being developed to a useful tool in clinical diagnosis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hirata, A.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kurokawa, A.
2016-01-01
The petrographic study of Itokawa particle, RA-QD02-0127 has been performed by SEM-EDS and optical microscope observations. The purpose of this study is to understand better the metamorphic and impact shock history of asteroid Itokawa, and other S-class asteroids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Hirata, A.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kurokawa, A.
2016-08-01
Crystallographic study of Itokawa particle, RA-QD02-0127 by using new X-ray diffraction method was performed. The purpose of this study is to understand better the metamorphic and impact shock history of asteroid Itokawa, and other S-class asteroids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Tarucha, Seigo
2005-10-01
physica status solidi (c) conferences and critical reviews publishes conference proceedings, ranging from large international meetings to specialized topical workshops as well as collections of topical reviews on various areas of current solid state physics research. The International Conference on Semiconductor Quantum Dots (QD2002) was held at Komaba Campus of University of Tokyo, Japan, from Monday 30 September through Thursday 3 October 2002. The purpose of the QD2002 was to bring together scientists from different fields of physics and chemistry to discuss topics of common interest and significance in such growing areas including semiconductur quantum dots, nanocrystals, and clusters. The conference was focused on the optical and electronic properties of three-dimensionally confined nanostructures grown both by epitaxial methods and chemical preparation routes. The QD2002 was the second in a series which started in Munich, Germany, in 2000. The scope of QD2002 covered various research fields including novel fabrication techniques of nanoheterostructures, electronic structures, optical properties, electronic properties/single electron tunneling processes, molecular dots, nanocrystals, device applications such as lasers and memories, coherent processes/quantum computations, and biomedical applications.
Schrödinger equation for non-pure dipole potential in 2D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moumni, M.; Falek, M.
2016-07-01
In this work, we analytically study the Schrödinger equation for the (non-pure) dipolar ion potential V(r) = q/r + Dcosθ/r2, in the case of 2D systems (systems in two-dimensional Euclidean plane) using the separation of variables and the Mathieu equations for the angular part. We give the expressions of eigenenergies and eigenfunctions and study their dependence on the dipole moment D. Imposing the condition of reality on the energies En,m implies that the dipole moment must not exceed a maximum value, otherwise the corresponding bound state disappears. We also find that the s states (m = 0) can no longer exist in the system as soon as the dipole term is present.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Radiation reaction of multipole moments
Kazinski, P. O.
2007-08-15
A Poincare-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.
Radiation reaction of multipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2007-08-01
A Poincaré-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrovsky, Dmitry
2016-09-01
A new family of Barnes beta distributions on (0, ∞) is introduced and its infinite divisibility, moment determinacy, scaling, and factorization properties are established. The Morris integral probability distribution is constructed from Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2), and its moment determinacy and involution invariance properties are established. For application, the maximum distributions of the 2D gaussian free field on the unit interval and circle with a non-random logarithmic potential are conjecturally related to the critical Selberg and Morris integral probability distributions, respectively, and expressed in terms of sums of Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2).
2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.
Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech
2007-01-01
Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.
Image-based RSA: Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis based on 2D-3D image registration.
de Bruin, P W; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Reiber, J H C; Rozing, P M; Valstar, E R
2008-01-01
Image-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (IBRSA) integrates 2D-3D image registration and conventional RSA. Instead of radiopaque RSA bone markers, IBRSA uses 3D CT data, from which digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated. Using 2D-3D image registration, the 3D pose of the CT is iteratively adjusted such that the generated DRRs resemble the 2D RSA images as closely as possible, according to an image matching metric. Effectively, by registering all 2D follow-up moments to the same 3D CT, the CT volume functions as common ground. In two experiments, using RSA and using a micromanipulator as gold standard, IBRSA has been validated on cadaveric and sawbone scapula radiographs, and good matching results have been achieved. The accuracy was: |mu |< 0.083 mm for translations and |mu| < 0.023 degrees for rotations. The precision sigma in x-, y-, and z-direction was 0.090, 0.077, and 0.220 mm for translations and 0.155 degrees , 0.243 degrees , and 0.074 degrees for rotations. Our results show that the accuracy and precision of in vitro IBRSA, performed under ideal laboratory conditions, are lower than in vitro standard RSA but higher than in vivo standard RSA. Because IBRSA does not require radiopaque markers, it adds functionality to the RSA method by opening new directions and possibilities for research, such as dynamic analyses using fluoroscopy on subjects without markers and computer navigation applications.
Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R.E.; Reguera, E.
2015-10-15
This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.
Global synthetic seismograms using a 2-D finite-difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dunzhu; Helmberger, Don; Clayton, Robert W.; Sun, Daoyuan
2014-05-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference (FD) synthetics, which fill the gap between fast 1-D analytic synthetics and time-consuming full 3-D synthetics in our ability to model seismograms, have been used in many studies. We address several issues involving 2-D FD methods in generating global synthetic seismograms. These include: (1) interfacing point source excitation for earthquakes with 2-D FD methods; (2) out-of-plane spreading corrections and (3) reducing the spherical Earth to the flattened models. The first issue is tackled using two methods, a `transparent source box' approach and a moment tensor excitation approach, where each has its own advantages. Moreover, our `source box' excitation does not have the late-time drift problem that occurred in previous studies. The out-of-plane geometric spreading correction is accounted for by estimating the ray parameter and applying a post-simulation filter to 2-D synthetics. Finally, parameters of the Earth-flattening transformation are discussed and validated. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by comparing our synthetics with frequency-wavenumber summation, normal-mode and 3-D spectral-element synthetics.
A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1998-12-14
We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.
'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data
Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia
2009-01-01
Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.
Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M
1993-01-01
1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065
Second Moments (planar Moments) and Their Application in Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A., Jr.; Michels, H. Harvey; Byrd, Jason N.
2013-06-01
Second moments, also called planar moments (P_{ii} = Σ m_{i}^{} x_{i}^{2}), are the spectroscopic parameters used to determine substitution structures (r_{s}) ) by Kraitchman''s method from spectra of a molecule and its isotopologs. They are also useful for discussing other molecular structural properties. Just as bond lengths and angles are considered transferable among similar molecules, second moments of many common groups are also transferable. This paper discusses applications of second moments of methylene/methyl groups, singly or multiply, isopropyl/tert-butyl groups, phenyl groups, per{f}{l}uoro methylene/methyl groups, combinations of any of them, and planarity of molecules, the historically most common application of second moments. The inertial defect is Δ = (I_{c} - I_{a} - I_{b}) or -2P_{cc}. Some authors err by assuming each isotopolog provides three independent rotational constants, but in some cases they are not all independent. J. Kraitchman, Am. J. Phys. {21 (17), 1953.}
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, Berit S.
2014-02-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.
Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Joseph G.
In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping
Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea
2016-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.
Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea
2015-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer
Electromagnetic moments of quasistable particle
Ledwig, Tim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2010-11-01
We deal with the problem of assigning electromagnetic moments to a quasistable particle (i.e., a particle with mass located at the particle's decay threshold). In this case, an application of a small external electromagnetic field changes the energy in a nonanalytic way, which makes it difficult to assign definitive moments. On the example of a spin-1/2 field with mass M{sub *} interacting with two fields of masses M and m, we show how a conventionally defined magnetic dipole moment diverges at M{sub *}=M+m. We then show that the conventional definition makes sense only when the values of the applied magnetic field B satisfy |eB|/2M{sub *}<<|M{sub *}-M-m|. We discuss implications of these results to existing studies in electroweak theory, chiral effective-field theory, and lattice QCD.
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-11-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral—an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the first place. We here use dimensional analysis along with elementary differentiation techniques to derive the moments of inertia of various extended bodies. The suggested method does not employ integrals and, in effect, is just a disguised application of elementary ordinary differential equations.
Neutron star moments of inertia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.
Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G
2015-03-19
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Yoon, Hee Chang; Kang, Heejoon; Lee, Soyoung; Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag
2016-07-20
A narrow-emitting red, green, and blue (RGB) perovskite quantum dot (PeQD)-based tricolored display system can widen the color gamut over the National Television System Committee (NTSC) to 120%, but this value is misleading with regard to the color perception of cyan and yellow reproduced in the narrow RGB spectra. We propose that a PeQD-based six-color display system can reproduce true-to-life spectral distributions with high fidelity, widen the color gamut, and close the cyan and yellow gap in the RGB tricolored display by adding cyan (Cy), yellowish green (Yg), and orange colors (Or). In this study, we demonstrated pure-colored CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or their halide mixtures; Cl/Br and Br/I) PeQD-based monochromatic down-converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LED) for the first time, and we incorporated PeQDs with UV-curable binders and long-wavelength-pass-dichroic filters (LPDFs). CsPbX3 PeQD-based pure Cy-, G-, Yg-, Or-, R-emitting monochromatic DC-LED provide luminous efficacy (LE) values of 81, 184, 79, 80, and 35 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA. We also confirmed the suitability and the possibility of access to future color-by-blue backlights for field-sequential-color liquid crystal displays, using six-color multipackage white LEDs, as well as future six-colored light-emitting devices with high vision and color performance. The fabricated six-color multipackage white LEDs exhibited an appropriate LE (62 lm/W at total 120 mA), excellent color qualities (color rendering index (CRI) = 96, special CRI for red (R9) = 97) at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500 K, and a wide color gamut covering the NTSC up to 145% in the 1931 Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates space. PMID:27349270
Yoon, Hee Chang; Kang, Heejoon; Lee, Soyoung; Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag
2016-07-20
A narrow-emitting red, green, and blue (RGB) perovskite quantum dot (PeQD)-based tricolored display system can widen the color gamut over the National Television System Committee (NTSC) to 120%, but this value is misleading with regard to the color perception of cyan and yellow reproduced in the narrow RGB spectra. We propose that a PeQD-based six-color display system can reproduce true-to-life spectral distributions with high fidelity, widen the color gamut, and close the cyan and yellow gap in the RGB tricolored display by adding cyan (Cy), yellowish green (Yg), and orange colors (Or). In this study, we demonstrated pure-colored CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or their halide mixtures; Cl/Br and Br/I) PeQD-based monochromatic down-converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LED) for the first time, and we incorporated PeQDs with UV-curable binders and long-wavelength-pass-dichroic filters (LPDFs). CsPbX3 PeQD-based pure Cy-, G-, Yg-, Or-, R-emitting monochromatic DC-LED provide luminous efficacy (LE) values of 81, 184, 79, 80, and 35 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA. We also confirmed the suitability and the possibility of access to future color-by-blue backlights for field-sequential-color liquid crystal displays, using six-color multipackage white LEDs, as well as future six-colored light-emitting devices with high vision and color performance. The fabricated six-color multipackage white LEDs exhibited an appropriate LE (62 lm/W at total 120 mA), excellent color qualities (color rendering index (CRI) = 96, special CRI for red (R9) = 97) at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500 K, and a wide color gamut covering the NTSC up to 145% in the 1931 Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates space.
Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.
Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian
2015-11-16
The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.
Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Yu-sheng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Xiao, Wen-feng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua
2015-01-01
This network meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of 100 mg BID and 200 mg QD oral celecoxib in the treatment of OA of the knee or hip. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched through from inception to August 2014. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine direct and indirect evidences on treatment effectiveness and safety. A total of 24 RCTs covering 11696 patients were included. For the comparison in between the two dosage regimens, 100 mg BID oral celecoxib exhibited a greater probability to be the preferred one either in terms of pain intensity or function at the last follow-up time point. For total gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects (AEs), both of the two dosage regimens demonstrated a higher incidence compared to the placebo group. Further analyses of GI AEs revealed that only 200 mg QD was associated with a significantly higher risk of abdominal pain when compared with placebo. Furthermore, 100 mg BID showed a significantly lower incidence of skin AEs when compared with 200 mg QD and placebo. Maybe 100 mg BID should be considered as the preferred dosage regimen in the treatment of knee or hip OA. PMID:26012738
Gao, Yangyang; Dong, Qigeqi; Lan, Shi; Cai, Qian; Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhang, Shiqi; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu
2015-05-13
Quantum dots (QDs) as potent candidates possess advantageous superiority in fluorescence imaging applications, but they are susceptible to the biological circumstances (e.g., bacterial environment), leading to fluorescence quenching or lose of fluorescent properties. In this work, CdTe QDs were embedded into mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2 NSs) for preventing QD agglomeration, and then CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs (m-SiO2/CdTe NSs) were modified with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to prevent bacteria invasion for enhanced anticounterfeit applications. The m-SiO2 NSs, which serve as intermediate layers to combine CdTe QDs with Ag NPs, help us establish a highly fluorescent and long-term antibacterial system (i.e., m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs). More importantly, CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs showed fluorescence quenching when they encounter bacteria, which was avoided by attaching Ag NPs outside. Ag NPs are superior to CdTe QDs for preventing bacteria invasion because of the structure (well-dispersed Ag NPs), size (small diameter), and surface charge (positive zeta potentials) of Ag NPs. The plausible antibacterial mechanisms of m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were established. As for potential applications, m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs were developed as fluorescent anticounterfeiting ink for enhanced imaging applications.
Kim, Seul-Ki; Kwen, Hai-Doo; Choi, Seong-Ho
2011-01-01
An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu2S-MWNT supports were 0.5–5.0 mM and 0.7–10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor. PMID:22319395
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less
Microphysical Analysis using Airborne 2-D Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Probe Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy, N.; Jorgensen, D.; Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Black, R. A.
2013-12-01
The NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft provided in-situ cloud and precipitation microphysical observations during the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) field experiment. The Particle Measuring System 2D cloud (2D-C) and precipitation (2D-P) probes collected data for particles between 12.5 μm - 1.55 mm (25 μm resolution) and 100 μm - 6.2 mm (100 μm resolution), respectively. Spectra from each instrument were combined to provide a broad distribution of precipitation particle sizes. The 'method of moments' technique was used to analyze drop size distribution (DSD) spectra, which were modeled by fitting a three-parameter (slope, shape, and intercept) gamma distribution to the spectra. The characteristic shape of the mean spectrum compares to previous maritime measurements. DSD variability will be presented with respect to the temporal evolution of cloud populations during a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event, as well as in-situ aircraft vertical wind velocity measurements. Using the third and sixth moments, rainfall rate (R) and equivalent radar reflectivity factor (Z), respectively, were computed for each DSD. Linear regression was applied to establish a Z-R relationship for the data for the estimation of precipitation. The study indicated unique characteristics of microphysical processes for this region. These results are important to continue to define the cloud population characteristics in the climatological MJO region. Improved representation of the cloud characteristics on the microphysical scale will serve as a check to model parameterizations, helping to improve numerical simulations.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.
2007-11-01
The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).
Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cañas, B. C.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.
2016-02-01
In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 ×10-11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1 | ≤ 5.6 ×10-11μB, |Λ2 | ≤ 4.0 ×10-11μB, and |Λ3 | ≤ 3.1 ×10-11μB (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.
Measuring the Moment of Inertia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehmberg, George L.
1978-01-01
Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Moments of Cambered Round Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempf, Gunther
1949-01-01
Results are presented for the moments and position of force centers of a series of cambered round bodies derived from a torpedo-like body of revolution. The effects of placing fins on the rear of the body of revolution are also included.
Elliott, Mark A.; Giersch, Anne
2016-01-01
There has been evidence for the very brief, temporal quantization of perceptual experience at regular intervals below 100 ms for several decades. We briefly describe how earlier studies led to the concept of “psychological moment” of between 50 and 60 ms duration. According to historical theories, within the psychological moment all events would be processed as co-temporal. More recently, a link with physiological mechanisms has been proposed, according to which the 50–60 ms psychological moment would be defined by the upper limit required by neural mechanisms to synchronize and thereby represent a snapshot of current perceptual event structure. However, our own experimental developments also identify a more fine-scaled, serialized process structure within the psychological moment. Our data suggests that not all events are processed as co-temporal within the psychological moment and instead, some are processed successively. This evidence questions the analog relationship between synchronized process and simultaneous experience and opens debate on the ontology and function of “moments” in psychological experience. PMID:26779059
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.
Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios
2016-09-01
van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619
CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D
Lown, J.
1990-06-20
This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.
CoPc 2D and 1D Arrangement on a Ferromagnetic Surface.
Annese, Emilia; ViolBarbosa, Carlos E; Rossi, Giorgio; Fujii, Jun
2016-05-31
We investigated the growth and electronic properties of Co-phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecule deposited on iron film with different structures (pseudomorph-fcc and bcc) and on iron nanowires by scanning tunnelling microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). CoPc molecules self-assemble in a two-dimensional (2D) arrangement with the molecular plane parallel to the iron surfaces, and the local order is lost after the first layer. The molecule-ferromagnet interaction causes the broadening of Co and N unoccupied molecular states as well as different electronic distribution of N states as a function of the atomic structure of iron surface. The ferromagnetic coupling between the molecule and the iron film is dominated by the electronic interaction between Co and the first Fe layer. CoPc 2D arrangement turns into 1D by using as a template the iron nanowire grown on a facet surface of oxidized Cu(332) surface. CoPc molecules interact weakly with the iron nanowires manifesting a substantial Co 3dz spectral feature in XAS spectrum and the possibility of a magnetic interaction between Co moment and iron nanowires. Both CoPc 2D and 1D arrangements can open up new interesting scenarios to tune the magnetic properties of hybrid interfaces involving metallorganic molecules. PMID:27191039
2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.
2006-12-01
A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.
Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms
Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun
2015-01-01
CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong
2014-09-01
We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.
Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.
Kaczorek, T
1995-01-01
The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788
CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles
Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.
2010-01-01
Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.
2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.
Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H
2016-07-29
The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.
Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2016-06-01
The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice
Pan, Xian
2015-01-01
Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments.
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-11
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds. PMID:26705649
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-01
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds.
Geometric moments for gait description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Morales-Batalla, V.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Camacho-Bello, C.
2013-09-01
The optical flow associated with a set of digital images of a moving individual is analyzed in order to extract a gait signature. For this, invariant Hu moments are obtained for image description. A Hu Moment History (HMH) is obtained from K frames to describe the gait signature of individuals in a video. The gait descriptors are subsequences of the HMH of variable width. Each subsequence is generated by means of genetic algorithms and used for classification in a neuronal network. The database for algorithm evaluation is MoBo, and the gait classification results are above 90% for the cases of slow and fast walking and 100% for the cases of walking with a ball and inclined walking. An optical processor is also implemented in order to obtain the descriptors of the human gait.
Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng
2016-08-01
Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.
Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.
2015-06-01
Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.
Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli
1989-05-01
Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.
Porsev, S. G.; Ginges, J. S. M.; Flambaum, V. V.
2011-04-15
We have considered a mechanism for inducing a time-reversal violating electric dipole moment (EDM) in atoms through the interaction of a nuclear EDM d{sub N} with the hyperfine interaction, the ''magnetic moment effect''. We have derived the operator for this interaction and presented analytical formulas for the matrix elements between atomic states. Induced EDMs in the diamagnetic atoms {sup 129}Xe, {sup 171}Yb, {sup 199}Hg, {sup 211}Rn, and {sup 225}Ra have been calculated numerically. From the experimental limits on the atomic EDMs of {sup 129}Xe and {sup 199}Hg we have placed the following constraints on the nuclear EDMs, |d{sub N}({sup 129}Xe)|<1.1x10{sup -21}|e|cm and |d{sub N}({sup 199}Hg)|<2.8x10{sup -24}|e|cm.
2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)
Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.
2010-10-15
The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must
Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou
2016-04-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.
Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.
1950-06-23
Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.
Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C.; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W.
2009-01-01
Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2–4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and ∼6–10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70–110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200–500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3–CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolph, C. A.; Kassim, J. K.; Floro, J. A.; Reinke, P.
2013-08-01
The interaction of Mn with Ge quantum dots (QD), which are bounded by {105} facets, and the strained Ge wetting layer (WL), terminated by a (001) surface, is investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These surfaces constitute the growth surfaces in the growth of Mn-doped QDs. Mn is deposited on the Ge QD and WL surface in sub-monolayer concentrations, and subsequently annealed up to a temperature of 400 ° C. The changes in bonding and surface topography are measured with STM during the annealing process. Mn forms flat islands on the Ge{105} facet, whose shape and position are guided by the rebonded step reconstruction of the facet. Voltage-dependent STM images reflect the Mn-island interaction with the empty and filled states of the Ge{105} reconstruction. Scanning tunneling spectra (STS) of the Ge{105} facet and as-deposited Mn-islands show a bandgap of 0.8 eV, and the Mn-island spectra are characterized by an additional empty state at about 1.4 eV. A statistical analysis of Mn-island shape and position on the QD yields a slight preference for edge positions, whereas the QD strain field does not impact Mn-island position. However, the formation of ultra-small Mn-clusters dominates on the Ge(001) WL, which is in contrast to Mn interaction with unstrained Ge(001) surfaces. Annealing to T < 160 °C leaves the Mn-clusters on the WL unchanged, while the Mn-islands on the Ge{105} facet undergo first a ripening process, followed by a volume gain which can be attributed to the onset of intermixing with Ge. This development is supported by the statistical analysis of island volume, size and size distribution. Increasing the annealing temperature to 220° and finally 375 ° C leads to a rapid increase in the Mn-surface diffusion, as evidenced by the formation of larger, nanometer size clusters, which are identified as germanide Mn5Ge3 from a mass balance analysis. This reaction is accompanied by the disappearance of the original Mn-surface structures and
Nolph, C A; Kassim, J K; Floro, J A; Reinke, P
2013-08-01
The interaction of Mn with Ge quantum dots (QD), which are bounded by {105} facets, and the strained Ge wetting layer (WL), terminated by a (001) surface, is investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These surfaces constitute the growth surfaces in the growth of Mn-doped QDs. Mn is deposited on the Ge QD and WL surface in sub-monolayer concentrations, and subsequently annealed up to a temperature of 400 ° C. The changes in bonding and surface topography are measured with STM during the annealing process. Mn forms flat islands on the Ge{105} facet, whose shape and position are guided by the rebonded step reconstruction of the facet. Voltage-dependent STM images reflect the Mn-island interaction with the empty and filled states of the Ge{105} reconstruction. Scanning tunneling spectra (STS) of the Ge{105} facet and as-deposited Mn-islands show a bandgap of 0.8 eV, and the Mn-island spectra are characterized by an additional empty state at about 1.4 eV. A statistical analysis of Mn-island shape and position on the QD yields a slight preference for edge positions, whereas the QD strain field does not impact Mn-island position. However, the formation of ultra-small Mn-clusters dominates on the Ge(001) WL, which is in contrast to Mn interaction with unstrained Ge(001) surfaces. Annealing to T < 160 °C leaves the Mn-clusters on the WL unchanged, while the Mn-islands on the Ge{105} facet undergo first a ripening process, followed by a volume gain which can be attributed to the onset of intermixing with Ge. This development is supported by the statistical analysis of island volume, size and size distribution. Increasing the annealing temperature to 220° and finally 375 ° C leads to a rapid increase in the Mn-surface diffusion, as evidenced by the formation of larger, nanometer size clusters, which are identified as germanide Mn5Ge3 from a mass balance analysis. This reaction is accompanied by the disappearance of the original Mn-surface structures and de
Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.
Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin
2016-03-01
Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.
Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji
2016-05-01
The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.
2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.
Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2009-05-18
The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar
2016-09-01
Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.
Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.
Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin
2016-03-01
Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956
ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-02
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method
McPherson, Allen L.; Knoll, Dana A.; Cieren, Emmanuel B.; Feltman, Nicolas; Leibs, Christopher A.; McCarthy, Colleen; Murthy, Karthik S.; Wang, Yijie
2012-09-10
Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.
The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten
1998-01-01
The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.
Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa
2006-04-01
A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.
Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.
Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George
2016-02-12
Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.
A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius
2012-03-01
We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.
QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code
Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.
1995-01-01
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
Electromagnetic moments of 22F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Komurasaki, J.; Hirano, H.; Nishimura, D.; Momota, S.; Ohtsubo, T.; Izumikawa, T.; Shimbara, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kameda, D.; Zhou, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongnan; Yuan, Daqing; Zhu, Shengyun; Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S.; Nagatomo, T.; Matsumiya, R.; Ishikawa, D.; Fukuda, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Alonso, J. R.; Crebs, G. F.; Symons, T. J. M.
2010-03-01
The magnetic dipole (μ) and electric quadrupole (Q) moments of short-lived nucleus 22F (Iπ=4+, T=4.2s) have been measured for the first time by means of the β-NMR technique. A spin polarized 22F beam was produced through the charge exchange reaction of 22Ne and was implanted into single crysltals of NaF and MgF2 for μ and Q measurements, respectively. As a result, |μ(F22)|=(2.69443±0.00039)μ and |Q(F22)|=(3±2)mb was obtained. These values are well reproduced by the shell model calculations.
Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna
2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.
Comparing Fullerenes by Spectral Moments.
Taghvaee, F; Ashrafi, A R
2016-03-01
Suppose G is a graph, A(G) its adjacency matrix, and μ1(G)≤(G)μ2(G)≤ ... ≤ μ(n)(G)are eigenvalues of A(G). The numbers S(k)(G) = Σ(i) n = 1 μ(i)k (G), 0 ≤ k ≤ n -1 are said to be the k-th spectral moment of G and the sequence S(G) = (S0(G), S1 (G),..., S(n-1)(G)is called the spectral moments sequence of G. Suppose G1 and G2 are graphs. If there exists an integer k, 1 ≤ k ≤ n - 1, such that for each i, 0 ≤ i ≤ k - 1, S(i) (G1) = S(i)(G2) and S(k)(G1) < S(k)(G2) then we write G1 -<(s) G2. The aim of this paper is order some classes of fullerene graphs with respect to the S-order.
Third Elementary Dipole Moment: Toroidal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordrey, Vincent; Eshete, Amanuel; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
In this paper we study the generally unknown characteristics of toroids, magnets without magnetic poles. Toroids have never seemed interesting enough to be studied for their physical features in labs due to the fact that they have no magnetic fields on the outside, but rather a very strong magnetic field trapped inside. Toroidal solenoids or magnets (rings magnetized circumferentially) interact with the external magnetic field only through its curl, which can be created either by an electric current, or by a time-dependent electric flux. We confirmed a theoretical prediction, that a toroid would not interact with the curl-less magnetic field of a current-carrying wire running outside of the torus's hole. We used our toroids as magnetic curlmeters, measuring the torque on the toroid, when the current-carrying wire runs through the toroid. From this torque we found the toroidal dipole moment. We are experimenting on detecting the escape of the inner magnetic field of the toroid outside of it, when magnetic toroid rotates or when electric toroid is driven by AC voltage. We also will discuss toroidal (or anapole) moments of fundamental particles, nuclei and atoms, and toroids' applications in metamaterials.
A uniform parametrization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2015-09-01
A moment tensor is a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parametrization of the 5-D space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parametrization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parametrization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parametrization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favour double couples.
Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.
Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony
2006-11-27
The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.
Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour
2005-01-01
sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. PMID:16060963
Pinnetti, Carmela; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Sandrine, Ottou; Tommasi, Chiara; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Federico Perno, Carlo; Rosaria Capobianchi, Maria; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Ammassari, Adriana
2014-01-01
Introduction PI/r monotherapy has been suggested as an attainable maintenance strategy in patients achieving stable HIV suppression in plasma. The objective of trial was to compare the virological outcome of two different PI/r QD monotherapy strategies (LPV/r or DRV/r) with maintaining a triple PI/r-based ARV regimen. Material and Methods Phase III, open-label, non-inferiority (−12% margin), randomized trial of HIV adults with HIV-RNA <50 cp/mL for at least 48 weeks while on PI/r-based cART, CD4 nadir >100 cell/mm3, without previous PIs virological failure. Eligible patients were randomized to continue PI/r+2NRTIs (Arm A), to switch to LPV/r 800/200 mg QD monotherapy (Arm B), or to switch to DRV/r 800/100 mg QD monotherapy (Arm C). Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 cp/mL (TLOVR) at 48w by intent to treat (ITT) analysis (missing/re-induction=failure). FDA snapshot and ITT switch-included analysis (ITT-SI) were also used. In ITT-SI, patients who had <50 copies/mL at 96w were counted as successes even if they had confirmed HIV-RNA elevations and had subsequently successfully intensified by NRTI. Results Due to slow recruitment, only 103 patients were included. No differences were observed between the three arms with respect to gender, age, HIV transmission, CD4 nadir and at screening. At randomization, 61 patients were receiving TDF/FTC (60%), 19 ZDV/3TC (18%), 8 ABV/3TC (8%), 75 LPV/r (73%), 13 ATV/r (13%), 4 DRV/r (4%). Differences in proportion of virological success by groups using Arm A as comparator according to FDA TLOVR were reported in Figure 1. Similar results were obtained by Snapshot analysis. Of 14 patients with virological failure, 8 patients restarted triple therapy with 2NRTI and 7/8 regained a VL <50 cp/mL over time. According to ITT-SI analysis, 96 week differences [95% CI] were −5.7 [−29.6; +18.2] in Arm B, and +19.6 [−1.6; +40.8] in Arm C. A GRT was performed in 6/14 patients (one not amplifiable; four
Exact solution of an anisotropic 2D random walk model with strong memory correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Silva, M. A. A.
2013-12-01
Over the last decade, there has been progress in understanding one-dimensional non-Markovian processes via analytic, sometimes exact, solutions. The extension of these ideas and methods to two and higher dimensions is challenging. We report the first exactly solvable two-dimensional (2D) non-Markovian random walk model belonging to the family of the elephant random walk model. In contrast to Lévy walks or fractional Brownian motion, such models incorporate memory effects by keeping an explicit history of the random walk trajectory. We study a memory driven 2D random walk with correlated memory and stops, i.e. pauses in motion. The model has an inherent anisotropy with consequences for its diffusive properties, thereby mixing the dominant regime along one dimension with a subdiffusive walk along a perpendicular dimension. The anomalous diffusion regimes are fully characterized by an exact determination of the Hurst exponent. We discuss the remarkably rich phase diagram, as well as several possible combinations of the independent walks in both directions. The relationship between the exponents of the first and second moments is also unveiled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A. A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R. E.; Reguera, E.
2015-10-01
This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π-π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting.
2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy
Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L
2007-10-17
A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.
Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-11-01
Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.
Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying
2014-10-01
Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.
Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.
Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268
Dynamics of moment neuronal networks.
Feng, Jianfeng; Deng, Yingchun; Rossoni, Enrico
2006-04-01
A theoretical framework is developed for moment neuronal networks (MNNs). Within this framework, the behavior of the system of spiking neurons is specified in terms of the first- and second-order statistics of their interspike intervals, i.e., the mean, the variance, and the cross correlations of spike activity. Since neurons emit and receive spike trains which can be described by renewal--but generally non-Poisson--processes, we first derive a suitable diffusion-type approximation of such processes. Two approximation schemes are introduced: the usual approximation scheme (UAS) and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck scheme. It is found that both schemes approximate well the input-output characteristics of spiking models such as the IF and the Hodgkin-Huxley models. The MNN framework is then developed according to the UAS scheme, and its predictions are tested on a few examples.
Kraloua, B.; Hennad, A.
2008-09-23
The aim of this paper is to determine electric and physical properties by 2D modelling of glow discharge low pressure in continuous regime maintained by term constant source. This electric discharge is confined in reactor plan-parallel geometry. This reactor is filled by Argon monatomic gas. Our continuum model the order two is composed the first three moments the Boltzmann's equations coupled with Poisson's equation by self consistent method. These transport equations are discretized by the finite volumes method. The equations system is resolved by a new technique, it is about the N-BEE explicit scheme using the time splitting method.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, W.; Tape, C.
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor 'model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model (Aki and Richards, 1980), an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector, and the Lame elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple. A compilation of full moment tensors from the literature reveals large deviations in Poisson's ratio as implied by the classical model. Either the classical model is inadequate or the published full moment tensors have very large uncertainties. We question the common interpretation of the isotropic component as a volume change in the source region.
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang
2010-07-01
This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.
Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands
Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos
2014-01-01
Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215
2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.
2016-01-01
Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.
Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan
2016-04-01
Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-06-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-06-07
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems
Ji, X.
1996-06-01
The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas
2014-06-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.
Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.
There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P
2012-01-05
Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less
Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug
2014-07-01
The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo; Lee, Sungjay
2015-01-01
We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.
Finite temperature corrections in 2d integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.
2002-09-01
We study the finite size corrections for the magnetization and the internal energy of the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field by using transfer matrix techniques. We compare these corrections with the functional form recently proposed by Delfino and LeClair-Mussardo for the finite temperature behaviour of one-point functions in integrable 2d quantum field theories. We find a perfect agreement between theoretical expectations and numerical results. Assuming the proposed functional form as an input in our analysis we obtain a relevant improvement in the precision of the continuum limit estimates of both quantities.
2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg
2008-07-01
We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.
Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M
1996-06-01
To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693
Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza
1992-01-01
An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-06-01
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E
2016-08-21
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR. PMID:27448174
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T; Engelsen, Søren B
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T(2)-D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T(2)-D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T(2)-D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D=3 x 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and T(2)=180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D=10(-9) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=10 ms and D=3 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E
2016-08-21
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
Relativistic corrections to the nuclear Schiff moment
Dmitriev, V.F.; Flambaum, V.V.
2005-06-01
Parity- and time-invariance-violating (P,T-odd) atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) are induced by the interaction between atomic electrons and nuclear P,T-odd moments, which are themselves produced by P,T-odd nuclear forces. The nuclear EDM is screened by atomic electrons. The EDM of a nonrelativistic atom with closed electron subshells is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. For heavy relativistic atoms EDM is induced by the nuclear local dipole moments, which differ by 10-50% from the Schiff moments calculated previously. We calculate the local dipole moments for {sup 199}Hg and {sup 205}Tl where the most accurate atomic [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505 (2001)] and molecular [Cho et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2559 (1989); Phys. Rev. A 44, 2783 (1991)] EDM measurements have been performed.
The Higher Moments Dynamic on SIS Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Alberto; Martins, José; Stollenwerk, Nico
2009-09-01
The basic contact process or the SIS model is a well known epidemic process and have been studied for a wide class of people. In an epidemiological context, many authors worked on the SIS model considering only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds, i.e., the mean value and the variance of the infected individuals. In this work, we study not only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds but also on the dynamic of the higher moments. Recursively, we consider the dynamic equations for all the moments of infecteds and, applying the moment closure approximation, we obtain the stationary states of the state variables. We observe that the stationary states of the SIS model, in the moment closure approximation, can be used to obtain good approximations of the quasi-stationary states of the SIS model.
Fox-Wolfram moments in Higgs physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernaciak, Catherine; Buschmann, Malte Seán Andreas; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman
2013-04-01
Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox-Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, computed either from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox-Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects, as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.
CJAM: First and second velocity moments calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watkins, Laura L.; den Brok, Mark
2013-12-01
CJAM calculates first and second velocity moments using the Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) models of Cappellari (2008) and Cappellari (2012). These models have been extended to calculate all three (x, y, z) first moments and all six (xx, yy, zz, xy, xz, yz) second moments. CJAM, written in C, is based on the IDL implementation of the line-of-sight calculations by Michele Cappellari.
Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.; Palmer, Todd S.; Smith, Kord S.
2000-04-28
Status Summary of NERI Tasks - Phase 1 - Task 1. The development of the following methods in ID slab geometry: (1) Homogenization and definition of discontinuity factors, (2) Group constants functionalization using assembly transport solution of multigroup eigenvalue problem with albedo boundary conditions, and (3) Solving coarse-mesh effective few-group 1D QD moment equations using tables of data parameterized with respect to the ratio {rvec n} {center_dot} {bar J}{sup G}/{bar {phi}}{sup G} on boundaries. Status Summary of NERI Tasks - Phase 1 - Task 2. Development of a numerical method for solving the 2D few-group moment QD equations: (1) Development of a nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations, and (2) Development of an efficient iteration method for solving the system of equations of the nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations.
Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.; Palmer, Todd S.; Smith, Kord S.
2000-07-25
The status summary of Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Tasks - Phase 1 are: Task 1--The development of the following methods in 1D slab geometry: (1) Homogenization and definition of discontinuity factors, (2) Group constants functionalization using assembly transport solution of multigroup eigenvalue problem with albedo boundary conditions, and (3) solving coarse-mesh effective few-group 1D QD moment equations using tables of data parameterized with respect to the ratio {rvec n} {center_dot} {rvec J}{sup G}/{tilde {phi}{sup G}} on boundaries. Status summary of NERI Tasks - Phase 1: Task 2--Development of a numerical method for solving the 2D few-group moment QD equations: (1) Development of a nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations, and (2) Development of an efficient iteration method for solving the system of equations of the nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations.
A uniform parameterization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, C.; Tape, W.
2015-12-01
A moment tensor is a 3 x 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parameterization of the five-dimensional space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parameterization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parameterization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parameterization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favor double couples. An appropriate choice of a priori moment tensor probability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation. As a seemingly sensible choice, we consider the homogeneous probability, in which equal volumes of moment tensors are equally likely. We believe that it will lead to improved characterization of source processes.
How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-09-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment.
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-07-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
THz devices based on 2D electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Huili Grace; Yan, Rusen; Song, Bo; Encomendero, Jimy; Jena, Debdeep
2015-05-01
In two-dimensional electron systems with mobility on the order of 1,000 - 10,000 cm2/Vs, the electron scattering time is about 1 ps. For the THz window of 0.3 - 3 THz, the THz photon energy is in the neighborhood of 1 meV, substantially smaller than the optical phonon energy of solids where these 2D electron systems resides. These properties make the 2D electron systems interesting as a platform to realize THz devices. In this paper, I will review 3 approaches investigated in the past few years in my group toward THz devices. The first approach is the conventional high electron mobility transistor based on GaN toward THz amplifiers. The second approach is to employ the tunable intraband absorption in 2D electron systems to realize THz modulators, where I will use graphene as a model material system. The third approach is to exploit plasma wave in these 2D electron systems that can be coupled with a negative differential conductance element for THz amplifiers/sources/detectors.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells.
Sagiv, Adi; Burton, Dominick G A; Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery
2016-02-01
Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797
Proteomic Profiling of Macrophages by 2D Electrophoresis
Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E.; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence
2014-01-01
The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153
2D signature for detection and identification of drugs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei
2011-06-01
The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.
2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas
T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-07-08
By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.
On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaproulias, S.; Sigalas, M. M.
2012-10-01
A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.
2016-08-01
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets
Weng, Guoen; Mei, Yang; Liu, Jianping; Hofmann, Werner; Ying, Leiying; Zhang, Jiangyong; Bu, Yikun; Li, Zengcheng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Baoping
2016-07-11
Low threshold continuous-wave (CW) lasing of current injected InGaN quantum dot (QD) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was achieved at room temperature. The VCSEL was fabricated by metal bonding technique on a copper substrate to improve the heat dissipation ability of the device. For the first time, lasing was obtained at yellow-green wavelength of 560.4 nm with a low threshold of 0.61 mA, corresponding to a current density of 0.78 kA/cm2. A high degree of polarization of 94% were measured. Despite the operation in the range of "green gap" of GaN-based devices, single longitudinal mode laser emission was clearly achieved due to the high quality of active region based on InGaN QDs and the excellent thermal design of the VCSELs. PMID:27410828
Tekdaş, Duygu Aydın; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yanık, Hülya; Ahsen, Vefa
2012-07-01
Thiol stabilized CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase and were used as energy donors to tetra-triethyleneoxythia substituted aluminum, gallium and indium phthalocyanines through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Energy transfer occurred from the QDs to phthalocyanines upon photoexcitation of the QDs. An enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer with the nature of the carboxylic thiol stabilizer on the QDs was observed. As a result of the nanoparticle and the phthalocyanine mixing, the photoluminescence efficiency of the phthalocyanine moieties in the mixtures does not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines. The photochemistry study of phthalocyanines in the presence of the QDs revealed high singlet oxygen quantum yield, hence the possibility of using QDs in combination with phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy of cancer. The fluorescence of the CdTe quantum dots-phthalocyanine conjugates (QDs-Pc) were effectively quenched by addition of 1,4-benzoquinone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti
2016-05-01
Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma with PH3 as the doping gas. The effect of PH3 flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10-2 S cm-1) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solar cells in n-i-p configuration.
The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.
2016-02-01
Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun
2015-10-01
In this study, by using of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)/immune-labeling quantum dot (QD)-based dual-color imaging system, we achieved the direct visualization of nanoscale profiles for distribution and organization of CD4 and CD25 molecules in T cells. A novel and interesting finding was that though CD25 clustering as nanodomains were observed on the surface of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells, these CD25 nanodomains were not co-localized with CD4 nanodomains. This result presented that the formation of these CD25 nanodomains on the surface of CD4+CD25high T cells were not associated with the response of T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3-dependent signal transduction. In contrast, on the surface of CD4+CD25low T cells, CD25 molecules distributed randomly without forming nanodomains while CD4 clustering as nanodomains can be observed; on the surface of CD8+CD25+ T cells, CD25 clustering as nanodomains and co-localization with CD8 nanodomains were observed. Collectively, above these results exhibited that TCR/CD3-based microdomains were indeed required for TCR/CD3-mediated T cells activation and enhanced the immune activity of CD4+CD25low T cells or CD8+CD25+ T cells. In particular, it was found that the formation of CD25 nanodomains and their segregation from TCR/CD3 microdomains were the intrinsic capability of CD4+CD25high T cells, suggesting this specific imaging feature of CD25 should be greatly associated with the regulatory activity of CD4+CD25high T cells. Importantly, this novel NSOM/QD-based dual-color imaging system will provide a useful tool for the research of distribution-function relationship of cell-surface molecules.
Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun
2015-12-01
In this study, by using of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)/immune-labeling quantum dot (QD)-based dual-color imaging system, we achieved the direct visualization of nanoscale profiles for distribution and organization of CD4 and CD25 molecules in T cells. A novel and interesting finding was that though CD25 clustering as nanodomains were observed on the surface of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells, these CD25 nanodomains were not co-localized with CD4 nanodomains. This result presented that the formation of these CD25 nanodomains on the surface of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells were not associated with the response of T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3-dependent signal transduction. In contrast, on the surface of CD4(+)CD25(low) T cells, CD25 molecules distributed randomly without forming nanodomains while CD4 clustering as nanodomains can be observed; on the surface of CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells, CD25 clustering as nanodomains and co-localization with CD8 nanodomains were observed. Collectively, above these results exhibited that TCR/CD3-based microdomains were indeed required for TCR/CD3-mediated T cells activation and enhanced the immune activity of CD4(+)CD25(low) T cells or CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells. In particular, it was found that the formation of CD25 nanodomains and their segregation from TCR/CD3 microdomains were the intrinsic capability of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells, suggesting this specific imaging feature of CD25 should be greatly associated with the regulatory activity of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells. Importantly, this novel NSOM/QD-based dual-color imaging system will provide a useful tool for the research of distribution-function relationship of cell-surface molecules.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-01
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-26
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-26
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
A Unified Methodology for Computing Accurate Quaternion Color Moments and Moment Invariants.
Karakasis, Evangelos G; Papakostas, George A; Koulouriotis, Dimitrios E; Tourassis, Vassilios D
2014-02-01
In this paper, a general framework for computing accurate quaternion color moments and their corresponding invariants is proposed. The proposed unified scheme arose by studying the characteristics of different orthogonal polynomials. These polynomials are used as kernels in order to form moments, the invariants of which can easily be derived. The resulted scheme permits the usage of any polynomial-like kernel in a unified and consistent way. The resulted moments and moment invariants demonstrate robustness to noisy conditions and high discriminative power. Additionally, in the case of continuous moments, accurate computations take place to avoid approximation errors. Based on this general methodology, the quaternion Tchebichef, Krawtchouk, Dual Hahn, Legendre, orthogonal Fourier-Mellin, pseudo Zernike and Zernike color moments, and their corresponding invariants are introduced. A selected paradigm presents the reconstruction capability of each moment family, whereas proper classification scenarios evaluate the performance of color moment invariants. PMID:24216719
2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali
2016-02-01
Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.
2004-05-01
For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor `model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model, an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector and the Lamé elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double-couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple.
Joint moments of proper delay times
Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.
2014-08-15
We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.
How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…
{ital D}-dimensional moments of inertia
Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.
1995-11-01
We calculate the moments of inertia of {ital D}-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where {ital D} is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their {ital D}-dimensional analogs. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Association} {ital of} {ital Physics} {ital Teachers}.
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
Balancing Beams--For a Few Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kibble, Bob
2008-01-01
A 2 m long wooden beam provides an ideal demonstration tool for exploring moments. A class set is cheap and can be used at introductory and advanced levels. This article explores how such beams can be used to support learning about moments, equilibrium, vectors, and simultaneous equations. (Contains 7 figures.)
Orthogonal wavelet moments and their multifractal invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchaev, Dm. V.; Uchaev, D. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.
2015-02-01
This paper introduces a new family of moments, namely orthogonal wavelet moments (OWMs), which are orthogonal realization of wavelet moments (WMs). In contrast to WMs with nonorthogonal kernel function, these moments can be used for multiresolution image representation and image reconstruction. The paper also introduces multifractal invariants (MIs) of OWMs which can be used instead of OWMs. Some reconstruction tests performed with noise-free and noisy images demonstrate that MIs of OWMs can also be used for image smoothing, sharpening and denoising. It is established that the reconstruction quality for MIs of OWMs can be better than corresponding orthogonal moments (OMs) and reduces to the reconstruction quality for the OMs if we use the zero scale level.
Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subrahmanyam, M.
2016-05-01
In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.
2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.
Continuum Nonsimple Loops and 2D Critical Percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camia, Federico; Newman, Charles M.
2004-08-01
Substantial progress has been made in recent years on the 2D critical percolation scaling limit and its conformal invariance properties. In particular, chordal SLE 6(the Stochastic Loewner Evolution with parameter κ=6) was, in the work of Schramm and of Smirnov, identified as the scaling limit of the critical percolation "exploration process." In this paper we use that and other results to construct what we argue is the fullscaling limit of the collection of allclosed contours surrounding the critical percolation clusters on the 2D triangular lattice. This random process or gas of continuum nonsimple loops in Bbb R2is constructed inductively by repeated use of chordal SLE 6. These loops do not cross but do touch each other—indeed, any two loops are connected by a finite "path" of touching loops.
Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru
2011-03-01
Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.
A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paesler, Michael
2012-02-01
A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.
Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.
2016-05-01
Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.
Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir
2014-03-01
Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.
Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesselink, Lambertus
1997-01-01
In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyper-streamlines about these points give rise to tri-sector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyper-streamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find , analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.
Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesselink, Lambertus
1995-01-01
In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyperstreamlines about these points give rise to trisector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyperstreamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find, analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.
2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code
1992-04-02
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.
2D ice from first principles: structures and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ji; Schusteritsch, Georg; Pickard, Chris J.; Salzmann, Christoph G.; Michaelides, Angelos
Despite relevance to disparate areas such as cloud microphysics and tribology, major gaps in the understanding of the structures and phase transitions of low-dimensional water ice remain. Here we report a first principles study of confined 2D ice as a function of pressure. We find that at ambient pressure hexagonal and pentagonal monolayer structures are the two lowest enthalpy phases identified. Upon mild compression the pentagonal structure becomes the most stable and persists up to ca. 2 GPa at which point square and rhombic phases are stable. The square phase agrees with recent experimental observations of square ice confined within graphene sheets. We also find a double layer AA stacked square ice phase, which clarifies the difference between experimental observations and earlier force field simulations. This work provides a fresh perspective on 2D confined ice, highlighting the sensitivity of the structures observed to both the confining pressure and width.
2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code
1992-04-02
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhle, Milind A.
1994-12-01
The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.
Report of the 1988 2-D Intercomparison Workshop, chapter 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Brasseur, Guy; Soloman, Susan; Guthrie, Paul D.; Garcia, Rolando; Yung, Yuk L.; Gray, Lesley J.; Tung, K. K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Isaken, Ivar
1989-01-01
Several factors contribute to the errors encountered. With the exception of the line-by-line model, all of the models employ simplifying assumptions that place fundamental limits on their accuracy and range of validity. For example, all 2-D modeling groups use the diffusivity factor approximation. This approximation produces little error in tropospheric H2O and CO2 cooling rates, but can produce significant errors in CO2 and O3 cooling rates at the stratopause. All models suffer from fundamental uncertainties in shapes and strengths of spectral lines. Thermal flux algorithms being used in 2-D tracer tranport models produce cooling rates that differ by as much as 40 percent for the same input model atmosphere. Disagreements of this magnitude are important since the thermal cooling rates must be subtracted from the almost-equal solar heating rates to derive the net radiative heating rates and the 2-D model diabatic circulation. For much of the annual cycle, the net radiative heating rates are comparable in magnitude to the cooling rate differences described. Many of the models underestimate the cooling rates in the middle and lower stratosphere. The consequences of these errors for the net heating rates and the diabatic circulation will depend on their meridional structure, which was not tested here. Other models underestimate the cooling near 1 mbar. Suchs errors pose potential problems for future interactive ozone assessment studies, since they could produce artificially-high temperatures and increased O3 destruction at these levels. These concerns suggest that a great deal of work is needed to improve the performance of thermal cooling rate algorithms used in the 2-D tracer transport models.
NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dismond, Harriett R.
2012-01-01
The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.
Synchronization of semiconductor laser arrays with 2D Bragg structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baryshev, V. R.; Ginzburg, N. S.
2016-08-01
A model of a planar semiconductor multi-channel laser is developed. In this model two-dimensional (2D) Bragg mirror structures are used for synchronizing radiation of multiple laser channels. Coupling of longitudinal and transverse waves can be mentioned as the distinguishing feature of these structures. Synchronization of 20 laser channels is demonstrated with a semi-classical approach based on Maxwell-Bloch equations.
Valley and electric photocurrents in 2D silicon and graphene
Tarasenko, S. A.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Ganichev, S. D.
2013-12-04
We show that the optical excitation of multi-valley systems leads to valley currents which depend on the light polarization. The net electric current, determined by the vector sum of single-valley contributions, vanishes for some peculiar distributions of carriers in the valley and momentum spaces forming a pure valley current. We report on the study of this phenomenon, both experimental and theoretical, for graphene and 2D electron channels on the silicon surface.
Flow transitions in a 2D directional solidification model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larroude, Philippe; Ouazzani, Jalil; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1992-01-01
Flow transitions in a Two Dimensional (2D) model of crystal growth were examined using the Bridgman-Stockbarger me thod. Using a pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method, the governing equations yield solutions which exhibit a symmetry breaking flow tansition and oscillatory behavior indicative of a Hopf bifurcation at higher values of Ra. The results are discussed from fluid dynamic viewpoint, and broader implications for process models are also addressed.
Fermi liquid parameters of a 2D 3He film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lusher, C. P.; Saunders, J.; Cowan, B. P.
1990-08-01
A temperature independent magnetic susceptibility has been observed for the second layer of 3He on graphite for second layer surface densities less than 0.055 Å -2, consistent with 2D Fermi liquid behaviour. The Landau parameter Foa is determined using known values of m ∗/m. The relative dependence of these two parameters is in good agreement with almost localised Fermion theory, as is the case in bulk liquid 3He.
Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore
Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.
2015-10-27
An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.
CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code
Dreyer, K.A.
1985-05-01
CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.
An inverse design method for 2D airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao
2010-03-01
The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.
The Kubo-Greenwood expression and 2d MIT transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castner, Theodore
2010-03-01
The 2d MIT in GaAs heterostructures (p- and n-type)features a mobility that drops continuously as the reduced density x= n/nc-1 is decreased. The Kubo-Greenwood result [1] predicts μ = (eɛh/hnc)α^2(x) where α is a normalized DOS. α(x)is obtained from the data [p-type, Gao et al. [2]; n-type Lilly et al. [3
2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2011-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…
F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo
2016-05-01
F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.
Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and venturesomeness.
Bernow, Nina; Yakushev, Igor; Landvogt, Christian; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Smolka, Michael N; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fehr, Christoph
2011-08-30
The construct of impulsivity is considered as a major trait of personality. There is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the modulation of impulsivity and venturesomeness, the two key components within the impulsivity-construct. The aim of the present study was to explore an association between trait impulsivity measured with self-assessment and the dopaminergic neurotransmission as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in a cohort of healthy male subjects. In vivo D2/D3 receptor availability was determined with [(18)F]fallypride PET in 18 non-smoking healthy subjects. The character trait impulsivity was measured using the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7). Image processing and statistical analysis was performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. The I7 subscale venturesomeness correlated positively with the D2/D3 receptor availability within the left temporal cortex and the thalamus. Measures on the I7 subscale impulsiveness and empathy did not correlate with the D2/D3 receptor availability in any brain region investigated. Our results suggest the involvement of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in venturesomeness, a component of impulsivity. PMID:21689908
Wide-Field H2D+ Observations of Starless Cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Francesco, James; Friesen, R.; Caselli, P.; Myers, P. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Ceccarelli, C.
2009-01-01
In recent years, isolated starless cores have been revealed to have significant chemical differentiation with very low abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (such as CO and its isotopologues) in their cold, dense interiors. The inner regions of such cores, however, may be quite interesting, e.g., if contraction or collapse begins there. To explore these regions, we present detections of six isolated starless cores in the 110-111 line of H2D+ at 372 GHz using the new HARP instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Since the detection of this line requires very dry conditions on Mauna Kea (i.e., κ(225 GHz) < 0.05), only a multi-beam receiver system like the 4 X 4 HARP array can locate H2D+ emission across such cores in a practical amount of observing time. In all cases, the brightest line emission is coincident with the local peak of submillimeter continuum emission, but significant H2D+ emission is detected offset from the continuum peak in some. In addition, we describe the thermal and turbulent velocity fields in these cores revealed by these lines.
Photonic crystal based 2D integrating cell for sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Petrov, Alexander Y.; Sommer, Gerrit; Krauss, Thomas; Eich, Manfred
2016-04-01
We present a concept of a silicon slab based 2D integrating cell where photonic crystal (PhC) reflectors are used in order to confine light in a two-dimensional area to acquire a long propagation length. The evanescent field of the guided wave can be used for sensing applications. We use FDTD simulations to investigate the dependence of the reflectivity of photonic crystal mirrors with a hexagonal lattice. The reflectivity in ΓM direction demonstrates reduced vertical losses compared to the ΓK direction and can be further improved by adiabatically tapering the hole radii of the photonic crystal. A small hexagonal 2D integrating cell was studied with PhC boundaries oriented in ΓM and ΓK direction. It is shown that average reflectivities of 99% can be obtained in a rectangular 2D cell with optimized reflector design, limited only by residual vertical scattering losses at the PhC boundary. This reflectivity is already comparable to the best metallic reflectors.
Broadband THz Spectroscopy of 2D Nanoscale Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lu; Tripathi, Shivendra; Huang, Mengchen; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy
Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have attracted intense research interest in the past decade. Their unique electronic and optical properties offer the promise of novel optoelectronic applications in the terahertz regime. Recently, generation and detection of broadband terahertz (10 THz bandwidth) emission from 10-nm-scale LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures created by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography has been demonstrated . This unprecedented control of THz emission at 10 nm length scales creates a pathway toward hybrid THz functionality in 2D-material/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Here we report initial efforts in THz spectroscopy of 2D nanoscale materials with resolution comparable to the dimensions of the nanowire (10 nm). Systems under investigation include graphene, single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanoflakes. 1. Y. Ma, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 2884 (2013). We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL, PRI), FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-13-1-0806 (JL, CBE), N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)), NSF DMR-1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).
A 2-D ECE Imaging Diagnostic for TEXTOR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.; Deng, B. H.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, H. Lu, Jr.
2002-11-01
A true 2-D extension to the UC Davis ECE Imaging (ECEI) concept is under development for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak in 2003. This combines the use of linear arrays with multichannel conventional wideband heterodyne ECE radiometers to provide a true 2-D imaging system. This is in contrast to current 1-D ECEI systems in which 2-D images are obtained through the use of multiple plasma discharges (varying the scanned emission frequency each discharge). Here, each array element of the 20 channel mixer array measures plasma emission at 16 simultaneous frequencies to form a 16x20 image of the plasma electron temperature Te. Correlation techniques can then be applied to any pair of the 320 image elements to study both radial and poloidal characteristics of turbulent Te fluctuations. The system relies strongly on the development of low cost, wideband (2-18 GHz) IF detection electronics for use in both ECE Imaging as well as conventional heterodyne ECE radiometry. System details, with a strong focus on the wideband IF electronics development, will be presented. *Supported by U.S. DoE Contracts DE-FG03-95ER54295 and DE-FG03-99ER54531.
An Intercomparison of 2-D Models Within a Common Framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.; Considine, David B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A model intercomparison among the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D model, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2-D model allows us to separate differences due to model transport from those due to the model's chemical formulation. This is accomplished by constructing two hybrid models incorporating the transport parameters of the GSFC and LLNL models within the AER model framework. By comparing the results from the native models (AER and e.g. GSFC) with those from the hybrid model (e.g. AER chemistry with GSFC transport), differences due to chemistry and transport can be identified. For the analysis, we examined an inert tracer whose emission pattern is based on emission from a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet; distributions of trace species in the 2015 atmosphere; and the response of stratospheric ozone to an HSCT fleet. Differences in NO(y) in the upper stratosphere are found between models with identical transport, implying different model representations of atmospheric chemical processes. The response of O3 concentration to HSCT aircraft emissions differs in the models from both transport-dominated differences in the HSCT-induced perturbations of H2O and NO(y) as well as from differences in the model represent at ions of O3 chemical processes. The model formulations of cold polar processes are found to be the most significant factor in creating large differences in the calculated ozone perturbations
Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.
Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)
2016-10-24
Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant
Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.
2016-03-01
We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.
Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.
2008-12-01
The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are
Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, N. J.
2016-09-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.
Extended moment arm anti-spin device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, R. D. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A device which corrects aerodynamic spin is provided in which a collapsible boom extends an aircraft moment arm and an anti-spin parachute force is exerted upon the end of the moment arm to correct intentional or inadvertent aerodynamic spin. This configuration effects spin recovery by means of a parachute whose required diameter decreases as an inverse function of the increasing length of the moment arm. The collapsible boom enables the parachute to avoid the aircraft wake without mechanical assistance, retracts to permit steep takeoff, and permits a parachute to correct spin while minimizing associated aerodynamic, structural and in-flight complications.
Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.
Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer
2011-04-15
A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21568538
Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas
2015-12-10
Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.
Widom, Julia R.; Johnson, Neil P.; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.
2013-01-01
We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) – a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy – to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point-dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R12 = 3.5 Å ± 0.5 Å, twist angle θ12 = 5° ± 5°), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV-2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein-nucleic acid complexes. PMID:24223491
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas
2015-12-01
Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.
Magnetic Moment Formation in Graphene Detected by Scattering of Pure Spin Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swartz, Adrian; McCreary, Kathy; Chen, Jen-Ru; Han, Wei; Fabian, Jaroslav; Kawakami, Roland
2013-03-01
Graphene's 2D nature and high surface sensitivity have led to fascinating predictions for induced spin-based phenomena through careful control of adsorbates, including the extrinsic spin Hall effect, band gap opening, and induced magnetism. By taking advantage of atomic scale control provided by MBE, we have investigated deposition of adsorbates and their interactions with graphene. Spin transport measurements performed in-situ during systematic introduction of atomic hydrogen demonstrated that hydrogen adsorbed on graphene forms magnetic moments that couple via exchange to the injected spin current. The observed behavior is quantitatively explained utilizing a phenomenological theory for scattering of pure spin currents by localized magnetic moments. Lattice vacancies show similar behavior, indicating that the moments originate from so called pz-orbital defects. On the other hand, experiments with charge impurity scatterers such as Mg and Au, are noticeably absent of features related to magnetic moment formation. Furthermore, we observe gate dependent effective exchange fields due to the spin-spin coupling between conduction electrons and magnetic moments, which are of interest for novel phenomena and spintronic functionality but have not been seen previously in graphene.
Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin
2005-04-01
This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976
Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin
2005-04-01
This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.
2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois
Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes
2014-09-30
In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made
Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat
2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli
2015-02-01
Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.
Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander
2014-07-01
The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.
Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies.
Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2014-08-01
Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2014-07-01
Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
Recent update of the RPLUS2D/3D codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, Y.-L. Peter
1991-01-01
The development of the RPLUS2D/3D codes is summarized. These codes utilize LU algorithms to solve chemical non-equilibrium flows in a body-fitted coordinate system. The motivation behind the development of these codes is the need to numerically predict chemical non-equilibrium flows for the National AeroSpace Plane Program. Recent improvements include vectorization method, blocking algorithms for geometric flexibility, out-of-core storage for large-size problems, and an LU-SW/UP combination for CPU-time efficiency and solution quality.
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.
Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.
2009-01-01
VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.
Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo
2016-04-01
We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.
Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors
Tsui, Daniel
2014-03-24
This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.
Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.
Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb_{1-x}Sn_{x}Te thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.
2D Magneto-Optical Trapping of Diatomic Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummon, Matthew T.; Yeo, Mark; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Collopy, Alejandra L.; Xia, Yong; Ye, Jun
2013-04-01
We demonstrate one- and two-dimensional transverse laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the polar molecule yttrium (II) oxide (YO). In a 1D magneto-optical trap (MOT), we characterize the magneto-optical trapping force and decrease the transverse temperature by an order of magnitude, from 25 to 2 mK, limited by interaction time. In a 2D MOT, we enhance the intensity of the YO beam and reduce the transverse temperature in both transverse directions. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to many molecular species and can also be extended to 3D.
Cryogenic cavitating flow in 2D laval nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tani, Naoki; Nagashima, Toshio
2003-05-01
Cavitation is one of the troublesome problems in rocket turbo pumps, and since most of high-efficiency rocket propellants are cryogenic fluids, so called “thermodynamic effect” becomes more evident than in water. In the present study, numerical and experimental study of liquid nitrogen cavitation in 2D Laval nozzle was carried out, so that the influence of thermodynamic effect was examined. It was revealed that temperature and cavitation have strong inter-relationship with each other in thermo-sensitive cryogenic fluids.
The 2d MIT: The Pseudogap and Fermi Liquid Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castner, T. G.
2005-06-01
Fermi liquid theory for the 2d metal-insulator transition is extended to include the correlation gap in the density-of-states. The results are consistent with the scaling form g=gce[on(To/T)] at T larger than a characteristic T* ∝ xTc (Tc=Ec= mobility edge). The two-component model n1+nloc=n=nc(1+x) for n>nc is required and the theory explains the T-dependence of the data of Hanein et al. for p-type GaAs.
2-D scalable optical controlled phased-array antenna system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Maggie Yihong; Howley, Brie; Wang, Xiaolong; Basile, Panoutsopoulos; Chen, Ray T.
2006-02-01
A novel optoelectronically-controlled wideband 2-D phased-array antenna system is demonstrated. The inclusion of WDM devices makes a highly scalable system structure. Only (M+N) delay lines are required to control a M×N array. The optical true-time delay lines are combination of polymer waveguides and optical switches, using a single polymeric platform and are monolithically integrated on a single substrate. The 16 time delays generated by the device are measured to range from 0 to 175 ps in 11.6 ps. Far-field patterns at different steering angles in X-band are measured.
Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ado, I. A.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Titov, M.
2016-07-01
Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength.
Electromagnetic absorption of semiconductor 2D Majorana nanowires.
Ruiz, Daniel; Osca, Javier; Serra, Llorenç
2015-04-01
We calculate the cross section for the electromagnetic absorption of planar 2D Majorana nanowires. The electromagnetic field is described in the dipole approximation. We discuss the signatures on the cross section of a near-zero-energy mode. A low energy peak for transverse polarization, absent in the longitudinal one, reveals the presence of the Majorana-like state. This peak is relatively robust against the thermal smearing of the level occupations. We consider the influence of optical masks hiding parts of the nanowire from the radiation.
PARCEQ2D heat transfer grid sensitivity analysis
Saladino, A.J.; Praharaj, S.C.; Collins, F.G. Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma )
1991-01-01
The material presented in this paper is an extension of two-dimensional Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) results shown previously. This study has focused on the heating rate calculations to the AFE obtained from an equilibrium real gas code, with attention placed on the sensitivity of grid dependence and wall temperature. Heat transfer results calculated by the PARCEQ2D code compare well with those computed by other researchers. Temperature convergence in the case of kinetic transport has been accomplished by increasing the wall temperature gradually from 300 K to the wall temperature of 1700 K. 28 refs.
PARCEQ2D heat transfer grid sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saladino, Anthony J.; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Collins, Frank G.
1991-01-01
The material presented in this paper is an extension of two-dimensional Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) results shown previously. This study has focused on the heating rate calculations to the AFE obtained from an equilibrium real gas code, with attention placed on the sensitivity of grid dependence and wall temperature. Heat transfer results calculated by the PARCEQ2D code compare well with those computed by other researchers. Temperature convergence in the case of kinetic transport has been accomplished by increasing the wall temperature gradually from 300 K to the wall temperature of 1700 K.
Unitary matrix models and 2D quantum gravity
Dalley, S. . Joseph Henry Labs.); Johnson, C.V.; Morris, T.R. . Dept. of Physics); Watterstam, A. )
1992-09-21
In this paper the KdV and modified KdV integrable hierarchies are shown to be different descriptions of the same 2D gravitational system - open-closed string theory. Non-perturbative solutions of the multicritical unitary matrix models map to non-singular solutions of the renormalization group equation for the string susceptibility, [P, Q] = Q. The authors also demonstrate that the large-N solutions of unitary matrix integrals in external fields, studied by Gross and Newman, equal the non-singular pure closed-string solutions of [[bar P], Q] = Q.
Beam-Plasma Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Lattice
Kyrkos, S.; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.
2009-06-05
We consider a 2D Yukawa lattice of grains, with a beam of other charged grains moving in the lattice plane. In contrast to Vlasov plasmas, where the electrostatic instability excited by the beam is only longitudinal, here both longitudinal and transverse instabilities of the lattice phonons can develop. We determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The growth rate spectrum in wave number space exhibits remarkable gaps where no instability can develop. Depending on the system parameters, the transverse instability can be selectively excited.
Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Elastic Contacts Involving FGMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.
2014-05-01
The response of elastic indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous elastic half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane strain problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of elastic indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping. PMID:26270925
A parallel splitting wavelet method for 2D conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Alex A.; Kozakevicius, Alice J.; Jakobsson, Stefan
2016-06-01
The current work presents a parallel formulation using the MPI protocol for an adaptive high order finite difference scheme to solve 2D conservation laws. Adaptivity is achieved at each time iteration by the application of an interpolating wavelet transform in each space dimension. High order approximations for the numerical fluxes are computed by ENO and WENO schemes. Since time evolution is made by a TVD Runge-Kutta space splitting scheme, the problem is naturally suitable for parallelization. Numerical simulations and speedup results are presented for Euler equations in gas dynamics problems.
Conformal field theory of critical Casimir interactions in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bimonte, G.; Emig, T.; Kardar, M.
2013-10-01
Thermal fluctuations of a critical system induce long-ranged Casimir forces between objects that couple to the underlying field. For two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theories (CFT) we derive an exact result for the Casimir interaction between two objects of arbitrary shape, in terms of 1) the free energy of a circular ring whose radii are determined by the mutual capacitance of two conductors with the objects' shape; and 2) a purely geometric energy that is proportional to the conformal charge of the CFT, but otherwise super-universal in that it depends only on the shapes and is independent of boundary conditions and other details.
2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.
2008-01-01
Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.
Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino
Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes
2009-04-20
We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino {tau}{sub v{sub I}}{sup M} using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a{sub v{sub I}}{sup D}, which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}.
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertzimekis, T. J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure - including nuclear moments - which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions.
Truncated Moment Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions
A. Psaker; W. Melnitchouk; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel
2007-11-16
We employ a novel new approach using "truncated" moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to study local quark-hadron duality, and the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twists. Because truncated moments obey the same Q^2 evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.
2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei
2014-11-01
Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.
Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Kulkarni, R.; Goyal, Neeraj; Paudyal, D.
2016-05-01
Ti3CrCu4 is a new ternary compound which crystallizes in the tetragonal Ti3Pd5 structure type. The Cr atoms form square nets in the a-b plane (a = 3.124 Å) which are separated by an unusually large distance c = 11.228 Å along the tetragonal axis, thus forming a -2-D Cr-sublattice. The paramagnetic susceptibility is characterized by a low effective moment, μeff = 1.1 μB, a low paramagnetic Curie temperature θP (below 7 K) and a temperature independent χ0 = 6.7 x 10-4 emu/mol. The magnetization at 1.8 K increases rapidly with field nearly saturating to 0.2 μB/f.u. The zero field heat capacity C/T shows an upturn below 7 K (˜190 mJ/mol K2 at ˜0.1K) which is suppressed in applied magnetic fields and interpreted as suggesting the presence of spin fluctuations. The resistivity at low temperatures shows non-Fermi liquid behavior. Overall, the experimental data thus reveal an unusual magnetic state in Ti3CrCu4, which likely has its origin in the layered nature of the Cr sub-lattice and ferromagnetic spin fluctuations. Density functional theoretical calculations reveal a sharp Cr density of states peak just above the Fermi level, indicating the propensity of Ti3CrCu4 to become magnetic.
Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program
Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D.
2015-05-15
The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.
Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D.
2015-05-01
The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.
Chatterjee, Urmimala; Bose, Partha Pratim; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Tej P; Chatterjee, Bishnu P
2008-11-01
T/Tn specificity of Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha (Moraceae) fruit and a heterodimer (16 kD and 12 kD) of molecular mass 28 kD, was further confirmed by SPR analysis using T/Tn glycan containing mammalian glycoproteins. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of ALA showed homology at 15, 19-21, 24-27, and 29 residues with other lectin members of Moraceae family viz., Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectin, Artocarpus hirsuta lectin, and Maclura pomifera agglutinin. It is mitogenic to human PBMC and the maximum proliferation was observed at 1 ng/ml. It showed an antiproliferative effect on leukemic cells, with the highest effect toward Jurkat cells (IC(50) 13.15 ng/ml). Synthesized CdS quantum dot-ALA nanoconjugate was employed to detect the expression of T/Tn glycans on Jurkat, U937, and K562 leukemic cells surfaces as well as normal lymphocytes by fluorescence microscopy. No green fluorescence was observed with normal lymphocytes indicating that T/Tn determinants, which are recognized as human tumor associated structures were cryptic on normal lymphocyte surfaces, whereas intense green fluorescent dots appeared during imaging of leukemic cells, where such determinants were present in unmasked form. The above results indicated that QD-ALA nanoconjugate is an efficient fluorescent marker for identification of leukemic cell lines that gives rise to high quality images.
Tensor charge and anomalous magnetic moment correlation
Mekhfi, Mustapha
2005-12-01
We propose a generalization of the upgraded Karl-Sehgal formula which relates baryon magnetic moments to the spin structure of constituent quarks, by adding anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. We first argue that the relativistic nature of quarks inside baryons requires the introduction of two kinds of magnetisms, one axial and the other tensorial. The first one is associated with integrated quark helicity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i} (standard) and the second with integrated transversity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i}. The weight of each contribution is controlled by the combination of two parameters, x{sub i} the ratio of the quark mass to the average kinetic energy and a{sub i} the quark anomalous magnetic moment. The quark anomalous magnetic moment is correlated to transversity, and both are necessary ingredients in describing relativistic quarks. The proposed formula, when confronted with baryon magnetic moments data with reasonable inputs, yields, besides quark magnetic densities, anomalous magnetic moments large enough not to be ignored.
Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Han, Lu; Zhan, Min; Wu, Lan-xiang; Zhang, Yi-wen; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-hao
2014-01-01
Aim: Herbal products have been widely used, and the safety of herb-drug interactions has aroused intensive concerns. This study aimed to investigate the effects of phytochemicals on the catalytic activities of human CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 in vitro. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 expression vectors. The metabolic kinetics of the enzymes was studied using HPLC and fluorimetry. Results: HepG2-CYP2D6*1 and HepG2-CYP2D6*10 cell lines were successfully constructed. Among the 63 phytochemicals screened, 6 compounds, including coptisine sulfate, bilobalide, schizandrin B, luteolin, schizandrin A and puerarin, at 100 μmol/L inhibited CYP2D6*1- and CYP2D6*10-mediated O-demethylation of a coumarin compound AMMC by more than 50%. Furthermore, the inhibition by these compounds was dose-dependent. Eadie-Hofstee plots demonstrated that these compounds competitively inhibited CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10. However, their Ki values for CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 were very close, suggesting that genotype-dependent herb-drug inhibition was similar between the two variants. Conclusion: Six phytochemicals inhibit CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10-mediated catalytic activities in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus herbal products containing these phytochemicals may inhibit the in vivo metabolism of co-administered drugs whose primary route of elimination is CYP2D6. PMID:24786236
Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas
2014-01-01
Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303
Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny
2005-03-01
Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.
Three-bosons in 2D with a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittenhouse, Seth; Johnson, Brad; Wray, Andrew; D'Incao, Jose
2016-05-01
Systems of interacting particles in reduced dimensions in the presence of external fields can exhibit a number of surprising behaviors, for instance the emergence of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Examining few-body interactions and effects can lead to significant insights within these systems. In this talk we examine a system of three bosons confined to two dimensions in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the adiabatic hyperspherical method. For the case of zero-range, regularized pseudo-potential interactions, we find that the system is nearly separable in hyperspherical coordinates and that, away from a set of narrow avoided crossings, the full energy eigenspectrum as a function of the 2D s-wave scattering length is well described by ignoring coupling between adiabatic hyperradial potentials. In the case of weak attractive or repulsive interactions, we find the lowest three-body energy states exhibit even/odd parity oscillations as a function of total internal 2D angular momentum and that for weak repulsive interactions, the universal lowest energy interacting state has an internal angular momentum of M=3. We also discuss the effect of including finite range and higher partial-wave interactions.
SAR imaging via modern 2-D spectral estimation methods.
DeGraaf, S R
1998-01-01
This paper discusses the use of modern 2D spectral estimation algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. The motivation for applying power spectrum estimation methods to SAR imaging is to improve resolution, remove sidelobe artifacts, and reduce speckle compared to what is possible with conventional Fourier transform SAR imaging techniques. This paper makes two principal contributions to the field of adaptive SAR imaging. First, it is a comprehensive comparison of 2D spectral estimation methods for SAR imaging. It provides a synopsis of the algorithms available, discusses their relative merits for SAR imaging, and illustrates their performance on simulated and collected SAR imagery. Some of the algorithms presented or their derivations are new, as are some of the insights into or analyses of the algorithms. Second, this work develops multichannel variants of four related algorithms, minimum variance method (MVM), reduced-rank MVM (RRMVM), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) and space variant apodization (SVA) to estimate both reflectivity intensity and interferometric height from polarimetric displaced-aperture interferometric data. All of these interferometric variants are new. In the interferometric contest, adaptive spectral estimation can improve the height estimates through a combination of adaptive nulling and averaging. Examples illustrate that MVM, ASR, and SVA offer significant advantages over Fourier methods for estimating both scattering intensity and interferometric height, and allow empirical comparison of the accuracies of Fourier, MVM, ASR, and SVA interferometric height estimates.
Syndrome identification based on 2D analysis software.
Boehringer, Stefan; Vollmar, Tobias; Tasse, Christiane; Wurtz, Rolf P; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar
2006-10-01
Clinical evaluation of children with developmental delay continues to present a challenge to the clinicians. In many cases, the face provides important information to diagnose a condition. However, database support with respect to facial traits is limited at present. Computer-based analyses of 2D and 3D representations of faces have been developed, but it is unclear how well a larger number of conditions can be handled by such systems. We have therefore analysed 2D pictures of patients each being affected with one of 10 syndromes (fragile X syndrome; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; Williams-Beuren syndrome; Prader-Willi syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type III; Cri-du-chat syndrome; Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome; Sotos syndrome; Microdeletion 22q11.2; Noonan syndrome). We can show that a classification accuracy of >75% can be achieved for a computer-based diagnosis among the 10 syndromes, which is about the same accuracy achieved for five syndromes in a previous study. Pairwise discrimination of syndromes ranges from 80 to 99%. Furthermore, we can demonstrate that the criteria used by the computer decisions match clinical observations in many cases. These findings indicate that computer-based picture analysis might be a helpful addition to existing database systems, which are meant to assist in syndrome diagnosis, especially as data acquisition is straightforward and involves off-the-shelf digital camera equipment. PMID:16773127
2D/3D image (facial) comparison using camera matching.
Goos, Mirelle I M; Alberink, Ivo B; Ruifrok, Arnout C C
2006-11-10
A problem in forensic facial comparison of images of perpetrators and suspects is that distances between fixed anatomical points in the face, which form a good starting point for objective, anthropometric comparison, vary strongly according to the position and orientation of the camera. In case of a cooperating suspect, a 3D image may be taken using e.g. a laser scanning device. By projecting the 3D image onto a 2D image with the suspect's head in the same pose as that of the perpetrator, using the same focal length and pixel aspect ratio, numerical comparison of (ratios of) distances between fixed points becomes feasible. An experiment was performed in which, starting from two 3D scans and one 2D image of two colleagues, male and female, and using seven fixed anatomical locations in the face, comparisons were made for the matching and non-matching case. Using this method, the non-matching pair cannot be distinguished from the matching pair of faces. Facial expression and resolution of images were all more or less optimal, and the results of the study are not encouraging for the use of anthropometric arguments in the identification process. More research needs to be done though on larger sets of facial comparisons. PMID:16337353
Mass loss in 2D rotating stellar models
Lovekin, Caterine; Deupree, Bob
2010-10-05
Radiatively driven mass loss is an important factor in the evolution of massive stars . The mass loss rates depend on a number of stellar parameters, including the effective temperature and luminosity. Massive stars are also often rapidly rotating, which affects their structure and evolution. In sufficiently rapidly rotating stars, both the effective temperature and radius vary significantly as a function of latitude, and hence mass loss rates can vary appreciably between the poles and the equator. In this work, we discuss the addition of mass loss to a 2D stellar evolution code (ROTORC) and compare evolution sequences with and without mass loss. Preliminary results indicate that a full 2D calculation of mass loss using the local effective temperature and luminosity can significantly affect the distribution of mass loss in rotating main sequence stars. More mass is lost from the pole than predicted by 1D models, while less mass is lost at the equator. This change in the distribution of mass loss will affect the angular momentum loss, the surface temperature and luminosity, and even the interior structure of the star. After a single mass loss event, these effects are small, but can be expected to accumulate over the course of the main sequence evolution.
Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios
2014-05-01
The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Flatbands in 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks.
Wang, Rui-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long
2016-01-14
Density functional calculations have been performed to analyze the electronic and mechanical properties of a number of 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are experimentally fabricated from di-borate aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the band structures are surprising and show flat-band characteristics which are mainly attributed to the delocalized π-conjugated electrons around the phenyl rings and can be better understood within aromaticity theories. Next, the effects of branch sizes and hydrostatic strains on their band structures are systematically considered within generalized gradient approximations. It is found that their band gaps will start to saturate when the branch size reaches 9. For boroxine-linked COFs with only one benzene ring in the branch, the band gap is robust under compressive strain while it decreases with the tensile strain increasing. When the branch size is equal or greater than 2, their band gaps will monotonously increase with the strain increasing in the range of [-1.0, 2.0] Å. All boroxine-linked COFs are semiconductors with controllable band gaps, depending on the branch length and the applied strain. In comparison with other 2D materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and even γ-graphyne, all boroxine-linked COFs are much softer and even more stable. That is, they can maintain the planar features under a larger compressive strain, which means that they are good candidates in flexible electronics. PMID:26662215
Peak width issues with generalised 2D correlation NMR spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirwan, Gemma M.; Adams, Michael J.
2008-12-01
Two-dimensional spectral correlation analysis is shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in spectral peak width as a function of perturbation variable. This is particularly significant where peak width fluctuations are of similar order of magnitude as the peak width values themselves and where changes in peak width are not random but are, for example, proportional to intensity. In such cases these trends appear in the asynchronous matrix as false peaks that serve to interfere with interpretation of the data. Complex, narrow band spectra such as provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy are demonstrated to be prone to such interference. 2D correlation analysis was applied to a series of NMR spectra corresponding to a commercial wine fermentation, in which the samples collected over a period of several days exhibit dramatic changes in concentration of minor and major components. The interference due to changing peak width effects is eliminated by synthesizing the recorded spectra using a constant peak width value prior to performing 2D correlation analysis.
Application Perspective of 2D+SCALE Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul
2016-09-01
Different applications or users need different abstraction of spatial models, dimensionalities and specification of their datasets due to variations of required analysis and output. Various approaches, data models and data structures are now available to support most current application models in Geographic Information System (GIS). One of the focuses trend in GIS multi-dimensional research community is the implementation of scale dimension with spatial datasets to suit various scale application needs. In this paper, 2D spatial datasets that been scaled up as the third dimension are addressed as 2D+scale (or 3D-scale) dimension. Nowadays, various data structures, data models, approaches, schemas, and formats have been proposed as the best approaches to support variety of applications and dimensionality in 3D topology. However, only a few of them considers the element of scale as their targeted dimension. As the scale dimension is concerned, the implementation approach can be either multi-scale or vario-scale (with any available data structures and formats) depending on application requirements (topology, semantic and function). This paper attempts to discuss on the current and new potential applications which positively could be integrated upon 3D-scale dimension approach. The previous and current works on scale dimension as well as the requirements to be preserved for any given applications, implementation issues and future potential applications forms the major discussion of this paper.
Flatbands in 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks.
Wang, Rui-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long
2016-01-14
Density functional calculations have been performed to analyze the electronic and mechanical properties of a number of 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are experimentally fabricated from di-borate aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the band structures are surprising and show flat-band characteristics which are mainly attributed to the delocalized π-conjugated electrons around the phenyl rings and can be better understood within aromaticity theories. Next, the effects of branch sizes and hydrostatic strains on their band structures are systematically considered within generalized gradient approximations. It is found that their band gaps will start to saturate when the branch size reaches 9. For boroxine-linked COFs with only one benzene ring in the branch, the band gap is robust under compressive strain while it decreases with the tensile strain increasing. When the branch size is equal or greater than 2, their band gaps will monotonously increase with the strain increasing in the range of [-1.0, 2.0] Å. All boroxine-linked COFs are semiconductors with controllable band gaps, depending on the branch length and the applied strain. In comparison with other 2D materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and even γ-graphyne, all boroxine-linked COFs are much softer and even more stable. That is, they can maintain the planar features under a larger compressive strain, which means that they are good candidates in flexible electronics.
3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.
Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng
2015-02-01
We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.
2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product
Tang, Q; Xie, S
2015-08-30
This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.
Influence of Elevation Data Source on 2D Hydraulic Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakuła, Krzysztof; Stępnik, Mateusz; Kurczyński, Zdzisław
2016-08-01
The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the source of various elevation data on hydraulic modelling in open channels. In the research, digital terrain models from different datasets were evaluated and used in two-dimensional hydraulic models. The following aerial and satellite elevation data were used to create the representation of terrain - digital terrain model: airborne laser scanning, image matching, elevation data collected in the LPIS, EuroDEM, and ASTER GDEM. From the results of five 2D hydrodynamic models with different input elevation data, the maximum depth and flow velocity of water were derived and compared with the results of the most accurate ALS data. For such an analysis a statistical evaluation and differences between hydraulic modelling results were prepared. The presented research proved the importance of the quality of elevation data in hydraulic modelling and showed that only ALS and photogrammetric data can be the most reliable elevation data source in accurate 2D hydraulic modelling.
Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes
Eppley, K.R.
1993-03-01
In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT`S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (``port approximation``). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.
Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes
Eppley, K.R.
1993-03-01
In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field ( port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.
Local currents in a 2D topological insulator.
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y
2015-12-23
Symmetry protected edge states in 2D topological insulators are interesting both from the fundamental point of view as well as from the point of view of potential applications in nanoelectronics as perfectly conducting 1D channels and functional elements of circuits. Here using a simple tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism we explore local current distributions in a 2D topological insulator focusing on effects of non-magnetic impurities and vacancies as well as finite size effects. For an isolated edge state, we show that the local conductance decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion as explained by the complex band structure of the bulk topological insulator. We demonstrate that although the net conductance of the edge state is topologically protected, impurity scattering leads to intricate local current patterns. In the case of vacancies we observe vortex currents of certain chirality, originating from the scattering of current-carrying electrons into states localized at the edges of hollow regions. For finite size strips of a topological insulator we predict the formation of an oscillatory band gap in the spectrum of the edge states, the emergence of Friedel oscillations caused by an open channel for backscattering from an impurity and antiresonances in conductance when the Fermi energy matches the energy of the localized state created by an impurity. PMID:26610145
Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.
Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L
2016-01-01
In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221
Predicting abnormal pressure from 2-D seismic velocity modeling
Grauls, D.; Dunand, J.P.; Beaufort, D.
1995-12-01
Seismic velocities are the only data available, before drilling, on which to base a quantitative, present-day estimate of abnormal pressure. Recent advances in seismic velocity processing have enabled them to obtain, using an in-house approach, an optimized 2-D interval velocity field and consequently to better define the lateral extension of pressure regimes. The methodology, interpretation and quantification of overpressure-related anomalies are supported by case studies, selected in sand-shale dominated Tertiary basins, offshore West Africa. Another advantage of this approach is that it can also account for the presence of reservoir-potential intervals at great depth and thus provide significant insight, from a prospective standpoint, into very poorly explored areas. Although at the outset the 2-D seismic tool legitimately merits being favored, optimization of the final predictive pressure model, prior to drilling, will depend upon the success of its combined use with other concepts and approaches, pertaining to structural geology, sedimentology, rock mechanics and fluid dynamics.
2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs
Deyrup, Stephen T.; Eckman, Laura E.; McCarthy, Patrick H.; Smedley, Scott R.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C.
2011-01-01
Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature’s cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature’s structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored. PMID:21646540
2D NMR-spectroscopic screening reveals polyketides in ladybugs.
Deyrup, Stephen T; Eckman, Laura E; McCarthy, Patrick H; Smedley, Scott R; Meinwald, Jerrold; Schroeder, Frank C
2011-06-14
Small molecules of biological origin continue to yield the most promising leads for drug design, but systematic approaches for exploring nature's cache of structural diversity are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the use of 2D NMR spectroscopy to screen a library of biorationally selected insect metabolite samples for partial structures indicating the presence of new chemical entities. This NMR-spectroscopic survey enabled detection of novel compounds in complex metabolite mixtures without prior fractionation or isolation. Our screen led to discovery and subsequent isolation of two families of tricyclic pyrones in Delphastus catalinae, a tiny ladybird beetle that is employed commercially as a biological pest control agent. The D. catalinae pyrones are based on 23-carbon polyketide chains forming 1,11-dioxo-2,6,10-trioxaanthracene and 4,8-dioxo-1,9,13-trioxaanthracene derivatives, representing ring systems not previously found in nature. This study highlights the utility of 2D NMR-spectroscopic screening for exploring nature's structure space and suggests that insect metabolomes remain vastly underexplored. PMID:21646540
Controlling cell growth with tailorable 2D nanoholes arrays.
Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma Sley P; Fragal, Elizângela H; Pereira, Guilherme M; Garcia, Francielle P; Nakamura, Celso V; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael
2016-03-15
A facile and reproducible route that can lead to two-dimensional arrays of nanopores in thin polymer films is demonstrated. The formation of the pores in the polymer films involves breath figure phenomenon and occurs during the film deposition by spin coating. The formation of nanoporous thin films takes only few seconds, and the method does not require complex equipment or expensive chemicals. This method also constitutes a straightforward approach to control the size of the pores formed in thin films. Besides allowing control over the average pore size of the porous films, the use of dynamic deposition with the breath figure phenomenon causes the reduction in the pore size to nanometer scale. The nanoporous arrays obtained by the breath figure are applied as substrates for cell growth, and the effect of their nanopore size on cell growth was evaluated. Notably, it is found that cell viability is related to pore size, where 2D nanoporous structure is more beneficial for cell culture than 2D microporous structures. The change in the average pore size of the polymer films from 1.22 μm to 346 nm results in a threefold increase in cell viability. PMID:26722796
Suspended 2-D photonic crystal aluminum nitride membrane reflector.
Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Soon, Bo Woon; Lee, Chengkuo
2015-04-20
We experimentally demonstrated a free-standing two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PhC) aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane to function as a free space (or out-of-plane) reflector working in the mid infrared region. By etching circular holes of radius 620nm in a 330nm thick AlN slab, greater than 90% reflection was measured from 3.08μm to 3.78μm, with the peak reflection of 96% at 3.16μm. Due to the relatively low refractive index of AlN, we also investigated the importance of employing methods such as sacrificial layer release to enhance the performance of the PhC. In addition, characterization of the AlN based PhC was also done up to 450°C to examine the impact of thermo-optic effect on the performance. Despite the high temperature operation, the redshift in the peak reflection wavelengths of the device was estimated to be only 14.1nm. This equates to a relatively low thermo-optic coefficient 2.22 × 10(-5) K(-1) for AlN. Such insensitivity to thermo-optic effect makes AlN based 2-D PhC a promising technology to be used as photonic components for high temperature applications such as Fabry-Perot interferometer used for gas sensing in down-hole oil drilling and ruggedized electronics. PMID:25969099
MAZE. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-10
MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the `ASSM` or `PASSM` command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slidelines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the `WBCD` command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the `T` terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with `C`. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of-state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands, respectively. MAZE may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials.
Local currents in a 2D topological insulator.
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y
2015-12-23
Symmetry protected edge states in 2D topological insulators are interesting both from the fundamental point of view as well as from the point of view of potential applications in nanoelectronics as perfectly conducting 1D channels and functional elements of circuits. Here using a simple tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism we explore local current distributions in a 2D topological insulator focusing on effects of non-magnetic impurities and vacancies as well as finite size effects. For an isolated edge state, we show that the local conductance decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion as explained by the complex band structure of the bulk topological insulator. We demonstrate that although the net conductance of the edge state is topologically protected, impurity scattering leads to intricate local current patterns. In the case of vacancies we observe vortex currents of certain chirality, originating from the scattering of current-carrying electrons into states localized at the edges of hollow regions. For finite size strips of a topological insulator we predict the formation of an oscillatory band gap in the spectrum of the edge states, the emergence of Friedel oscillations caused by an open channel for backscattering from an impurity and antiresonances in conductance when the Fermi energy matches the energy of the localized state created by an impurity.
Conformal Laplace superintegrable systems in 2D: polynomial invariant subspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.
2016-07-01
2nd-order conformal superintegrable systems in n dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and 2n-1 independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about Helmholtz (eigenvalue) superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: there is a 1-1 correspondence between Laplace superintegrable systems and Stäckel equivalence classes of Helmholtz superintegrable systems. In this paper we focus on superintegrable systems in two-dimensions, n = 2, where there are 44 Helmholtz systems, corresponding to 12 Laplace systems. For each Laplace equation we determine the possible two-variate polynomial subspaces that are invariant under the action of the Laplace operator, thus leading to families of polynomial eigenfunctions. We also study the behavior of the polynomial invariant subspaces under a Stäckel transform. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial variables and the conditions on parameters of the potential corresponding to polynomial solutions. The hidden gl 3-algebraic structure is exhibited for the exact and quasi-exact systems. For physically meaningful solutions, the orthogonality properties and normalizability of the polynomials are presented as well. Finally, for all Helmholtz superintegrable solvable systems we give a unified construction of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-exactly solvable potentials possessing polynomial solutions, and a construction of new 2D PT-symmetric potentials is established.
Asymmetric 2D spatial beam filtering by photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gailevicius, D.; Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gaizauskas, E.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Staliunas, K.
2016-04-01
Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.
New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors
Hasell, Douglas K
2011-10-29
Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to {approx}50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.
MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE
Flach, G.; Smith, F.
2012-01-20
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.
2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.
2001-01-01
We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on an equal footing. Electron bandstructure is treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are consistent with 1D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller leakage current than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current.
Suspended 2-D photonic crystal aluminum nitride membrane reflector.
Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Soon, Bo Woon; Lee, Chengkuo
2015-04-20
We experimentally demonstrated a free-standing two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PhC) aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane to function as a free space (or out-of-plane) reflector working in the mid infrared region. By etching circular holes of radius 620nm in a 330nm thick AlN slab, greater than 90% reflection was measured from 3.08μm to 3.78μm, with the peak reflection of 96% at 3.16μm. Due to the relatively low refractive index of AlN, we also investigated the importance of employing methods such as sacrificial layer release to enhance the performance of the PhC. In addition, characterization of the AlN based PhC was also done up to 450°C to examine the impact of thermo-optic effect on the performance. Despite the high temperature operation, the redshift in the peak reflection wavelengths of the device was estimated to be only 14.1nm. This equates to a relatively low thermo-optic coefficient 2.22 × 10(-5) K(-1) for AlN. Such insensitivity to thermo-optic effect makes AlN based 2-D PhC a promising technology to be used as photonic components for high temperature applications such as Fabry-Perot interferometer used for gas sensing in down-hole oil drilling and ruggedized electronics.
Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations
2016-01-01
In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221
Using dispersive medium to control excitons in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klots, Andrey; Bolotin, Kirill I.
Excitons in 2D materials (2DMs) are known to be sensitive to the surrounding environment. This makes it possible to modify 2D excitons by depositing materials with controlled dielectric constant on top of 2DMs. This possibility becomes especially interesting if we consider materials with dielectric permittivity ɛ that depends both on wavevector k (this happens if the medium is spatially non-uniform) and frequency ω. Here, we develop platforms to control ɛ (k , ω) and explore resulting changes in light-matter interactions of 2DMs. To examine the effect of wavevector-dependent permittivity of the medium, we study absorption/photoluminescence of graphene and MoS2 in the vicinity of highly non-uniform medium - an array of metal nanoparticles, 3-5 nm in diameter. In this case absorption of light can lead to creation of excitons with non-zero momentum. These dark states are not accessible via regular absorption spectroscopy. We study the case of frequency-dependent permittivity by surrounding MoS2 by a highly-dispersive media (e.g. dielectric liquids, graphene and VO2) . We demonstrate non-trivial frequency-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle bandgap and exciton binding energies.
MAZE. Generates 2D Input for DYNA, NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-12
MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the `ASSM` or `PASSM` command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slidelines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the `WBCD` command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the `T` terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with `C`. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of-state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands, respectively. MAZE may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials.
MAZE. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the `ASSM` or `PASSM` command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slidelines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the `WBCD` command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the `T` terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with `C`. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of-state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands, respectively. MAZE may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials.
MAZE. Generates 2D Input for DYNA, NIKE, & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-10
MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the `ASSM` or `PASSM` command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slidelines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the `WBCD` command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the `T` terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with `C`. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of-state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands, respectively. MAZE may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callahan, Patrick Gregory
to describe 3-D shapes using 2-D moment invariants. To do this we characterize 2-D sections of a 3-D microstructure using 2-D moment invariants. The statistical distribution of 2-D moment invariants from the sections are compared to a library of density maps produced from different shapes. The sectioning plane is random so each group of particles produces a statistical distribution of 2-D moments that can represent a microstructure. Then we show three example applications: determination of a 3-D shape by computing the Hellinger distance between moment invariant density maps derived from random 2-D section micrographs and the density map database; automated detection and quantification of rafting in cuboidal microstructures; and quantitative comparison of pairs of microstructures.
L-moments and TL-moments of the generalized lambda distribution
Asquith, W.H.
2007-01-01
The 4-parameter generalized lambda distribution (GLD) is a flexible distribution capable of mimicking the shapes of many distributions and data samples including those with heavy tails. The method of L-moments and the recently developed method of trimmed L-moments (TL-moments) are attractive techniques for parameter estimation for heavy-tailed distributions for which the L- and TL-moments have been defined. Analytical solutions for the first five L- and TL-moments in terms of GLD parameters are derived. Unfortunately, numerical methods are needed to compute the parameters from the L- or TL-moments. Algorithms are suggested for parameter estimation. Application of the GLD using both L- and TL-moment parameter estimates from example data is demonstrated, and comparison of the L-moment fit of the 4-parameter kappa distribution is made. A small simulation study of the 98th percentile (far-right tail) is conducted for a heavy-tail GLD with high-outlier contamination. The simulations show, with respect to estimation of the 98th-percent quantile, that TL-moments are less biased (more robost) in the presence of high-outlier contamination. However, the robustness comes at the expense of considerably more sampling variability. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boundary effects in welded steel moment connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyoung-Hyeog
Unprecedented widespread failure of welded moment connections in steel frames caused by the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have alarmed the engineering communities throughout the world. Welded moment connections in steel frames have been traditionally designed by using the classical beam theory which leads to assumptions that the flanges transfer moment while the web connection primarily resists the shear force. However, this study shows that the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses in the connection region are better approximated by using truss analogy rather than the classical beam theory. Accordingly, both the bending moment and the shear force are transferred across the connection near the beam flanges through diagonal strut action. Thus, the beam flange region of the traditionally designed connection is overloaded. This conclusion explains, to a large extent, the recently observed steel moment connection failures. In this study, detailed finite element analyses were carried out for a representative beam-to-column subassemblage with fully welded connection. The stress distribution in the beam web and flanges in the vicinity of the connection were closely studied. The factors responsible for stress redistribution and concentration were identified by using fundamental principles of mechanics. It was concluded that peak resultant stresses can exceed the values used in simple design calculations by large margins. Using the finite element analysis results and the truss analogy to establish a realistic load path in the connection, a practical and more rational analysis and design procedure was developed. The proposed design procedure and the new connection details were successfully validated through cyclic load testing of a nearly full size specimen. The truss model represented the force transmission around the beam-to-column moment connection region very well. Results of the finite element analyses and the laboratory testing showed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1998-05-01
illustrates how the appearance of a stellar image at the focal plane is fully controllable. Fast and thorough optical adjustment ensures the best possible optical quality at all times . 9. Image Quality of the VLT This diagram demonstrates that First Light specifications have been fully met and, more impressively, that the actual VLT performance is sometimes already within the more stringent specifications that were expected to be fulfilled only three years from now. The final steps before "First Light" The final, critical testing phase commenced with the installation of the 8.2-m primary (at that time still uncoated) Zerodur mirror and 1.1-m secondary Beryllium mirror during the second half of April. The optics were then gradually brought into position during carefully planned, successive adjustments. Due to the full integration of an advanced, active control system into the VLT concept, this delicate process went amazingly fast, especially when compared to other ground-based telescopes. It included a number of short test exposures in early May, first with the Guide Camera that is used to steer the telescope. Later, some exposures were made with the Test Camera mounted just below the main mirror at the Cassegrain Focus, in a central space inside the mirror cell. It will continue to be used during the upcoming Commissioning Phase, until the first major instruments (FORS and ISAAC) are attached to the UT1, later in 1998. The 8.2-m mirror was successfully aluminized at the Paranal Mirror Coating facility on May 20 and was reattached to the telescope tube the day thereafter, cf. ESO PR Photos 13a-e/98 and ESO PR Photos 14a-i/98. Further test exposures were then made to check the proper functioning of the telescope mechanics, optics and electronics. This has lead up to the moment of First Light , i.e. the time when the telescope is considered able to produce the first, astronomically useful images. Despite an intervening spell of bad atmospheric conditions, this important event
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-12-15
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the
Magnetic anisotropy of metal functionalized phthalocyanine 2D networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Guojun; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Juexian
2016-06-01
The magnetic anisotropy of metal including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re, Os, Ir atoms functionalized phthalocyanine networks have been investigated with first-principles calculations. The magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n μB with n the electronic number of outmost d shell in the transition metals. The huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is obtained by torque method. Especially, the MAE of Re functionalized phthalocyanine network is about 20 meV with an easy axis perpendicular to the plane of phthalocyanine network. The MAE is further manipulated by applying the external biaxial strain. It is found that the MAE is linear increasing with the external strain in the range of -2% to 2%. Our results indicate an effective approach to modulate the MAE for practical application.
Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.; Palmer, Todd S.; Smith, Kord S.
2000-10-31
Status Summary of Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Tasks: Task 1--The development of the following methods in ID slab geometry: (1) Homogenization and definition of discontinuity factors, (2) Group constants functionalization using assembly transport solution of multigroup eigenvalue problem with albedo boundary conditions, and (3) Solving coarse-mesh effective few-group 1D QD moment equations using tables of data parametrized with respect to the ratio {rvec n} {center_dot} {rvec {tilde J}{sup G}}/{tilde {phi}{sup G}} on boundaries. Task 2--Development of a numerical method for solving the 2D few-group moment QD equations: (1) Development of a nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations, and (2) Development of an efficient iteration method for solving the system of equations of the nodal discretization method for 2D moment QD equations. Task 3--The development of the following methods in 2D X-Y geometry: (1) homogenization and definition of discontinuity factors, (2) group constants functionalization using assembly transport solution of multigroup eigenvalue problem with albedo boundary conditions, and (3) solving coarse-mesh effective few-group QD moment equations using tables of data parametrized with respect to the ratio {rvec n} {center_dot} {rvec {tilde J}{sup G}}/{tilde {phi}{sup G}} on boundaries. Task 4--Development of a numerical method for solving the few-group moment QD equations in 3D geometry: (1) Development of a nodal method for discretization of 3D moment QD equations, and (2) Development of an efficient iteration method for solving the system of nodal discretized equations of moment QD equations in 3D geometry.
Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.
Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing
2016-06-28
Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.
Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.
Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing
2016-06-28
Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface. PMID:27257639
Role of cytochrome P450 2D6 genetic polymorphism in carvedilol hydroxylation in vitro
Wang, Zhe; Wang, Li; Xu, Ren-ai; Zhan, Yun-yun; Huang, Cheng-ke; Dai, Da-peng; Cai, Jian-ping; Hu, Guo-xin
2016-01-01
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a highly polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of a great number of therapeutic drugs. Up to now, >100 allelic variants of CYP2D6 have been reported. Recently, we identified 22 novel variants in the Chinese population in these variants. The purpose of this study was to examine the enzymatic activity of the variants toward the CYP2D6 substrate carvedilol in vitro. The CYP2D6 proteins, including CYP2D6.1 (wild type), CYP2D6.2, CYP2D6.10, and 22 other novel CYP2D6 variants, were expressed from insect microsomes and incubated with carvedilol ranging from 1.0 μM to 50 μM at 37°C for 30 minutes. After termination, the carvedilol metabolites were extracted and detected using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Among the 24 CYP2D6 variants, CYP2D6.92 and CYP2D6.96 were catalytically inactive and the remaining 22 variants exhibited significantly decreased intrinsic clearance values (ranging from ~25% to 95%) compared with CYP2D6.1. The present data in vitro suggest that the newly found variants significantly reduced catalytic activities compared with CYP2D6.1. Given that CYP2D6 protein activities could affect carvedilol plasma levels, these findings are greatly relevant to personalized medicine. PMID:27354764
2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Li, Xueqin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong
2016-06-01
A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.
Helical Quantum Edge Gears in 2D Topological Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Yang-Zhi; Levchenko, Alex; Foster, Matthew
A remarkable and as-yet-unexploited aspect of topological insulator (TI) physics is the topology of the edge states, i.e. the fact that the edge liquid of a 2D TI forms a closed, unbreakable loop in the absence of electrical contacts or magnetic fields. We propose a novel experimental setup in which edge loops rotate as interlocking ``gears'' through Coulomb drag, in TIs with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that two-terminal transport can measure the Luttinger liquid parameter K, a quantity that is otherwise notoriously difficult to measure. In the low-temperature (T --> 0) perfect drag regime, the conductance is (e2 / h) (2 K + 1) / (K + 1) . At higher T we predict a conductivity ~T - 4 K + 3 . Our results should trigger new experiments and may open a new venue for edge gear-based electronic devices.Ref: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 186404 (2015)
areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS
Rivers, M.
2011-09-23
areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.
Electrical spin injection in 2D semiconductors and topological insulators
Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L.
2013-12-04
We have developed a theory of spin orientation by electric current in 2D semiconductors. It is shown that the spin depends on the relation between the energy and spin relaxation times and can vary by a factor of two for the limiting cases of fast and slow energy relaxation. For symmetrically-doped (110)-grown semiconductor quantum wells the effect of current-induced spin orientation is shown to exist due to random spatial variation of the Rashba spin-orbit splitting. We demonstrate that the spin depends strongly on the correlation length of this random spin-orbit field. We calculate the spin orientation degree in two-dimensional topological insulators. In high electric fields when the “streaming” regime is realized, the spin orientation degree weakly depends on the electric field and can reach values about 5%.
2D quantum gravity at three loops: A counterterm investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leduc, Lætitia; Bilal, Adel
2016-02-01
We analyze the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kähler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence ∼ AΛ2(ln AΛ2) 2. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence (ln AΛ2) 3. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.
Enhancement of biomixing by swimming cells in 2D films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollub, Jerry; Kurtuldu, Huseyin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Johnson, Karl
2011-11-01
Fluid mixing in active suspensions of microorganisms is important to ecological phenomena and shows surprising statistical behavior. We investigate the mixing produced by swimming unicellular algal cells (Chlamydomonas) in quasi-2D films by tracking the motions of cells and of microscopic passive tracer particles advected by the fluid. The reduced spatial dimension of the system leads to long-range flows and a surprisingly strong dependence of tracer transport on the swimmer concentration. The mean square displacements are well described by a stochastic Langevin model, with an effective diffusion coefficient D growing as the 3/2 power of the swimmer concentration, due to the interaction of tracer particles with multiple swimmers. We also discuss the anomalous probability distributions of tracer displacements, which become Gaussian at high concentration, but show strong power-law tails at low concentration. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0803153.
Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.
In-Cell Protein Structures from 2D NMR Experiments.
Müntener, Thomas; Häussinger, Daniel; Selenko, Philipp; Theillet, Francois-Xavier
2016-07-21
In-cell NMR spectroscopy provides atomic resolution insights into the structural properties of proteins in cells, but it is rarely used to solve entire protein structures de novo. Here, we introduce a paramagnetic lanthanide-tag to simultaneously measure protein pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) to be used as input for structure calculation routines within the Rosetta program. We employ this approach to determine the structure of the protein G B1 domain (GB1) in intact Xenopus laevis oocytes from a single set of 2D in-cell NMR experiments. Specifically, we derive well-defined GB1 ensembles from low concentration in-cell NMR samples (∼50 μM) measured at moderate magnetic field strengths (600 MHz), thus offering an easily accessible alternative for determining intracellular protein structures. PMID:27379949
Interpretive 2-D treatment of scrape-off-layer plasmas
Umansky, M.; Allen, A.; Daughton, W.
1996-12-31
The width of the scrape-off-layer in a tokamak is determined by cross field transport. In Alcator C-mod the plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer are measured at upstream and divertor plate locations. We solve a 2-D scrape-off-layer heat conduction equation in the flux geometry (as determined by EFIT) of the C-mod experiment. Bolometric measurements are utilized for the radiative loss term. We use the end wall probe measurements of electron temperature as a boundary condition and the fast scanning probe measurements of upstream temperature are treated as constraints to determine the cross field transport and thermal conductivity. Results are compared with 1-D onion-skin-model predictions.
Optimum design of 2D micro-angle sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qinggang; Zhao, Heng; Lou, Xiaona; Jiang, Ningchuan; Hu, Xiaotang
2008-12-01
To improve dynamic measurement performance and resolution, an optimum design on two-dimensional (2D) micro-angle sensor based on optical internal-reflection method via critical-angle refractive index measurement is presented in the paper. The noise signals were filtered effectively by modulating laser-driven and demodulating in signal proceeding. The system's accuracy and response speed are improved further by using 16-bit high-precision AD converter and MSP430 CPU which present with a high-speed performance during signals processes such as fitting angle-voltage curve through specific arithmetic, full range and zero point calibration, filter, scaling transformation etc. The experiment results indicated that, dynamic signal measurement range can be up to +/-600arcsec, the measurement resolution can be better than 0.1arcsec, and the repeatability could be better than +/-0.5arcsec.
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.; Sieros, G.; Jost, E.; Lutz, T.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Barakos, G. N.; Colonia, S.; Baldacchino, D.; Baptista, C.; Ferreira, C.
2016-09-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar-turbulent transitional results only three out of seven provided results, and the agreement is generally lower than for the fully turbulent case.
Brane brick models and 2 d (0 , 2) triality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong
2016-05-01
We provide a brane realization of 2 d (0 , 2) Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality in terms of brane brick models. These are Type IIA brane configurations that are T-dual to D1-branes over singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. Triality translates into a local transformation of brane brick models, whose simplest representative is a cube move. We present explicit examples and construct their triality networks. We also argue that the classical mesonic moduli space of brane brick model theories, which corresponds to the probed Calabi-Yau 4-fold, is invariant under triality. Finally, we discuss triality in terms of phase boundaries, which play a central role in connecting Calabi-Yau 4-folds to brane brick models.
3D Ordering in 2D Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landee, C. P.; Woodward, F. M.; Giantsidis, J.; Turnbull, M. M.
2000-03-01
The family of 2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets (5-ZAP)_2CuX4 consists of CuX_4^2- dianions packed together in magnetically square layers, interacting through X\\cdotsX contacts (X = Cl, Br). The strength of both the intralayer interaction J and interlayer interaction J^' are controlled by the substituent Z in the 5-position of 5-Z, 2-aminopyridine. The 3D critical temperature TN is a function of the J^'/J ratio and consequently is also subject to control by the Z-substituent. Previously we have reported on the compounds with Z = Cl (5-CAP), and Z = methyl (5-MAP). We have now prepared the isomorphous 5-bromo analogue (5-BAP)_2CuX4 and will discuss the T_N/J ratios for all three compounds in terms of the structural parameters.
A full 2D IDCT with extreme low complexity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, Antonio; Silva, Antonio; Reznik, Yuriy
2007-09-01
In the context of a Call for Proposal for integer IDCTs issued by MPEG in July 2005, a full 2D integer IDCT based on a previous Feig and Winograd's work has been proposed. It achieves a high precision by meeting all IEEE1180 conditions and is suitable of implementation on hardware since it can be performed only with shifts and additions. Furthermore, it can be useful in high video resolution scenarios like in 720p/1080i/p due to its feedforward operation mode without any loop as usual in row-column implementations. The proposed transformation can be implemented without changing other functional blocks either at the encoder or at the decoder or alternatively as a scaled version incorporating the scaling factors into the dequantization stage. Our algorithm uses only 1328 operations for 8x8 blocks, including scaling factors.
TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990
Davis, B.
1990-08-01
Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.
Non-chiral 2d CFT with integer energy levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashrafi, M.; Loran, F.
2016-09-01
The partition function of 2d conformal field theory is a modular invariant function. It is known that the partition function of a holomorphic CFT whose central charge is a multiple of 24 is a polynomial in the Klein function. In this paper, by using the medium temperature expansion we show that every modular invariant partition function can be mapped to a holomorphic partition function whose structure can be determined similarly. We use this map to study partition function of CFTs with half-integer left and right conformal weights. We show that the corresponding left and right central charges are necessarily multiples of 4. Furthermore, the degree of degeneracy of high-energy levels can be uniquely determined in terms of the degeneracy in the low energy states.
areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS
Rivers, Mark L.
2010-06-23
areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.
Fast and robust recognition and localization of 2D objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otterbach, Rainer; Gerdes, Rolf; Kammueller, R.
1994-11-01
The paper presents a vision system which provides a robust model-based identification and localization of 2-D objects in industrial scenes. A symbolic image description based on the polygonal approximation of the object silhouettes is extracted in video real time by the use of dedicated hardware. Candidate objects are selected from the model database using a time and memory efficient hashing algorithm. Any candidate object is submitted to the next computation stage which generates pose hypotheses by assigning model to image contours. Corresponding continuous measures of similarity are derived from the turning functions of the curves. Finally, the previous generated hypotheses are verified using a voting scheme in transformation space. Experimental results reveal the fault tolerance of the vision system with regard to noisy and split image contours as well as partial occlusion of objects. THe short cycle time and the easy adaptability of the vision system make it well suited for a wide variety of applications in industrial automation.
Novel antenna coupled 2D plasmonic terahertz detection.
Allen, Jim; Dyer, Greg; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur
2010-03-01
Resonant plasmonic detectors are potentially important for terahertz (THz) spectroscopic imaging. We have fabricated and characterized antenna coupled detectors that integrate a broad-band antenna, which improves coupling of THz radiation. The vertex of the antenna contains the tuning gates and the bolometric barrier gate. Incident THz radiation may excite 2D plasmons with wave-vectors defined by either a periodic grating gate or a plasmonic cavity determined by ohmic contacts and gate terminals. The latter approach of exciting plasmons in a cavity defined by a short micron-scale channel appears most promising. With this short-channel geometry, we have observed multiple harmonics of THz plasmons. At 20 K with detector bias optimized we report responsivity on resonance of 2.5 kV/W and an NEP of 5 x 10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.
Experimental identification of diffusive coupling using 2D NMR.
Song, Y-Q; Carneiro, G; Schwartz, L M; Johnson, D L
2014-12-01
Spin relaxation based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used extensively to determine pore size distributions in a variety of materials. This approach is based on the assumption that each pore is in the fast diffusion limit but that diffusion between pores can be neglected. However, in complex materials these assumptions may be violated and the relaxation time distribution is not easily interpreted. We present a 2D NMR technique and an associated data analysis that allow us to work directly with the time dependent experimental data without Laplace inversion to identify the signature of diffusive coupling between different pores. Measurements on microporous glass beads and numerical simulations are used to illustrate the technique. PMID:25526135
2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.
2016-03-01
A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.
The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.
Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard
2008-01-01
We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.
Estimating 2-D vector velocities using multidimensional spectrum analysis.
Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2008-08-01
Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wideband estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity. Later, it was shown that this approach could also be used for finding the lateral velocity component by also including a lateral sampling. A single velocity component would then be concentrated along a plane in the 3-D Fourier space, tilted according to the 2 velocity components. This paper presents 2 new velocity estimators for finding both the axial and lateral velocity components. The estimators essentially search for the plane in the 3- D Fourier space, where the integrated power spectrum is largest. The first uses the 3-D Fourier transform to find the power spectrum, while the second uses a minimum variance approach. Based on this plane, the axial and lateral velocity components are estimated. Several phantom measurements, for flow-to-depth angles of 60, 75, and 90 degrees, were performed. Multiple parallel lines were beamformed simultaneously, and 2 different receive apodization schemes were tried. The 2 estimators were then applied to the data. The axial velocity component was estimated with an average standard deviation below 2.8% of the peak velocity, while the average standard deviation of the lateral velocity estimates was between 2.0% and 16.4%. The 2 estimators were also tested on in vivo data from a transverse scan of the common carotid artery, showing the potential of the vector velocity estimation method under in vivo conditions. PMID:18986918
2D optoacoustic array for high resolution imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashkenazi, S.; Witte, R. S.; Kim, K.; Huang, S.-W.; Hou, Y.; O'Donnell, M.
2006-02-01
An optoacoustic detector denotes the detection of acoustic signals by optical devices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques and the availability of high power tunable laser sources have greatly accelerated the development of efficient optoacoustic detectors. The unique advantages of optoacoustic technology are of special interest in applications that require high resolution imaging. For these applications optoacoustic technology enables high frequency transducer arrays with element size on the order of 10 μm. Laser generated ultrasound (photoacoustic effect) has been studied since the early observations of A.G. Bell (1880) of audible sound generated by light absorption . Modern studies have demonstrated the use of the photoacoustic effect to form a versatile imaging modality for medical and biological applications. A short laser pulse illuminates a tissue creating rapid thermal expansion and acoustic emission. Detection of the resulting acoustic field by an array enables the imaging of the tissue optical absorption using ultrasonic imaging methods. We present an integrated imaging system that employs photoacoustic sound generation and 2D optoacoustic reception. The optoacoustic receiver consists of a thin polymer Fabry-Perot etalon. The etalon is an optical resonator of a high quality factor (Q = 750). The relatively low elasticity modulus of the polymer and the high Q-factor of the resonator combine to yield high ultrasound sensitivity. The etalon thickness (10 μm) was optimized for wide bandwidth (typically above 50 MHz). An optical scanning and focusing system is used to create a large aperture and high density 2D ultrasonic receiver array. High resolution 3D images of phantom targets and biological tissue samples were obtained.
2D foam coarsening in a microfluidic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchalot, J.; Lambert, J.; Cantat, I.; Tabeling, P.; Jullien, M.-C.
2008-09-01
We report an experimental study of 2D microfoam coarsening confined in a micrometer scale geometry, the typical bubbles diameter being of the order of 50-100 μm. These experiments raise both fundamental and applicative issues. For applicative issues: what is the typical time of foam ageing (for a polydisperse foam) in microsystems in scope of gas pocket storage in lab-on-a-chips? Experimental results show that a typical time of 2-3 mn is found, leading to the possibility of short-time storing, depending on the application. For fundamental interests, 2D foam ageing is generally described by von Neumann's law (von Neumann J., Metal Interfaces (American Society of Metals, Cleveland) 1952, p. 108) which is based on the hypothesis that bubbles are separated by thin films. Does this hypothesis still hold for foams confined in a 40 μm height geometry? This problematic is analyzed and it is shown that von Neumann's law still holds but that the diffusion coefficient involved in this law is modified by the confinement which imposes a curvature radius at Plateau borders. More precisely, it is shown that the liquid fraction is high on a film cross-section, in contrast with macrometric experiments where drainage occurs. An analytical description of the diffusion is developped taking into account the fact that soap film height is only a fraction of the cell height. While most of microfoams are flowing, the experimental set-up we describe leads to the achievement of a motionless confined microfoam.
2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan
2001-01-01
With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density- gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Quantum simulations are focused on MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well- tempered" MOSFETs and compared to classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are quantitatively consistent with I D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and sub-threshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.
2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.
E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy
2006-05-01
This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.
Measurement of magnetic moment via optical transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidsieck, Alexandra; Schmid, Daniel; Gleich, Bernhard
2016-03-01
The magnetic moment of nanoparticles is an important property for drug targeting and related applications as well as for the simulation thereof. However, the measurement of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles, nanoparticle-virus-complexes or microspheres in solution can be difficult and often yields unsatisfying or incomparable results. To measure the magnetic moment, we designed a custom measurement device including a magnetic set-up to observe nanoparticles indirectly via light transmission in solution. We present a simple, cheap device of manageable size, which can be used in any laboratory as well as a novel evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of nanoparticles via the change of the optical density of the particle suspension in a well-defined magnetic gradient field. In contrast to many of the established measurement methods, we are able to observe and measure the nanoparticle complexes in their natural state in the respective medium. The nanoparticles move along the magnetic gradient and thereby away from the observation point. Due to this movement, the optical density of the fluid decreases and the transmission increases over time at the measurement location. By comparing the measurement with parametric simulations, we can deduce the magnetic moment from the observed behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.
2015-08-01
Context. Asteroids with semi-major axes very close to that of a host planet can avoid node crossings when their nodal points are at perihelion and at aphelion. This layout protects the asteroids from close encounters, and eventual collisions, with the host planet. Aims: Here, we study the short-term dynamical evolution of four recently discovered near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) - 2012 FC71, 2014 EK24, 2014 QD364, and 2014 UR - that follow very Earth-like orbits. Methods: Our analysis is based on results of direct N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations from the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycentre of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: These four NEAs exhibit an orbital evolution unlike any other known near-Earth object (NEO). Beyond horseshoe, tadpole, or quasi-satellite trajectories, they follow co-orbital passing orbits relative to the Earth within the Kozai domain. Our calculations show that secular interactions induce librations of their relative argument of perihelion with respect to our planet but also to Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Secular chaos is also present. The size of this transient population is probably large. Conclusions: Although some of these NEAs can remain orbitally stable for many thousands of years, their secular dynamics are substantially more complicated than commonly thought and cannot be properly described within the framework of the three-body problem alone owing to the overlapping of multiple secular resonances. Objects in this group are amongst the most atypical NEOs regarding favourable visibility windows because these are separated in time by many decades or even several centuries. Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, Table 2, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelson, Sara; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn
2016-04-01
In this study, numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line are investigated using microphysics budget analysis. Four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity are used in the simulations. Diagnoses of the source and sink terms of the hydrometeor budget equations reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size-distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes.
Dynamic Noun Generalization: Moment-to-Moment Interactions Shape Children's Naming Biases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuelson, Larissa K.; Horst, Jessica S.
2007-01-01
Recent research on early word learning suggests that children's behavior when-generalizing novel nouns integrates their prior vocabulary knowledge with the specifics of the task. This study examines how these factors interact on the moment-to-moment time scale of the training children receive and the sequence of stimuli they are shown. In 1…
Nuclear Schiff moment and soft vibrational modes
Zelevinsky, Vladimir; Volya, Alexander; Auerbach, Naftali
2008-07-15
The atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) currently searched by a number of experimental groups requires that both parity and time-reversal invariance be violated. According to current theoretical understanding, the EDM is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. The enhancement of the Schiff moment by the combination of static quadrupole and octupole deformation was predicted earlier. Here we study a further idea of the possible enhancement in the absence of static deformation but in a nuclear system with soft collective vibrations of two types. Both analytical approximation and numerical solution of the simplified problem confirm the presence of the enhancement. We discuss related aspects of nuclear structure which should be studied beyond mean-field and random phase approximations.
Seismic moment distribution revisited: I. Statistical results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Yan Y.
2002-03-01
An accumulation of seismic moment data gathered over the previous decade justifies a new attempt at a comprehensive statistical analysis of these data: herein, more rigourous statistical techniques are introduced, their properties investigated, and these methods are employed for analysis of large modern data sets. Several theoretical distributions of earthquake size (seismic moment-frequency relations) are described and compared. We discuss the requirements for such distributions and introduce an upper bound or a `corner moment' for a distribution to have a finite energy or moment flux. We derive expressions for probability density functions and statistical moments of the distributions. We also describe parameter evaluation, in particular how to estimate the seismic moment distribution for the largest earthquakes. Simulating earthquake size distributions allows for a more rigourous evaluation of distribution parameters and points to the limitations of the classical statistical analysis of earthquake data. Simulations suggest that several earthquakes approaching or exceeding the corner magnitude (m c ) limit need to be registered to evaluate m c with reasonable accuracy. Using the Harvard catalogue data, we compare moment distribution parameters for various temporal spans of the catalogue, for different tectonic provinces and depth ranges, and for earthquakes with various focal mechanisms. The statistical analysis suggests that the exponent β is universal (β =0.60-0.65) for all moderate earthquakes. The corner moment (M c ) value, determined by the maximum-likelihood method, both in subduction zones and globally, is about 1021 N m, corresponding to the corner moment magnitude m c ~8.0. For mid-oceanic earthquakes, m c is apparently smaller for spreading ridges, it is about 5.8, and for strike-slip earthquakes on transform faults it decreases from 7.2 to 6.5 as the relative slip velocity of faults increases. We investigate the seismic moment errors, both random and
The moments of inertia of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bills, Bruce G.
1989-01-01
The mean moment of inertia of Mars is, at present, very poorly constrained. The generally accepted value of 0.365 M(R-squared) is obtained by assuming that the observed second degree gravity field can be decomposed into a hydrostatic oblate spheroid and a nonhydrostatic prolate spheroid with an equatorial axis of symmetry. An alternative decomposition is advocated in the present analysis. If the nonhydrostatic component is a maximally triaxial ellipsoid (intermediate moment exactly midway between greatest and least), the hydrostatic component is consistent with a mean moment of 0.345 M(R-squared). The plausibility of this decomposition is supported by statistical arguments and comparison with the earth, moon and Venus.
Relationships between dipole moments of diatomic molecules.
Hou, Shilin; Bernath, Peter F
2015-02-14
The dipole moment is one of the most important physical properties of a molecule. We present a combination rule for the dipole moments of related diatomic molecules. For molecules AB, AX, BY, and XY from two different element groups in the periodic table, if their elements make a small parallelogram, reliable predictions can be obtained. Our approach is particularly useful for systems with heavy atoms. For a large set of molecules tested, the average difference of the prediction from experimental data is less than 0.2 debye (D). The dipole moments for heavy molecules such as GaCl, InBr, SrCl, and SrS, for which no experimental data are available at present, are predicted to be 3.17, 3.76, 3.85 and 11.54 D, respectively. PMID:25588998
Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models.
Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H
2012-07-01
The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance <(Δz)(2)> grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.
ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akca, Irfan
2016-04-01
ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.
A novel adenoviral vector-mediated mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D (CMT2D).
Seo, Ah Jung; Shin, Youn Ho; Lee, Seo Jin; Kim, Doyeun; Park, Byung Sun; Kim, Sunghoon; Choi, Kyu Ha; Jeong, Na Young; Park, Chan; Jang, Ji-Yeon; Huh, Youngbuhm; Jung, Junyang
2014-04-01
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D is a hereditary axonal and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)-associated neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in GARS. Here, we report a novel GARS-associated mouse neuropathy model using an adenoviral vector system that contains a neuronal-specific promoter. In this model, we found that wild-type GARS is distributed to peripheral axons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies, central axon terminals, and motor neuron cell bodies. In contrast, GARS containing a G240R mutation was localized in DRG and motor neuron cell bodies, but not axonal regions, in vivo. Thus, our data suggest that the disease-causing G240R mutation may result in a distribution defect of GARS in peripheral nerves in vivo. Furthermore, a distributional defect may be associated with axonal degradation in GARS-associated neuropathies.
Givehchi, Alireza; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C
2006-01-01
The effect of multitarget dependent descriptor transformation on classification performance is explored in this work. To this end decision trees as well as neural net QSAR in combination with PLS were applied to predict the activity class of 5HT3 ligands, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, platelet activating factor antagonists, and thromboxane A2 antagonists. Physicochemical descriptors calculated by MOE and fragment-based descriptors (MOLPRINT 2D) were employed to generate descriptor vectors. In a subsequent step the physicochemical descriptor vectors were transformed to a lower dimensional space using multitarget dependent descriptor transformation. Cross-validation of the original physicochemical descriptors in combination with decision trees and neural net QSAR as well as cross-validation of PLS multitarget transformed descriptors with neural net QSAR were performed. For comparison this was repeated using fragment-based descriptors in combination with decision trees.
Neutron electric dipole moment and CP
Chang, Darwin; Chang, We-Fu; Frank, Mariana; Keung, Wai-Yee
2000-11-01
We analyze the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with explicit R-parity violating terms. The leading contribution to the EDM occurs at the two-loop level and is dominated by the chromoelectric dipole moments of quarks, assuming there is no tree-level mixings between sleptons and Higgs bosons or between leptons and gauginos. Based on the experimental constraint on the neutron EDM, we set limits on the imaginary parts of complex couplings {lambda}{sub ijk}{prime} and {lambda}{sub ijk} due to the virtual b loop or {tau} loop.
Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Moment
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Greene, G. L.; Ramsey, N. F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W. B.; Miller, P. D.; Perrin, P.
1981-06-01
The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H{sub 2}O), we find ..mu..{sub n}/..mu..{sub p} = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units.
First moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions
Wang, P.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-06-01
We extrapolate the first moments of the generalized parton distributions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculation is based on the one loop level with the finite range regularization. The description of the lattice data is satisfactory, and the extrapolated moments at physical pion mass are consistent with the results obtained with dimensional regularization, although the extrapolation in the momentum transfer to t=0 does show sensitivity to form factor effects, which lie outside the realm of chiral perturbation theory. We discuss the significance of the results in the light of modern experiments as well as QCD inspired models.
Installed Transonic 2D Nozzle Nacelle Boattail Drag Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, Michael B.; Peavey, Charles C.
1999-01-01
The Transonic Nozzle Boattail Drag Study was initiated in 1995 to develop an understanding of how external nozzle transonic aerodynamics effect airplane performance and how strongly those effects are dependent on nozzle configuration (2D vs. axisymmetric). MDC analyzed the axisymmetric nozzle. Boeing subcontracted Northrop-Grumman to analyze the 2D nozzle. AU participants analyzed the AGARD nozzle as a check-out and validation case. Once the codes were checked out and the gridding resolution necessary for modeling the separated flow in this region determined, the analysis moved to the installed wing/body/nacelle/diverter cases. The boat tail drag validation case was the AGARD B.4 rectangular nozzle. This test case offered both test data and previous CFD analyses for comparison. Results were obtained for test cases B.4.1 (M=0.6) and B.4.2 (M=0.938) and compared very well with the experimental data. Once the validation was complete a CFD grid was constructed for the full Ref. H configuration (wing/body/nacelle/diverter) using a combination of patched and overlapped (Chimera) grids. This was done to ensure that the grid topologies and density would be adequate for the full model. The use of overlapped grids allowed the same grids from the full configuration model to be used for the wing/body alone cases, thus eliminating the risk of grid differences affecting the determination of the installation effects. Once the full configuration model was run and deemed to be suitable the nacelle/diverter grids were removed and the wing/body analysis performed. Reference H wing/body results were completed for M=0.9 (a=0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0), M=1.1 (a=4.0 and 6.0) and M=2.4 (a=0.0, 2.0, 4.4, 6.0 and 8.0). Comparisons of the M=0.9 and M=2.4 cases were made with available wind tunnel data and overall comparisons were good. The axi-inlet/2D nozzle nacelle was analyzed isolated. The isolated nacelle data coupled with the wing/body result enabled the interference effects of the
Legant, Wesley R; Choi, Colin K; Miller, Jordan S; Shao, Lin; Gao, Liang; Betzig, Eric; Chen, Christopher S
2013-01-15
Recent methods have revealed that cells on planar substrates exert both shear (in-plane) and normal (out-of-plane) tractions against the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the location and origin of the normal tractions with respect to the adhesive and cytoskeletal elements of cells have not been elucidated. We developed a high-spatiotemporal-resolution, multidimensional (2.5D) traction force microscopy to measure and model the full 3D nature of cellular forces on planar 2D surfaces. We show that shear tractions are centered under elongated focal adhesions whereas upward and downward normal tractions are detected on distal (toward the cell edge) and proximal (toward the cell body) ends of adhesions, respectively. Together, these forces produce significant rotational moments about focal adhesions in both protruding and retracting peripheral regions. Temporal 2.5D traction force microscopy analysis of migrating and spreading cells shows that these rotational moments are highly dynamic, propagating outward with the leading edge of the cell. Finally, we developed a finite element model to examine how rotational moments could be generated about focal adhesions in a thin lamella. Our model suggests that rotational moments can be generated largely via shear lag transfer to the underlying ECM from actomyosin contractility applied at the intracellular surface of a rigid adhesion of finite thickness. Together, these data demonstrate and probe the origin of a previously unappreciated multidimensional stress profile associated with adhesions and highlight the importance of new approaches to characterize cellular forces. PMID:23277584
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismore » not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.« less
Pareto joint inversion of 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek
2015-04-01
In this contribution, the first results of the "Innovative technology of petrophysical parameters estimation of geological media using joint inversion algorithms" project were described. At this stage of the development, Pareto joint inversion scheme for 2D MT and gravity data was used. Additionally, seismic data were provided to set some constrains for the inversion. Sharp Boundary Interface(SBI) approach and description model with set of polygons were used to limit the dimensionality of the solution space. The main engine was based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO). This algorithm was properly adapted to handle two or more target function at once. Additional algorithm was used to eliminate non- realistic solution proposals. Because PSO is a method of stochastic global optimization, it requires a lot of proposals to be evaluated to find a single Pareto solution and then compose a Pareto front. To optimize this stage parallel computing was used for both inversion engine and 2D MT forward solver. There are many advantages of proposed solution of joint inversion problems. First of all, Pareto scheme eliminates cumbersome rescaling of the target functions, that can highly affect the final solution. Secondly, the whole set of solution is created in one optimization run, providing a choice of the final solution. This choice can be based off qualitative data, that are usually very hard to be incorporated into the regular inversion schema. SBI parameterisation not only limits the problem of dimensionality, but also makes constraining of the solution easier. At this stage of work, decision to test the approach using MT and gravity data was made, because this combination is often used in practice. It is important to mention, that the general solution is not limited to this two methods and it is flexible enough to be used with more than two sources of data. Presented results were obtained for synthetic models, imitating real geological conditions, where
Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan
Quasi two-dimensional (2D) materials obtained by the "graphene-like" exfoliation attracted tremendous attention. Such materials revealed unique electronic, thermal and optical properties, which can be potentially used in electronics, thermal management and energy conversion. This dissertation research addresses two separate but synergetic problems: (i) preparation and optical characterization of quasi-2D films of the bismuth-telluride (Bi 2Te3) family of materials, which demonstrate both thermoelectric and topological insulator properties; and (ii) investigation of thermal properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG). The first part of dissertation reports properties of the exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3 and Sb 2Te3. Both non-resonant and resonant Raman scattering spectra have been investigated. It was found that the crystal symmetry breaking in few-quintuple films results in appearance of A1u-symmetry Raman peaks, which are not active in the bulk crystals. The scattering spectra measured under the 633-nm wavelength excitation reveals a number of resonant features, which could be used for analysis of the electronic and phonon processes in these materials. The obtained results help to understand the physical mechanisms of Raman scattering in the few-quintuple-thick films and can be used for nanometrology of topological insulator films on various substrates. The second part of the dissertation is dedicated to investigation of properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and FLG. It was found that the optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer graphene---produced by the high-yield inexpensive liquid-phase-exfoliation technique---can lead to an extremely strong enhancement of the cross-plane thermal conductivity K of the composite. The "laser flash" measurements revealed a record-high enhancement of K by 2300 % in the graphene-based polymer at the filler loading fraction f =10 vol. %. It was
2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria
2006-01-01
A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems
The strength of heterogeneous volcanic rocks: A 2D approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heap, Michael J.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Xu, Tao; Chen, Chong-feng; Tang, Chun'an
2016-06-01
Volcanic rocks typically contain heterogeneities in the form of crystals and pores. We investigate here the influence of such heterogeneity on the strength of volcanic rocks using an elastic damage mechanics model in which we numerically deform two-dimensional samples comprising low-strength elements representing crystals and zero-strength elements representing pores. These circular elements are stochastically generated so that there is no overlap in a medium representing the groundmass. Our modelling indicates that increasing the fraction of pores and/or crystals reduces the strength of volcanic rocks, and that increasing the pore fraction results in larger strength reductions than increasing the crystal fraction. The model also highlights an important weakening role for pore diameter, but finds that crystal diameter has a less significant influence for strength. To account for heterogeneity (pores and crystals), we propose an effective medium approach where we define an effective pore fraction ϕp‧ = Vp/(Vp + Vg) where Vp and Vg are the pore and groundmass fractions, respectively. Highly heterogeneous samples (containing high pore and/or crystal fractions) will therefore have high values of ϕp‧, and vice-versa. When we express our numerical samples (more than 200 simulations spanning a wide range of crystal and pore fractions) in terms of ϕp‧, we find that their strengths can be described by a single curve for a given pore diameter. To provide a predictive tool for the strength of heterogeneous volcanic rocks, we propose a modified version of 2D solution for the Sammis and Ashby (1986) pore-emanating crack model, a micromechanical model designed to estimate strength using microstructural attributes such as porosity, pore radius, and fracture toughness. The model, reformulated to include ϕp‧ (and therefore crystal fraction), captures the strength curves for our numerical simulations over a sample heterogeneity range relevant to volcanic systems. We find
3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.
1994-01-01
Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.
Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Chamlagain, Bhim; Koehler, Michael; Perera, Meeghage Madusanka; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Tománek, David; Zhou, Zhixian
2016-03-01
We report a new strategy for fabricating 2D/2D low-resistance ohmic contacts for a variety of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) using van der Waals assembly of substitutionally doped TMDs as drain/source contacts and TMDs with no intentional doping as channel materials. We demonstrate that few-layer WSe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) with 2D/2D contacts exhibit low contact resistances of ∼0.3 kΩ μm, high on/off ratios up to >10(9), and high drive currents exceeding 320 μA μm(-1). These favorable characteristics are combined with a two-terminal field-effect hole mobility μFE ≈ 2 × 10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature, which increases to >2 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at cryogenic temperatures. We observe a similar performance also in MoS2 and MoSe2 FETs with 2D/2D drain and source contacts. The 2D/2D low-resistance ohmic contacts presented here represent a new device paradigm that overcomes a significant bottleneck in the performance of TMDs and a wide variety of other 2D materials as the channel materials in postsilicon electronics.
Zhang, Tong; Sentman, Charles L
2013-03-01
Tumor angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of solid tumors, and targeting the tumor vasculature has emerged as a strategy to prevent growth and progression of solid tumors. In this study, we show that murine tumor vasculature expresses Rae1, a ligand for a stimulatory NK receptor NKG2D. By genetic modification of T cells with an NKG2D-based chimeric Ag receptor, referred to as chNKG2D in which the NKG2D receptor is fused to the signaling domain of CD3ζ-chain, T cells were capable of targeting tumor vasculature leading to reduced tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. This occurred even in tumors where the tumor cells themselves did not express NKG2D ligands. H5V, an endothelial cell line, expresses Rae1 and was lysed by chNKG2D-bearing T cells in a perforin-dependent manner. In vitro capillary tube formation was inhibited by chNKG2D T cells through IFN-γ and cell-cell contact mechanisms. The in vivo antiangiogenesis effects mediated by chNKG2D-bearing T cells at the tumor site were dependent on IFN-γ and perforin. These results provide a novel mechanism for NKG2D-based targeting of solid tumors.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.
Manning, J T; Peters, M
2009-09-01
The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.
2D modeling of electromagnetic waves in cold plasmas
Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.
2014-02-12
The consequences of sheath (rectified) electric fields, resulting from the different mobility of electrons and ions as a response to radio frequency (RF) fields, are a concern for RF antenna design as it can cause damage to antenna parts, limiters and other in-vessel components. As a first step to a more complete description, the usual cold plasma dielectric description has been adopted, and the density profile was assumed to be known as input. Ultimately, the relevant equations describing the wave-particle interaction both on the fast and slow timescale will need to be tackled but prior to doing so was felt as a necessity to get a feeling of the wave dynamics involved. Maxwell's equations are solved for a cold plasma in a 2D antenna box with strongly varying density profiles crossing also lower hybrid and ion-ion hybrid resonance layers. Numerical modelling quickly becomes demanding on computer power, since a fine grid spacing is required to capture the small wavelengths effects of strongly evanescent modes.
Computing 2D constrained delaunay triangulation using the GPU.
Qi, Meng; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng
2013-05-01
We propose the first graphics processing unit (GPU) solution to compute the 2D constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) of a planar straight line graph (PSLG) consisting of points and edges. There are many existing CPU algorithms to solve the CDT problem in computational geometry, yet there has been no prior approach to solve this problem efficiently using the parallel computing power of the GPU. For the special case of the CDT problem where the PSLG consists of just points, which is simply the normal Delaunay triangulation (DT) problem, a hybrid approach using the GPU together with the CPU to partially speed up the computation has already been presented in the literature. Our work, on the other hand, accelerates the entire computation on the GPU. Our implementation using the CUDA programming model on NVIDIA GPUs is numerically robust, and runs up to an order of magnitude faster than the best sequential implementations on the CPU. This result is reflected in our experiment with both randomly generated PSLGs and real-world GIS data having millions of points and edges.
Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard
2013-06-01
Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.
Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.
2015-12-01
In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.
Measurements of Shear Reduction of 2D Vortex Diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driscoll, C. F.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.
2001-11-01
Experiments with magnetized ion columns in the 2-dimensional regime demonstrate shear reduction of vortex diffusion, in close correspondence with recent theory.(D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). Here, the ions move in ( r, θ ) as point vortices, and we can accurately control the vorticity ζ (r), fluid rotation Ω (r), and shear S (r) ≡ r ; partial Ω / partial r. Moreover, individual ions can be ``tagged,'' so that the vortex diffusion rate D can be measured directly. For flows with low shear, i.e. S / Ω <= 10-3, the measured diffusion is close to the Taylor-McNamara prediction for a homogeneous gas of N point vortices.(J.B. Taylor and B. McNamara, Phys. Fluids 14), 1492 (1971). As the shear is increased, the measured diffusion decreases by up to 100×, in factor-of-three correspondence with the predicted D ∝ S-1. For very large shear, the ions can no longer be treated as 2D point vortices, since their shear separation is faster than their axial transversal of the trap. In this limit, the measured diffusion agrees quantitatively with the theory of long-range 3D Coulomb collisions.
Iterative 2D deconvolution of portal imaging radiographs.
Looe, Hui Khee; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay C; Poppe, Björn
2011-01-01
Portal imaging has become an integral part of modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and IGRT. It serves to verify the accuracy of day-to-day patient positioning, a prerequisite for treatment success. However, image blurring attributable to different physical and geometrical effects, analysed in this work, impairs the image quality of the portal images, and anatomical structures cannot always be clearly outlined. A 2D iterative deconvolution method was developed to reduce this image blurring. The affiliated data basis was generated by the separate measurement of the components contributing to image blurring. Secondary electron transport and pixel size within the EPID, as well as geometrical penumbra due to the finite photon source size were found to be the major contributors, whereas photon scattering in the patient is less important. The underlying line-spread kernels of these components were shown to be Lorentz functions. This implies that each of these convolution kernels and also their combination can be characterized by a single characteristic, the width parameter λ of the Lorentz function. The overall resulting λ values were 0.5mm for 6 MV and 0.65 mm for 15 MV. Portal images were deconvolved using the point-spread function derived from the Lorentz function together with the experimentally determined λ values. The improvement of the portal images was quantified in terms of the modulation transfer function of a bar pattern. The resulting clinical images show a clear enhancement of sharpness and contrast.
Synthesis and characterization of 2D molybdenum carbide (MXene)
Halim, Joseph; Kota, Sankalp; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Naguib, Michael; Zhao, Meng -Qiang; Moon, Eun Ju; Pitock, Jeremy; Nanda, Jagjit; May, Steven J.; Gogotsi, Yury; et al
2016-02-17
Large scale synthesis and delamination of 2D Mo2CT x (where T is a surface termination group) has been achieved by selectively etching gallium from the recently discovered nanolaminated, ternary transition metal carbide Mo2Ga2C. Different synthesis and delamination routes result in different flake morphologies. The resistivity of free-standing Mo2CT x films increases by an order of magnitude as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 10 K, suggesting semiconductor-like behavior of this MXene, in contrast to Ti3C2T x which exhibits metallic behavior. At 10 K, the magnetoresistance is positive. Additionally, changes in electronic transport are observed upon annealing of the films.more » When 2 μm thick films are tested as electrodes in supercapacitors, capacitances as high as 700 F cm–3 in a 1 m sulfuric acid electrolyte and high capacity retention for at least 10,000 cycles at 10 A g–1 are obtained. Free-standing Mo2CT x films, with ≈8 wt% carbon nanotubes, perform well when tested as an electrode material for Li-ions, especially at high rates. In conclusion, at 20 and 131 C cycling rates, stable reversible capacities of 250 and 76 mAh g–1, respectively, are achieved for over 1000 cycles.« less
Fracture morphology of 2-D carbon-carbon composition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, W. B.; Herakovich, C. T.
1985-01-01
Out-of-plane tensile tests of a woven fabric carbon-carbon composite were performed in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a tensile stage and a videotape recording system. The composite was prepared from T-300 8-harness satin graphite fabric and a phenolic resin. The (0/90/0/90/0 sub 1/2) sub 2 laminate, with a Theta describing the orientation of the warp fibers of the fabric, was cured at 160 C and pyrolized at 871 C. This was followed by four cycles of resin impregnation, curing, and pyrolysis. A micrograph of the cross section of the composite is presented. Inspection of the specimen fracture surface revealed that the filaments had no residual matrix bonded to them. Further inspection revealed that the fracture was interlaminar in nature. Failure occurred where filaments of adjacent plies had the same orientation. Thus it is postulated that improvement in transverse tensile strength of 2-D carbon-carbon depends on the improvement of the filament-matrix bond strength.
Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules
Weisenstein, D K; Penner, J E; Herzog, M; Liu, Xiaohong
2007-05-08
We present an intercomparison of two aerosol modules, one sectional, one modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Two versions of the sec-tional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the pre-scribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs 150) used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sec-tional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all sit-uations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signflcant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol mass and surface area density calcu-lated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability.
Mesophases in nearly 2D room-temperature ionic liquids.
Manini, N; Cesaratto, M; Del Pópolo, M G; Ballone, P
2009-11-26
Computer simulations of (i) a [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] film of nanometric thickness squeezed at kbar pressure by a piecewise parabolic confining potential reveal a mesoscopic in-plane density and composition modulation reminiscent of mesophases seen in 3D samples of the same room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). Near 2D confinement, enforced by a high normal load, as well as relatively long aliphatic chains are strictly required for the mesophase formation, as confirmed by computations for two related systems made of (ii) the same [C(12)mim][Tf(2)N] adsorbed at a neutral solid surface and (iii) a shorter-chain RTIL ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) trapped in the potential well of part i. No in-plane modulation is seen for ii and iii. In case ii, the optimal arrangement of charge and neutral tails is achieved by layering parallel to the surface, while, in case iii, weaker dispersion and packing interactions are unable to bring aliphatic tails together into mesoscopic islands, against overwhelming entropy and Coulomb forces. The onset of in-plane mesophases could greatly affect the properties of long-chain RTILs used as lubricants. PMID:19886615
Quantum Simulation with 2D Arrays of Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richerme, Philip
2016-05-01
The computational difficulty of solving fully quantum many-body spin problems is a significant obstacle to understanding the behavior of strongly correlated quantum matter. This work proposes the design and construction of a 2D quantum spin simulator to investigate the physics of frustrated materials, highly entangled states, mechanisms potentially underpinning high-temperature superconductivity, and other topics inaccessible to current 1D systems. The effective quantum spins will be encoded within the well-isolated electronic levels of trapped ions, confined in a two-dimensional planar geometry, and made to interact using phonon-mediated optical dipole forces. The system will be scalable to 100+ quantum particles, far beyond the realm of classical intractability, while maintaining individual-ion control, long quantum coherence times, and site-resolved projective spin measurements. Once constructed, the two-dimensional quantum simulator will implement a broad range of spin models on a variety of reconfigurable lattices and characterize their behavior through measurements of spin-spin correlations and entanglement. This versatile tool will serve as an important experimental resource for exploring difficult quantum many-body problems in a regime where classical methods fail.
2-D Inhomogeneous Modeling of the Solar CO Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayres, T. R.
1996-05-01
The recent discovery of off-limb emissions in the mid-IR ( ~ 5 mu m) vibration-rotation bands of solar carbon monoxide (CO) has sparked new interest in the formation of the molecular lines, and their ability to diagnose thermal conditions at high altitudes. The off-limb extensions of the strong CO lines indicate the penetration of cool material (T ~ 3500 K) several hundred kilometers into the otherwise hot (T ~ 6000 K) chromosphere. The origin of the cool gas, and its role in the thermal energy balance, remain controversial. The interpretation of the CO observations must rely heavily upon numerical modeling, in particular highly-inhomogeneous thermal structures arrayed in a 2-D scheme that can properly treat the geometry of the grazing rays at the solar limb. The radiation transport, itself, is especially simple for the CO off-limb emissions, because the fundamental bands form quite close to LTE (high collision rates; low spontaneous decay rates) and the background continuum is purely thermal as well (f--f transitions in H(-) and H). Thus, the geometrical aspects of the problem can be treated in considerably more detail than would be practical for typical NLTE scattering lines. I describe the recent modeling efforts, and the diagnostic potential of the CO bands for future observational studies of inhomogeneous surface structure on the Sun, and on other stars of late spectral type. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9218063 to the University of Colorado.
Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.
2016-06-01
The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.
Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya
2014-06-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.
Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites.
Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio
2016-04-28
A number of 2D layered perovskites A2PbI4 and BPbI4, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another's place. PMID:27131557