Science.gov

Sample records for 2d rigid motion

  1. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    1990-12-01

    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  2. An experimental method for eliminating effect of rigid out-of-plane motion on 2D-DIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiqiang, Wang; Fengzhou, Fang; Bing, Liu; Zhiyong, Wang

    2015-10-01

    The out-of-plane motion is one of the most important factors that affect the precision of two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC). In this paper, a novel solution is presented to improve conventional 2D-DIC by eliminating the effect of out-of-plane motion, including translation and rotation. Firstly, an experimental technique using two projected laser strips is proposed to measure the out-of-plane motion of a planar specimen. A theoretical model is then established to predict the pseudostrains caused by out-of-plane motion based on the pin-hole imaging model. Using the measured out-of-plane displacement, the captured deformed images used in 2D-DIC are amended to eliminate the effect of out-of-plane motion by the theoretical model. Finally, two experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results indicate that application of the proposed method can effectively eliminate the errors caused by out-of-plane motion.

  3. Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.

  4. Rotating rigid motion in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.P.; Pooe, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Kinematic and dynamic expressions are derived for the Lie derivative of vorticity along a particle world line in a rigid motion. It is found that the evolution of vorticity in a rigid motion is governed by the electric part of the Weyl tensor. Necessary and sufficient kinematic and dynamic conditions are established for a rotating rigid motion to be isometric.

  5. Tactile perception of nonpainful unpleasantness in relation to perceived roughness: effects of inter-element spacing and speed of relative motion of rigid 2-D raised-dot patterns at two body loci.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Sadato, Norihiro; Lederman, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Rigid surfaces consisting of spatially jittered 2-D raised-dot patterns with different inter-element spacings were moved back and forth across the skin at three different speeds (10-fold range). Within each psychophysical experiment, participants numerically estimated the perceived magnitude of either unpleasantness (nonpainful) or roughness of 2-D raised-dot surfaces applied to two stationary body sites (experiment 1: fingers; experiment 2: forearm). The psychophysical functions for the two types of perceptual judgment were highly similar at both body loci; more specifically, the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness and roughness both increased monotonically as a power function of increasing inter-element spacing, with the rate of growth declining at the upper end of the continuum. These results suggest that inter-element spacing is a critical determinant of the perceived magnitude of unpleasantness (nonpainful), as well as of roughness. Each perceptual judgment also increased as a function of increasing relative speed at both body loci. However, the magnitude of this effect was significantly greater for perceived unpleasantness than for perceived roughness; conversely, the speed effect was significantly greater on the forearm than on the fingers. Several possible explanations for these findings are considered.

  6. Understanding rigid body motion in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyvraz, Francois

    2015-05-01

    Why would anyone wish to generalize the already unappetizing subject of rigid body motion to an arbitrary number of dimensions? At first sight, the subject seems to be both repellent and superfluous. The author will try to argue that an approach involving no specific three-dimensional constructs is actually easier to grasp than the traditional approach and might thus be generally useful to understand rigid body motion both in three dimensions and in the general case. Specific differences between the viewpoint suggested here and the usual one include the following: here angular velocities are systematically treated as antisymmetric matrices, a symmetric tensor I quite different from the moment of inertia tensor plays a central role, whereas the latter is shown to be a far more complex object, namely a tensor of rank four. A straightforward way to define it is given. The Euler equation is derived and the use of Noether’s theorem to obtain conserved quantities is illustrated. Finally the equations of motion for a heavy top as well as for two bodies linked by a spherical joint are derived to display the simplicity and the power of the method.

  7. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.

    2011-01-01

    The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.

  9. Flipping and scooping of curved 2D rigid fibers in simple shear: The Jeffery equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical system governing the motion of a curved rigid two-dimensional circular-arc fiber in simple shear is derived in analytical form. This is achieved by finding the solution for the associated low-Reynolds-number flow around such a fiber using the methods of complex analysis. Solutions of the dynamical system display the "flipping" and "scooping" recently observed in computational studies of three-dimensional fibers using linked rigid rod and bead-shell models [J. Wang et al., "Flipping, scooping, and spinning: Drift of rigid curved nonchiral fibers in simple shear flows," Phys. Fluids 24, 123304 (2012)]. To complete the Jeffery-type equations for a curved fiber in a linear flow field we also derive its evolution equations in an extensional flow. It is expected that the equations derived here also govern the motion of slender, curved, three-dimensional rigid fibers when they evolve purely in the plane of shear or strain.

  10. Kernel Non-Rigid Structure from Motion

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, Paulo F. U.; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-rigid structure from motion (NRSFM) is a difficult, underconstrained problem in computer vision. The standard approach in NRSFM constrains 3D shape deformation using a linear combination of K basis shapes; the solution is then obtained as the low-rank factorization of an input observation matrix. An important but overlooked problem with this approach is that non-linear deformations are often observed; these deformations lead to a weakened low-rank constraint due to the need to use additional basis shapes to linearly model points that move along curves. Here, we demonstrate how the kernel trick can be applied in standard NRSFM. As a result, we model complex, deformable 3D shapes as the outputs of a non-linear mapping whose inputs are points within a low-dimensional shape space. This approach is flexible and can use different kernels to build different non-linear models. Using the kernel trick, our model complements the low-rank constraint by capturing non-linear relationships in the shape coefficients of the linear model. The net effect can be seen as using non-linear dimensionality reduction to further compress the (shape) space of possible solutions. PMID:24002226

  11. Available information in 2D motional Stark effect imaging.

    PubMed

    Creese, Mathew; Howard, John

    2010-10-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed the extension of the standard polarimetric 1D motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic to 2D imaging of the internal magnetic field of fusion devices [J. Howard, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 125003 (2008)]. This development is met with the challenge of identifying and extracting the new information, which can then be used to increase the accuracy of plasma equilibrium and current density profile determinations. This paper develops a 2D analysis of the projected MSE polarization orientation and Doppler phase shift. It is found that, for a standard viewing position, the 2D MSE imaging system captures sufficient information to allow imaging of the internal vertical magnetic field component B(Z)(r,z) in a tokamak.

  12. Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…

  13. On numerical solving a rigid inclusions problem in 2D elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudoy, Evgeny

    2017-02-01

    A 2D elastic problem for a body containing a set of bulk and thin rigid inclusions of arbitrary shapes is considered. It is assumed that rigid inclusions are bonded into elastic matrix. To state the equilibrium problem, a variational approach is used. The problem is formulated as a problem of minimization of the energy functional over the set of admissible displacements. Moreover, it is equivalent to a variational equality which holds for test functions belonging to the subspace of functions with the prescribed rigid displacement structure on the inclusions. We propose a novel algorithm of solving the equilibrium problem. The algorithm is based on reducing the original problem to a system of the Dirichlet and Neumann problems. A numerical examination is carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  14. Flipping and scooping of curved 2D rigid fibers in simple shear: the Jeffery equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2015-11-01

    The dynamical system (or ``Jeffery equations'') governing the orbits of a curved rigid two-dimensional fiber in simple shear is derived in analytical form. The study is motivated by the need to understand the dynamics of isolated non-axisymmetric rod-like particles in simple flows for use in suspension modeling. Solutions of the dynamical system are shown to display the ``flipping'' and ``scooping'' recently observed in computational studies of three-dimensional fibers using linked rigid rod and bead-shell models. Indeed the equations we derive are expected to be the same ones governing curved 3D slender fibers executing motions in the plane of shear.

  15. Rigid motion correction of dual opposed planar projections in single photon imaging.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Georgios I; Ryder, William; Gillam, John; Boisson, Frederic; Kyme, Andre; Fulton, Roger; Meikle, Steven; Kench, Peter

    2017-03-23

    Awake and/or freely moving small animal single photon emission imaging allows the continuous study of molecules exhibiting slow kinetics without the need to restrain or anaesthetise the animals. Estimating motion free projections in freely moving small animal planar imaging can be considered as a limited angle tomography problem, except that we wish to estimate the 2D planar projections rather than the 3D volume, where the angular sampling in all three axes depends on the rotational motion of the animal. In this study, we hypothesise that the motion corrected planar projections estimated by reconstructing an estimate of the 3D volume using an iterative motion compensating reconstruction algorithm and integrating it along the projection path, will closely match the true, motion-less, planar distribution regardless of the object motion. We tested this hypothesis for the case of rigid motion using Monte- Carlo simulations and experimental phantom data based on a dual opposed detector system, where object motion was modelled with 6 degrees of freedom. In addition, we investigated the quantitative accuracy of the regional activity extracted from the geometric mean of opposing motion corrected planar projections. Results showed that it is feasible to estimate qualitatively accurate motion-corrected projections for a wide range of motions around all 3 axes. Errors in the geometric mean estimates of regional activity were relatively small and within 10% of expected true values. In addition, quantitative regional errors were dependent on the observed motion, as well as on the surrounding activity of overlapping organs. We conclude that both qualitatively and quantitatively accurate motion-free projections of the tracer distribution in a freely moving animal can be estimated from dual opposed detectors using a rigid-motion correction approach within an iterative reconstruction framework and we expect this approach can be extended to the case of non-rigid motion.

  16. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology

  17. 2D Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, D. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    1999-11-01

    A background vorticity gradient can strongly influence the motion of vortices in 2D fluids. Examples are vortex motion in magnetized electron plasmas and hurricane tracks in planetary atmospheres.(See for example Huang, Fine and Driscoll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995); C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7, 175 (1948). Here, the vortex motion is examined numerically and analytically for the case of a point-like vortex in a background shear flow that is initially axisymmetric. The vortex acts to level the local background vorticity gradient. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that positive vortices (``clumps'') and negative vortices (``holes'') react oppositely: clumps move up the gradient, whereas holes move down the gradient. Both clumps and holes can be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. An analysis, in which the background response to the vortex is linearized, gives the trajectory of a small retrograde vortex. When the vortex is prograde, the background response is nonlinear. A prograde vortex moves along the gradient at a slower rate that is given by a simple ``mix-and-move'' estimate. This rate vanishes when the local shear is sufficiently large, due to the trapping of background fluid around the vortex.

  18. Motion Planning for Rigid Body Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Given a non-holonomic disc robot D, its motion constraints in terms of maximum curvature (Kmax) and rate of change of curvature (Kmax), a set W of...further Kmax, constraint to avoid turns that exceed the rate of change of curvature constraint.

  19. A frequency domain based rigid motion artifact reduction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hai; Huang, Xiaojie; Pan, Wenyu; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2009-10-01

    During a CT scan, patients' conscious or unconscious motions would result in motion artifacts which undermine the image quality and hamper doctors' accurate diagnosis and therapy. It is desirable to develop a precise motion estimation and artifact reduction method in order to produce high-resolution images. Rigid motion can be decomposed into two components: translational motion and rotational motion. Since considering the rotation and translation simultaneously is very difficult, most former studies on motion artifact reduction ignore rotation. The extended HLCC based method considering the rotation and translation simultaneously relies on a searching algorithm which leads to expensive computing cost. Therefore, a novel method which does not rely on searching is desirable. In this paper, we focus on parallel-beam CT. We first propose a frequency domain based method to estimate rotational motion, which is not affected by translational motion. It realizes the separation of rotation estimation and translation estimation. Then we combine this method with the HLCC based method to construct a new method for general rigid motion called separative estimation and collective correction method. Furthermore, we present numerical simulation results to show the accuracy and robustness of our approach.

  20. Particle Filters and Occlusion Handling for Rigid 2D-3D Pose Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jehoon; Sandhu, Romeil; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of 2D-3D pose estimation. Specifically, we propose an approach to jointly track a rigid object in a 2D image sequence and to estimate its pose (position and orientation) in 3D space. We revisit a joint 2D segmentation/3D pose estimation technique, and then extend the framework by incorporating a particle filter to robustly track the object in a challenging environment, and by developing an occlusion detection and handling scheme to continuously track the object in the presence of occlusions. In particular, we focus on partial occlusions that prevent the tracker from extracting an exact region properties of the object, which plays a pivotal role for region-based tracking methods in maintaining the track. To this end, a dynamical choice of how to invoke the objective functional is performed online based on the degree of dependencies between predictions and measurements of the system in accordance with the degree of occlusion and the variation of the object’s pose. This scheme provides the robustness to deal with occlusions of an obstacle with different statistical properties from that of the object of interest. Experimental results demonstrate the practical applicability and robustness of the proposed method in several challenging scenarios. PMID:24058277

  1. A rigid motion correction method for helical computed tomography (CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Nuyts, J.; Kyme, A.; Kuncic, Z.; Fulton, R.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method to compensate for six degree-of-freedom rigid motion in helical CT of the head. The method is demonstrated in simulations and in helical scans performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. Scans of a Hoffman brain phantom were acquired while an optical motion tracking system recorded the motion of the bed and the phantom. Motion correction was performed by restoring projection consistency using data from the motion tracking system, and reconstructing with an iterative fully 3D algorithm. Motion correction accuracy was evaluated by comparing reconstructed images with a stationary reference scan. We also investigated the effects on accuracy of tracker sampling rate, measurement jitter, interpolation of tracker measurements, and the synchronization of motion data and CT projections. After optimization of these aspects, motion corrected images corresponded remarkably closely to images of the stationary phantom with correlation and similarity coefficients both above 0.9. We performed a simulation study using volunteer head motion and found similarly that our method is capable of compensating effectively for realistic human head movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first practical demonstration of generalized rigid motion correction in helical CT. Its clinical value, which we have yet to explore, may be significant. For example it could reduce the necessity for repeat scans and resource-intensive anesthetic and sedation procedures in patient groups prone to motion, such as young children. It is not only applicable to dedicated CT imaging, but also to hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, where it could also ensure an accurate CT image for lesion localization and attenuation correction of the functional image data.

  2. Normal mode study of the earth's rigid body motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that the earth's rigid body (rb) motions can be represented by an analytical set of eigensolutions to the equation of motion for elastic-gravitational free oscillations. Thus each degree of freedom in the rb motion is associated with a rb normal mode. Cases of both nonrotating and rotating earth models are studied, and it is shown that the rb modes do incorporate neatly into the earth's system of normal modes of free oscillation. The excitation formula for the rb modes are also obtained, based on normal mode theory. Physical implications of the results are summarized and the fundamental differences between rb modes and seismic modes are emphasized. In particular, it is ascertained that the Chandler wobble, being one of the rb modes belonging to the rotating earth, can be studied using the established theory of normal modes.

  3. Accurate free and forced rotational motions of rigid Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottereau, L.; Souchay, J.; Aljbaae, S.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The precise and accurate modelling of a terrestrial planet like Venus is an exciting and challenging topic, all the more interesting because it can be compared with that of Earth for which such a modelling has already been achieved at the milli-arcsecond level. Aims: We aim to complete a previous study, by determining the polhody at the milli-arcsecond level, i.e. the torque-free motion of the angular momentum axis of a rigid Venus in a body-fixed frame, as well as the nutation of its third axis of figure in space, which is fundamental from an observational point of view. Methods: We use the same theoretical framework as Kinoshita (1977, Celest. Mech., 15, 277) did to determine the precession-nutation motion of a rigid Earth. It is based on a representation of the rotation of a rigid Venus, with the help of Andoyer variables and a set of canonical equations in Hamiltonian formalism. Results: In a first part we computed the polhody, we showed that this motion is highly elliptical, with a very long period of 525 cy compared with 430 d for the Earth. This is due to the very small dynamical flattening of Venus in comparison with our planet. In a second part we precisely computed the Oppolzer terms, which allow us to represent the motion in space of the third Venus figure axis with respect to the Venus angular momentum axis under the influence of the solar gravitational torque. We determined the corresponding tables of the nutation coefficients of the third figure axis both in longitude and in obliquity due to the Sun, which are of the same order of amplitude as for the Earth. We showed that the nutation coefficients for the third figure axis are significantly different from those of the angular momentum axis on the contrary of the Earth. Our analytical results have been validated by a numerical integration, which revealed the indirect planetary effects.

  4. The ‘twin paradox’ in relativistic rigid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2016-09-01

    Relativistic rigid motion suggests a new version for the so-called ‘twin paradox’, comparing the ages of two astronauts on a very long spaceship. Although there is always an instantaneous inertial frame in which the whole spaceship, being rigid, is simultaneously at rest, the twins’ ages, measured as the proper-times along their individual world lines, are different when they are located at remote parts of the spaceship. The age, or proper-time, difference depends on the distance at rest between the astronauts and the rapidity difference between start to end. The relation of the age difference with the relative Doppler shift of light signals transmitted between the astronauts and implications for the possibility to assign a common age (proper-time) to complex, spatially extended, relativistic systems are also discussed.

  5. Interferometric Motion Detection in Atomic Layer 2D Nanostructures: Visualizing Signal Transduction Efficiency and Optimization Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout. PMID:27464908

  6. Interferometric Motion Detection in Atomic Layer 2D Nanostructures: Visualizing Signal Transduction Efficiency and Optimization Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2016-07-01

    Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout.

  7. Interferometric Motion Detection in Atomic Layer 2D Nanostructures: Visualizing Signal Transduction Efficiency and Optimization Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X-L

    2016-07-28

    Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout.

  8. Non-rigid, but not rigid, motion interferes with the processing of structural face information in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity.

  9. Percepts of rigid motion within and across apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiffrar, Maggie; Pavel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Humans consistently err in their percepts of rotational motion viewed through an aperture. Such errors provide insight into the constraints observers use to interpret retinal images. In the first of two experiments, the subjects consistently perceived the fixed center of rotation for an unmarked line viewed through an aperture as located on the line, regardless of its actual location. Accuracy greatly improved with visible line endings. This finding was extended to explain why a square appears nonrigid when it rotates behind a partial occluder. This illusion is theorized to result from observers misperceiving the center of rotation of the unmarked square sides. In this situation, the subjects seemed unable to apply an object rigidity constraint across apertures. These findings support a conceptualization of the visual system in which consistent local information must be clearly present before prior knowledge can be used to interpret retinal stimulation.

  10. Evaluation of low-dose limits in 3D-2D rigid registration for surgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Gallia, G. L.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-09-01

    An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy is evaluated for use in surgical guidance, specifically considering the low-dose limits of the fluoroscopic x-ray projections. The registration method is based on a framework using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to identify the 3D patient pose that maximizes the gradient information similarity metric. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intracranial neurosurgery, using target registration error (TRE) to characterize accuracy and robustness in terms of 95% confidence upper bound in comparison to that of an infrared surgical tracking system. Three clinical scenarios were considered: (1) single-view image + guidance, wherein a single x-ray projection is used for visualization and 3D-2D guidance; (2) dual-view image + guidance, wherein one projection is acquired for visualization, combined with a second (lower-dose) projection acquired at a different C-arm angle for 3D-2D guidance; and (3) dual-view guidance, wherein both projections are acquired at low dose for the purpose of 3D-2D guidance alone (not visualization). In each case, registration accuracy was evaluated as a function of the entrance surface dose associated with the projection view(s). Results indicate that images acquired at a dose as low as 4 μGy (approximately one-tenth the dose of a typical fluoroscopic frame) were sufficient to provide TRE comparable or superior to that of conventional surgical tracking, allowing 3D-2D guidance at a level of dose that is at most 10% greater than conventional fluoroscopy (scenario #2) and potentially reducing the dose to approximately 20% of the level in a conventional fluoroscopically guided procedure (scenario #3).

  11. Evaluation of low-dose limits in 3D-2D rigid registration for surgical guidance.

    PubMed

    Uneri, A; Wang, A S; Otake, Y; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, A J; Gallia, G L; Gokaslan, Z L; Siewerdsen, J H

    2014-09-21

    An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy is evaluated for use in surgical guidance, specifically considering the low-dose limits of the fluoroscopic x-ray projections. The registration method is based on a framework using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to identify the 3D patient pose that maximizes the gradient information similarity metric. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intracranial neurosurgery, using target registration error (TRE) to characterize accuracy and robustness in terms of 95% confidence upper bound in comparison to that of an infrared surgical tracking system. Three clinical scenarios were considered: (1) single-view image+guidance, wherein a single x-ray projection is used for visualization and 3D-2D guidance; (2) dual-view image+guidance, wherein one projection is acquired for visualization, combined with a second (lower-dose) projection acquired at a different C-arm angle for 3D-2D guidance; and (3) dual-view guidance, wherein both projections are acquired at low dose for the purpose of 3D-2D guidance alone (not visualization). In each case, registration accuracy was evaluated as a function of the entrance surface dose associated with the projection view(s). Results indicate that images acquired at a dose as low as 4 μGy (approximately one-tenth the dose of a typical fluoroscopic frame) were sufficient to provide TRE comparable or superior to that of conventional surgical tracking, allowing 3D-2D guidance at a level of dose that is at most 10% greater than conventional fluoroscopy (scenario #2) and potentially reducing the dose to approximately 20% of the level in a conventional fluoroscopically guided procedure (scenario #3).

  12. Analysis and Comparison of 2-D Hemodynamic Numerical Simulation of Elastic Aneurysm and Rigid Aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. W.; Ding, G. H.; Yin, W. Y.; Yang, X. J.; Shi, W. C.; Zhang, X. L.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic parameters on the formation, growth and rupture of an aneurysm. Our simulation of the elastic and rigid aneurysm is based on a DSA or other clinic image. The simulatied results are that there are great differences in the distribution of velocity magnitude at some sections which are predicted by the two models. For the elastic wall model, the distribution of velocity magnitude of one outlet is obviously off-center, which influences the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) and exchange of substance through the vessel wall. The currents of the distributions of WSS along the wall of aneurysm for the two models are similar. But there are obvious differences between the two models in the values especially at the neck of aneurysm. This study demonstrates obviously that the elastic wall model suits the simulation for growth and rupture of an aneurysm better.

  13. Elastic image registration via rigid object motion induced deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaofen; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Hirsch, Bruce E.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate the deformations induced on soft tissues by the rigid independent movements of hard objects and create an admixture of rigid and elastic adaptive image registration transformations. By automatically segmenting and independently estimating the movement of rigid objects in 3D images, we can maintain rigidity in bones and hard tissues while appropriately deforming soft tissues. We tested our algorithms on 20 pairs of 3D MRI datasets pertaining to a kinematic study of the flexibility of the ankle complex of normal feet as well as ankles affected by abnormalities in foot architecture and ligament injuries. The results show that elastic image registration via rigid object-induced deformation outperforms purely rigid and purely nonrigid approaches.

  14. A novel hybrid motion detection algorithm based on 2D histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaomeng; Wang, Haiying

    2015-03-01

    This article proposes a novel hybrid motion detection algorithm based on 2-D (2-Dimensional) spatio-temporal states histogram. The new algorithm combines the idea of image change detection based on 2-D histogram and spatio-temporal entropy image segmentation. It quantifies the continuity of pixel state in time and space domain which are called TDF (Time Domain Filter) and SDF (Space Domain Filter) respectively. After this, put both channels of output data from TDF and SDF into a 2-D histogram. In the 2-D histogram, a curve division method helps to separate the foreground state points and the background ones more accurately. Innovatively, the new algorithm converts the video sequence to its histogram sequence, and transforms the difference of pixel's value in the video sequence into the difference of pixel's position in the 2-D histogram. Experimental results on different types of scenes added Gaussian noise shows that the proposed technique has strong ability of detecting moving objects.

  15. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Niel, Johannes; Aichinger, Josef; Ebner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes.Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities.2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis. PMID:27249814

  16. Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…

  17. Structure-From-Motion in 3D Space Using 2D Lidars

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Geol; Bok, Yunsu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Shim, Inwook; Kweon, In So

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure-from-motion methodology using 2D lidars (Light Detection And Ranging). In 3D space, 2D lidars do not provide sufficient information for pose estimation. For this reason, additional sensors have been used along with the lidar measurement. In this paper, we use a sensor system that consists of only 2D lidars, without any additional sensors. We propose a new method of estimating both the 6D pose of the system and the surrounding 3D structures. We compute the pose of the system using line segments of scan data and their corresponding planes. After discarding the outliers, both the pose and the 3D structures are refined via nonlinear optimization. Experiments with both synthetic and real data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:28165372

  18. Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…

  19. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  20. Predicting Protein Hinge Motions and Allostery Using Rigidity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sljoka, Adnan; Bezginov, Alexandr

    2011-11-01

    Understanding how a 3D structure of a protein functions depends on predicting which regions are rigid, and which are flexible. One recent approach models molecules as a structure of fixed units (atoms with their bond angles as rigid units, bonds as hinges) plus biochemical constraints coming from the local geometry. This generates a `molecular graph' in the theory of combinatorial rigidity. The 6|V|-6 counting condition for 3-dimensional body-hinge structures (modulo molecular theorem), and a fast `pebble game' algorithm which tracks this count in the multigraph, have led to the development of the program FIRST, for rapid predictions of the flexibility of proteins. In this study we develop a novel protein hinge prediction algorithm via our extension of the pebble game algorithm (relevant regions detection algorithm). We have tested our hinge prediction algorithm on several proteins chosen from the dataset of manually annotated hinges available on the MOLMOV server. Many of our predictions are in very good agreement with this data set. Our algorithms can also predict `allosteric' interactions in proteins—where binding on one site of a molecule changes the shape or binding at a distance `active site' of the molecule. We also give some promising results which support the sliding piston-like movement of helices with respect to one another as a plausible mechanism by which GCPR receptors propagate conformational changes across membranes.

  1. Sequential Non-Rigid Structure from Motion Using Physical Priors.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Calvo, Begona; Montiel, Jose M Martinez

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new approach to simultaneously recover camera pose and 3D shape of non-rigid and potentially extensible surfaces from a monocular image sequence. For this purpose, we make use of the Extended Kalman Filter based Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (EKF-SLAM) formulation, a Bayesian optimization framework traditionally used in mobile robotics for estimating camera pose and reconstructing rigid scenarios. In order to extend the problem to a deformable domain we represent the object's surface mechanics by means of Navier's equations, which are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM). With these main ingredients, we can further model the material's stretching, allowing us to go a step further than most of current techniques, typically constrained to surfaces undergoing isometric deformations. We extensively validate our approach in both real and synthetic experiments, and demonstrate its advantages with respect to competing methods. More specifically, we show that besides simultaneously retrieving camera pose and non-rigid shape, our approach is adequate for both isometric and extensible surfaces, does not require neither batch processing all the frames nor tracking points over the whole sequence and runs at several frames per second.

  2. Motion of a rigid prolate spheroid in a sound wave field.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongkun; Hong, Lianjin

    2014-08-01

    The motions of a rigid and unconstrained prolate spheroid subjected to plane sound waves are computed using preliminary analytic derivation and numerical approach. The acoustically induced motions are found comprising torsional motion as well as translational motion in the case of acoustic oblique incidence and present great relevance to the sound wavelength, body geometry, and density. The relationship between the motions and acoustic particle velocity is obtained through finite element simulation in terms of sound wavelengths much longer than the overall size of the prolate spheroid. The results are relevant to the design of inertial acoustic particle velocity sensors based on prolate spheroids.

  3. Optimising rigid motion compensation for small animal brain PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler-Bickell, Matthew G.; Zhou, Lin; Kyme, Andre Z.; De Laat, Bart; Fulton, Roger R.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal’s head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets. These techniques have been tested and verified on measurements of a moving resolution phantom and brain scans of an awake rat. The proposed techniques improved the reconstructed spatial resolution of the phantom by 27% and of the rat brain by 14%. We suggest a set of optimal parameter values to use for awake animal PET studies and discuss the relative significance of each parameter choice.

  4. The Use of 2D Ultrasound Elastography for Measuring Tendon Motion and Strain

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the fidelity of a 2D ultrasound elastography method for the measurement of tendon motion and strain. Ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo porcine flexor tendons were cyclically stretched to 4% strain while cine ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data and video data were simultaneously collected. 2D ultrasound elastography was used to estimate tissue motion and strain from RF data, and surface tissue motion and strain were separately estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). There were strong correlations (R2 > 0.97) between DIC and RF measurements of phantom displacement and strain, and good agreement in estimates of peak phantom strain (DIC: 3.5 ± 0.2%; RF: 3.7 ± 0.1%). For tendon, elastographic estimates of displacement profiles also correlated well with DIC measurements (R2 > 0.92), and exhibited similar estimated peak tendon strain (DIC: 2.6 ± 1.4%; RF: 2.2 ± 1.3%). Elastographic tracking with B-Mode images tended to under-predict peak strain for both the phantom and tendon. This study demonstrates the capacity to use quantitative elastographic techniques to measure tendon displacement and strain within an ultrasound image window. The approach may be extendible to in vivo use on humans, which would allow for the non-invasive analysis of tendon deformation in both normal and pathological states. PMID:24388164

  5. Model-guided respiratory organ motion prediction of the liver from 2D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Preiswerk, Frank; De Luca, Valeria; Arnold, Patrik; Celicanin, Zarko; Petrusca, Lorena; Tanner, Christine; Bieri, Oliver; Salomir, Rares; Cattin, Philippe C

    2014-07-01

    With the availability of new and more accurate tumour treatment modalities such as high-intensity focused ultrasound or proton therapy, accurate target location prediction has become a key issue. Various approaches for diverse application scenarios have been proposed over the last decade. Whereas external surrogate markers such as a breathing belt work to some extent, knowledge about the internal motion of the organs inherently provides more accurate results. In this paper, we combine a population-based statistical motion model and information from 2d ultrasound sequences in order to predict the respiratory motion of the right liver lobe. For this, the motion model is fitted to a 3d exhalation breath-hold scan of the liver acquired before prediction. Anatomical landmarks tracked in the ultrasound images together with the model are then used to reconstruct the complete organ position over time. The prediction is both spatial and temporal, can be computed in real-time and is evaluated on ground truth over long time scales (5.5 min). The method is quantitatively validated on eight volunteers where the ultrasound images are synchronously acquired with 4D-MRI, which provides ground-truth motion. With an average spatial prediction accuracy of 2.4 mm, we can predict tumour locations within clinically acceptable margins.

  6. Coronary arteries motion modeling on 2D x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Sundar, Hari

    2012-02-01

    During interventional procedures, 3D imaging modalities like CT and MRI are not commonly used due to interference with the surgery and radiation exposure concerns. Therefore, real-time information is usually limited and building models of cardiac motion are difficult. In such case, vessel motion modeling based on 2-D angiography images become indispensable. Due to issues with existing vessel segmentation algorithms and the lack of contrast in occluded vessels, manual segmentation of certain branches is usually necessary. In addition, such occluded branches are the most important vessels during coronary interventions and obtaining motion models for these can greatly help in reducing the procedure time and radiation exposure. Segmenting different cardiac phases independently does not guarantee temporal consistency and is not efficient for occluded branches required manual segmentation. In this paper, we propose a coronary motion modeling system which extracts the coronary tree for every cardiac phase, maintaining the segmentation by tracking the coronary tree during the cardiac cycle. It is able to map every frame to the specific cardiac phase, thereby inferring the shape information of the coronary arteries using the model corresponding to its phase. Our experiments show that our motion modeling system can achieve promising results with real-time performance.

  7. Unsteady Transonic Flow Past Airfoils in Rigid Body Motion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    weak solutions. The linear theory is deficient in predicting important features of transonic flow outside airfoils in low reduced frequency motion...terms. The term t is substituted n+l adn -i n n+l +n-i by the mean of and , i.e., = 2 = -(u 2 +2uv y+V 2 $ q2 xx xyq 1 2uF v2-2-5 n+l n-I(v2 + 2uvT + 2 ( I...approximate for thie advection equation. Our approximate factorizatio. says that (2) can .) factored as (1+tuQ 14tv )*N - -. tu )(l-.ltvD ) M - 2.’,t (uP DvD Ki

  8. Evaluation of Rigid-Body Motion Compensation in Cardiac Perfusion SPECT Employing Polar-Map Quantification.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, P Hendrik; Johnson, Karen L; King, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    We have recently been successful in the development and testing of rigid-body motion tracking, estimation and compensation for cardiac perfusion SPECT based on a visual tracking system (VTS). The goal of this study was to evaluate in patients the effectiveness of our rigid-body motion compensation strategy. Sixty-four patient volunteers were asked to remain motionless or execute some predefined body motion during an additional second stress perfusion acquisition. Acquisitions were performed using the standard clinical protocol with 64 projections acquired through 180 degrees. All data were reconstructed with an ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) algorithm using 4 projections per subset and 5 iterations. All physical degradation factors were addressed (attenuation, scatter, and distance dependent resolution), while a 3-dimensional Gaussian rotator was used during reconstruction to correct for six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) rigid-body motion estimated by the VTS. Polar map quantification was employed to evaluate compensation techniques. In 54.7% of the uncorrected second stress studies there was a statistically significant difference in the polar maps, and in 45.3% this made a difference in the interpretation of segmental perfusion. Motion correction reduced the impact of motion such that with it 32.8 % of the polar maps were statistically significantly different, and in 14.1% this difference changed the interpretation of segmental perfusion. The improvement shown in polar map quantitation translated to visually improved uniformity of the SPECT slices.

  9. An Interface for Specifying Rigid-Body Motions for CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Chan, William; Aftosmis, Michael; Meakin, Robert L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An interface for specifying rigid-body motions for CFD applications is presented. This interface provides a means of describing a component hierarchy in a geometric configuration, as well as the motion (prescribed or six-degree-of-freedom) associated with any component. The interface consists of a general set of datatypes, along with rules for their interaction, and is designed to be flexible in order to evolve as future needs dictate. The specification is currently implemented with an XML file format which is portable across platforms and applications. The motion specification is capable of describing general rigid body motions, and eliminates the need to write and compile new code within the application software for each dynamic configuration, allowing client software to automate dynamic simulations. The interface is integrated with a GUI tool which allows rigid body motions to be prescribed and verified interactively, promoting access to non-expert users. Illustrative examples, as well as the raw XML source of the file specifications, are included.

  10. Generalized centripetal force law and quantization of motion constrained on 2D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. H.; Zhang, J.; Lian, D. K.; Hu, L. D.; Li, Z.

    2017-03-01

    For a particle of mass μ moves on a 2D surface f(x) = 0 embedded in 3D Euclidean space of coordinates x, there is an open and controversial problem whether the Dirac's canonical quantization scheme for the constrained motion allows for the geometric potential that has been experimentally confirmed. We note that the Dirac's scheme hypothesizes that the symmetries indicated by classical brackets among positions x and momenta p and Hamiltonian Hc remain in quantum mechanics, i.e., the following Dirac brackets [ x ,Hc ] D and [ p ,Hc ] D holds true after quantization, in addition to the fundamental ones [ x , x ] D, [ x , p ] D and [ p , p ] D. This set of hypotheses implies that the Hamiltonian operator is simultaneously determined during the quantization. The quantum mechanical relations corresponding to the classical mechanical ones p / μ =[ x ,Hc ] D directly give the geometric momenta. The time t derivative of the momenta p ˙ =[ p ,Hc ] D in classical mechanics is in fact the generalized centripetal force law for particle on the 2D surface, which in quantum mechanics permits both the geometric momenta and the geometric potential.

  11. A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid and deformable ellipsoids in ductile flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2012-01-01

    A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid or deformable objects in viscous flows is presented. It is shown that the rotation of a 3D object in a viscous fluid, regardless of the mechanical property and shape of the object, is defined by a common and simple differential equation, dQ/dt=-Θ˜Q, where Q is a matrix defined by the orientation of the object and Θ˜ is the angular velocity tensor of the object. The difference between individual cases lies only in the formulation for the angular velocity. Thus the above equation, together with Jeffery's theory for the angular velocity of rigid ellipsoids, describes the motion of rigid ellipsoids in viscous flows. The same equation, together with Eshelby's theory for the angular velocity of deformable ellipsoids, describes the motion of deformable ellipsoids in viscous flows. Both problems are solved here numerically by a general approach that is much simpler conceptually and more economic computationally, compared to previous approaches that consider the problems separately and require numerical solutions to coupled differential equations about Euler angles or spherical (polar coordinate) angles. A Runge-Kutta approximation is constructed for solving the above general differential equation. Singular cases of Eshelby's equations when the object is spheroidal or spherical are handled in this paper in a much simpler way than in previous work. The computational procedure can be readily implemented in any modern mathematics application that handles matrix operations. Four MathCad Worksheets are provided for modeling the motion of a single rigid or deformable ellipsoid immersed in viscous fluids, as well as the evolution of a system of noninteracting rigid or deformable ellipsoids embedded in viscous flows.

  12. On the geometry of motions in one integrable problem of the rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamova, I. I.; Savushkin, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Due to Poinsot's theorem, the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point is represented as rolling without slipping of the moving hodograph of the angular velocity over the fixed one. If the moving hodograph is a closed curve, visualization of motion is obtained by the method of P.V. Kharlamov. For an arbitrary motion in an integrable problem with an axially symmetric force field the moving hodograph densely fills some two-dimensional surface and the fixed one fills a three-dimensional surface. In this paper, we consider the irreducible integrable case in which both hodographs are two-frequency curves. We obtain the equations of bearing surfaces, illustrate the main types of these surfaces. We propose a method of the so-called non-straight geometric interpretation representing the motion of a body as a superposition of two periodic motions.

  13. Coupled motion of rigid bodies about their center of mass. [Shuttle/payload system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.; Donaldson, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Nontrivial analytical solutions for the coupled motion of two rigid bodies about their center of mass are obtained on the assumptions that the rigid bodies are coupled by a massless rigid boom and that no external forces are acting on the system. Both relative rotational and translational motions of the two bodies are considered. General equations of motion are derived by regarding the two bodies as consisting of two distinct systems of particles and by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum. It is shown that a basic nontrivial solution can be obtained for the translational problem if an assumption is made concerning the relative orientation of one principal axis of inertia of each body and that fundamental nontrivial solutions are readily obtained for the rotational problem if an additional assumption is made with respect to the symmetry of one body. Certain stability criteria are found for some of these motions by defining regions of constraint for the relative translational and rotational elements.

  14. Quantifying Rigid and Nonrigid Motion of Liver Tumors During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qianyi; Hanna, George; Grimm, Jimm; Kubicek, Gregory; Pahlajani, Niraj; Asbell, Sucha; Fan, Jiajin; Chen, Yan; LaCouture, Tamara

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors using reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) fiducials from stereo imaging during CyberKnife-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-three liver patients treated with 3 fractions of SBRT were used in this study. After 2 orthogonal kilovoltage images were taken during treatment, the 3D locations of the fiducials were generated by the CyberKnife system and validated using geometric derivations. A total of 4824 pairs of kilovoltage images from start to end of treatment were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts were reported by aligning 3D fiducial groups from different image pairs, using least-squares fitting. For nonrigid motion, we quantified interfractional tumor volume variations by using the proportional volume derived from the fiducials, which correlates to the sum of interfiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported (1) after rigid corrections and (2) without angle corrections. Results: The proportional volume derived by the fiducials demonstrated a volume-increasing trend in the second (101.9% ± 3.6%) and third (101.0 ± 5.9%) fractions among most patients, possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all patients, the translational shifts in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior directions were 2.1 ± 2.3 mm, 2.9 ± 2.8 mm, and 6.4 ± 5.5 mm, respectively. The greatest translational shifts occurred in the superoinferior direction, likely due to respiratory motion from the diaphragm. The rotational angles in roll, pitch, and yaw were 1.2° ± 1.8°, 1.8° ± 2.4°, and 1.7° ± 2.1°, respectively. The 3D individual fiducial displacements with rigid corrections were 0.2 ± 0.2 mm and increased to 0.5 ± 0.4 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusions: Accurate 3D locations of internal fiducials can be reconstructed from stereo imaging during treatment. As an

  15. Characterization of Self-Excited, Nearly Axisymmetric, Spinning Rigid-Body Motion as an Oblate Epicycloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNair, S. Lauren; Tragesser, Steven

    2017-03-01

    A unique formulation of the solution to a spinning, nearly axisymmetric rigid-body is presented. Direct integration of the linearized equations of motion gives accurate results for nearly axisymmetric inertia ellipsoids while avoiding the complexity of more general formulations. The simplicity of the formulation lends itself to a better understanding of the system behavior. Specifically, the motion of the spin axis for this nearly axisymmetric case is described by an oblate epicycloid, providing an extension of the classic epicycloid solution for axisymmetric objects.

  16. Computing 3-D structure of rigid objects using stereo and motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed as a step toward an intelligent automatic machine vision system for 3-D imaging is discussed. The problem considered is the quantitative 3-D reconstruction of rigid objects. Motion and stereo are the two clues considered in this system. The system basically consists of three processes: the low level process to extract image features, the middle level process to establish the correspondence in the stereo (spatial) and motion (temporal) modalities, and the high level process to compute the 3-D coordinates of the corner points by integrating the spatial and temporal correspondences.

  17. Identification of motion parameters of a rigid body from its orthogonal and perspective projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, B.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    An estimate is made of the motion parameters, namely, linear and angular velocities, of a rigid body rotating and translating in three-space. The authors assume that the velocities are constant and that the motion is not completely observable. They consider two separate cases of partial observations corresponding to the orthogonal and the perspective projections, respectively. If (x, y, z) is the Cartesian coordinate of the three-space, the authors assume in the first case that the projection of the motion on the x-y plane is observed. If (r, theta, phi) is the polar coordinates of the three-space, they assume in the second case that the parameter vector (theta, phi) is observed. The use of both of these cases to estimate the motion parameters is discussed.

  18. Time-correlation analysis of simulated water motion in flexible and rigid gramicidin channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, S W; Jakobsson, E; Subramaniam, S; McCammon, J A

    1991-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been done on a system consisting of the polypeptide membrane channel former gramicidin, plus water molecules in the channel and caps of waters at the two ends of the channel. In the absence of explicit simulation of the surrounding membrane, the helical form of the channel was maintained by artificial restraints on the peptide motion. The characteristic time constant of the artificial restraint was varied to assess the effect of the restraints on the channel structure and water motions. Time-correlation analysis was done on the motions of individual channel waters and on the motions of the center of mass of the channel waters. It is found that individual water molecules confined in the channel execute higher frequency motions than bulk water, for all degrees of channel peptide restraint. The center-of-mass motion of the chain of channel waters (which is the motion that is critical for transmembrane transport, due to the mandatory single filing of water in the channel) does not exhibit these higher frequency motions. The mobility of the water chain is dramatically reduced by holding the channel rigid. Thus permeation through the channel is not like flow through a rigid pipe; rather permeation is facilitated by peptide motion. For the looser restraints we used, the mobility of the water chain was not very much affected by the degree of restraint. Depending on which set of experiments is considered, the computed mobility of our water chain in the flexible channel is four to twenty times too high to account for the experimentally measured resistance of the gramicidin channel to water flow. From this result it appears likely that the peptide motions of an actual gramicidin channel embedded in a lipid membrane may be more restrained than in our flexible channel model, and that these restraints may be a significant modulator of channel permeability. For the completely rigid channel model the "trapping" of the water molecules in

  19. Almost global finite-time stabilization of rigid body attitude motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Jan

    This dissertation considers continuous finite-time stabilization of rigid body attitude dynamics using a coordinate-free representation of attitude on the Lie group of rigid body rotations in three dimensions, SO(3). First a general methodology to construct control Lyapunov functions that are Holder continuous and that can be used to show finite-time stability of the feedback controlled system, is presented. The dynamics is represented by generalized (local) coordinates. This methodology is then extended, using a Holder continuous Morse-Lyapunov function, to obtain a finite-time feedback stabilization scheme for rigid body attitude motion to a desired attitude with continuous state feedback. The feedback control law designed here leads to almost global finite-time stabilization of the attitude motion of a rigid body with Holder continuous feedback, to the desired attitude. Furthermore, using the finite-time feedback stabilization scheme, a state observer is proposed for rigid body attitude motion with a given attitude dynamics model that in the absence of measurement noise and disturbance torques leads to almost global finite-time stable convergence of attitude motion state estimates to the actual states for a rigid body whose inertia is known. Subsequently this state observer is combined with a deterministic filter scheme that utilizes a set of sigma points obtained from the unscented transform based on exponential coordinates. This estimation scheme uses discrete-time state measurements of inertially known vectors along with rate gyro measurements of the angular velocity, to obtain state estimates in the filtering stage. Additionally, a set of sigma points is obtained from the unscented transform, with re-sampling centered at the current state estimate at each measurement instant. The state estimates along with sampled sigma points are propagated between measurement instants, using the discrete-time attitude state observer that is almost globally finite

  20. Characterization of the growth of 2D protein crystals on a lipid monolayer by ellipsometry and rigidity measurements coupled to electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Vénien-Bryan, C; Lenne, P F; Zakri, C; Renault, A; Brisson, A; Legrand, J F; Berge, B

    1998-01-01

    We present here some sensitive optical and mechanical experiments for monitoring the process of formation and growth of two-dimensional (2D) crystals of proteins on a lipid monolayer at an air-water interface. The adsorption of proteins on the lipid monolayer was monitored by ellipsometry measurements. An instrument was developed to measure the shear elastic constant (in plane rigidity) of the monolayer. These experiments have been done using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and annexin V as model proteins interacting with a monosialoganglioside (GM1) and dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS), respectively. Electron microscopy observations of the protein-lipid layer transferred to grids were systematically used as a control. We found a good correlation between the measured in-plane rigidity of the monolayer and the presence of large crystalline domains observed by electron microscopy grids. Our interpretation of these data is that the crystallization process of proteins on a lipid monolayer passes through at least three successive stages: 1) molecular recognition between protein and lipid-ligand, i.e., adsorption of the protein on the lipid layer; 2) nucleation and growth of crystalline patches whose percolation is detected by the appearance of a non-zero in-plane rigidity; and 3) annealing of the layer producing a slower increase of the lateral or in-plane rigidity. PMID:9591688

  1. Dynamic analysis of a system of hinge-connected rigid bodies with nonrigid appendages. [equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for use in simulating a spacecraft or other complex electromechanical system amenable to idealization as a set of hinge-connected rigid bodies of tree topology, with rigid axisymmetric rotors and nonrigid appendages attached to each rigid body in the set. In conjunction with a previously published report on finite-element appendage vibration equations, this report provides a complete minimum-dimension formulation suitable for generic programming for digital computer numerical integration.

  2. Nonrigid Registration of 2-D and 3-D Dynamic Cell Nuclei Images for Improved Classification of Subcellular Particle Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Han; Chen, Yi-Chun M.; Spector, David L.; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The observed motion of subcellular particles in fluorescence microscopy image sequences of live cells is generally a superposition of the motion and deformation of the cell and the motion of the particles. Decoupling the two types of movements to enable accurate classification of the particle motion requires the application of registration algorithms. We have developed an intensity-based approach for nonrigid registration of multi-channel microscopy image sequences of cell nuclei. First, based on 3-D synthetic images we demonstrate that cell nucleus deformations change the observed motion types of particles and that our approach allows to recover the original motion. Second, we have successfully applied our approach to register 2-D and 3-D real microscopy image sequences. A quantitative experimental comparison with previous approaches for nonrigid registration of cell microscopy has also been performed. PMID:20840894

  3. Gradient-Driven Vortex Motion in Nonneutral Plasmas and Ideal 2D Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, David A.

    2000-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) turbulent flows can relax to metastable patterns without dissipation of kinetic energy. This ``rapid'' relaxation has been observed in computer simulations of ideal 2D fluids, and more recently in experiments with pure electron plasmas, which can obey similar dynamics. The late stage of relaxation often involves small vortices moving in a larger ``background'' shear-flow.(X.P. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995). In time, positive vortices (rotating counter-clockwise) move to peaks in background vorticity, whereas negative vortices (rotating clockwise) move to minima.(C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7), 175 (1948); C.H. Liu and L. Ting, Comp. & Fluids 15, 77 (1987). In general, the rate of this migration increases with the magnitude of the background vorticity gradient, whereas it decreases as the background shear intensifies.\\vspace12pt Positive and negative vortices can also be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. Surprisingly, a retrograde vortex moves up or down a background vorticity gradient orders of magnitude faster than a prograde vortex of equal strength.(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). An accurate expression for the velocity of a weak retrograde vortex is obtained from an analytic calculation, in which the response of the background flow to the vortex is linearized. However, this linear theory fails for prograde vortices of any strength. Interestingly, the velocity of a prograde vortex can be obtained from a simple estimate, which accounts for the nonlinear ``trapping'' of background fluid around the vortex. The analytic expressions for the velocities of both prograde and retrograde vortices are in good quantitative agreement with vortex-in-cell simulations, and with electron plasma experiments, when the background shear is below a critical level. When the ratio of background shear to background vorticity

  4. Rigid rotators. [deriving the time-independent energy states associated with rotational motions of the molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two-particle, steady-state Schroedinger equation is transformed to center of mass and internuclear distance vector coordinates, leading to the free particle wave equation for the kinetic energy motion of the molecule and a decoupled wave equation for a single particle of reduced mass moving in a spherical potential field. The latter describes the vibrational and rotational energy modes of the diatomic molecule. For fixed internuclear distance, this becomes the equation of rigid rotator motion. The classical partition function for the rotator is derived and compared with the quantum expression. Molecular symmetry effects are developed from the generalized Pauli principle that the steady-state wave function of any system of fundamental particles must be antisymmetric. Nuclear spin and spin quantum functions are introduced and ortho- and para-states of rotators, along with their degeneracies, are defined. Effects of nuclear spin on entropy are deduced. Next, rigid polyatomic rotators are considered and the partition function for this case is derived. The patterns of rotational energy levels for nonlinear molecules are discussed for the spherical symmetric top, for the prolate symmetric top, for the oblate symmetric top, and for the asymmetric top. Finally, the equilibrium energy and specific heat of rigid rotators are derived.

  5. Comparison of 2D and 3D modeled tumor motion estimation/prediction for dynamic tumor tracking during arc radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize the target in 3D space or in 2D beam's eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting on average only <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem during 2D BEV tracking.

  6. Dynamics and cortical distribution of neural responses to 2D and 3D motion in human

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of motion-in-depth is important for avoiding collisions and for the control of vergence eye-movements and other motor actions. Previous psychophysical studies have suggested that sensitivity to motion-in-depth has a lower temporal processing limit than the perception of lateral motion. The present study used functional MRI-informed EEG source-imaging to study the spatiotemporal properties of the responses to lateral motion and motion-in-depth in human visual cortex. Lateral motion and motion-in-depth displays comprised stimuli whose only difference was interocular phase: monocular oscillatory motion was either in-phase in the two eyes (lateral motion) or in antiphase (motion-in-depth). Spectral analysis was used to break the steady-state visually evoked potentials responses down into even and odd harmonic components within five functionally defined regions of interest: V1, V4, lateral occipital complex, V3A, and hMT+. We also characterized the responses within two anatomically defined regions: the inferior and superior parietal cortex. Even harmonic components dominated the evoked responses and were a factor of approximately two larger for lateral motion than motion-in-depth. These responses were slower for motion-in-depth and were largely independent of absolute disparity. In each of our regions of interest, responses at odd-harmonics were relatively small, but were larger for motion-in-depth than lateral motion, especially in parietal cortex, and depended on absolute disparity. Taken together, our results suggest a plausible neural basis for reduced psychophysical sensitivity to rapid motion-in-depth. PMID:24198326

  7. Quantification of local changes in myocardial motion by diffeomorphic registration via currents: application to paced hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in 2D echocardiographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Nicolas; Giraldeau, Geneviève; Gabrielli, Luigi; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Penela, Diego; Evertz, Reinder; Mont, Lluis; Brugada, Josep; Berruezo, Antonio; Sitges, Marta; Bijnens, Bart H

    2015-01-01

    Time-to-peak measurements and single-parameter observations are cumbersome and often confusing for quantifying local changes in myocardial function. Recent spatiotemporal normalization techniques can provide a global picture of myocardial motion and strain patterns and overcome some of these limitations. Despite these advances, the quantification of pattern changes remains descriptive, which limits their relevance for longitudinal studies. Our paper provides a new perspective to the longitudinal analysis of myocardial motion. Non-rigid registration (diffeomorphic registration via currents) is used to match pairs of patterns, and pattern changes are inferred from the registration output. Scalability is added to the different components of the input patterns in order to tune up the contributions of the spatial, temporal and magnitude dimensions to data changes, which are of interest for our application. The technique is illustrated on 2D echocardiographic sequences from 15 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. These patients underwent biventricular pacing, which aims at provoking mechanical dyssynchrony to reduce left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. We demonstrate that our method can automatically quantify timing and magnitude changes in myocardial motion between baseline (non-paced) and 1 year follow-up (pacing on), resulting in a more robust analysis of complex patterns and subtle changes. Our method helps confirming that the reduction of LVOT pressure gradient actually comes from the induction of the type of dyssynchrony that was expected.

  8. Robust patella motion tracking using intensity-based 2D-3D registration on dynamic bi-plane fluoroscopy: towards quantitative assessment in MPFL reconstruction surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Esnault, Matthieu; Grupp, Robert; Kosugi, Shinichi; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2016-03-01

    The determination of in vivo motion of multiple-bones using dynamic fluoroscopic images and computed tomography (CT) is useful for post-operative assessment of orthopaedic surgeries such as medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. We propose a robust method to measure the 3D motion of multiple rigid objects with high accuracy using a series of bi-plane fluoroscopic images and a multi-resolution, intensity-based, 2D-3D registration. A Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) optimizer was used with a gradient correlation similarity metric. Four approaches to register three rigid objects (femur, tibia-fibula and patella) were implemented: 1) an individual bone approach registering one bone at a time, each with optimization of a six degrees of freedom (6DOF) parameter, 2) a sequential approach registering one bone at a time but using the previous bone results as the background in DRR generation, 3) a simultaneous approach registering all the bones together (18DOF) and 4) a combination of the sequential and the simultaneous approaches. These approaches were compared in experiments using simulated images generated from the CT of a healthy volunteer and measured fluoroscopic images. Over the 120 simulated frames of motion, the simultaneous approach showed improved registration accuracy compared to the individual approach: with less than 0.68mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) for translation and less than 1.12° RMSE for rotation. A robustness evaluation was conducted with 45 trials of a randomly perturbed initialization showed that the sequential approach improved robustness significantly (74% success rate) compared to the individual bone approach (34% success) for patella registration (femur and tibia-fibula registration had a 100% success rate with each approach).

  9. WE-G-BRD-01: A Data-Driven 4D-MRI Motion Model to Estimate Full Field-Of-View Abdominal Motion From 2D Image Navigators During MR-Linac Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Stemkens, B; Tijssen, RHN; Denis de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, JJW; Berg, CAT van den

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate full field-of-view abdominal respiratory motion from fast 2D image navigators using a 4D-MRI based motion model. This will allow for radiation dose accumulation mapping during MR-Linac treatment. Methods: Experiments were conducted on a Philips Ingenia 1.5T MRI. First, a retrospectively ordered 4D-MRI was constructed using 3D transient-bSSFP with radial in-plane sampling. Motion fields were calculated through 3D non-rigid registration. From these motion fields a PCA-based abdominal motion model was constructed and used to warp a 3D reference volume to fast 2D cine-MR image navigators that can be used for real-time tracking. To test this procedure, a time-series consisting of two interleaved orthogonal slices (sagittal and coronal), positioned on the pancreas or kidneys, were acquired for 1m38s (dynamic scan-time=0.196ms), during normal, shallow, or deep breathing. The coronal slices were used to update the optimal weights for the first two PCA components, in order to warp the 3D reference image and construct a dynamic 4D-MRI time-series. The interleaved sagittal slices served as an independent measure to test the model’s accuracy and fit. Spatial maps of the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and histograms of the motion differences within the pancreas and kidneys were used to evaluate the method. Results: Cranio-caudal motion was accurately calculated within the pancreas using the model for normal and shallow breathing with an RMSE of 1.6mm and 1.5mm and a histogram median and standard deviation below 0.2 and 1.7mm, respectively. For deep-breathing an underestimation of the inhale amplitude was observed (RMSE=4.1mm). Respiratory-induced antero-posterior and lateral motion were correctly mapped (RMSE=0.6/0.5mm). Kidney motion demonstrated good motion estimation with RMSE-values of 0.95 and 2.4mm for the right and left kidney, respectively. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method that can calculate dynamic 3D abdominal motion in a large volume

  10. Evaluation of skin and muscular deformations in a non-rigid motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, Michela; Carli, Marco; Conforto, Silvia; Bibbo, Daniele; Neri, Alessandro; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2005-04-01

    During contraction and stretching, muscles change shape and size, and produce a deformation of skin tissues and a modification of the body segment shape. In human motion analysis, it is indispensable to take into account this phenomenon and thus approximating body limbs to rigid structures appears as restrictive. The present work aims at evaluating skin and muscular deformation, and at modeling body segment elastic behavior by analysing video sequences that capture a sport gesture. The soft tissue modeling is accomplished by using triangular meshes that automatically adapt to the body segment during the execution of a static muscle contraction. The adaptive triangular mesh is built on reference points whose motion is estimated by using the technique based on Gauss Laguerre Expansion. Promising results have been obtained by applying the proposed method to a video sequence, where an upper arm isometric contraction was present.

  11. A few remarks about integrability of the equations of motion of a rigid body in ideal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1980-11-01

    We demonstrate that the problem of motion of a rigid body in an ideal fluid for a nondegenerate case is completely integrable by means of the quadratic constants of motion for the Clebsch and Steklov cases only. We construct a Lax pair for a high-dimensional generalization of the Clebsch case.

  12. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  13. Analytic Theory and Control of the Motion of Spinning Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations are often resorted to, in order to understand the attitude response and control characteristics of a rigid body. However, this approach in performing sensitivity and/or error analyses may be prohibitively expensive and time consuming, especially when a large number of problem parameters are involved. Thus, there is an important role for analytical models in obtaining an understanding of the complex dynamical behavior. In this dissertation, new analytic solutions are derived for the complete attitude motion of spinning rigid bodies, under minimal assumptions. Hence, we obtain the most general solutions reported in the literature so far. Specifically, large external torques and large asymmetries are included in the problem statement. Moreover, problems involving large angular excursions are treated in detail. A new tractable formulation of the kinematics is introduced which proves to be extremely helpful in the search for analytic solutions of the attitude history of such kinds of problems. The main utility of the new formulation becomes apparent however, when searching for feedback control laws for stabilization and/or reorientation of spinning spacecraft. This is an inherently nonlinear problem, where standard linear control techniques fail. We derive a class of control laws for spin axis stabilization of symmetric spacecraft using only two pairs of gas jet actuators. Practically, this could correspond to a spacecraft operating in failure mode, for example. Theoretically, it is also an important control problem which, because of its difficulty, has received little, if any, attention in the literature. The proposed control laws are especially simple and elegant. A feedback control law that achieves arbitrary reorientation of the spacecraft is also derived, using ideas from invariant manifold theory. The significance of this research is twofold. First, it provides a deeper understanding of the fundamental behavior of rigid bodies subject to body

  14. Perceived rigidity in motion-in-depth increases with contour perspective.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    When observers are asked to match the depth of an object according to its height, they often report systematic errors depending on viewing distance. Systematic biases can also arise while vergence distances are induced by binocular disparities. Observers of stereoscopic images tend to overestimate the depth of objects displayed in front of the screen, while the depth of objects displayed behind the screen plane is underestimated. This phenomenon creates a serious problem in that veridicality in depth perception appears distorted when one attempts to render the metrics of a captured 3-D world. These distortions could also subsist with structure-from-motion information and during motion-in-depth. Observers judged the circularity of transparent rotating cylinders that were either static or moving in depth. Crossed results show that participants could precisely retrieve the best modulation between presented depth and width. As this effect could be amplified with stimuli containing stronger perspective cues (ie contour perspective), participants judged the rigidity of spinning cubes, moving along the line of sight, which were either edges-defined or defined by randomly textured surfaces (dots). The results showed that, although depth constancy was not improved by contour perspective, perceived rigidity was increased by perspective when the best scaling estimate was displayed. This finding suggests that appropriate binocular disparity information in combination to monocular signal is necessary for stereoscopic depth perception.

  15. Hydrodynamic lubrication of rigid nonconformal contacts in combined rolling and normal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, M. K.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical solution to the problem of hydrodynamic lubrication of rigid point contacts with an isoviscous, incompressible lubricant was obtained. The hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity under unsteady (or dynamic) conditions arising from the combined effects of squeeze motion superposed upon the entraining motion was determined for both normal approach and separation. Superposed normal motion considerably increases net load-carrying capacity during normal approach and substantially reduces net load-carrying capacity during separation. Geometry was also found to have a significant influence on the dynamic load-carrying capacity. The ratio of dynamic to steady state load-carrying capacity increases with increasing geometry parameter for normal approach and decreases during separation. The cavitation (film rupture) boundary is also influenced significantly by the normal motion, moving downstream during approach and upstream during separation. For sufficiently high normal separation velocity the rupture boundary may even move upstream of the minimum-film-thickness position. Sixty-three cases were used to derive a functional relationship for the ratio of the dynamic to steady state load-carrying capacity in terms of the dimensionless normal velocity parameter (incorporating normal velocity, entraining velocity, and film thickness) and the geometry parameter.

  16. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion

  17. Evaluation of similarity measures for use in the intensity-based rigid 2D-3D registration for patient positioning in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jian; Kim, Minho; Peters, Jorg; Chung, Heeteak; Samant, Sanjiv S.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Rigid 2D-3D registration is an alternative to 3D-3D registration for cases where largely bony anatomy can be used for patient positioning in external beam radiation therapy. In this article, the authors evaluated seven similarity measures for use in the intensity-based rigid 2D-3D registration using a variation in Skerl's similarity measure evaluation protocol. Methods: The seven similarity measures are partitioned intensity uniformity, normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross correlation (NCC), entropy of the difference image, pattern intensity (PI), gradient correlation (GC), and gradient difference (GD). In contrast to traditional evaluation methods that rely on visual inspection or registration outcomes, the similarity measure evaluation protocol probes the transform parameter space and computes a number of similarity measure properties, which is objective and optimization method independent. The variation in protocol offers an improved property in the quantification of the capture range. The authors used this protocol to investigate the effects of the downsampling ratio, the region of interest, and the method of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) calculation [i.e., the incremental ray-tracing method implemented on a central processing unit (CPU) or the 3D texture rendering method implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU)] on the performance of the similarity measures. The studies were carried out using both the kilovoltage (kV) and the megavoltage (MV) images of an anthropomorphic cranial phantom and the MV images of a head-and-neck cancer patient. Results: Both the phantom and the patient studies showed the 2D-3D registration using the GPU-based DRR calculation yielded better robustness, while providing similar accuracy compared to the CPU-based calculation. The phantom study using kV imaging suggested that NCC has the best accuracy and robustness, but its slow function value change near the global maximum requires a

  18. The Accuracy of Webcams in 2D Motion Analysis: Sources of Error and Their Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, A.; Moreno, R.; Candelas, P.; Belmar, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented.…

  19. SU-E-J-225: Quantitative Evaluation of Rigid and Non-Rigid Motion of Liver Tumors Using Stereo Imaging During SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q; Hanna, G; Kubicek, G; Asbell, S; Chen, Y; LaCouture, T; Grimm, J; Pahlajani, N; Fan, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors based on fiducial tracking in 3D by stereo imaging during CyberKnife SBRT. Methods: Twenty-five liver patients previously treated with three-fractions of SBRT were retrospectively recruited in this study. During treatment, the 3D locations of fiducials were reported by the CyberKnife system after two orthogonal kV X-ray images were taken and further validated by geometry derivations. A total of 5004 pairs of X-ray images acquired during the course of treatment for all the patients, were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts by aligning 3D fiducial groups in different image pairs after least-square fitting were reported. For nonrigid motion, the relative interfractional tumor shape variations were reported and correlated to the sum of inter-fiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported after rigid corrections and without angle corrections. Results: The relative tumor volume variation indicated by the inter-fiducial distances demonstrated an increasing trend in the second (101.6±3.4%) and third fraction (101.2±5.6%) among most patients. The cause could be possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all the patients, the translational shift was 8.1±5.7 mm, with shifts in LR, AP and SI were 2.1±2.4 mm, 2.8±2.9 mm and 6.7±5.1 mm, respectively. The greatest translation shift occurred in SI, mainly due the breathing motion of diaphragm The rotational angles were 1.1±1.7°, 1.9±2.6° and 1.6±2.2°, in roll, pitch, and yaw, respectively. The 3D fiducial displacement with rigid corrections were 0.2±0.2 mm and increased to 0.6±0.3 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusion: The fiducial locations in 3D can be precisely reconstructed from CyberKnife stereo imaging system during treatment. The fiducials provide close estimation of both rigid and nonrigid motion of .liver tumors. The reported data could be further

  20. A molecular viewer for the analysis of TLS rigid-body motion in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Painter, Jay; Merritt, Ethan A

    2005-04-01

    TLS (translation/libration/screw) models describe rigid-body vibrational motions of arbitrary objects. A single-group TLS model can be used to approximate the vibration of an entire protein molecule within a crystal lattice. More complex TLS models are broadly applicable to describing inter-domain and other internal vibrational modes of proteins. Such models can be derived and refined from crystallographic data, but they can also be used to describe the vibrational modes observed through other physical techniques or derived from molecular dynamics. The use of TLS models for protein motion has been relatively limited, partly because the physical meaning of the refined TLS parameters is not intuitive. Here, a molecular viewer, TLSView, is introduced using OpenGL and based on the mmLib library for describing and manipulating macromolecular structural models. This visualization tool allows an intuitive understanding of the physical significance of TLS models derived from crystallographic or other data and may be used as an interactive tool to display and interpret inter-domain or other motions in protein structural models. TLSView may also be used to prepare, analyze and validate TLS models for crystallographic refinement.

  1. 4D human body posture estimation based on a motion capture system and a multi-rigid link model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Ozaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Nomura, Taishin

    2012-01-01

    Human motion analysis in various fields such as neurophysiology, clinical medicine, and sports sciences utilizes a multi-rigid link model of a human body for considering kinetics by solving inverse dynamics of a motion, in which a motion capture system with reflective markers are often used to measure the motion, and then the obtained motion are mapped onto the multi-rigid link model. However, algorithms for such a mapping from spatio-temporal positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of the model are not always fully disclosed. Moreover, a common difficulty for such algorithms is an error caused by displacements of the markers attached on the body surface, referred to as the skin motion error. In this study, we developed a simple algorithm that maps positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of a rigid link model, and examined accuracy of the algorithm by evaluating quantitatively differences between the measured and the estimated posture. We also analyzed the skin motion error. It is shown that magnitude of the error was determined not only by the amplitude of the skin motion, but also by the direction of the marker displacement relative to the frame of reference attached to each segment of the body.

  2. Unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid-body motion. [UFLO5

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, I C

    1981-03-01

    With the aim of developing a fast and accurate computer code for predicting the aerodynamic forces needed for a flutter analysis, some basic concepts in computational transonics are reviewed. The unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid body motion is adequately described by the potential flow equation as long as the boundary layer remains attached. The two dimensional unsteady transonic potential flow equation in quasilinear form with first order radiation boundary conditions is solved by an alternating direction implicit scheme in an airfoil attached sheared parabolic coordinate system. Numerical experiments show that the scheme is very stable and is able to resolve the higher nonlinear transonic effects for filter analysis within the context of an inviscid theory.

  3. Magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion measurement of microenvironment matrix rigidity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, John B; Rauwerdink, Kristen M; Rauwerdink, Adam M; Perreard, Irina M

    2013-12-01

    The rigidity of the extracellular matrix and of the integrin links to the cytoskeleton regulates signaling cascades, controlling critical aspects of cancer progression including metastasis and angiogenesis. We demonstrate that the matrix stiffness can be monitored using magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB). We measured the MSB signal from nanoparticles bound to large dextran polymers. The number of glutaraldehyde induced cross-links was used as a surrogate for material stiffness. There was a highly statistically significant change in the MSB signal with the number of cross-links especially prominent at higher frequencies. The p-values were all highly significant. We conclude that the MSB signal can be used to identify and monitor changes in the stiffness of the local matrix to which the nanoparticles are bound.

  4. Dynamics on strata of trigonal Jacobians and some integrable problems of rigid body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braden, H. W.; Enolski, V. Z.; Fedorov, Yu N.

    2013-07-01

    We present an algebraic geometrical and analytical description of the Goryachev case of rigid body motion. It belongs to a family of systems sharing the same properties: although completely integrable, they are not algebraically integrable, their solution is not meromorphic in the complex time and involves dynamics on the strata of the Jacobian varieties of trigonal curves. Although the strata of hyperelliptic Jacobians have already appeared in the literature in the context of some dynamical systems, the Goryachev case is the first example of an integrable system whose solution involves a more general curve. Several new features (and formulae) are encountered in the solution given in terms of sigma-functions of such a curve.

  5. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  6. Feature extraction and wall motion classification of 2D stress echocardiography with support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chykeyuk, Kiryl; Clifton, David A.; Noble, J. Alison

    2011-03-01

    Stress echocardiography is a common clinical procedure for diagnosing heart disease. Clinically, diagnosis of the heart wall motion depends mostly on visual assessment, which is highly subjective and operator-dependent. Introduction of automated methods for heart function assessment have the potential to minimise the variance in operator assessment. Automated wall motion analysis consists of two main steps: (i) segmentation of heart wall borders, and (ii) classification of heart function as either "normal" or "abnormal" based on the segmentation. This paper considers automated classification of rest and stress echocardiography. Most previous approaches to the classification of heart function have considered rest or stress data separately, and have only considered using features extracted from the two main frames (corresponding to the end-of-diastole and end-of-systole). One previous attempt [1] has been made to combine information from rest and stress sequences utilising a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which has proven to be the best performing approach to date. Here, we propose a novel alternative feature selection approach using combined information from rest and stress sequences for motion classification of stress echocardiography, utilising a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. We describe how the proposed SVM-based method overcomes difficulties that occur with HMM classification. Overall accuracy with the new method for global wall motion classification using datasets from 173 patients is 92.47%, and the accuracy of local wall motion classification is 87.20%, showing that the proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art HMM-based approach (for which global and local classification accuracy is 82.15% and 78.33%, respectively).

  7. 1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi

    2015-04-01

    Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power.

  8. Verification of equations for incipient motion studies for a rigid rectangular channel.

    PubMed

    Bong, Charles Hin Joo; Lau, Tze Liang; Ghani, Aminuddin Ab

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the existing equations for incipient motion for a rigid rectangular channel. Data from experimental work on incipient motion from a rectangular flume with two different widths, namely 0.3 and 0.6 m, were compared with the critical velocity value predicted by the equations of Novak & Nalluri and El-Zaemey. The equation by El-Zaemey performed better with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.06 compared with the equation by Novak & Nalluri with an average discrepancy ratio value of 0.87. However, as the sediment deposit thickness increased, the equation by El-Zaemey became less accurate. A plot on the Shields Diagram using the experimental data had shown the significant effect of the sediment deposit thickness where, as the deposit becomes thicker, the dimensionless shear stress θ value also increased. A new equation had been proposed by incorporating the sediment deposit thickness. The new equation gave improved prediction with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.02.

  9. Respiratory motion correction in gated cardiac SPECT using quaternion-based, rigid-body registration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jason G; Mair, Bernard A; Gilland, David R

    2009-10-01

    In this article, a new method is introduced for estimating the motion of the heart due to respiration in gated cardiac SPECT using a rigid-body model with rotation parametrized by a unit quaternion. The method is based on minimizing the sum of squared errors between the reference and the deformed frames resulting from the usual optical flow constraint by using an optimized conjugate gradient routine. This method does not require any user-defined parameters or penalty terms, which simplifies its use in a clinical setting. Using a mathematical phantom, the method was quantitatively compared to the principal axis method, as well as an iterative method in which the rotation matrix was represented by Euler angles. The quaternion-based method was shown to be substantially more accurate and robust across a wide range of extramyocardial activity levels than the principal axis method. Compared with the Euler angle representation, the quaternion-based method resulted in similar accuracy but a significant reduction in computation times. Finally, the quaternion-based method was investigated using a respiratory-gated cardiac SPECT acquisition of a human subject. The motion-corrected image has increased sharpness and myocardial uniformity compared to the uncorrected image.

  10. Respiratory motion correction in gated cardiac SPECT using quaternion-based, rigid-body registration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jason G.; Mair, Bernard A.; Gilland, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new method is introduced for estimating the motion of the heart due to respiration in gated cardiac SPECT using a rigid-body model with rotation parametrized by a unit quaternion. The method is based on minimizing the sum of squared errors between the reference and the deformed frames resulting from the usual optical flow constraint by using an optimized conjugate gradient routine. This method does not require any user-defined parameters or penalty terms, which simplifies its use in a clinical setting. Using a mathematical phantom, the method was quantitatively compared to the principal axis method, as well as an iterative method in which the rotation matrix was represented by Euler angles. The quaternion-based method was shown to be substantially more accurate and robust across a wide range of extramyocardial activity levels than the principal axis method. Compared with the Euler angle representation, the quaternion-based method resulted in similar accuracy but a significant reduction in computation times. Finally, the quaternion-based method was investigated using a respiratory-gated cardiac SPECT acquisition of a human subject. The motion-corrected image has increased sharpness and myocardial uniformity compared to the uncorrected image. PMID:19928105

  11. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.

  12. GPS Constraints on Lesser Antilles Forearc Motion and Rigid Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. M.; Stein, S.; Sella, G.; Dixon, T. H.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P. E.

    2005-05-01

    We are using a decade of Global Positioning System data to address two tectonic problems of the Caribbean (CA) plate; 1) Whether a forearc sliver exists along the Lesser Antilles forearc and if so what is its dynamics and location, and 2) Whether the Caribbean plate is deforming internally. We approach this problem by developing GPS-derived velocity vectors at sites within the CA plate and its boundaries and comparing them to four decades of earthquake data. In a number of subduction zones, misfits between slip vectors and predicted convergence azimuths from Euler vectors suggest the presence of a forearc sliver, where trench-parallel motion is accommodated along a strike-slip fault system. Such a situation may be occurring at the eastern boundary of the CA plate along the Lesser Antilles (LA) forearc, where the North America (NA) plate subducts obliquely. Comparing slip vectors of shallow (0-60 km) thrust events to the predicted motions of GPS-based Euler vectors show a systematic northerly misfit, suggesting a trench-parallel component of motion taken up by the forearc sliver. This possibility can be tested with GPS data from the forearc. In addition, we use new GPS data to constrain the internal rigidity of the plate. Previous GPS work yielded a possible upper bound on internal deformation of 4-6 mm/yr. With an expansion in the data set on critically located stations in the CA plate (SANA, ROJO, CRO1 and AVES), we have computed new sets of Euler vector pairs for the CA-NA and CA-South America plate pairs.

  13. Effects of x-ray and CT image enhancements on the robustness and accuracy of a rigid 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkoo; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Yang; Kim, Jae Ho

    2005-04-01

    A rigid body three-dimensional/two-dimensional (3D/2D) registration method has been implemented using mutual information, gradient ascent, and 3D texturemap-based digitally reconstructed radiographs. Nine combinations of commonly used x-ray and computed tomography (CT) image enhancement methods, including window leveling, histogram equalization, and adaptive histogram equalization, were examined to assess their effects on accuracy and robustness of the registration method. From a set of experiments using an anthropomorphic chest phantom, we were able to draw several conclusions. First, the CT and x-ray preprocessing combination with the widest attraction range was the one that linearly stretched the histograms onto the entire display range on both CT and x-ray images. The average attraction ranges of this combination were 71.3 mm and 61.3 deg in the translation and rotation dimensions, respectively, and the average errors were 0.12 deg and 0.47 mm. Second, the combination of the CT image with tissue and bone information and the x-ray images with adaptive histogram equalization also showed subvoxel accuracy, especially the best in the translation dimensions. However, its attraction ranges were the smallest among the examined combinations (on average 36 mm and 19 deg). Last the bone-only information on the CT image did not show convergency property to the correct registration.

  14. Stability of high-frequency periodic motions of a heavy rigid body with a horizontally vibrating suspension point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belichenko, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The motion of a heavy rigid body one of whose points (the suspension point) executes horizontal harmonic high-frequency vibrations with small amplitude is considered. The problem of existence of high-frequency periodic motions with period equal to the period of the suspension point vibrations is considered. The stability conditions for the revealed motions are obtained in the linear approximation. The following three special cases of mass distribution in the body are considered; a body whose center of mass lies on the principal axis of inertia, a body whose center of mass lies in the principal plane of inertia, and a dynamically symmetric body.

  15. Modeling Selective Local Interactions with Memory: Motion on a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Daniel; Levy, Doron

    2014-06-15

    We consider a system of particles that simultaneously move on a two-dimensional periodic lattice at discrete times steps. Particles remember their last direction of movement and may either choose to continue moving in this direction, remain stationary, or move toward one of their neighbors. The form of motion is chosen based on predetermined stationary probabilities. Simulations of this model reveal a connection between these probabilities and the emerging patterns and size of aggregates. In addition, we develop a reaction diffusion master equation from which we derive a system of ODEs describing the dynamics of the particles on the lattice. Simulations demonstrate that solutions of the ODEs may replicate the aggregation patterns produced by the stochastic particle model. We investigate conditions on the parameters that influence the locations at which particles prefer to aggregate. This work is a two-dimensional generalization of [Galante & Levy, Physica D, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2012.10.010], in which the corresponding one-dimensional problem was studied.

  16. Arterial Mechanical Motion Estimation Based on a Semi-Rigid Body Deformation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Pablo; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Ros, Rafael; Ros, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Arterial motion estimation in ultrasound (US) sequences is a hard task due to noise and discontinuities in the signal derived from US artifacts. Characterizing the mechanical properties of the artery is a promising novel imaging technique to diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies and a new way of obtaining relevant clinical information, such as determining the absence of dicrotic peak, estimating the Augmentation Index (AIx), the arterial pressure or the arterial stiffness. One of the advantages of using US imaging is the non-invasive nature of the technique unlike Intra Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS) or angiography invasive techniques, plus the relative low cost of the US units. In this paper, we propose a semi rigid deformable method based on Soft Bodies dynamics realized by a hybrid motion approach based on cross-correlation and optical flow methods to quantify the elasticity of the artery. We evaluate and compare different techniques (for instance optical flow methods) on which our approach is based. The goal of this comparative study is to identify the best model to be used and the impact of the accuracy of these different stages in the proposed method. To this end, an exhaustive assessment has been conducted in order to decide which model is the most appropriate for registering the variation of the arterial diameter over time. Our experiments involved a total of 1620 evaluations within nine simulated sequences of 84 frames each and the estimation of four error metrics. We conclude that our proposed approach obtains approximately 2.5 times higher accuracy than conventional state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24871987

  17. Inertial Motions of a Rigid Body with a Cavity Filled with a Viscous Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disser, Karoline; Galdi, Giovanni P.; Mazzone, Giusy; Zunino, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We study inertial motions of the coupled system, {S}, constituted by a rigid body containing a cavity entirely filled with a viscous liquid. We show that for arbitrary initial data having only finite kinetic energy, every corresponding weak solution (à la Leray-Hopf) converges, as time goes to infinity, to a uniform rotation, unless two central moments of inertia of {S} coincide and are strictly greater than the third one. This corroborates a famous "conjecture" of N.Ye. Zhukovskii in several physically relevant cases. Moreover, we show that, in a known range of initial data, this rotation may only occur along the central axis of inertia of {S} with the larger moment of inertia. We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the rigorous nonlinear stability of permanent rotations, which improve and/or generalize results previously given by other authors under different types of approximation. Finally, we present results obtained by a targeted numerical simulation that, on the one hand, complement the analytical findings, whereas, on the other hand, point out new features that the analysis is yet not able to catch, and, as such, lay the foundation for interesting and challenging future investigation.

  18. Closed-form solutions for estimating a rigid motion from plane correspondences extracted from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion.

  19. On the relative rotational motion between rigid fibers and fluid in turbulent channel flow

    SciTech Connect

    Marchioli, C.; Zhao, L.; Andersson, H. I.

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the rotation of small rigid fibers relative to the surrounding fluid in wall-bounded turbulence is examined by means of direct numerical simulations coupled with Lagrangian tracking. Statistics of the relative (fiber-to-fluid) angular velocity, referred to as slip spin in the present study, are evaluated by modelling fibers as prolate spheroidal particles with Stokes number, St, ranging from 1 to 100 and aspect ratio, λ, ranging from 3 to 50. Results are compared one-to-one with those obtained for spherical particles (λ = 1) to highlight effects due to fiber length. The statistical moments of the slip spin show that differences in the rotation rate of fibers and fluid are influenced by inertia, but depend strongly also on fiber length: Departures from the spherical shape, even when small, are associated with an increase of rotational inertia and prevent fibers from passively following the surrounding fluid. An increase of fiber length, in addition, decouples the rotational dynamics of a fiber from its translational dynamics suggesting that the two motions can be modelled independently only for long enough fibers (e.g., for aspect ratios of order ten or higher in the present simulations)

  20. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  1. Detumbling of a rigid spacecraft via torque wheel assisted gyroscopic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yiing-Yuh; Wang, Chin-Tzuo

    2014-01-01

    A time and energy efficient two-part method for detumbling a rigid spacecraft using an onboard torque wheel and a set of three-axis magnetic torquer is presented in this paper. Part-1 of the method manipulates the speed of the wheel, whose spin axis is parallel to a designated body axis of a tumbling spacecraft, and induces a desired gyroscopic-like motion to align the designated axis with its total angular momentum, H. The procedure in effect detumbles the spacecraft to rotate about the designated axis and distributes H, which is conserved during this control period, between the body and the wheel. After the alignment is achieved, Part-2 control, activated with a specified momentum transfer parameter, η, can either quickly stop the body rotation by transferring its angular momentum to the wheel or offload most of the momentum into space, using the wheel and the magnetic torquer. Convergence criteria and control laws for both parts are derived from the Lyapunov stability analysis and the method of feedback linearization. The wheel performs as a momentum storing and transferring device regulating the angular momentum between the wheel and the body. It can also provide gyroscopic stiffness to stabilize the system while the magnetic torquer is offloading the momentum. Simulation results from the included cases indicate that significantly fast detumbling of the spacecraft can be achieved with Part-1 of the proposed method. The results also show that, under the same condition, either by transferring almost all H to the wheel or dumping it, the two-part method, with a chosen η and final residual momentum condition, requires much less time and energy needed than the B-dot method does. Moreover, the stability nature of the two-part method is heuristically substantiated as the wheel torques and the dipole moment were constrained in the simulation.

  2. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Glen; Miller, Jamie; DeMets, Charles; Jansma, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some sites in the western Caribbean included in our analysis may be biased by small, but significant coseismic deformation, which has not been removed from the site velocities used in our inversion to define Caribbean motion and rigidity. Scenarios for possible east-west deformation accommodated across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise and Beata Ridge will be presented.

  3. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    sites in the western Caribbean included in our analysis may be biased by small, but significant coseismic deformation, which has not been removed from the site velocities used in our inversion to define Caribbean motion and rigidity. Scenarios for possible east-west deformation accommodated across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise and Beata Ridge will be presented.

  4. Kinematic description of soft tissue artifacts: quantifying rigid versus deformation components and their relation with bone motion.

    PubMed

    de Rosario, Helios; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente; Conejero, Efraim

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a kinematic approach for describing soft tissue artifacts (STA) in human movement analysis. Artifacts are represented as the field of relative displacements of markers with respect to the bone. This field has two components: deformation component (symmetric field) and rigid motion (skew-symmetric field). Only the skew-symmetric component propagates as an error to the joint variables, whereas the deformation component is filtered in the kinematic analysis process. Finally, a simple technique is proposed for analyzing the sources of variability to determine which part of the artifact may be modeled as an effect of the motion, and which part is due to other sources. This method has been applied to the analysis of the shank movement induced by vertical vibration in 10 subjects. The results show that the cluster deformation is very small with respect to the rigid component. Moreover, both components show a strong relationship with the movement of the tibia. These results suggest that artifacts can be modeled effectively as a systematic relative rigid movement of the marker cluster with respect to the underlying bone. This may be useful for assessing the potential effectiveness of the usual strategies for compensating for STA.

  5. Poisson equations of rotational motion for a rigid triaxial body with application to a tumbling artificial satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J. J. F.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for studying the effects of gravity gradient torque on the attitude stability of a tumbling triaxial rigid satellite. Poisson equations are used to investigate the rotation of the satellite (which is in elliptical orbit about an attracting point mass) about its center of mass. An averaging method is employed to obtain an intermediate set of differential equations for the nonresonant, secular behavior of the osculating elements which describe the rotational motions of the satellite, and the averaged equations are then integrated to obtain long-term secular solutions for the osculating elements.

  6. Equations of Motion for Rigid Multibody Systems (Equations du Mouvement de Systemes a Plusieurs Corps Solides),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    NOSED CHUMS We now consider multibody systems with closed chains, that is, systems of n rigid bodies with (n-l)+n* hinges, where n* is a positive...is given. 15 ADORESSIADRESSE E.H. Dudgeon, Director Division of Mechanical Engineering Montreal Road, Ottawa, Canada KiA 0R6 (613) 993-2424 I

  7. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  8. Analogies between the Torque-Free Motion of a Rigid Body about a Fixed Point and Light Propagation in Anisotropic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An apparently unnoticed analogy between the torque-free motion of a rotating rigid body about a fixed point and the propagation of light in anisotropic media is stated. First, a new plane construction for visualizing this torque-free motion is proposed. This method uses an intrinsic representation alternative to angular momentum and independent of…

  9. Experimental and analytical investigation of inertial propulsion mechanisms and motion simulation of rigid multi-body mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almesallmy, Mohammed

    Methodologies are developed for dynamic analysis of mechanical systems with emphasis on inertial propulsion systems. This work adopted the Lagrangian methodology. Lagrangian methodology is the most efficient classical computational technique, which we call Equations of Motion Code (EOMC). The EOMC is applied to several simple dynamic mechanical systems for easier understanding of the method and to aid other investigators in developing equations of motion of any dynamic system. In addition, it is applied to a rigid multibody system, such as Thomson IPS [Thomson 1986]. Furthermore, a simple symbolic algorithm is developed using Maple software, which can be used to convert any nonlinear n-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems into 1st-order ODE system in ready format to be used in Matlab software. A side issue, but equally important, we have started corresponding with the U.S. Patent office to persuade them that patent applications, claiming gross linear motion based on inertial propulsion systems should be automatically rejected. The precedent is rejection of patent applications involving perpetual motion machines.

  10. List-mode-based reconstruction for respiratory motion correction in PET using non-rigid body transformations.

    PubMed

    Lamare, F; Ledesma Carbayo, M J; Cresson, T; Kontaxakis, G; Santos, A; Le Rest, C Cheze; Reader, A J; Visvikis, D

    2007-09-07

    Respiratory motion in emission tomography leads to reduced image quality. Developed correction methodology has been concentrating on the use of respiratory synchronized acquisitions leading to gated frames. Such frames, however, are of low signal-to-noise ratio as a result of containing reduced statistics. In this work, we describe the implementation of an elastic transformation within a list-mode-based reconstruction for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax, allowing the use of all data available throughout a respiratory motion average acquisition. The developed algorithm was evaluated using datasets of the NCAT phantom generated at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List-mode-data-based PET-simulated frames were subsequently produced by combining the NCAT datasets with Monte Carlo simulation. A non-rigid registration algorithm based on B-spline basis functions was employed to derive transformation parameters accounting for the respiratory motion using the NCAT dynamic CT images. The displacement matrices derived were subsequently applied during the image reconstruction of the original emission list mode data. Two different implementations for the incorporation of the elastic transformations within the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm were developed and evaluated. The corrected images were compared with those produced using an affine transformation of list mode data prior to reconstruction, as well as with uncorrected respiratory motion average images. Results demonstrate that although both correction techniques considered lead to significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lung fields, the elastic-transformation-based correction leads to a more uniform improvement across the lungs for different lesion sizes and locations.

  11. Piecewise-rigid 2D-3D registration for pose estimation of snake-like manipulator using an intraoperative x-ray projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Kutzer, M. D.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Snake-like dexterous manipulators may offer significant advantages in minimally-invasive surgery in areas not reachable with conventional tools. Precise control of a wire-driven manipulator is challenging due to factors such as cable deformation, unknown internal (cable friction) and external forces, thus requiring correcting the calibration intraoperatively by determining the actual pose of the manipulator. Method: A method for simultaneously estimating pose and kinematic configuration of a piecewise-rigid object such as a snake-like manipulator from a single x-ray projection is presented. The method parameterizes kinematics using a small number of variables (e.g., 5), and optimizes them simultaneously with the 6 degree-of-freedom pose parameter of the base link using an image similarity between digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the manipulator's attenuation model and the real x-ray projection. Result: Simulation studies assumed various geometric magnifications (1.2-2.6) and out-of-plane angulations (0°-90°) in a scenario of hip osteolysis treatment, which demonstrated the median joint angle error was 0.04° (for 2.0 magnification, +/-10° out-of-plane rotation). Average computation time was 57.6 sec with 82,953 function evaluations on a mid-range GPU. The joint angle error remained lower than 0.07° while out-of-plane rotation was 0°-60°. An experiment using video images of a real manipulator demonstrated a similar trend as the simulation study except for slightly larger error around the tip attributed to accumulation of errors induced by deformation around each joint not modeled with a simple pin joint. Conclusions: The proposed approach enables high precision tracking of a piecewise-rigid object (i.e., a series of connected rigid structures) using a single projection image by incorporating prior knowledge about the shape and kinematic behavior of the object (e.g., each rigid structure connected by a pin joint parameterized by a

  12. Regular and chaotic motions in applied dynamics of a rigid body.

    PubMed

    Beletskii, V. V.; Pivovarov, M. L.; Starostin, E. L.

    1996-06-01

    Periodic and regular motions, having a predictable functioning mode, play an important role in many problems of dynamics. The achievements of mathematics and mechanics (beginning with Poincare) have made it possible to establish that such motion modes, generally speaking, are local and form "islands" of regularity in a "chaotic sea" of essentially unpredictable trajectories. The development of computer techniques together with theoretical investigations makes it possible to study the global structure of the phase space of many problems having applied significance. A review of a number of such problems, considered by the authors in the past four or five years, is given in this paper. These include orientation and rotation problems of artificial and natural celestial bodies and the problem of controlling the motion of a locomotion robot. The structure of phase space is investigated for these problems. The phase trajectories of the motion are constructed by a numerical implementation of the Poincare point map method. Distinctions are made between regular (or resonance), quasiregular (or conditionally periodic), and chaotic trajectories. The evolution of the phase picture as the parameters are varied is investigated. A large number of "phase portraits" gives a notion of the arrangement and size of the stability islands in the "sea" of chaotic motions, about the appearance and disappearance of these islands as the parameters are varied, etc. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Implications of respiratory motion for the quantification of 2D MR spectroscopic imaging data in the abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, A. J.; Leach, M. O.

    2000-08-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) studies in the abdomen or breast are acquired in the presence of respiratory motion. This modifies the point spread function (PSF) and hence the reconstructed spectra. We evaluated the quantitative effects of both periodic and aperiodic motion on spectra localized by MRSI. Artefactual signal changes, both the modification of native to a voxel and spurious signals arising elsewhere, depend primarily upon the motion amplitude relative to the voxel dimension. A similar dependence on motion amplitude was observed for simple harmonic motion (SHM), quasi-periodic motion and random displacements. No systematic dependence upon the period or initial phase of SHM or on the array size was found. There was also no significant variation with motion direction relative to the internal and external phase-encoding directions. In measured excursion ranges of 20 breast and abdominal tumours, 70% moved ≤ 5 mm, while 30% moved 6-23 mm. The diaphragm and fatty tissues in the gut typically moved ~ 15-20 mm. While tumour/organ excursions less than half the voxel dimension do not substantially affect native signals, the bleeding in of strong lipid signals will be problematic in 1H studies. MRSI studies in the abdomen, even of relatively well-anchored tumours, are thus likely to benefit from the addition of respiratory triggering or other motion compensation strategies.

  14. Spatiotemporal non-rigid image registration for 3D ultrasound cardiac motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeckx, D.; Ector, J.; Maes, F.; D'hooge, J.; Vandermeulen, D.; Voigt, J.-U.; Heidbüchel, H.; Suetens, P.

    2007-03-01

    We present a new method to evaluate 4D (3D + time) cardiac ultrasound data sets by nonrigid spatio-temporal image registration. First, a frame-to-frame registration is performed that yields a dense deformation field. The deformation field is used to calculate local spatiotemporal properties of the myocardium, such as the velocity, strain and strain rate. The field is also used to propagate particular points and surfaces, representing e.g. the endo-cardial surface over the different frames. As such, the 4D path of these point is obtained, which can be used to calculate the velocity by which the wall moves and the evolution of the local surface area over time. The wall velocity is not angle-dependent as in classical Doppler imaging, since the 4D data allows calculating the true 3D motion. Similarly, all 3D myocardium strain components can be estimated. Combined they result in local surface area or volume changes which van be color-coded as a measure of local contractability. A diagnostic method that strongly benefits from this technique is cardiac motion and deformation analysis, which is an important aid to quantify the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

  15. 2-D-3-D frequency registration using a low-dose radiographic system for knee motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Jerbi, Taha; Burdin, Valerie; Leboucher, Julien; Stindel, Eric; Roux, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented to study the feasibility of the pose and the position estimation of bone structures using a low-dose radiographic system, the entrepreneurial operating system (designed by EOS-Imaging Company). This method is based on a 2-D-3-D registration of EOS bi-planar X-ray images with an EOS 3-D reconstruction. This technique is relevant to such an application thanks to the EOS ability to simultaneously make acquisitions of frontal and sagittal radiographs, and also to produce a 3-D surface reconstruction with its attached software. In this paper, the pose and position of a bone in radiographs is estimated through the link between 3-D and 2-D data. This relationship is established in the frequency domain using the Fourier central slice theorem. To estimate the pose and position of the bone, we define a distance between the 3-D data and the radiographs, and use an iterative optimization approach to converge toward the best estimation. In this paper, we give the mathematical details of the method. We also show the experimental protocol and the results, which validate our approach.

  16. Real-time ultrasound-tagging to track the 2D motion of the common carotid artery wall in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnd, Guillaume; Salles, Sébastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Moulin, Philippe

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Tracking the motion of biological tissues represents an important issue in the field of medical ultrasound imaging. However, the longitudinal component of the motion (i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis) remains more challenging to extract due to the rather coarse resolution cell of ultrasound scanners along this direction. The aim of this study is to introduce a real-time beamforming strategy dedicated to acquire tagged images featuring a distinct pattern in the objective to ease the tracking. Methods: Under the conditions of the Fraunhofer approximation, a specific apodization function was applied to the received raw channel data, in real-time during image acquisition, in order to introduce a periodic oscillations pattern along the longitudinal direction of the radio frequency signal. Analytic signals were then extracted from the tagged images, and subpixel motion tracking of the intima–media complex was subsequently performed offline, by means of a previously introduced bidimensional analytic phase-based estimator. Results: The authors’ framework was applied in vivo on the common carotid artery from 20 young healthy volunteers and 6 elderly patients with high atherosclerosis risk. Cine-loops of tagged images were acquired during three cardiac cycles. Evaluated against reference trajectories manually generated by three experienced analysts, the mean absolute tracking error was 98 ± 84 μm and 55 ± 44 μm in the longitudinal and axial directions, respectively. These errors corresponded to 28% ± 23% and 13% ± 9% of the longitudinal and axial amplitude of the assessed motion, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed framework enables tagged ultrasound images of in vivo tissues to be acquired in real-time. Such unconventional beamforming strategy contributes to improve tracking accuracy and could potentially benefit to the interpretation and diagnosis of biomedical images.

  17. Validation and Comparison of 2D and 3D Codes for Nearshore Motion of Long Waves Using Benchmark Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velioǧlu, Deniz; Cevdet Yalçıner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis are huge waves with long wave periods and wave lengths that can cause great devastation and loss of life when they strike a coast. The interest in experimental and numerical modeling of tsunami propagation and inundation increased considerably after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In this study, two numerical codes, FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE, that analyze tsunami propagation and inundation patterns are considered. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear propagating surface waves as well as long waves by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3D-NS) equations. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve 2D depth-averaged linear and nonlinear forms of shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically tsunamis. In order to validate these two codes and analyze the differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations, two benchmark problems are applied. One benchmark problem investigates the runup of long waves over a complex 3D beach. The experimental setup is a 1:400 scale model of Monai Valley located on the west coast of Okushiri Island, Japan. Other benchmark problem is discussed in 2015 National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Annual meeting in Portland, USA. It is a field dataset, recording the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii. The computed water surface elevation and velocity data are compared with the measured data. The comparisons showed that both codes are in fairly good agreement with each other and benchmark data. The differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations are highlighted. All results are presented with discussions and comparisons. Acknowledgements: Partial support by Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region (JICA SATREPS - MarDiM Project), 603839 ASTARTE Project of EU, UDAP-C-12-14 project of AFAD Turkey, 108Y227, 113M556 and 213M534 projects of TUBITAK Turkey, RAPSODI (CONCERT_Dis-021) of CONCERT

  18. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  19. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body.

  20. Experiences in determination of non-rigid body motion in industrial environment using low-cost photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Central to our investigation is determination of dynamic behaviour of a highly reflective platform floating on water, as well as derivation of parameters defining instantaneous water state. The employed imaging setup consists of three off-the-shelf dSLR cameras capable of video recording at a 30Hz frame rate. In order to observe a change, the non-rigid and non-diffuse bodies impose the adoption of artificial targetting and custom measurement algorithms. Attention will be given to an in-house software tool implemented to carry out point measurement, correspondence search, tracking and outlier detection methods in the presence of specular reflections and a multimedia scene. A methodology for retrieval of wave parameters in regular wave conditions is also automatically handled by the software and will be discussed. In the context of performed measurements and achieved results, we will point out the extent to which consumer grade camera can fulfil automation and accuracy demands of industrial applications and the pitfalls entailed. Lastly, we will elaborate on visual representation of computed motion and deformations.

  1. Accuracy and precision of a custom camera-based system for 2D and 3D motion tracking during speech and nonspeech motor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories, and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and sub-millimeter accuracy. Method We examined the accuracy and precision of 2D and 3D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially-available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. Results Overall mean error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3 vs. 6 mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2D and 3D data. Conclusion Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve sub-millimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484

  2. Accuracy and precision of a custom camera-based system for 2-d and 3-d motion tracking during speech and nonspeech motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and submillimeter accuracy. METHOD The authors examined the accuracy and precision of 2-D and 3-D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. RESULTS Overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3- vs. 6-mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2-D and 3-D data. CONCLUSION Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve submillimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes.

  3. 2-D multi-frequency imaging of a tumor inclusion in homogeneous breast phantom using harmonic motion doppler imaging method.

    PubMed

    Kamali Tafreshi, Azadeh; Top, Can; Gencer, Nevzat

    2017-02-02

    Harmonic Motion Microwave Doppler Imaging (HMMDI) is a novel imaging modality to image the coupled electrical and mechanical properties of body tissues. In this paper, we used two experimental systems with different receiver configurations to obtain HMMDI images from tissue mimicking phantoms at multiple vibration frequencies between 15 Hz and 35 Hz. In the first system, we used a spectrum analyzer to obtain the Doppler data in frequency domain, while in the second one, we used a homodyne receiver that was designed to acquire time domain data. The developed phantoms mimic elastic and dielectric properties of breast fat tissue, and include a 14 mm × 9 mm cylindrical inclusion representing tumor. A focused ultrasound probe was mechanically scanned in two lateral dimensions to generate HMMDI images of the phantoms. The inclusions were resolved inside the fat phantom using both experimental setups. Image resolution increased with increasing vibration frequency. The sensitivity of the designed receiver was higher compared to the spectrum analyzer measurements. The results also showed that time domain data acquisition should be used to fully exploit the potential of the HMMDI method.

  4. Road-Aided Ground Slowly Moving Target 2D Motion Estimation for Single-Channel Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhirui; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Long, Teng; Bao, Qian

    2016-03-16

    To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target's position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target's offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target's azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Road-Aided Ground Slowly Moving Target 2D Motion Estimation for Single-Channel Synthetic Aperture Radar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhirui; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Long, Teng; Bao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target’s position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target’s offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target’s azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26999140

  6. Rigid model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in MR and CT images for motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K; Saha, Punam K; Odhner, Dewey; Hirsch, Bruce E; Siegler, Sorin; Simon, Scott; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2008-08-01

    There are several medical application areas that require the segmentation and separation of the component bones of joints in a sequence of images of the joint acquired under various loading conditions, our own target area being joint motion analysis. This is a challenging problem due to the proximity of bones at the joint, partial volume effects, and other imaging modality-specific factors that confound boundary contrast. In this article, a two-step model-based segmentation strategy is proposed that utilizes the unique context of the current application wherein the shape of each individual bone is preserved in all scans of a particular joint while the spatial arrangement of the bones alters significantly among bones and scans. In the first step, a rigid deterministic model of the bone is generated from a segmentation of the bone in the image corresponding to one position of the joint by using the live wire method. Subsequently, in other images of the same joint, this model is used to search for the same bone by minimizing an energy function that utilizes both boundary- and region-based information. An evaluation of the method by utilizing a total of 60 data sets on MR and CT images of the ankle complex and cervical spine indicates that the segmentations agree very closely with the live wire segmentations, yielding true positive and false positive volume fractions in the range 89%-97% and 0.2%-0.7%. The method requires 1-2 minutes of operator time and 6-7 min of computer time per data set, which makes it significantly more efficient than live wire-the method currently available for the task that can be used routinely.

  7. SYMBOD - A computer program for the automatic generation of symbolic equations of motion for systems of hinge-connected rigid bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program is described that can automatically generate symbolic equations of motion for systems of hinge-connected rigid bodies with tree topologies. The dynamical formulation underlying the program is outlined, and examples are given to show how a symbolic language is used to code the formulation. The program is applied to generate the equations of motion for a four-body model of the Galileo spacecraft. The resulting equations are shown to be a factor of three faster in execution time than conventional numerical subroutines.

  8. Sparse matrix beamforming and image reconstruction for 2-D HIFU monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) with in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Provost, Jean; Grondin, Julien; Wang, Shutao; Marquet, Fabrice; Bunting, Ethan; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-11-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) utilizes an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam to induce a localized focal oscillatory motion simultaneously estimated. The objective of this study is to develop and show the feasibility of a novel fast beamforming algorithm for image reconstruction using GPU-based sparse-matrix operation with real-time feedback. In this study, the algorithm was implemented onto a fully integrated, clinically relevant HMIFU system. A single divergent transmit beam was used while fast beamforming was implemented using a GPU-based delay-and-sum method and a sparse-matrix operation. Axial HMI displacements were then estimated from the RF signals using a 1-D normalized cross-correlation method and streamed to a graphic user interface with frame rates up to 15 Hz, a 100-fold increase compared to conventional CPU-based processing. The real-time feedback rate does not require interrupting the HIFU treatment. Results in phantom experiments showed reproducible HMI images and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system demonstrated reproducible displacement imaging, and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system showed a consistent average focal displacement decrease of 46.7 ±14.6% during lesion formation. Complementary focal temperature monitoring also indicated an average rate of displacement increase and decrease with focal temperature at 0.84±1.15%/(°)C, and 2.03±0.93%/(°)C , respectively. These results reinforce the HMIFU capability of estimating and monitoring stiffness related changes in real time. Current ongoing studies include clinical translation of the presented system for monitoring of HIFU treatment for breast and pancreatic tumor applications.

  9. Sparse matrix beamforming and image reconstruction for real-time 2D HIFU monitoring using Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) with in vitro validation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Gary Y.; Provost, Jean; Grondin, Julien; Wang, Shutao; Marquet, Fabrice; Bunting, Ethan; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method. HMIFU utilizes an Amplitude-Modulated (fAM = 25 Hz) HIFU beam to induce a localized focal oscillatory motion, which is simultaneously estimated and imaged by confocally-aligned imaging transducer. HMIFU feasibilities have been previously shown in silico, in vitro, and in vivo in 1-D or 2-D monitoring of HIFU treatment. The objective of this study is to develop and show the feasibility of a novel fast beamforming algorithm for image reconstruction using GPU-based sparse-matrix operation with real-time feedback. In this study, the algorithm was implemented onto a fully integrated, clinically relevant HMIFU system composed of a 93-element HIFU transducer (fcenter = 4.5MHz) and coaxially-aligned 64-element phased array (fcenter = 2.5MHz) for displacement excitation and motion estimation, respectively. A single transmit beam with divergent beam transmit was used while fast beamforming was implemented using a GPU-based delay-and-sum method and a sparse-matrix operation. Axial HMI displacements were then estimated from the RF signals using a 1-D normalized cross-correlation method and streamed to a graphic user interface. The present work developed and implemented a sparse matrix beamforming onto a fully-integrated, clinically relevant system, which can stream displacement images up to 15 Hz using a GPU-based processing, an increase of 100 fold in rate of streaming displacement images compared to conventional CPU-based conventional beamforming and reconstruction processing. The achieved feedback rate is also currently the fastest and only approach that does not require interrupting the HIFU treatment amongst the acoustic radiation force based HIFU imaging techniques. Results in phantom experiments showed reproducible displacement imaging, and monitoring of twenty two in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2D system showed a

  10. Representation of solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions and nonintegrability of the Hess case by quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A method for the representation of Delaunay's solutions and some other particular solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of the Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions is put forward. The Hess case in the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body is shown to be nonintegrable by quadratures. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  11. 2D Dynamic Models of Subduction: Links between Surface Plate Motion and Deformation in the Transition Zone from Observations of Deep Slab Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of seismicity and seismic tomography provide constraints on the geometry of slabs within mantle, while compression/tension axis derived from moment tensor solutions provide constraints on the internal deformation of slabs. However, since these observations provide only a somewhat blurred or incomplete snapshot of the slab in time, it is difficult to directly relate these observations to the evolution of the slab geometry and the forces acting on and within the slab. In contrast, plate tectonic reconstructions provide time-dependent constraints on the surface motion of plates and the trench at subduction zones, which are related to the dynamical evolution of the slab. We use 2D geodynamical simulations of subduction to explore the relationship between dynamical process within the deforming slab and the observations of surface plate motion and the state-of-stress in slabs. Specifically we utilize models that include the extended Boussinesq approximation (shear heating and latent heat terms in the energy equation), a layered lithosphere with pyrolite, harzburgite and basalt/eclogite, compositionally-dependent phase transitions, and a composite rheology with yielding. The models employ a weak crustal layer that decouples the overriding and subducting plates and allows for dynamically determined trench motion. Here we show that, 1) multiple phase transitions increase slab folding, 2) ridge push significantly increases trench retreat, and 3) strength of the weak crustal layer influences slab detachment. Compared to past studies a more realistic treatment of the phase transitions makes trench retreat more difficult to generate: a weaker plate may encourage slab retreat but detaches once the slab tip crosses into the transition zone due to the rapid increase in slab density. As suggested by previous studies, slab folding within the transition zone changes the direction of forces on the slab and causes periodic changes from trench retreat to trench advance. We

  12. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  13. Real-Time Correction of Rigid-Body-Motion-Induced Phase Errors for Diffusion-Weighted Steady State Free Precession Imaging

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, R; Aksoy, M; Aboussouan, E; Peterson, E; Van, A; Bammer, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion contrast in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI is generated through the constructive addition of signal from many coherence pathways. Motion-induced phase causes destructive interference which results in loss of signal magnitude and diffusion contrast. In this work, a 3D navigator-based real-time correction of the rigid-body-motion-induced phase errors is developed for diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI. Methods The efficacy of the real-time prospective correction method in preserving phase coherence of the steady-state is tested in 3D phantom experiments and 3D scans of healthy human subjects. Results In nearly all experiments, the signal magnitude in images obtained with proposed prospective correction was higher than the signal magnitude in images obtained with no correction. In the human subjects the mean magnitude signal in the data was up to 30 percent higher with prospective motion correction than without. Prospective correction never resulted in a decrease in mean signal magnitude in either the data or in the images. Conclusions The proposed prospective motion correction method is shown to preserve the phase coherence of the steady state in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI, thus mitigating signal magnitude losses that would confound the desired diffusion contrast. PMID:24715414

  14. Biquaternion solution of the kinematic control problem for the motion of a rigid body and its application to the solution of inverse problems of robot-manipulator kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference (programmed) coordinate system moving relative to the fixed coordinate system with a given instantaneous velocity screw along a given trajectory is considered in the kinematic statement. The biquaternion kinematic equations of motion of a rigid body in normalized and unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions are used as the mathematical model of motion, and the dual orthogonal projections of the instantaneous velocity screw of the body motion onto the body coordinate axes are used as the control. Various types of correction (stabilization), which are biquaternion analogs of position and integral corrections, are proposed. It is shown that the linear (obtained without linearization) and stationary biquaternion error equations that are invariant under any chosen programmed motion of the reference coordinate system can be obtained for the proposed types of correction and the use of unnormalized finite displacement biquaternions and four-dimensional dual controls allows one to construct globally regular control laws. The general solution of the error equation is constructed, and conditions for asymptotic stability of the programmed motion are obtained. The constructed theory of kinematic control of motion is used to solve inverse problems of robot-manipulator kinematics. The control problem under study is a generalization of the kinematic problem [1, 2] of reducing the body-attached coordinate system to the reference coordinate system rotating at a given (programmed) absolute angular velocity, and the presentedmethod for solving inverse problems of robotmanipulator kinematics is a development of the method proposed in [3-5].

  15. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  16. A previously unobserved conformation for the human Pex5p receptor suggests roles for intrinsic flexibility and rigid domain motions in ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Will A; Pursiainen, Niko V; Garman, Elspeth F; Juffer, André H; Wilmanns, Matthias; Kursula, Petri

    2007-01-01

    Background The C-terminal tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeat domain of Pex5p recognises proteins carrying a peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) tripeptide in their C-terminus. Previously, structural data have been obtained from the TPR domain of Pex5p in both the liganded and unliganded states, indicating a conformational change taking place upon cargo protein binding. Such a conformational change would be expected to play a major role both during PTS1 protein recognition as well as in cargo release into the peroxisomal lumen. However, little information is available on the factors that may regulate such structural changes. Results We have used a range of biophysical and computational methods to further analyse the conformational flexibility and ligand binding of Pex5p. A new crystal form for the human Pex5p C-terminal domain (Pex5p(C)) was obtained in the presence of Sr2+ ions, and the structure presents a novel conformation, distinct from all previous liganded and apo crystal structures for Pex5p(C). The difference relates to a near-rigid body movement of two halves of the molecule, and this movement is different from that required to reach a ring-like conformation upon PTS1 ligand binding. The bound Sr2+ ion changes the dynamic properties of Pex5p(C) affecting its conformation, possibly by making the Sr2+-binding loop – located near the hinge region for the observed domain motions – more rigid. Conclusion The current data indicate that Pex5p(C) is able to sample a range of conformational states in the absence of bound PTS1 ligand. The domain movements between various apo conformations are distinct from those involved in ligand binding, although the differences between all observed conformations so far can be characterised by the movement of the two halves of Pex5p(C) as near-rigid bodies with respect to each other. PMID:17428317

  17. Periodic Motions around the Collinear Equilibrium Points of the R3BP Where the Primary Is a Triaxial Rigid Body and the Secondary Is an Oblate Spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagadish; Kalantonis, V. S.; Mrumun Gyegwe, Jessica; Perdiou, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a modification of the restricted three-body problem where the primary (more massive body) is a triaxial rigid body and the secondary (less massive body) is an oblate spheroid and study periodic motions around the collinear equilibrium points. The locations of these points are first determined for 10 combinations of the parameters of the problem. In all 10 cases, the collinear equilibrium points are found to be unstable, as in the classical problem, and the Lyapunov periodic orbits around them have been computed accurately by applying known corrector-predictor algorithms. An extensive study on the families of three-dimensional periodic orbits emanating from these points has also been done. To find suitable starting points, for all the computed families, semianalytical solutions have been obtained, for both two- and three-dimensional cases, around the collinear equilibrium points using the Lindstedt-Poincaré method. Finally, the stability of all computed periodic orbits has been studied.

  18. 3D computation of an incipient motion of a sessile drop on a rigid surface with contact angle hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Nicklas; Criscione, Antonio; Roisman, Ilia V.; Marschall, Holger; Tropea, Cameron

    2015-12-01

    Contact line phenomena govern a large number of multiphase flows. A reliable description of the contact line dynamics is therefore essential for prediction of such flows. Well-known difficulties of computation of the wetting phenomena include the mesh dependence of the results caused by flow singularity near the contact line and accurate estimation of its propagating velocity. The present study deals with the computational problem arising from the discontinuity in the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the propagation velocity, associated with the contact angle hysteresis. The numerical simulations are performed using the volume of fluid method. The boundary conditions in the neighborhood of the contact line are switched depending on the value of the computed current local contact angle between a propagating contact line and a pinning condition. The method is applied to the simulation of the deformation and incipient motion of a shedding drop. The model is validated by comparison of the numerical predictions with experimental data.

  19. Analytical solutions for the equations of motion of a space vehicle during the atmospheric re-entry phase on a 2-D trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mititelu, Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    A practical and important problem encountered during the atmospheric re-entry phase is to determine analytical solutions for the space vehicle dynamical equations of motion. The author proposes new solutions for the equations of trajectory and flight-path angle of the space vehicle during the re-entry phase in Earth’s atmosphere. Explicit analytical solutions for the aerodynamic equations of motion can be effectively applied to investigate and control the rocket flight characteristics. Setting the initial conditions for the speed, re-entering flight-path angle, altitude, atmosphere density, lift and drag coefficients, the nonlinear differential equations of motion are linearized by a proper choice of the re-entry range angles. After integration, the solutions are expressed with the Exponential Integral, and Generalized Exponential Integral functions. Theoretical frameworks for proposed solutions as well as, several numerical examples, are presented.

  20. Accuracy and Precision of a Custom Camera-Based System for 2-D and 3-D Motion Tracking during Speech and Nonspeech Motor Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable…

  1. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations.

    PubMed

    Evans, Thomas A; Lang, Robert J; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2015-09-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented.

  2. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  3. Analysis of local molecular motions of aromatic sidechains in proteins by 2D and 3D fast MAS NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Piotr; Pawlak, Tomasz; Jeziorna, Agata; Trébosc, Julien; Hou, Guangjin; Vega, Alexander J; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Dracinsky, Martin; Polenova, Tatyana; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2015-11-21

    We report a new multidimensional magic angle spinning NMR methodology, which provides an accurate and detailed probe of molecular motions occurring on timescales of nano- to microseconds, in sidechains of proteins. The approach is based on a 3D CPVC-RFDR correlation experiment recorded under fast MAS conditions (ν(R) = 62 kHz), where (13)C-(1)H CPVC dipolar lineshapes are recorded in a chemical shift resolved manner. The power of the technique is demonstrated in model tripeptide Tyr-(d)Ala-Phe and two nanocrystalline proteins, GB1 and LC8. We demonstrate that, through numerical simulations of dipolar lineshapes of aromatic sidechains, their detailed dynamic profile, i.e., the motional modes, is obtained. In GB1 and LC8 the results unequivocally indicate that a number of aromatic residues are dynamic, and using quantum mechanical calculations, we correlate the molecular motions of aromatic groups to their local environment in the crystal lattice. The approach presented here is general and can be readily extended to other biological systems.

  4. Active tectonics of Peru: Heterogeneous interseismic coupling along the Nazca megathrust, rigid motion of the Peruvian Sliver, and Subandean shortening accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Lanza, J. C.; Chlieh, M.; Cavalié, O.; Tavera, H.; Baby, P.; Chire-Chira, J.; Nocquet, J.-M.

    2016-10-01

    Over 100 GPS sites measured in 2008-2013 in Peru provide new insights into the present-day crustal deformation of the 2200 km long Peruvian margin. This margin is squeezed between the eastward subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate at the South America trench axis and the westward continental subduction of the South American Plate beneath the Eastern Cordillera and Subandean orogenic wedge. Continental active faults and GPS data reveal the rigid motion of a Peruvian Forearc Sliver that extends from the oceanic trench axis to the Western-Eastern Cordilleras boundary and moves southeastward at 4-5 mm/yr relative to a stable South America reference frame. GPS data indicate that the Subandean shortening increases southward by 2 to 4 mm/yr. In a Peruvian Sliver reference frame, the residual GPS data indicate that the interseismic coupling along the Nazca megathrust is highly heterogeneous. Coupling in northern Peru is shallow and coincides with the site of previous moderate-sized and shallow tsunami-earthquakes. Deep coupling occurs in central and southern Peru, where repeated large and great megathrust earthquakes have occurred. The strong correlation between highly coupled areas and large ruptures suggests that seismic asperities are persistent features of the megathrust. Creeping segments appear at the extremities of great ruptures and where oceanic fracture zones and ridges enter the subduction zone, suggesting that these subducting structures play a major role in the seismic segmentation of the Peruvian margin. In central Peru, we estimate a recurrence time of 305 ± 40 years to reproduce the great 1746 Mw 8.8 Lima-Callao earthquake.

  5. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    Rigidity of the abdomen ... is a sore area inside the belly or abdomen, the pain will get worse when a hand ... Causes can include: Abscess inside the abdomen Appendicitis ... small intestine, large bowel, or gallbladder ( gastrointestinal ...

  6. Tracking of deformable target in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Lucas; Marchal, Maud; Le Bras, Anthony; Dardenne, Guillaume; Krupa, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically tracking deformable target within 2D ultrasound images. Our approach uses only dense information combined with a physically-based model and has therefore the advantage of not using any fiducial marker nor a priori knowledge on the anatomical environment. The physical model is represented by a mass-spring damper system driven by different types of forces where the external forces are obtained by maximizing image similarity metric between a reference target and a deformed target across the time. This deformation is represented by a parametric warping model where the optimal parameters are estimated from the intensity variation. This warping function is well-suited to represent localized deformations in the ultrasound images because it directly links the forces applied on each mass with the motion of all the pixels in its vicinity. The internal forces constrain the deformation to physically plausible motions, and reduce the sensitivity to the speckle noise. The approach was validated on simulated and real data, both for rigid and free-form motions of soft tissues. The results are very promising since the deformable target could be tracked with a good accuracy for both types of motion. Our approach opens novel possibilities for computer-assisted interventions where deformable organs are involved and could be used as a new tool for interactive tracking of soft tissues in ultrasound images.

  7. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  8. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  9. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  10. Shrinking of the Cocos and Nazca Plates due to Horizontal Thermal Contraction and Implications for Plate Non-rigidity and the Non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca Plate Motion Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Plate rigidity is the central tenet of plate tectonics. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that significant intraplate deformation occurs in oceanic lithosphere due to horizontal thermal contraction, the rate of which decreases as ≈ 1/age [Kumar & Gordon 2009]. Support for this hypothesis comes from the azimuths of submarine transform faults, which are fit significantly better assuming shrinking plates than by assuming rigid plates [Mishra & Gordon 2015]. Previously we estimated the intraplate velocity field of the Pacific plate accounting for horizontal thermal contraction. The ≈2 mm/yr southeastward motion predicted for the northeastern part of the plate relative to the Pacific-Antarctic Rise may contribute to the non-closure of the Pacific-North America plate motion circuit. In a reference frame in which fix the oldest portion of the Pacific plate, some sites on the plate move up to ≈2 mm/yr [Kreemer & Gordon 2014]. Here we present intraplate velocity fields of the Cocos and Nazca plates and discuss their implications for the non-rigidity of plates and the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit, which fails closure by a stunning 14 ±5 mm/yr [DeMets et al. 2010]. If we fix the oldest part of the Cocos plate, intraplate velocities of up to ≈2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring at the northern end of the plate. If we fix the oldest part of the Nazca plate, displacement rates up to 2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring in the northeasternmost portion of the plate. In the velocity fields for both plates, the lithosphere adjacent to transform faults along the East Pacific Rise tends to move to the south, which would skew the azimuths of the transform faults clockwise of the values expected for rigid plates, which is the same as the sense of misfit between observed azimuths of transform faults and the azimuths calculated from the MORVEL global set of relative angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Direct

  11. Rigid clamp

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.; Burt, Jack D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object.

  12. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  13. Long term preservation of motion with artificial cervical disc implants: A comparison between cervical disc replacement and rigid fusion with cage

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the advancement of technologies there is more interest in the maintenance of the spine's biomechanical properties focusing on the preservation of the functional motion segment. In present article we describe our experience with 25 cases managed with artificial cervical discs with 28 Solis cage following cervical discectomy with a mean follow-up period of 7.5 year. Materials and Methods: All surgeries were performed by single surgeon from March 2004 to June 2005 with a follow-up till date. Patients with symptomatic single or multiple level diseases that had no prior cervical surgery were candidates for the study. Cohort demographics were comparable. Standardized clinical outcome measures and radiographic examinations were used at prescribed post-operative intervals to compare the treatment groups. Relief in radicular pain, cervical spine motion, and degenerative changes at follow-up were noted. Results: In a total 53 cases, the mean age in prosthesis group was 47 years (age range: 30-63 years) and mean age in cage group was 44 years (32-62 years). Mean hospital stay was 2.7 days in both the groups. At 4 weeks complete cervical movements could be achieved in 19 cases in artificial disc group. Maintenance of movement after 7.5 years was in 76% of these patients. Lordosis was maintained in all cases till date. There was no mortality or wound infection in our series. Conclusions: We conclude that artificial cervical disc could be an alternative to fixed spinal fusion as it represents the most physiological substitute of disc. However, there is need for further studies to support the use of artificial cervical disc prosthesis. PMID:25685218

  14. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  15. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  16. Electron spin-echo techniques for the study of protein motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leela; Johnson, Michael E.; Bowman, Michael K.

    Electron spin-echo (ESE) spectroscopy has been used to make the first direct measurements of spin-spin relaxation times of a spin-labeled protein at physiological temperatures. Results from experiments using maleimide-labeled deoxygenated hemoglobin (dHb) from individuals homozygous for sickle cell anemia (dHbS) have been compared with those from control experiments using dHb from normal adults (dHbA). Hb "immobilized" by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by siloxane polymer entrapment have been studied for a suitable "rigid" reference. Two-dimensional ESE (2D-ESE) experiments have been performed using all of these systems. The 2D contour plots show that 2D-ESE is sensitive to the slow motion of dHbS polymers and can differentiate it from both that of immobilized Hb and of HbA molecules in solution at the same temperature and concentration. More importantly, the 2D-ESE technique enables one to select for slower motion and thereby extract the dHbS polymer signal from the total signal generated by the heterogeneous system containing dHbS molecules in solution as well as in the polymer. Computer simulations using current slow motional theories show that detailed motional and structural information may be obtained by such studies. The considerable potential of 2D-ESE spectroscopy in the study of macromolecular motion is illustrated by comparing 2D-ESE with the nonlinear technique of saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance.

  17. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  18. Kinematic problem of rigid body orientation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, P. K.; Sergeev, A. N.; Chelnokov, Iu. N.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of reducing a coordinate system linked with a rigid body to a reference coordinate system rotating with a specified (programmed) angular velocity is analyzed using a kinematic formulation. The mathematic model of motion includes kinematic equations of the angular motion of a rigid body in nonnormalized quaternions; used as the controls are projections of the absolute angular velocity of body rotation to the coordinate axes. Two kinds of correction are proposed which represent quaternion analogs of the positional and integral corrections. Linear error equations for the orientation control system are obtained for the types of correction proposed here.

  19. Development of an affordable system for 2D kinematics and dynamics analysis of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahyuddin, A. I.; Mihradi, S.; Dirgantara, T.; Sukmajaya, A.; Juliyad, N.; Purba, U.

    2009-12-01

    Development of a low-cost, yet reliable, system for 2D gait analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of a home video camera with speed of 25 fps, LED markers, PC and a technical computing software, which are used for capturing and processing the digital image of markers attached to human body during motion. In the experiments, a person is instructed to walk in a specially arranged measurement area. The recorded images are then digitally processed to detect and track the 2D coordinate of the markers over time. To conduct a dynamics analysis, a mathematical formulation for human motion is constructed where the body is modeled by a system of five rigid bars connected by joints. Finally, a program is developed to plot and calculate the kinematics and dynamics data of human gait, where the markers position data over time, and other variables such as dimensions and weight of the body are used as the input in the program.

  20. Development of an affordable system for 2D kinematics and dynamics analysis of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahyuddin, A. I.; Mihradi, S.; Dirgantara, T.; Sukmajaya, A.; Juliyad, N.; Purba, U.

    2010-03-01

    Development of a low-cost, yet reliable, system for 2D gait analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of a home video camera with speed of 25 fps, LED markers, PC and a technical computing software, which are used for capturing and processing the digital image of markers attached to human body during motion. In the experiments, a person is instructed to walk in a specially arranged measurement area. The recorded images are then digitally processed to detect and track the 2D coordinate of the markers over time. To conduct a dynamics analysis, a mathematical formulation for human motion is constructed where the body is modeled by a system of five rigid bars connected by joints. Finally, a program is developed to plot and calculate the kinematics and dynamics data of human gait, where the markers position data over time, and other variables such as dimensions and weight of the body are used as the input in the program.

  1. A Computational Study of Rigid Motion Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Hubel and Wiesel [46, 47], who postulated a h.e hierarchical functional architecture for visual processing with successively ’.’ ,P. ’ St- 0~ X7...large. This case has been analyzed extensi ely in the literature, [5, 42, 79], are some examples. The above methods deal with local analysis of the image...Image Sequence Analysis, T. S. Huang, (ed.), Springer- 0 Verlag, 1981, ch. 1. 46. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel , "Receptive field and Functional

  2. The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem of Colloidal Particle's energy on 2D Periodic Substrates: A Monte Carlo Study of thermal noise-like fluctuation and diffusion like Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Amin

    2014-05-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.

  3. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  4. Projectile transverse motion and stability in electromagnetic induction launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Shokair, I.R.

    1993-08-01

    The transverse motion of a projectile in an electromagnetic induction launcher is considered. The equations of motion for translation and rotation are derived assuming a rigid projectile and a flyway restoring force per unit length that is proportional to the local displacement. Transverse forces and torques due to energized coils are derived for displaced or tilted projectile elements based on a first order perturbation method. The resulting equations of motion for a rigid projectile composed of multiple elements in a multi-coil launcher are analyzed as a coupled oscillator system of equations and a simple stability condition is derived. The equations of motion are incorporated into the 2-D Slingshot code and numerical solutions for the transverse motion are obtained. For the 20 meter navy launcher parameters we find that stability is achieved with a flyway spring constant of k {approx} 1{times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2}. For k {approx} 1.5 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2} and sample coil misalignment modeled as a sine wave of I mm amplitude at wavelengths of one or two meters, the projectile displacement grows to a maximum of 4 mm. This growth is due to resonance between the natural frequency of the Projectile transverse motion and the coil displacement wavelength. This resonance does not persist because of the changing axial velocity. Random coil displacement is also found to cause roughly the same projectile displacement. For the maximum displacement a rough estimate of the transverse pressure is 50 bars.

  5. Modeling the Collision with Friction of Rigid Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabuga, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    Different models of a perfectly inelastic collision of rigid bodies in plane motion are compared. Formulas for the impact impulses are derived for the Kane-Levinson-Whittaker model based on the kinematic restitution factor, the Routh model based on the kinetic restitution factor, and the Stronge model based on the energy restitution factor. It is shown that these formulas coincide if the collision of rough rigid bodies in plane motion is perfectly inelastic

  6. Rigidity of lattice domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savelyev, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    The means of ensuring total rigidity of lattice domes, using comparison with solid shells of 1-3 layers are discussed. Irregularities of manufacture, processing, and other factors are considered, as they relate to diminution of rigidity. The discussion uses the concepts of upper and lower critical loads on the structure in question.

  7. Local Metric Learning in 2D/3D Deformable Registration With Application in the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Mageras, Gig; Pizer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of disease sites subject to respiratory motion, soft tissue deformations can affect localization accuracy. We describe the application of a method of 2D/3D deformable registration to soft tissue localization in abdomen. The method, called registration efficiency and accuracy through learning a metric on shape (REALMS), is designed to support real-time IGRT. In a previously developed version of REALMS, the method interpolated 3D deformation parameters for any credible deformation in a deformation space using a single globally-trained Riemannian metric for each parameter. We propose a refinement of the method in which the metric is trained over a particular region of the deformation space, such that interpolation accuracy within that region is improved. We report on the application of the proposed algorithm to IGRT in abdominal disease sites, which is more challenging than in lung because of low intensity contrast and nonrespiratory deformation. We introduce a rigid translation vector to compensate for nonrespiratory deformation, and design a special region-of-interest around fiducial markers implanted near the tumor to produce a more reliable registration. Both synthetic data and actual data tests on abdominal datasets show that the localized approach achieves more accurate 2D/3D deformable registration than the global approach. PMID:24771575

  8. Rigid-Rod Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Kinder, James D.; Hull, Diana L.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental polyimides relatively rigid synthesized in effort to exploit some of advantages of rodlike polymers, while alleviating disadvantages. Polymers used to make colorless fibers and transparent films for optical and electronic application.

  9. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  10. Colonoscope flexural rigidity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeyer, J A; Barthel, J A; Roth, J P; Saifuddin, T

    1998-07-01

    A testing device is developed that determines the stiffness, or flexural rigidity, of an endoscope at specific locations down its length by subjecting it to a compressive axial force, a situation similar to the actual forces applied to the endoscope during a clinical procedure. The endoscope is made to deform in a similar fashion to a slender buckled column and the force causing this deformation is related to the flexural rigidity using column buckling theory. A direct relationship between the critical load needed to cause buckling and the square of column length L is demonstrated experimentally and is expected theoretically, giving confidence in the application of column buckling theory to endoscope testing. Additional confidence in the validity of the column buckling test results is obtained by their similarity to data obtained by subjecting the endoscope to a transverse load, determining deflection, and modelling the endoscope as a bent elastic beam. Several makes and models of endoscopes were tested, with flexural rigidity values typically ranging between 160 to 240 Ncm2. The effect of a metal stiffener inserted in an endoscope's accessory channel is quantified, as is the change in flexural rigidity down the insertion shaft of a graded-stiffness endoscope. Significant differences in flexural rigidity were obtained between identical endoscopes, each sharing similar usage histories, indicating the need for flexural rigidity measurements for each individual endoscope of a particular model line, though a more extensive study is required to reliably determine scope-to-scope stiffness variations for a particular model line.

  11. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-05-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid.

  12. A numerical model of 2-D sloshing of pseudo-viscous liquids in horizontally accelerated rectangular containers

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.; Ingber, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical model for simulating the transient nonlinear behavior of 2-D viscous sloshing flows in rectangular containers subjected to arbitrary horizontal accelerations is presented. The potential-flow formulation uses Rayleigh damping to approximate the effects of viscosity, and Lagrangian node movement is used to accommodate violent sloshing motions. A boundary element approach is used to efficiently handle the time-changing fluid geometry. Additionally, a corrected equation is presented for the constraint condition relating normal and tangential derivatives of the velocity potential where the fluid free surface meets the rigid container wall. The numerical model appears to be more accurate than previous sloshing models, as determined by comparison against exact analytic solutions and results of previously published models.

  13. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  14. A Motion-from-Form Mechanism Contributes to Extracting Pattern Motion from Plaids

    PubMed Central

    Optican, Lance M.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of neurons selective for pattern motion direction in primate middle temporal area MT (Albright, 1984; Movshon et al., 1985), the neural computation of this signal has been the subject of intense study. The bulk of this work has explored responses to plaids obtained by summing two drifting sinusoidal gratings. Unfortunately, with these stimuli, many different mechanisms are similarly effective at extracting pattern motion. We devised a new set of stimuli, obtained by summing two random line stimuli with different orientations. This allowed several novel manipulations, including generating plaids that do not contain rigid 2D motion. Importantly, these stimuli do not engage most of the previously proposed mechanisms. We then recorded the ocular following responses that such stimuli induce in human subjects. We found that pattern motion is computed even with stimuli that do not cohere perceptually, including those without rigid motion, and even when the two gratings are presented separately to the two eyes. Moderate temporal and/or spatial separation of the gratings impairs the computation. We show that, of the models proposed so far, only those based on the intersection-of-constraints rule, embedding a motion-from-form mechanism (in which orientation signals are used in the computation of motion direction signals), can account for our results. At least for the eye movements reported here, a motion-from-form mechanism is thus involved in one of the most basic functions of the visual motion system: extracting motion direction from complex scenes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Anatomical considerations led to the proposal that visual function is organized in separate processing streams: one (ventral) devoted to form and one (dorsal) devoted to motion. Several experimental results have challenged this view, arguing in favor of a more integrated view of visual processing. Here we add to this body of work, supporting a role for form information even in a

  15. Method to estimate center of rigidity using vibration recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Celebi, Mehmet

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate the center of rigidity of buildings by using vibration recordings is presented. The method is based on the criterion that the coherence of translational motions with the rotational motion is minimum at the center of rigidity. Since the coherence is a function of frequency, a gross but frequency-independent measure of the coherency is defined as the integral of the coherence function over the frequency. The center of rigidity is determined by minimizing this integral. The formulation is given for two-dimensional motions. Two examples are presented for the method; a rectangular building with ambient-vibration recordings, and a triangular building with earthquake-vibration recordings. Although the examples given are for buildings, the method can be applied to any structure with two-dimensional motions.

  16. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.

    2012-11-01

    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  17. Integrated power and attitude control of a rigid satellite with onboard magnetic bearing suspended rigid flywheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeonkyu

    2003-10-01

    A system of differential equations governing the translational and rotational motion of a system model consisting of a rigid satellite and multiple MB suspended rigid flywheels in general configuration is developed. Flywheel modules are contained in a housing rigidly mounted on the satellite and floated by an active MB suspension system, therefore each flywheel module has six degrees of freedom (DOF) as well as the satellite module. Equations of motion for the satellite and flywheels are naturally coupled and the satellite rotational motion and translational motion are coupled. A nonlinear state feedback tracking control law, which is globally asymptotically stable, is developed following a Lyapunov stability theory for integrated power and attitude control using the MB suspended flywheels. The stability, robustness, and tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the present control law with respect to initial attitude error, system modeling error, an imbalance disturbance, is demonstrated by case studies. The satellite departure motion equation derived from the definition of the angular velocity error and the system dynamics equations is presented. Application study of existing power tracking algorithm with this control law shows perfect power tracking for both power charging from and power delivery to the satellite operations and the power tracking can be performed simultaneously with and independent of the attitude control function.

  18. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  19. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  20. Towards the clinical integration of an image-guided navigation system for percutaneous liver tumor ablation using freehand 2D ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Spinczyk, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors constitute a significant challenge for contemporary medicine. Several improvements are currently being developed and implemented to advance image navigation systems for percutaneous liver focal lesion ablation in clinical applications at the diagnosis, planning and intervention stages. First, the automatic generation of an anatomically accurate parametric model of the preoperative patient liver was proposed in addition to a method to visually evaluate and make manual corrections. Second, a marker was designed to facilitate rigid registration between the model of the preoperative patient liver and the patient during treatment. A specific approach was implemented and tested for rigid mapping by continuously tracking a set of uniquely identified markers and by accounting for breathing motion, facilitating the determination of the optimal breathing phase for needle insertion into the liver tissue. Third, to overcome the challenge of tracking the absolute position of the planned target point, an intra-operative ultrasound (US) system was integrated based on the Public Software Library for UltraSound and OpenIGTLink protocol, which tracks breathing motion in a 2D time sequence of US images. Additionally, to improve the visibility of liver focal lesions, an approach to determine spatio-temporal correspondence between the US sequence and the 4D computed tomography (CT) examination was developed, implemented and tested. This proposed method of processing anatomical model, rigid registration approach and the implemented US tracking and fusion method were tested in 20 anonymized CT and in 10 clinical cases, respectively. The presented methodology can be applied and used with any older 2D US systems, which are currently commonly used in clinical practice.

  1. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.

  2. Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188

  3. Motion and deformation compensation for freehand prostate biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Nouranian, Saman; Sojoudi, Samira; Ashab, Hussam A.; Machan, Lindsay; Chang, Silvia; Black, Peter; Gleave, Martin; Goldenberg, Larry; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a registration pipeline to compensate for prostate motion and deformation during targeted freehand prostate biopsies. We perform 2D-3D registration by reconstructing a thin-volume around the real-time 2D ultrasound imaging plane. Constrained Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and gradient descent optimization are used to rigidly align the moving volume to the fixed thin-volume. Subsequently, B-spline de- formable registration is performed to compensate for remaining non-linear deformations. SSD and zero-bounded Limited memory Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shannon (LBFGS) optimizer are used to find the optimum B-spline parameters. Registration results are validated on five prostate biopsy patients. Initial experiments suggest thin- volume-to-volume registration to be more effective than slice-to-volume registration. Also, a minimum consistent 2 mm improvement of Target Registration Error (TRE) is achieved following the deformable registration.

  4. Rigid lenses: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bayshore, C A

    1979-03-01

    New gas permeable rigid contact lens materials, by allowing direct transmission of oxygen, provide significant advantages over PMMA. Edema resulting from oxygen deprivation with PMMA lenses is eliminated and comfort is increased. Three types of gas permeable materials are described: CAB, silicone, and a combination of CAB and silicone.

  5. Electrostatics of Rigid Polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-06-04

    The organization of rigid biological polyelectrolytes by multivalent ions and macroions are important for many fundamental problems in biology and biomedicine, such as cytoskeletal regulation and antimicrobial sequestration in cystic fibrosis. These polyelectrolytes have been used as model systems for understanding electrostatics in complex fluids. Here, we review some recent results in theory, simulations, and experiments.

  6. Rigid molecular foams

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Mitchell, M.A.; Aspen, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability, and processing. Rigid molecular foams or {open_quotes}organic zeolites{close_quotes} would not be crystalline materials and could be tailored over a broader range of pore sizes and volumes. A novel process for preparing hypercrosslinked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, biphenyl, m-terphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with dichloroxylene (DCX) as the pore size. After drying the foams are robust and rigid. Densities of the resulting foams can range from 0.15 g/cc to 0.75 g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and the crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking and the cure time of the resulting gel, the pore size, pore size distribution, and the total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6 {angstrom} to 2,000 {angstrom}.

  7. High-accuracy 2D digital image correlation measurements using low-cost imaging lenses: implementation of a generalized compensation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang

    2014-02-01

    The ideal pinhole imaging model commonly assumed for an ordinary two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) system is neither perfect nor stable because of the existence of small out-of-plane motion of the test sample surface that occurred after loading, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target due to temperature variation of a camera and unavoidable geometric distortion of an imaging lens. In certain cases, these disadvantages can lead to significant errors in the measured displacements and strains. Although a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens has been strongly recommended to be used in the 2D-DIC system as an essential optical component to achieve high-accuracy measurement, it is not generally applicable due to its fixed field of view, limited depth of focus and high cost. To minimize the errors associated with the imperfectness and instability of a common 2D-DIC system using a low-cost imaging lens, a generalized compensation method using a non-deformable reference sample is proposed in this work. With the proposed method, the displacement of the reference sample rigidly attached behind the test sample is first measured using 2D-DIC, and then it is fitted using a parametric model. The fitted parametric model is then used to correct the displacements of the deformed sample to remove the influences of these unfavorable factors. The validity of the proposed compensation method is first verified using out-of-plane translation, out-of-plane rotation, in-plane translation tests and their combinations. Uniaxial tensile tests of an aluminum specimen were also performed to quantitatively examine the strain accuracy of the proposed compensation method. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method is an easy-to-implement yet effective technique for achieving high-accuracy deformation measurement using an ordinary 2D-DIC system.

  8. Obituary--rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.

  9. Method for identification of rigid domains and hinge residues in proteins based on exhaustive enumeration.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Julian

    2015-06-01

    Many proteins undergo large-scale motions where relatively rigid domains move against each other. The identification of rigid domains, as well as the hinge residues important for their relative movements, is important for various applications including flexible docking simulations. In this work, we develop a method for protein rigid domain identification based on an exhaustive enumeration of maximal rigid domains, the rigid domains not fully contained within other domains. The computation is performed by mapping the problem to that of finding maximal cliques in a graph. A minimal set of rigid domains are then selected, which cover most of the protein with minimal overlap. In contrast to the results of existing methods that partition a protein into non-overlapping domains using approximate algorithms, the rigid domains obtained from exact enumeration naturally contain overlapping regions, which correspond to the hinges of the inter-domain bending motion. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on several proteins.

  10. How rigid are viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2008-08-01

    Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.

  11. Dynamic rigidity transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Latva-Kokko, M.; Timonen, J.

    2003-01-01

    An inflated closed loop (or membrane) is used to demonstrate a dynamic rigidity transition that occurs when impact energy is added to the loop in static equilibrium at zero temperature. The only relevant parameter in this transition is the ratio of the energy needed to collapse the loop and the impact energy. When this ratio is below a threshold value close to unity, the loop collapses into a high-entropy floppy state, and it does not return to the rigid state unless the impact energy can escape. The internal oscillations are in the floppy state dominated by 1/f2 noise. When the ratio is above the threshold, the loop does not collapse, and the internal oscillations resulting from the impact are dominated by the eigenfrequencies of the stretched membrane. In this state, the loop can bounce for a long time. It is still an open question whether bouncing will eventually vanish or whether a stationary bouncing state will be reached. The dynamic transition between the floppy and the rigid state is discontinuous.

  12. Prospective Motion Correction using Inductively-Coupled Wireless RF Coils

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Melvyn B.; Aksoy, Murat; Maclaren, Julian; Watkins, Ronald D.; Bammer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A novel prospective motion correction technique for brain MRI is presented that uses miniature wireless radio-frequency (RF) coils, or “wireless markers”, for position tracking. Methods Each marker is free of traditional cable connections to the scanner. Instead, its signal is wirelessly linked to the MR receiver via inductive coupling with the head coil. Real-time tracking of rigid head motion is performed using a pair of glasses integrated with three wireless markers. A tracking pulse-sequence, combined with knowledge of the markers’ unique geometrical arrangement, is used to measure their positions. Tracking data from the glasses is then used to prospectively update the orientation and position of the image-volume so that it follows the motion of the head. Results Wireless-marker position measurements were comparable to measurements using traditional wired RF tracking coils, with the standard deviation of the difference < 0.01 mm over the range of positions measured inside the head coil. RF safety was verified with B1 maps and temperature measurements. Prospective motion correction was demonstrated in a 2D spin-echo scan while the subject performed a series of deliberate head rotations. Conclusion Prospective motion correction using wireless markers enables high quality images to be acquired even during bulk motions. Wireless markers are small, avoid RF safety risks from electrical cables, are not hampered by mechanical connections to the scanner, and require minimal setup times. These advantages may help to facilitate adoption in the clinic. PMID:23813444

  13. FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1994-01-01

    The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.

  14. 2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, De

    The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.

  15. Ultrasound 2D strain estimator based on image registration for ultrasound elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Torres, Mylin; Kirkpatrick, Stephanie; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to calculate 2D strain through the registration of the pre- and post-compression (deformation) B-mode image sequences based on an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm (INRA). Compared with the most commonly used cross-correlation (CC) method, our approach is not constrained to any particular set of directions, and can overcome displacement estimation errors introduced by incoherent motion and variations in the signal under high compression. This INRA method was tested using phantom and in vivo data. The robustness of our approach was demonstrated in the axial direction as well as the lateral direction where the standard CC method frequently fails. In addition, our approach copes well under large compression (over 6%). In the phantom study, we computed the strain image under various compressions and calculated the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNS) ratios. The SNR and CNS values of the INRA method were much higher than those calculated from the CC-based method. Furthermore, the clinical feasibility of our approach was demonstrated with the in vivo data from patients with arm lymphedema.

  16. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  17. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  18. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  19. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  20. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  1. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  2. Projectile transverse motion and stability in electromagnetic induction launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Shokair, I.R.

    1993-12-31

    The transverse motion of a projectile in an electromagnetic induction launcher is considered. The equations of motion for translation and rotation are derived assuming a rigid projectile and a flyway restoring force per unit length that is proportional to the local displacement. Linearized transverse forces and torques due to energized coils are derived for displaced or tilted armature elements based on a first order perturbation method. The resulting equations of motion for a rigid projectile composed of multiple elements in a multi-coil launcher are analyzed as a coupled oscillator system of equations and a simple linear stability condition is derived. The equations of motion are incorporated into the 2-D Slingshot circuit code and numerical solutions for the transverse motion are obtained. For a launcher with a 10 cm bore radius with a 40 cm long solid armature, we find that stability is achieved with a restoring force (per unit length) constant of k {approx} 1 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2}. For k = 1.5 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2} and sample coil misalignment modeled as a sine wave of 1 mm amplitude at wavelengths of one or two meters, the projectile displacement grows to a maximum of 4 mm. This growth is due to resonance between the natural frequency of the projectile transverse motion and the coil displacement wavelength. This resonance does not persist because of the changing axial velocity. Random coil displacement is also found to cause roughly the same projectile displacement. For the maximum displacement a rough estimate of the transverse pressure is 50 bars. Results for a wound armature with uniform current density throughout show very similar displacements.

  3. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  4. Birationally rigid Fano fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhlikov, A. V.

    2000-06-01

    We prove the birational superrigidity of a general Fano fibration \\pi\\colon V\\to\\mathbf P^1 whose fibre is a Fano hypersurface W_M\\subset\\mathbf P^M of index 1. If the fibration is sufficiently twisted over the base \\mathbf P^1, then V has no other structure of a fibration into rationally connected varieties. We also formulate and discuss conjectures on birational rigidity for a large class of Fano varieties and Fano fibrations over a base of arbitrary dimension.

  5. Non-rigid alignment in electron tomography in materials science.

    PubMed

    Printemps, Tony; Bernier, Nicolas; Bleuet, Pierre; Mula, Guido; Hervé, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Electron tomography is a key technique that enables the visualization of an object in three dimensions with a resolution of about a nanometre. High-quality 3D reconstruction is possible thanks to the latest compressed sensing algorithms and/or better alignment and preprocessing of the 2D projections. Rigid alignment of 2D projections is routine in electron tomography. However, it cannot correct misalignments induced by (i) deformations of the sample due to radiation damage or (ii) drifting of the sample during the acquisition of an image in scanning transmission electron microscope mode. In both cases, those misalignments can give rise to artefacts in the reconstruction. We propose a simple-to-implement non-rigid alignment technique to correct those artefacts. This technique is particularly suited for needle-shaped samples in materials science. It is initiated by a rigid alignment of the projections and it is then followed by several rigid alignments of different parts of the projections. Piecewise linear deformations are applied to each projection to force them to simultaneously satisfy the rigid alignments of the different parts. The efficiency of this technique is demonstrated on three samples, an intermetallic sample with deformation misalignments due to a high electron dose typical to spectroscopic electron tomography, a porous silicon sample with an extremely thin end particularly sensitive to electron beam and another porous silicon sample that was drifting during image acquisitions.

  6. Theory of the rotation of the rigid earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, H.

    1977-01-01

    Equations of motion for a triaxial rigid earth are derived in Andoyer variables. The reference plane is the ecliptic of date which is moving as a result of planetary perturbations. By using this noninertial system, the development of the disturbing function for the sun and moon is simplified, with an additional term appearing in the Hamiltonian which, however, contributes only to precessional motion. The nutation terms derived are compared with those of Woolard.

  7. Non-rigid summing of gated PET via optical flow

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Huesman, R.H. |

    1996-12-31

    A method for summing together datasets from gated cardiac PET acquisitions is described. Optical flow techniques are used to accurately model non-rigid motion present during the cardiac cycle so that a one-to-one mapping is found between each voxel of two gated volumes. Using this mapping, image summing can take place, producing a composite dataset with improved statistics and reduced motion-induced blur. Results using a data from a gated cardiac study on a dog are presented.

  8. Intraventricular flow alterations due to dyssynchronous wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Audrey M.; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Roughly 30% of patients with systolic heart failure suffer from left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD), in which mechanical discoordination of the ventricle walls leads to poor hemodynamics and suboptimal cardiac function. There is currently no clear mechanistic understanding of how abnormalities in septal-lateral (SL) wall motion affects left ventricle (LV) function, which is needed to improve the treatment of LVD using cardiac resynchronization therapy. We use an experimental flow phantom with an LV physical model to study mechanistic effects of SL wall motion delay on LV function. To simulate mechanical LVD, two rigid shafts were coupled to two segments (apical and mid sections) along the septal wall of the LV model. Flow through the LV model was driven using a piston pump, and stepper motors coupled to the above shafts were used to locally perturb the septal wall segments relative to the pump motion. 2D PIV was used to examine the intraventricular flow through the LV physical model. Alterations to SL delay results in a reduction in the kinetic energy (KE) of the flow field compared to synchronous SL motion. The effect of varying SL motion delay from 0% (synchronous) to 100% (out-of-phase) on KE and viscous dissipation will be presented. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  9. Integrability of two interactingN-dimensional rigid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.; Ragnisco, O.; Wojciechowski, S.

    1985-12-01

    A new class of integrable Euler equations on the Lie algebra so(2n) describing twon-dimensional interacting rigid bodies is found. A Lax representation of equations of motion which depends on a spectral parameter is given and complete integrability is proved. The double hamiltonian structure and the Lax representation of the general flow is discussed.

  10. Non-rigid Face Tracking with Local Appearance Consistency Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Saragih, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new discriminative approach to achieve consistent and efficient tracking of non-rigid object motion, such as facial expressions. By utilizing both spatial and temporal appearance coherence at the patch level, the proposed approach can reduce ambiguity and increase accuracy. Recent research demonstrates that feature based approaches, such as constrained local models (CLMs), can achieve good performance in non-rigid object alignment/tracking using local region descriptors and a non-rigid shape prior. However, the matching performance of the learned generic patch experts is susceptible to local appearance ambiguity. Since there is no motion continuity constraint between neighboring frames of the same sequence, the resultant object alignment might not be consistent from frame to frame and the motion field is not temporally smooth. In this paper, we extend the CLM method into the spatio-temporal domain by enforcing the appearance consistency constraint of each local patch between neighboring frames. More importantly, we show that the global warp update can be optimized jointly in an efficient manner using convex quadratic fitting. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach receives improved performance for the task of non-rigid facial motion tracking on the videos of clinical patients. PMID:25242852

  11. The rigid-flexible nonlinear robotic manipulator: Modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenili, André; Balthazar, José Manoel

    2011-05-01

    The State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control of a nonlinear rigid-flexible two link robotic manipulator is investigated. Different cases are considered assuming small deviations and large deviations from the desired final states. The nonlinear governing equations of motion are coupled, providing considerable excitation of all the nonlinear terms. The results present satisfactory final states but also undesirable overshoot.

  12. User's Guide for MSAP2D: A Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Multistage Compressors and Turbines. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.

  13. Rotation invariance principles in 2D/3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels C.; Jacob, Augustinus L.; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-05-01

    2D/3D patient-to-computed tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 2D/3D registration is the fast that finding a registration includes sovling a minimization problem in six degrees-of-freedom in motion. This results in considerable time expenses since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations aroudn a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of its original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a pelvis. We conclude that this hardware-indepenent optimization of 2D/3D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  14. Fractal rigidity in migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz; West, Bruce J.

    2004-04-01

    We study the middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAfv) in humans using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Scaling properties of time series of the axial flow velocity averaged over a cardiac beat interval may be characterized by two exponents. The short time scaling exponent (STSE) determines the statistical properties of fluctuations of blood flow velocities in short-time intervals while the Hurst exponent describes the long-term fractal properties. In many migraineurs the value of the STSE is significantly reduced and may approach that of the Hurst exponent. This change in dynamical properties reflects the significant loss of short-term adaptability and the overall hyperexcitability of the underlying cerebral blood flow control system. We call this effect fractal rigidity.

  15. Geometric simulation of structures containing rigid units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    Much insight into the behaviour of the framework silicates can be obtained from the Rigid Unit model. I review results from geometric analyses [1] of framework structures, quantifying the significance of rigid unit motion in thermal disorder and in defect accomodation, and from a method of simulation [2,3] based on a whole-body `geometric potential' rather than on interatomic potentials. I show the application of the geometric potential to the symmetry-constrained generation of hypothetical zeolite frameworks [4], and to the rapid generation of protein conformations using insights from rigid cluster decomposition [5]. 1. Wells, Dove and Tucker, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 37:536--544 (2004). 2. G.D. Gatta and S.A. Wells, Phys. Chem. Min. 31:1--10 (2004). 3. A. Sartbaeva, S. A. Wells, S. A. T. Redfern, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 8173 (2004) 4. M. M. J. Treacy, I. Rivin, E. Balkovsky, K. H. Randall and M. D. Foster, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 74, 121-132 (2004). 5. M.F. Thorpe, Ming Lei, A.J. Rader, Donald J. Jacobs, and Leslie A. Kuhn, Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 19, 1:60 - 69, (2001).

  16. Registration of 2D cardiac images to real-time 3D ultrasound volumes for 3D stress echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. Y. Esther; van Stralen, Marijn; Voormolen, Marco M.; van Burken, Gerard; Nemes, Attila; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2006-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stress echocardiography is a novel technique for diagnosing cardiac dysfunction, by comparing wall motion of the left ventricle under different stages of stress. For quantitative comparison of this motion, it is essential to register the ultrasound data. We propose an intensity based rigid registration method to retrieve two-dimensional (2D) four-chamber (4C), two-chamber, and short-axis planes from the 3D data set acquired in the stress stage, using manually selected 2D planes in the rest stage as reference. The algorithm uses the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to find the optimal transformation of one uniform scaling, three rotation, and three translation parameters. We compared registration using the SAD, SSD, and NCC metrics, performed on four resolution levels of a Gaussian pyramid. The registration's effectiveness was assessed by comparing the 3D positions of the registered apex and mitral valve midpoints and 4C direction with the manually selected results. The registration was tested on data from 20 patients. Best results were found using the NCC metric on data downsampled with factor two: mean registration errors were 8.1mm, 5.4mm, and 8.0° in the apex position, mitral valve position, and 4C direction respectively. The errors were close to the interobserver (7.1mm, 3.8mm, 7.4°) and intraobserver variability (5.2mm, 3.3mm, 7.0°), and better than the error before registration (9.4mm, 9.0mm, 9.9°). We demonstrated that the registration algorithm visually and quantitatively improves the alignment of rest and stress data sets, performing similar to manual alignment. This will improve automated analysis in 3D stress echocardiography.

  17. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  18. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  19. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, Thomas E.; Spieker, David A.

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  20. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  1. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  2. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  3. Supramolecular Synthons: Will Giant Rigid Superspheres Do?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, the concept of supramolecular synthons was applied to giant rigid superspheres based on pentaphosphaferrocene [CpRFe(η5-P5)] (R = Me, Et) and Cu(I) halides, which reach 2.1–3.0 nm in diameter. Two supramolecular synthons, σ–π and π–π, are discovered based on halogen···CpR and Cp*···Cp* specific interactions, respectively. The geometry of the synthons is reproducible in a series of crystal structures of various supramolecules. The σ–π synthon alone is realized more frequently for Br-containing superspheres. A combination of the σ–π and π–π synthons is more typical for Cl-containing supramolecules. Each supramolecule can bear up to nine synthons to give mostly 2D and 3D architectures. PMID:27081373

  4. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.

  5. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  6. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  7. Backbone dynamics measurements on leukemia inhibitory factor, a rigid four-helical bundle cytokine.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, S.; Smith, D. K.; Hinds, M. G.; Zhang, J. G.; Nicola, N. A.; Norton, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The backbone dynamics of the four-helical bundle cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) have been investigated using 15N NMR relaxation and amide proton exchange measurements on a murine-human chimera, MH35-LIF. For rapid backbone motions (on a time scale of 10 ps to 100 ns), as probed by 15N relaxation measurements, the dynamics parameters were calculated using the model-free formalism incorporating the model selection approach. The principal components of the inertia tensor of MH35-LIF, as calculated from its NMR structure, were 1:0.98:0.38. The global rotational motion of the molecule was, therefore, assumed to be axially symmetric in the analysis of its relaxation data. This yielded a diffusion anisotropy D(parallel)/D(perpendicular) of 1.31 and an effective correlation time (4D(perpendicular) + 2D(parallel))(-1) of 8.9 ns. The average values of the order parameters (S2) for the four helices, the long interhelical loops, and the N-terminus were 0.91, 0.84, and 0.65, respectively, indicating that LIF is fairly rigid in solution, except at the N-terminus. The S2 values for the long interhelical loops of MH35-LIF were higher than those of their counterparts in short-chain members of the four-helical bundle cytokine family. Residues involved in LIF receptor binding showed no consistent pattern of backbone mobilities, with S2 values ranging from 0.71 to 0.95, but residues contributing to receptor binding site III had relatively lower S2 values, implying higher amplitude motions than for the backbone of sites I and II. In the relatively slow motion regime, backbone amide exchange measurements showed that a number of amides from the helical bundle exchanged extremely slowly, persisting for several months in 2H2O at 37 degrees C. Evidence for local unfolding was considered, and correlations among various structure-related parameters and the backbone amide exchange rates were examined. Both sets of data concur in showing that LIF is one of the most rigid four

  8. H infinity controller design to a rigid-flexible satellite with two vibration modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, A. G.; de Souza, L. C. G.

    2015-10-01

    The satellite attitude control system (ACS) design becomes more complex when the satellite structure has components like, flexible solar panels, antennas and mechanical manipulators. These flexible structures can interact with the satellite rigid parts during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. This paper deals with the rigid-flexible satellite ACS design using the H infinity method. The rigid-flexible satellite is represented by a beam connected to a central rigid hub at one end and free at the other one. The equations of motions are obtained considering small flexible deformations and the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis. The results of the simulations have shown that the H-infinity controller was able to control the rigid motion and suppress the vibrations.

  9. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  10. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  11. 2D ultrasonic elastography with lateral displacement estimation using statistics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Haolin; Cheng, Yangjie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is the method of obtaining relative stiffness information of biological tissue, which plays an important role in early diagnosis. Generally, a gradient-based strain imaging algorithm assumes that motion only occurs in an axial direction. However, because tissue has different relative stiffness, the scatter presents lateral motion under high freehand compression. Therefore, errors occur in estimating the cross-correlation phase in the calculation window. A 2D elastography algorithm with lateral displacement estimation using statistics was proposed to reduce errors. The new method was investigated through simulation, and the experiment confirmed that errors introduced by lateral tissue movement have been greatly reduced with no sacrifice of real-time ultrasonic imaging quality.

  12. Magnetic Control of Rigid Achiral Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U.; Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun

    2013-11-01

    We report control of rigid achiral microswimmers in low Reynolds number environments. A rotating magnetic field was used to actuate the microswimmers wirelessly by rotating the microswimmers, which produces propulsion. Previous magnetically actuated microswimmers in bulk fluids have been designed with either flexibility or chiral geometry; we show that simpler geometries with neither flexibility nor chirality can produce propulsion. The microswimmer consists of three magnetic beads conjugated using avidin-biotin linkages into an arc formation. We designed a magnetic field generator consisting of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration. A highspeed camera provided realtime imaging of the microswimmers' motion in a PDMS chamber. The rigidity of the microswimmer was characterized by tracking the position of the individual beads and calculating their relative distances. As a function of field strength and rotation frequency, we observed changes in the rotational axis of the microswimmers and the corresponding effects on their velocities. The achiral microswimmers exhibited active propulsion and were controllable in both speed and direction, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

  13. Glycerol in micellar confinement with tunable rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannert, Michael; Müller, Allyn; Gouirand, Emmanuel; Talluto, Vincenzo; Rosenstihl, Markus; Walther, Thomas; Stühn, Bernd; Blochowicz, Thomas; Vogel, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the glassy dynamics of glycerol in the confinement of a microemulsion system, which is stable on cooling down to the glass transition of its components. By changing the composition, we vary the viscosity of the matrix, while keeping the confining geometry intact, as is demonstrated by small angle X-ray scattering. By means of 2H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, and triplet solvation dynamics we, thus, probe the dynamics of glycerol in confinements of varying rigidity. 2H NMR results show that, at higher temperatures, the dynamics of confined glycerol is unchanged compared to bulk behavior, while the reorientation of glycerol molecules becomes significantly faster than in the bulk in the deeply supercooled regime. However, comparison of different 2H NMR findings with data from calorimetry and solvation dynamics reveals that this acceleration is not due to the changed structural relaxation of glycerol, but rather due to the rotational motion of essentially rigid glycerol droplets or of aggregates of such droplets in a more fluid matrix. Thus, independent of the matrix mobility, the glycerol dynamics remains unchanged except for the smallest droplets, where an increase of Tg and, thus, a slowdown of the structural relaxation is observed even in a fluid matrix.

  14. Rigid body constrained noisy point pattern matching.

    PubMed

    Morgera, S D; Cheong, P C

    1995-01-01

    Noisy pattern matching problems arise in many areas, e.g., computational vision, robotics, guidance and control, stereophotogrammetry, astronomy, genetics, and high-energy physics. Least-squares pattern matching over the Euclidean space E(n) for unordered sets of cardinalities p and q is commonly formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem having complexity p(p-1)...(p-q+1), q=/rigid motion constraints, which often apply. The method reduces the complexity to l(21).n(4)+l(12).p(3), where l(12) and l(21) are the number of iterations required by steepest-ascent and singular value decomposition (SVD)-based procedures, respectively.

  15. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-05-02

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  16. Structures of mesophilic and extremophilic citrate synthases reveal rigidity and flexibility for function.

    PubMed

    Wells, Stephen A; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) catalyses the entry of carbon into the citric acid cycle and is highly-conserved structurally across the tree of life. Crystal structures of dimeric CSs are known in both "open" and "closed" forms, which differ by a substantial domain motion that closes the substrate-binding clefts. We explore both the static rigidity and the dynamic flexibility of CS structures from mesophilic and extremophilic organisms from all three evolutionary domains. The computational expense of this wide-ranging exploration is kept to a minimum by the use of rigidity analysis and rapid all-atom simulations of flexible motion, combining geometric simulation and elastic network modeling. CS structures from thermophiles display increased structural rigidity compared with the mesophilic enzyme. A CS structure from a psychrophile, stabilized by strong ionic interactions, appears to display likewise increased rigidity in conventional rigidity analysis; however, a novel modified analysis, taking into account the weakening of the hydrophobic effect at low temperatures, shows a more appropriate decreased rigidity. These rigidity variations do not, however, affect the character of the flexible dynamics, which are well conserved across all the structures studied. Simulation trajectories not only duplicate the crystallographically observed symmetric open-to-closed transitions, but also identify motions describing a previously unidentified antisymmetric functional motion. This antisymmetric motion would not be directly observed in crystallography but is revealed as an intrinsic property of the CS structure by modeling of flexible motion. This suggests that the functional motion closing the binding clefts in CS may be independent rather than symmetric and cooperative.

  17. Quest for Inexpensive Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation: Do We Need 2D Quantum Confining in Porous Materials or Are Rough Surfaces Enough? The Case of Ammonia Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Mella, Massimo; Curotto, E

    2016-10-05

    We study the adsorption energetics and quantum properties of the molecular hydrogen isotopes H2, D2, and T2 onto the surface of rigid ammonia nanoclusters with quantum simulations and accurate model potential energy surfaces (PES). A highly efficient diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm for rigid rotors allowed us to accurately define zero-point adsorption energies for the three isotopes, as well as the degree of translational and rotational delocalization that each affords on the surface. From the data emerges that the quantum adsorption energy (Eads) of T2 can be up to twice the one of H2 at 0 K, suggesting the possibility of exploiting some form of solid ammonia to selectivity separate hydrogen isotopes at low temperatures (≃20 K). This is discussed by focusing on the structural motif that may be more effective for the task. The analysis of the contributions to Eads, however, surprisingly indicates that the average kinetic energy (E(kin)) and rotation energy (Erot(kin)) of T2 can also be, respectively, 2 times and 20 times higher than those of H2; this finding markedly deviates from what is predicted for hydrogen molecules inside carbon nanotubes (CNT) or metallic-organic frameworks (MOF), where E(kin) and Erot(kin) is higher for H2 due to the unavoidable effects of confinement and hindrance to its rotational motion. The rationale for these differences is provided by the geometrical distributions for the rigid rotors, which reveal an increasingly stronger coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom upon increasing the isotopic mass. This effect has never been observed before on adsorbing surfaces (e.g., graphite) and is induced by a strongly anisotropic and anharmonic bowl-like potential experienced by the rotors.

  18. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  19. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  20. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  1. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  2. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  4. Interaction between a flexible filament and a downstream rigid body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2010-08-01

    A filament flapping in the bow wake of a rigid body is considered in order to study the hydrodynamic interaction between flexible and rigid bodies in tandem arrangement. Both numerical and experimental methods are adopted to analyze the motion of the filament, and the drag force on both bodies is computed. It is shown that the results largely depend on the gap between the two objects and the Reynolds number. The flexible body may have larger vibration amplitude but meanwhile experience a reduced drag force. On the other hand, the trailing rigid body enjoys a drag reduction. The qualitative behavior of the filament is independent of the filament’s length and mass ratio or the shape of the rigid body for the parameter regime considered. The result is in contrast with the interaction between two rigid or two flexible objects in tandem arrangement, and it may provide a physical insight into the understanding of the aquatic animals swimming in the bow wake of ships or staying in the bow wake of stationary structures.

  5. Enhancement of parkinsonian rigidity with contralateral hand activation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Douglas; Hanson, Nicholas; Threlkeld, A. Joseph; Fang, Xiang; Xia, Ruiping

    2011-01-01

    Objective Quantify the enhancement of parkinsonian rigidity associated with a contralateral activation maneuver. Methods Twelve subjects with PD and eight controls participated in the study protocol. Subjects’ tested hand was displaced by a servo-motor throughout wrist flexion and extension motions of 60° without and with a concurrent gripping activation in the contralateral hand, referred to as passive and active conditions, respectively. Subjects with PD were tested in both OFF-Med and ON-Med states. Rigidity was quantified by integrating torque with position during both flexion and extension (torque resistance). ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of contralateral activation on rigidity. Results PD patients had significantly (0.038) enhanced torque resistance in OFF-Med compared to healthy controls and ON-MED. In the Active condition, differences in torque resistance were magnified (p=0.002). Medication substantially reduced differences in torque resistance between controls and PD patients in the passive and active conditions. Conclusions A contralateral activation maneuver substantially increases rigidity in patients with PD, specifically the OFF-MED state. Rigidity is reduced with the application of dopaminergic medication, even with the presence of a contralateral activation maneuver. Significance These data support the use of a contralateral activation maneuver as a tool in the diagnosis of PD. PMID:21330199

  6. Multiple-stage ambiguity in motion perception reveals global computation of local motion directions.

    PubMed

    Rider, Andrew T; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The motion of a 1D image feature, such as a line, seen through a small aperture, or the small receptive field of a neural motion sensor, is underconstrained, and it is not possible to derive the true motion direction from a single local measurement. This is referred to as the aperture problem. How the visual system solves the aperture problem is a fundamental question in visual motion research. In the estimation of motion vectors through integration of ambiguous local motion measurements at different positions, conventional theories assume that the object motion is a rigid translation, with motion signals sharing a common motion vector within the spatial region over which the aperture problem is solved. However, this strategy fails for global rotation. Here we show that the human visual system can estimate global rotation directly through spatial pooling of locally ambiguous measurements, without an intervening step that computes local motion vectors. We designed a novel ambiguous global flow stimulus, which is globally as well as locally ambiguous. The global ambiguity implies that the stimulus is simultaneously consistent with both a global rigid translation and an infinite number of global rigid rotations. By the standard view, the motion should always be seen as a global translation, but it appears to shift from translation to rotation as observers shift fixation. This finding indicates that the visual system can estimate local vectors using a global rotation constraint, and suggests that local motion ambiguity may not be resolved until consistencies with multiple global motion patterns are assessed.

  7. FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled numerical simulation of wavefields near excavation boundaries in underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cai, M.

    2016-11-01

    A nonlinear velocity model that considers the influence of confinement and rock mass failure on wave velocity is developed. A numerical method, which couples FLAC and SPECFEM2D, is developed for ground motion modeling near excavation boundaries in underground mines. The motivation of developing the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled approach is to take merits of each code, such as the stress analysis capability in FLAC and the powerful wave propagation analysis capability in SPECFEM2D. Because stress redistribution and failure of the rock mass around an excavation are considered, realistic non-uniform velocity fields for the SPECFEM2D model can be obtained, and this is a notable feature of this study. Very large differences in wavefields and ground motion are observed between the results from the non-uniform and the uniform velocity models. If the non-uniform velocity model is used, the ground motion around a stope can be amplified up to five times larger than that given by the design scaling law. If a uniform velocity model is used, the amplification factor is only about three. Using the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled modeling approach, accurate velocity models can be constructed and this in turn will assist in predicting ground motions accurately around underground excavations.

  8. Specifying spacecraft flexible appendage rigidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    As a method for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages, an analytical technique is proposed for establishing values for the frequency, damping ratio, and modal gain (deflection) of the first several bending modes. The shortcomings of the technique result from the limitations associated with the order of the equations that can be handled practically. An iterative method is prescribed for handling a system whose structural flexibility is described by more than one normal mode. The analytical technique is applied to specifying solar panel rigidity constraints for the NASA Space Telescope. The traditional nonanalytic procedure for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages has been to set a lower limit below which bending mode frequencies may not lie.

  9. Teaching Motion with the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budisa, Marko; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    We have used the GPS receiver and a PC interface to track different types of motion. Various hands-on experiments that enlighten the physics of motion at the secondary school level are suggested (visualization of 2D and 3D motion, measuring car drag coefficient and fuel consumption). (Contains 8 figures.)

  10. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  11. Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Avijit; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-04-01

    Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation.

  12. The infrared spectrum of the Ar-C2D2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2016-10-01

    Infrared spectra of Ar-C2D2 are observed in the region of the ν3 fundamental band (asymmetric C-D stretch, ≈2440 cm-1) using a tunable optical parametric oscillator to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion from a cooled nozzle. Transitions are assigned involving K = 0-2 in the ground vibrational state, and K = 0-4 in the excited state. The intermolecular bending combination band is also observed, giving a bending frequency of 4.798 cm-1. Despite this low bending frequency, the Ar-C2D2 spectrum qualitatively resembles that of a normal semi-rigid molecule, in contrast to He- and Ne-C2D2 which are much closer to the limit of free internal rotation.

  13. NOLB : Non-linear rigid block normal mode analysis method.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexandre; Grudinin, Sergei

    2017-04-05

    We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for non-linear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a non-linear extrapolation of motion out of these velocities. The key observation of our method is that the angular velocity of a rigid block can be interpreted as the result of an implicit force, such that the motion of the rigid block can be considered as a pure rotation about a certain center. We demonstrate the motions produced with the NOLB method on three different molecular systems and show that some of the lowest frequency normal modes correspond to the biologically relevant motions. For example, NOLB detects the spiral sliding motion of the TALE protein, which is capable of rapid diffusion along its target DNA. Overall, our method produces better structures compared to the standard approach, especially at large deformation amplitudes, as we demonstrate by visual inspection, energy and topology analyses, and also by the MolProbity service validation. Finally, our method is scalable and can be applied to very large molecular systems, such as ribosomes. Standalone executables of the NOLB normal mode analysis method are available at https://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/nolb-normal-modes. A graphical user interfaces created for the SAMSON software platform will be made available at https: //www.samson-connect.net.

  14. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  15. Rigid gas permeable extended wear.

    PubMed

    Maehara, J R; Kastl, P R

    1994-04-01

    We have reviewed the pertinent literature on rigid gas permeable (RGP) extended wear contact lenses, and we discuss the benefits and adverse reactions of this contact lens modality, drawing conclusions from reviewed studies. We suggest parameters for success with these lenses and guidelines for the prevention of adverse reactions.

  16. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  17. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  18. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  19. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  20. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  1. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  2. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  4. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  5. Discerning nonrigid 3D shapes from motion cues

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Zaidi, Qasim

    2011-01-01

    Many organisms and objects deform nonrigidly when moving, requiring perceivers to separate shape changes from object motions. Surprisingly, the abilities of observers to correctly infer nonrigid volumetric shapes from motion cues have not been measured, and structure from motion models predominantly use variants of rigidity assumptions. We show that observers are equally sensitive at discriminating cross-sections of flexing and rigid cylinders based on motion cues, when the cylinders are rotated simultaneously around the vertical and depth axes. A computational model based on motion perspective (i.e., assuming perceived depth is inversely proportional to local velocity) predicted the psychometric curves better than shape from motion factorization models using shape or trajectory basis functions. Asymmetric percepts of symmetric cylinders, arising because of asymmetric velocity profiles, provided additional evidence for the dominant role of relative velocity in shape perception. Finally, we show that inexperienced observers are generally incapable of using motion cues to detect inflation/deflation of rigid and flexing cylinders, but this handicap can be overcome with practice for both nonrigid and rigid shapes. The empirical and computational results of this study argue against the use of rigidity assumptions in extracting 3D shape from motion and for the primacy of motion deformations computed from motion shears. PMID:21205884

  6. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  7. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  8. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  9. Computed and experimental chemical shift parameters for rigid and flexible YAF peptides in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Tomasz; Trzeciak-Karlikowska, Katarzyna; Czernek, Jiri; Ciesielski, Wlodzimierz; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2012-02-16

    DFT methods were employed to compute the (13)C NMR chemical shift tensor (CST) parameters for crystals of YAF peptides (Tyr-Ala-Phe) with different stereochemistry for the Ala residue. Tyr-D-Ala-Phe 1 crystallizes in the C2 space group while Tyr-L-Ala-Phe crystallizes in either the P2(1)2(1)2 space group (2a) or the P6(5) space group (2b). PISEMA MAS measurements for samples with a natural abundance of (1)H and (13)C nuclei and (2)H QUADECHO experiments for samples with deuterium labeled aromatic rings were used to analyze the geometry and time scale of the molecular motion. At ambient temperature, the tyrosine ring of sample 1 is rigid and the phenylalanine ring undergoes a π-jump, both rings in sample 2a are static, and both rings in sample 2b undergo a fast regime exchange. The theoretical values of the CST were obtained for isolated molecules (IM) and clusters employing the ONIOM approach. The experimental (13)C δ(ii) parameters for all of the samples were measured via a 2D PASS sequence. Significant scatter of the computed versus the experimental (13)C CST parameters was observed for 1 and 2b, while the observed correlation was very good for 2a. In this report, we show that the quality of the (13)C σ(ii)/(13)C δ(ii) correlations, when properly interpreted, can be a source of important information about local molecular motions.

  10. Tracking local motion on the beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Martin; Ortmaier, Tobias; Sepp, Wolfgang; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2002-05-01

    Local motion on the beating heart is investigated in the context of minimally invasive robotic surgery. The focus lies on the motion remaining in the mechanically stabilised field of surgery of the heart. Motion is detected by tracking natural landmarks on the heart surface in 2D video images. An appropriate motion model is presented with a discussion of its degrees of freedom and a trajectory analysis of its parameters.

  11. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, Don; Kaganovskiy, Leon; McDonald, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity.

  12. Associative memory through rigid origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  13. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  14. Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.

  15. Facile Assembly of Large-Area 2D Microgel Colloidal Crystals Using Charge-Reversible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Weng, Junying; Li, Xiaoyun; Guan, Ying; Zhu, X X; Zhang, Yongjun

    2016-12-06

    2D colloidal crystals (CCs) have important applications; however, the fabrication of large-area, high-quality 2D CCs is still far from being trivial, and the fabrication of 2D microgel CCs is even harder. Here, we have demonstrated that they can be facilely fabricated using charge-reversible substrates. The charge-reversible substrates were prepared by modification with amino groups. The amino groups were then protected by amidation with 2,2-dimethylsuccinic anhydride. At acidic pH, the surface charge of the modified substrate will change from negative to positive as a result of the hydrolysis of the amide bonds and the regeneration of the amino groups. 2D microgel CCs can be simply fabricated by applying a concentrated microgel dispersion on the modified substrate. The negatively charged surface of the substrate allows the negatively charged microgel spheres, especially those close to the substrate, to self-assemble into 3D CCs. With the gradual hydrolysis of the amide bonds and the charge reversal of the substrate, the first 111 plane of the 3D assembly is fixed in situ on the substrate. The resulting 2D CC has a high degree of ordering because of the high quality of the parent 3D microgel CC. Because large-area 3D microgel CCs can be facilely fabricated, this method allows for the fabrication of 2D CCs of any size. Nonplanar substrates can also be used. In addition, the interparticle distance of the 2D array can be tuned by the concentration of the microgel dispersion. Besides rigid substrates (such as glass slides, quartz slides, and silicon wafers), flexible polymer films, including polyethylene terephthalate and poly(vinyl chloride) films, were also successfully used as substrates for the fabrication of 2D microgel CCs.

  16. PLAN2D - A PROGRAM FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF PLANAR FRAMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.

    1994-01-01

    PLAN2D is a FORTRAN computer program for the plastic analysis of planar rigid frame structures. Given a structure and loading pattern as input, PLAN2D calculates the ultimate load that the structure can sustain before collapse. Element moments and plastic hinge rotations are calculated for the ultimate load. The location of hinges required for a collapse mechanism to form are also determined. The program proceeds in an iterative series of linear elastic analyses. After each iteration the resulting elastic moments in each member are compared to the reserve plastic moment capacity of that member. The member or members that have moments closest to their reserve capacity will determine the minimum load factor and the site where the next hinge is to be inserted. Next, hinges are inserted and the structural stiffness matrix is reformulated. This cycle is repeated until the structure becomes unstable. At this point the ultimate collapse load is calculated by accumulating the minimum load factor from each previous iteration and multiplying them by the original input loads. PLAN2D is based on the program STAN, originally written by Dr. E.L. Wilson at U.C. Berkeley. PLAN2D has several limitations: 1) Although PLAN2D will detect unloading of hinges it does not contain the capability to remove hinges; 2) PLAN2D does not allow the user to input different positive and negative moment capacities and 3) PLAN2D does not consider the interaction between axial and plastic moment capacity. Axial yielding and buckling is ignored as is the reduction in moment capacity due to axial load. PLAN2D is written in FORTRAN and is machine independent. It has been tested on an IBM PC and a DEC MicroVAX. The program was developed in 1988.

  17. Rigidity versus flexibility: the dilemma of understanding protein thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Karshikoff, Andrey; Nilsson, Lennart; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    The role of fluctuations in protein thermostability has recently received considerable attention. In the current literature a dualistic picture can be found: thermostability seems to be associated with enhanced rigidity of the protein scaffold in parallel with the reduction of flexible parts of the structure. In contradiction to such arguments it has been shown by experimental studies and computer simulation that thermal tolerance of a protein is not necessarily correlated with the suppression of internal fluctuations and mobility. Both concepts, rigidity and flexibility, are derived from mechanical engineering and represent temporally insensitive features describing static properties, neglecting that relative motion at certain time scales is possible in structurally stable regions of a protein. This suggests that a strict separation of rigid and flexible parts of a protein molecule does not describe the reality correctly. In this work the concepts of mobility/flexibility versus rigidity will be critically reconsidered by taking into account molecular dynamics calculations of heat capacity and conformational entropy, salt bridge networks, electrostatic interactions in folded and unfolded states, and the emerging picture of protein thermostability in view of recently developed network theories. Last, but not least, the influence of high temperature on the active site and activity of enzymes will be considered.

  18. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  19. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  20. Force Coefficients on Surging Rigid and Flexible Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This study considers an aspect ratio 4 rigid flat plate and an aspect ratio 4.5 flexible wing, undergoing rectilinear motion in a water tunnel over several chord lengths at a Reynolds number of 20,000. Varying incidence angle, Reynolds number, and acceleration profile led to an extensive parameter study for both wings. Acceleration regions were linear with time and varied with distances of 0.25 to 6.0 chord-lengths. Measurements include lift and drag histories along with flow visualization of leading and trailing edge vortices throughout the entire motion by fluorescent dye injection illuminated by a laser sheet. A non-circulatory bump in lift coefficient at the end of the acceleration region was observed for each rigid wing case. The rigid wing also experienced a significant decrease in lift shortly after the wing reached its terminal velocity. This dip was followed by a second peak in lift around 6 chords traveled for every case, although the magnitudes differed among the acceleration profiles. Conversely, the flexible wing exhibited little to no non-circulatory peak at the end of acceleration and did not experience this dip and rise in lift. This study explores the influence of planform and chordwise flexibility on leading edge vortex formation, retention, and shedding.

  1. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception.

  2. Motion field and optical flow: Qualitative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verri, Alessandro; Poggio, Tomaso

    1986-12-01

    The optical flow, a 2-D field that can be associated with the variation of the image brightness pattern, and the 2-D motion field, the projection on the image plane of the 3-D velocity field of a moving scene, are in general different, unless very special conditions are satisfied. The optical flow, therefore, is ill suited for computing structure from motion, and for reconstructing the 3-D velocity field, problems that require an accurate estimate of the 2-D motion field. A different use of the optical flow is suggested. Stable field and the 3-D structure of the scene, and they can usually be obtained from the optical flow. The smoothed optical flow and 2-D motion field, interpreted as vector fields tangent to flows of planar dynamical systems, may have the same qualitative properties from the point of view of the theory of structural stability of dynamical systems.

  3. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Maier, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Human subjects in standing positions are apt to show much more involuntary motion than in supine positions. The authors aimed to simulate a complicated realistic lower body movement using the four-dimensional (4D) digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom. The authors also investigated fiducial marker-based motion compensation methods in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. The level of involuntary movement-induced artifacts and image quality improvement were investigated after applying each method. Methods: An optical tracking system with eight cameras and seven retroreflective markers enabled us to track involuntary motion of the lower body of nine healthy subjects holding a squat position at 60° of flexion. The XCAT-based knee model was developed using the 4D XCAT phantom and the optical tracking data acquired at 120 Hz. The authors divided the lower body in the XCAT into six parts and applied unique affine transforms to each so that the motion (6 degrees of freedom) could be synchronized with the optical markers’ location at each time frame. The control points of the XCAT were tessellated into triangles and 248 projection images were created based on intersections of each ray and monochromatic absorption. The tracking data sets with the largest motion (Subject 2) and the smallest motion (Subject 5) among the nine data sets were used to animate the XCAT knee model. The authors defined eight skin control points well distributed around the knees as pseudo-fiducial markers which functioned as a reference in motion correction. Motion compensation was done in the following ways: (1) simple projection shifting in 2D, (2) deformable projection warping in 2D, and (3) rigid body warping in 3D. Graphics hardware accelerated filtered backprojection was implemented and combined with the three correction methods in order to speed up the simulation process. Correction fidelity was evaluated as a function of number of markers used (4–12) and

  4. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  5. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  6. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  7. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  8. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  9. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  10. How rigid is a rigid plate? Geodetic constraint from the TrigNet CGPS network, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malservisi, Rocco; Hugentobler, Urs; Wonnacott, Richard; Hackl, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Rigidity and continuity of the Nubia plate is a fundamental assumption for the kinematic description, the dynamic implications of its interaction with surrounding plates and ultimately an important constraint to the geodynamics processes involved in continental lithospheric rupture. Geophysical, neotectonic and geodynamics considerations suggest the possibility that the Nubia plate is not completely rigid but could be undergoing internal deformation due to the southward propagation of the East African Rift. Here, we utilize the South African TrigNet geodetic network to evaluate the amount of internal deformation within the South African region and the possibility of motion between South Africa and the rest of the African continent. Our results show that the South African region behaves rigidly, with deformation of the order of 1 nanostrain yr-1 or less. The analysis shows some higher strain rates in the eastern region, and the presence of spatially correlated residuals in the Cape Town region and the region east of Johannesburg. Although not statistically significant, the spatial coherence of those residuals could indicate tectonic activity. A comparison of the Euler vector for the South African region with previously published Euler poles for the Nubia plate as well as the analysis of the residuals of Nubia sites with respect to a `rigid' TrigNet are compatible with clockwise rotation of the South African block with respect to the African continent, consistent with a propagation of the East Africa Rift along the Okavango region.

  11. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  12. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  13. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  14. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  15. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  16. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  17. A density-independent rigidity transition in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Cell migration is important in many biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell’s motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbours, leading to glassy dynamics. Although self-propelled particle models exhibit a density-driven glass transition, this does not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and therefore the density is constant. Here we demonstrate the existence of a new type of rigidity transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers at constant density. We find that the onset of rigidity is governed by a model parameter that encodes single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension, providing an explanation for liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues and making testable predictions about how these transitions differ from those in particulate matter.

  18. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  19. Tongue Motion Averaging from Contour Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a method to get the best representation of a speech motion from several repetitions is presented. Each repetition is a representation of the same speech captured at different times by sequence of ultrasound images and is composed of a set of 2D spatio-temporal contours. These 2D contours in different repetitions are time aligned…

  20. Multi-scale 2D tracking of articulated objects using hierarchical spring systems.

    PubMed

    Artner, Nicole M; Ion, Adrian; Kropatsch, Walter G

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework to build a target-specific, part-based representation for arbitrary articulated or rigid objects. The aim is to successfully track the target object in 2D, through multiple scales and occlusions. This is realized by employing a hierarchical, iterative optimization process on the proposed representation of structure and appearance. Therefore, each rigid part of an object is described by a hierarchical spring system represented by an attributed graph pyramid. Hierarchical spring systems encode the spatial relationships of the features (attributes of the graph pyramid) describing the parts and enforce them by spring-like behavior during tracking. Articulation points connecting the parts of the object allow to transfer position information from reliable to ambiguous parts. Tracking is done in an iterative process by combining the hypotheses of simple trackers with the hypotheses extracted from the hierarchical spring systems.

  1. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Godenschweger, F; Kägebein, U; Stucht, D; Yarach, U; Sciarra, A; Yakupov, R; Lüsebrink, F; Schulze, P; Speck, O

    2016-01-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed. PMID:26864183

  2. Motion correction in MRI of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godenschweger, F.; Kägebein, U.; Stucht, D.; Yarach, U.; Sciarra, A.; Yakupov, R.; Lüsebrink, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.

    2016-03-01

    Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed.

  3. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  4. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  5. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  6. Lubrication of rigid ellipsida solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of geometry on the isothermal hydrodynamic film separating two rigid solids was investigated. The minimum film thickness is derived for fully flooded conjunctions by using the Reynolds boundary conditions. It was found that the minimum film thickness had the same speed, viscosity, and load dependence as Kapitza' classical solution. However, the incorporation of Reynolds boundary conditions resulted in an additional geometry effect. Solutions using the parabolic film approximation are compared by using the exact expression for the film in the analysis. Contour plots are known that indicate in detail the pressure developed between the solids.

  7. Dense motion field estimation from myocardial boundary displacements.

    PubMed

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Ferreira, Adriano; Rodrigues, Nuno F; Baptista, Maria J; D'hooge, Jan; Vilaça, João L; Barbosa, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Minimally invasive cardiovascular interventions guided by multiple imaging modalities are rapidly gaining clinical acceptance for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. These images are typically fused with richly detailed pre-operative scans through registration techniques, enhancing the intra-operative clinical data and easing the image-guided procedures. Nonetheless, rigid models have been used to align the different modalities, not taking into account the anatomical variations of the cardiac muscle throughout the cardiac cycle. In the current study, we present a novel strategy to compensate the beat-to-beat physiological adaptation of the myocardium. Hereto, we intend to prove that a complete myocardial motion field can be quickly recovered from the displacement field at the myocardial boundaries, therefore being an efficient strategy to locally deform the cardiac muscle. We address this hypothesis by comparing three different strategies to recover a dense myocardial motion field from a sparse one, namely, a diffusion-based approach, thin-plate splines, and multiquadric radial basis functions. Two experimental setups were used to validate the proposed strategy. First, an in silico validation was carried out on synthetic motion fields obtained from two realistic simulated ultrasound sequences. Then, 45 mid-ventricular 2D sequences of cine magnetic resonance imaging were processed to further evaluate the different approaches. The results showed that accurate boundary tracking combined with dense myocardial recovery via interpolation/diffusion is a potentially viable solution to speed up dense myocardial motion field estimation and, consequently, to deform/compensate the myocardial wall throughout the cardiac cycle. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Detection of moving targets using approximate knowledge of camera motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, George K.; Zhu, Shiping

    1996-10-01

    Rapid detection of independently moving objects by a moving camera system is essential for automatic target recognition (ATR). The image analysis performed by the ATR system must be able to clearly distinguish between the image flow generated by the changing position of the camera and the movement of potential targets. In this paper, a qualitative motion detection algorithm that can deal with imprecise knowledge of camera movement is described. This algorithm is based on the notion that the true velocity at any point on an image, arising from a camera moving through a rigid environment, will lie on a 1D locus in the vx - v(subscript y$. velocity space. Each point on this line maps a constraint circle that represents all components of the true velocity that are parallel to the direction of the spatial gray-scale gradient. If the camera motion is known, then an independently moving target can be detected because the corresponding gradient-parallel components of velocity are unlikely to fall in the constraint region arising from the union of all the circles generated by the points along the 1D locus. The algorithm is made more robust by modeling the projected camera velocities as radial fuzzy sets with supports in the 2D velocity space. Approximate knowledge of the translational and rotational components of camera motion can be used to define the parameters of the corresponding fuzzy constraint region. In terms of detecting independently moving targets, the algorithm tags the gradient-parallel velocity vectors that violate this fuzzy constraint on camera motion. An estimate of the true velocity is computed only at the pixel locations that violate the constraint. To illustrate this approach, a simulation study involving a translating camera system and an independently moving target is presented.

  9. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  10. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  11. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  12. Numerical solution for the rotation of a rigid model Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastok, Joachim; Soffel, Michael; Ruder, Hanns

    Using the ephemerides DE200 of the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY we integrated the Euler equations for a rigid model Earth taking into account torques exerted by the Moon and the Sun over a span of 40 years. Inserting appropriate initial conditions and removing precessional effects we were able to compare our results for the nutational motion directly with Kinoshita's analytical theory. Differences to Kinoshita's theory for the nutations in longitude and latitude are as large as 2 mas and 1 mas, respectively, with main frequencies of 18.6 and 9.3 years.

  13. The two rigid body interaction using angular momentum theory formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an elegant formalism to model the evolution of the full two rigid body problem. The equations of motion, given in a Cartesian coordinate system, are expressed in terms of spherical harmonics and Wigner D-matrices. The algorithm benefits from the numerous recurrence relations satisfied by these functions allowing a fast evaluation of the mutual potential. Moreover, forces and torques are straightforwardly obtained by application of ladder operators taken from the angular momentum theory and commonly used in quantum mechanics. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is made. Tests show that the present code is significantly faster than those currently available in literature.

  14. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  15. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  16. Formation and properties of a terpyridine-based 2D MOF on the surface of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koitz, Ralph; Hutter, Jürg; Iannuzzi, Marcella

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional networks inspired by graphene are of prime importance in nanoscience. We present a computational study of an infinite molecular sheet confined on a water surface to assess its properties and formation mechanism. Terpyridine-based ligand molecules are interlinked by Zn ions to form an extended 2D metal-organic framework. We show that the network is stable on the water surface, and that the substrate affects the dynamic properties of the sheet, exhibiting a confining effect and flattening the sheet by 30%. We use metadynamics to characterize the process of network formation and breaking and determine an intra-network binding energy of 143 kJ mol-1. Based on this mechanistic insight we propose that the 2D network strength can be tuned by varying the rigidity of the ligand through its chemical structure.

  17. A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc

    2016-10-01

    The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  19. 2D versus 3D cross-correlation-based radial and circumferential strain estimation using multiplane 2D ultrafast ultrasound in a 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model.

    PubMed

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-08-25

    Three-dimensional strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery for identification of vulnerable plaques. This study compares 2D vs. 3D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound images of a patient specific 3D atherosclerotic carotid artery model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated which transmitted plane waves at 3 alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Inter-frame radiofrequency ultrasound data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal carotid artery. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the inter-frame displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2D and 3D method was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3D technique clearly outperformed the 2D technique in phases with high inter-frame longitudinal motion. In fact the large inter-frame longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2D technique.

  20. 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model.

    PubMed

    Fekkes, Stein; Swillens, Abigail E S; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Saris, Anne E C M; Nillesen, Maartje M; Iannaccone, Francesco; Segers, Patrick; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound (US) images of a patient-specific 3-D atherosclerotic CA model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on the literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated, which transmitted plane waves at three alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Interframe (IF) radio-frequency US data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal CA. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the IF displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least-squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D methods was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3-D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3-D technique clearly outperformed the 2-D technique in phases with high IF longitudinal motion. In fact, the large IF longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2-D technique.

  1. Misperceptions of angular velocities influence the perception of rigidity in the kinetic depth effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domini, F.; Caudek, C.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Accuracy in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion was investigated for orthographic projections of three-dimension rotating objects. In 3 experiments the hypothesis that magnitudes of angular velocity are misperceived in the kinetic depth effect was tested, and in 4 other experiments the hypothesis that misperceiving angular velocities leads to misperceiving rigidity was tested. The principal findings were (a) the magnitude of perceived angular velocity is derived heuristically as a function of a property of the first-order optic flow called deformation and (b) perceptual performance in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion is accurate in cases when the variability of the deformations of the individual triplets of points of the stimulus displays favors this interpretation and not accurate in other cases.

  2. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts. [acoustic propagation within rigid walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the ability of circular bends to transmit acoustic energy flux. A formulation of wave-energy flow is developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies shows the ability of circular bends to transmit energy in the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  3. Hierarchical spatio-temporal extraction of models for moving rigid parts.

    PubMed

    Artner, Nicole M; Ion, Adrian; Kropatsch, Walter G

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a method to extract a part-based model of an observed scene from a video sequence. Independent motion is a strong cue that two points belong to different "rigid" entities. Conversely, things that move together throughout the whole video belong together and define a "rigid" object or part. Successfully tracked features indicate trajectories of salient points in the scene. A triangulated graph connects the salient points and encodes their local neighborhood in the first frame. The length variation of the triangle edges is used to label them as relevant (on an object) or separating (connecting different objects). A following grouping process uses the motion of the triangles marked as relevant as a cue to identify the "rigid" parts of the foreground or the background. The choice of the motion-based grouping criterion depends on the type of motion: in the image plane or out of the image plane. The result is a hierarchical description (graph pyramid) of the scene, where each vertex in the top level of the pyramid represents a "rigid" part of the foreground or the background, and encloses to the salient features used to describe it. Promising experimental results show the potential of the approach.

  4. Registration of 3D+t coronary CTA and monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography.

    PubMed

    Metz, Coert T; Schaap, Michiel; Klein, Stefan; Baka, Nora; Neefjes, Lisan A; Schultz, Carl J; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo

    2013-05-01

    A method for registering preoperative 3D+t coronary CTA with intraoperative monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography images is proposed to improve image guidance during minimally invasive coronary interventions. The method uses a patient-specific dynamic coronary model, which is derived from the CTA scan by centerline extraction and motion estimation. The dynamic coronary model is registered with the 2D+t X-ray sequence, considering multiple X-ray time points concurrently, while taking breathing induced motion into account. Evaluation was performed on 26 datasets of 17 patients by comparing projected model centerlines with manually annotated centerlines in the X-ray images. The proposed 3D+t/2D+t registration method performed better than a 3D/2D registration method with respect to the accuracy and especially the robustness of the registration. Registration with a median error of 1.47 mm was achieved.

  5. 2-d Packing of Prolate Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2002-11-01

    Piles of extremely prolate (aspect ratio α=L/D>10) granular materials are qualitatively different than lower aspect-ratio particles. One can run a hand through sand, for example, but not through nails. In three dimensions this transition occurs at α ˜ 35. We investigate the two-dimensional packing of particles with aspect ratios ranging from 10-44, comparing experiments with Monte-Carlo simulations. Particle alignment can quantified by an orientational order correlation function and related to the packing fraction. In both simulation and experiment the correlation between particle orientation decays after a distance of two particle lengths. We also quantify the distribution of voids in the pile, finding it to follow a power law with exponent -β=-2.370.05. Dynamic experiments involve rotating the pile. Particles with aspect ratio as low as 10 do not appear to have a well defined angle of repose, suggesting that the transition to rigidity occurs at a far lower aspect ratio in two dimensions. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented.

  6. Use of interseismic GPS data: a novel way to evaluate the lithosphere rigidity variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Severine; Peyret, Michel; Chéry, Jean; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2016-04-01

    Although the flexure of the lithosphere is well constrained using a simple secular cooling model in the ocean (Stewart and Watts, 1997), this mechanical parameter is not obvious to determine in the continents. One commonly estimates the flexural rigidity, expressed through the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere, by studying the lithosphere's vertical motion induced by long-term geological loads. Here, we suggest a similar approach, using the horizontal velocities to evaluate lateral rigidity variations. To illustrate our method, we select the Western United States zone, where areas with high rigidity (Sierra Nevada) are connected with others displaying low rigidities (San Andreas Fault). Our technique is based on an inversion problem, aiming to infer the effective rigidity from interseismic strain distribution measured by geodetic methods. The forward problem is defined using the equations of linear elasticity in a plane stress finite element code. This method involves the minimisation of a cost function defined as the quadratic measure of the differences between measured and modeled velocity fields on a discrete set of points. Gradient of the functional, with respect to the independent parameters of the model, is computed using an adjoint formulation. Thanks to this construction, the mapping of the rigidity can be fulfilled with a large number of parameters. The optimisation chart is validated first on synthetic velocity data sets corresponding to the surface motion of a screw dislocation with different locking depths. Then, the effective rigidity variations of the Western United States are estimated using a dense geodetic network. The inversion displays low effective rigidities along the San Andreas Fault and in the Eastern California Shear zone, while rigid areas are found in the Sierra Nevada and in the South Basin and Range. High rigidity values are strongly correlated with regions presenting small deformations and vice-versa. In addition to

  7. Motion Plan Changes Predictably in Dyadic Reaching

    PubMed Central

    Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Parents can effortlessly assist their child to walk, but the mechanism behind such physical coordination is still unknown. Studies have suggested that physical coordination is achieved by interacting humans who update their movement or motion plan in response to the partner’s behaviour. Here, we tested rigidly coupled pairs in a joint reaching task to observe such changes in the partners’ motion plans. However, the joint reaching movements were surprisingly consistent across different trials. A computational model that we developed demonstrated that the two partners had a distinct motion plan, which did not change with time. These results suggest that rigidly coupled pairs accomplish joint reaching movements by relying on a pre-programmed motion plan that is independent of the partner’s behaviour. PMID:27911938

  8. Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight

    2016-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.

  9. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  10. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  11. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  12. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  13. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  14. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  15. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  16. The influence of pressure on the structure of a 2D uranium(VI) carboxyphosphonoate compound

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Elinor C.; Ross, Nancy L.; Surbella, Robert G.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2014-10-15

    We report the first quantitative analysis of the structural evolution of a uranyl bearing coordination polymer in response to pressure. The material that is central to this study, (UO{sub 2})(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CO{sub 2}H) (1), is constructed from rigid 2D inorganic layers comprising edge sharing UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids cross-linked by [PO{sub 3}(COOH)]{sup 2−} anions. Strong hydrogen bonding interactions exist between the pendent carboxylic acid groups on adjacent layers. Under pressure, 1 exhibits compressional behaviour primarily in the direction perpendicular to the inorganic layers, which is aided by a reduction in the interlayer distance and shifting of the layers with respect to each other. The bulk modulus for the 2D compound 1 is unexpectedly high [18.1(1) GPa] and is within the range reported for 3D CPs assembled from Zn{sup II} cations and inflexible imidazolate anions, and is at the lower end of the range of moduli observed for aluminosilicate zeolites (19–59 GPa). - Graphical Abstract: The compression mechanism and elastic constants for a 2D Uranium(VI) carboxyphosphonoate compound are reported. - Highlights: • The response to pressure of a uranium carboxyphosphonoate compound has been studied. • High-pressure single-crystal XRD data for this 2D uranium compound were collected. • Elastic constants for this material have been determined. • The compression mechanism for the compound has been elucidated.

  17. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  18. Dynamic response of rigid tanks with inhomogeneous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, P.; Veletsos, A.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1994-04-01

    A study of the free vibrational characteristics and of the response to horizontal ground shaking of a rigid cylindrical tank containing an inviscid liquid with a continuous vertical variation in density is presented. The response quantities examined include the vertical sloshing motions of the liquid at its free-surface, and the impulsive and convective components of the hydrodynamic wall pressures and associated tank forces. The equations of motion for the system are formulated for an arbitrary variation in liquid density but the solutions presented are for a density that increases exponentially from top to bottom. Comprehensive numerical data are included which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The solution for the continuous density variation considered herein is also compared with a previously reported solution in which the liquid was modeled as a multi-layered, discrete system.

  19. Emergent Behavior in the Macro World: Rigidity of Granular Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2015-03-01

    Diversity in the natural world emerges from the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting objects. The origin of collectively organized structures over the vast range of length scales from the subatomic to colloidal is the competition between energy and entropy. Thermal motion provides the mechanism for organization by allowing particles to explore the space of configurations. This well-established paradigm of emergent behavior breaks down for collections of macroscopic objects ranging from grains of sand to asteroids. In this macro-world of particulate systems, thermal motion is absent, and mechanical forces are all important. We lack understanding of the basic, unifying principles that underlie the emergence of order in this world. In this talk, I will explore the origin of rigidity of granular solids, and present a new paradigm for emergence of order in these athermal systems. This work has been supported by NSF-DMR 1409093 and by the W. M. Keck foundation

  20. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  1. On the Use of the Phase Memory Time T2for the Quantitative Characterization of the Rotational Motions of Proteins in Lipid Bilayer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Struijf, C.; Levine, Y. K.

    1998-02-01

    Numerical simulations of the echo responses from a nitroxide label rigidly attached to a large protein undergoing ultraslow rotational motions in a lipid bilayer are presented. The echoes are formed by the application of Hahn, COSY, and 2D-ELDOR sequences utilizing both soft and hard microwave pulses. The simulations address the question of whether the echo responses elicited by these sequences are affected by restricted angular excursions of the long axis of the protein relative to the normal to the bilayer plane. The results indicate that all three pulse sequences yield the same quantitative motional information regardless of the nature of the microwave pulses and there is no theoretical reason for preferring one sequence above the others.

  2. Peeling flexible beams in viscous fluids: Rigidity and extensional compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhong, Charles; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    We describe small angle peeling measurements in completely submerged environments to study the coupling between viscous forces and the mechanical properties of the plates being peeled. During the experiments, the plates resist motion because of lubrication forces while van der Waals forces between the plates and the static surface are negligible. In particular, we study the role played by flexural rigidity in the force-displacement curves and in the energy release rate. We show that the coupling between the viscous forces and the flexural rigidity of the plates dictates the shape and magnitude of the force-displacement curves. We develop simple scaling relationships that combine the lubrication forces with an Euler-Bernoulli beam to extract how the peak force and energy release rates depend on the ratio between rigidity and viscosity, and show good agreement between the predictions and experimental results. We also show that increasing the extensional compliance leads to a decrease in both the force-displacement curve and in the energy release rate. We then demonstrate that this reduction can be interpreted in terms of a stress decay length.

  3. Snapshot 2D tomography via coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging

    PubMed Central

    MacCabe, Kenneth P.; Holmgren, Andrew D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Brady, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a fan beam coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging system which acquires a tomographic image from each snapshot. This technique exploits cylindrical symmetry of the scattering cross section to avoid the scanning motion typically required by projection tomography. We use a coded aperture with a harmonic dependence to determine range, and a shift code to determine cross-range. Here we use a forward-scatter configuration to image 2D objects and use serial exposures to acquire tomographic video of motion within a plane. Our reconstruction algorithm also estimates the angular dependence of the scattered radiance, a step toward materials imaging and identification. PMID:23842254

  4. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  5. The effect of fin ray flexural rigidity on the propulsive forces generated by a biorobotic fish pectoral fin.

    PubMed

    Tangorra, James L; Lauder, George V; Hunter, Ian W; Mittal, Rajat; Madden, Peter G A; Bozkurttas, Meliha

    2010-12-01

    A biorobotic pectoral fin was developed and used to study how the flexural rigidities of fin rays within a highly deformable fish fin affect the fin's propulsive forces. The design of the biorobotic fin was based on a detailed analysis of the pectoral fin of the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The biorobotic fin was made to execute the kinematics used by the biological fin during steady swimming, and to have structural properties that modeled those of the biological fin. This resulted in an engineered fin that had a similar interaction with the water as the biological fin and that created close approximations of the three-dimensional motions, flows, and forces produced by the sunfish during low speed, steady swimming. Experimental trials were conducted during which biorobotic fins of seven different stiffness configurations were flapped at frequencies from 0.5 to 2.0 Hz in flows with velocities that ranged from 0 to 270 mm s(-1). During these trials, thrust and lift forces were measured, kinematics were recorded in three dimensions, and digital particle image velocimetry was used to evaluate flow hydrodynamics. The results of the trials revealed that slight changes to the fin's mechanical properties or to the operating conditions can have significant impact on the direction, magnitude and time course of the propulsive forces. In general, the magnitude of the 2-D (thrust and lift) propulsive force scaled with fin ray stiffness, and increased as the fin's flapping speed increased or as the velocity of the flow decreased.

  6. A Distinct Mechanism of Temporal Integration for Motion through Depth.

    PubMed

    Katz, Leor N; Hennig, Jay A; Cormack, Lawrence K; Huk, Alexander C

    2015-07-15

    Temporal integration of visual motion has been studied extensively within the frontoparallel plane (i.e., 2D). However, the majority of motion occurs within a 3D environment, and it is unknown whether the principles from 2D motion processing generalize to more realistic 3D motion. We therefore characterized and compared temporal integration underlying 2D (left/right) and 3D (toward/away) direction discrimination in human observers, varying motion coherence across a range of viewing durations. The resulting discrimination-versus-duration functions followed three stages, as follows: (1) a steep improvement during the first ∼150 ms, likely reflecting early sensory processing; (2) a subsequent, more gradual benefit of increasing duration over several hundreds of milliseconds, consistent with some form of temporal integration underlying decision formation; and (3) a final stage in which performance ceased to improve with duration over ∼1 s, which is consistent with an upper limit on integration. As previously found, improvements in 2D direction discrimination with time were consistent with near-perfect integration. In contrast, 3D motion sensitivity was lower overall and exhibited a substantial departure from perfect integration. These results confirm that there are overall differences in sensitivity for 2D and 3D motion that are consistent with a sensory difference between binocular and dichoptic sensory mechanisms. They also reveal a difference at the integration stage, in which 3D motion is not accumulated as perfectly as in the 2D motion model system.

  7. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  8. Stability of two-dimensional (2D) natural convection flows in air-filled differentially heated cavities: 2D/3D disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihe; Le Quéré, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Following our previous two-dimensional (2D) studies of flows in differentially heated cavities filled with air, we studied the stability of 2D natural convection flows in these cavities with respect to 3D periodic perturbations. The basis of the numerical methods is a time-stepping code using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method and the direct Uzawa method for velocity-pressure coupling. Newton's iteration, Arnoldi's method and the continuation method have been used in order to, respectively, compute the 2D steady-state base solution, estimate the leading eigenmodes of the Jacobian and perform linear stability analysis. Differentially heated air-filled cavities of aspect ratios from 1 to 7 were investigated. Neutral curves (Rayleigh number versus wave number) have been obtained. It turned out that only for aspect ratio 7, 3D stationary instability occurs at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers than the onset of 2D time-dependent flow and that for other aspect ratios 3D instability always takes place before 2D time-dependent flows. 3D unstable modes are stationary and anti-centro-symmetric. 3D nonlinear simulations revealed that the corresponding pitchfork bifurcations are supercritical and that 3D instability leads only to weak flow in the third direction. Further 3D computations are also performed at higher Rayleigh number in order to understand the effects of the weak 3D fluid motion on the onset of time-dependent flow. 3D flow structures are responsible for the onset of time-dependent flow for aspect ratios 1, 2 and 3, while for larger aspect ratios they do not alter the transition scenario, which was observed in the 2D cases and that vertical boundary layers become unstable to traveling waves.

  9. Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity Computer Program: Theory, Software Description and Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The access of charged particles to the earth from space through the geomagnetic field has been of interest since the discovery of the cosmic radiation. The early cosmic ray measurements found that cosmic ray intensity was ordered by the magnetic latitude and the concept of cutoff rigidity was developed. The pioneering work of Stoermer resulted in the theory of particle motion in the geomagnetic field, but the fundamental mathematical equations developed have 'no solution in closed form'. This difficulty has forced researchers to use the 'brute force' technique of numerical integration of individual trajectories to ascertain the behavior of trajectory families or groups. This requires that many of the trajectories must be traced in order to determine what energy (or rigidity) a charged particle must have to penetrate the magnetic field and arrive at a specified position. It turned out the cutoff rigidity was not a simple quantity but had many unanticipated complexities that required many hundreds if not thousands of individual trajectory calculations to solve. The accurate calculation of particle trajectories in the earth's magnetic field is a fundamental problem that limited the efficient utilization of cosmic ray measurements during the early years of cosmic ray research. As the power of computers has improved over the decades, the numerical integration procedure has grown more tractable, and magnetic field models of increasing accuracy and complexity have been utilized. This report is documentation of a general FORTRAN computer program to trace the trajectory of a charged particle of a specified rigidity from a specified position and direction through a model of the geomagnetic field.

  10. Equations of motion of a space station with emphasis on the effects of the gravity gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuell, L. P.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the equations of motion is based upon the principle of virtual work. As developed, these equations apply only to a space vehicle whose physical model consists of a rigid central carrier supporting several flexible appendages (not interconnected), smaller rigid bodies, and point masses. Clearly evident in the equations is the respect paid to the influence of the Earth's gravity field, considerably more than has been the custom in simulating vehicle motion. The effect of unpredictable crew motion is ignored.

  11. Relative dispersion in 2D stochastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piterbarg, L. I.

    We investigate the relative dispersion for two types of stochastic flows—Brownian flow (Kraichnan model) and a flow with memory (inertial particles). In the first case well-known asymptotics are rigorously derived for a self-similar spectrum of the velocity field by using a half-century-old Feller's theorem. Exact limits of the asymptotics and exact values for dimensionless constants are obtained. The second part of the paper addresses a relatively new object: the first-order Markov stochastic flow modelling inertial particle motion. Both local and non-local dynamics are investigated. In the first case an exact exponential asymptotic is obtained for the relative dispersion. In turn, two regimes are considered in the case of non-smooth forcing: weak and strong turbulence. For weak turbulence the obtained asymptotic of relative dispersion is similar to that of the Brownian flow. As for strong turbulence, an upper bound is obtained for the scaling of relative dispersion.

  12. Lipid-gramicidin interactions: dynamic structure of the boundary lipid by 2D-ELDOR.

    PubMed

    Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Crepeau, Richard H; Borbat, Petr P; Ge, Mingtao; Freed, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    The use of 2D-electron-electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) for the characterization of the boundary lipid in membrane vesicles of DPPC and gramicidin A' (GA) is reported. We show that 2D-ELDOR, with its enhanced spectral resolution to dynamic structure as compared with continuous-wave electron spin resonance, provides a reliable and useful way of studying lipid-protein interactions. The 2D-ELDOR spectra of the end-chain spin label 16-PC in DPPC/GA vesicles is composed of two components, which are assigned to the bulk lipids (with sharp auto peaks and crosspeaks) and to the boundary lipids (with broad auto peaks). Their distinction is clearest for higher temperatures and higher GA concentrations. The quantitative analysis of these spectra shows relatively faster motions and very low ordering for the end chain of the bulk lipids, whereas the boundary lipids show very high "y-ordering" and slower motions. The y-ordering represents a dynamic bending at the end of the boundary lipid acyl chain, which can then coat the GA molecules. These results are consistent with the previous studies by Ge and Freed (1999) using continuous-wave electron spin resonance, thereby supporting their model for GA aggregation and H(II) phase formation for high GA concentrations. Improved instrumental and simulation methods have been employed.

  13. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  14. SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya

    2016-03-01

    The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.

  15. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  16. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  17. 21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....

  18. Unbiased rigid registration using transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dieter A.; Hornegger, Joachim; Bautz, Werner; Kuwert, Torsten; Roemer, Wolfgang

    2005-04-01

    The evaluation of tumor growth as regression under therapy is an important clinical issue. Rigid registration of sequentially acquired 3D-images has proven its value for this purpose. Existing approaches to rigid image registration use the whole volume for the estimation of the rigid transform. Non-rigid soft tissue deformation, however, will imply a bias to the registration result, because local deformations cannot be modeled by rigid transforms. Anatomical substructures, like bones or teeth, are not affected by these deformations, but follow a rigid transform. This important observation is incorporated in the proposed registration algorithm. The selection of anatomical substructure is done by manual interaction of medical experts adjusting the transfer function of the volume rendering software. The parameters of the transfer function are used to identify the voxels that are considered for registration. A rigid transform is estimated by a quaternion gradient descent algorithm based on the intensity values of the specified tissue classes. Commonly used voxel intensity measures are adjusted to the modified registration algorithm. The contribution describes the mathematical framework of the proposed registration method and its implementation in a commercial software package. The experimental evaluation includes the discussion of different similarity measures, the comparison of the proposed method to established rigid registration techniques and the evaluation of the efficiency of the new method. We conclude with the discussion of potential medical applications of the proposed registration algorithm.

  19. The Personality Characteristics of the Rigid Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.; Garabedian, A. Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Investigated personality dimensions concomitant with learner's cognitive rigidity. Results indicated the personality dimensions of tenseness, compulsivity, group dependency, absent-mindedness, sensitivity, and emotional stability explained 36 percent of the variability in subjects' increasing levels of cognitive rigidity. Showed a pervasive use of…

  20. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  1. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  2. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  3. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  4. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  5. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  6. SinoCor: motion correction in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Debasis; Eiland, Daniel; Abdallah, Mahmoud; Bouthcko, Rostyslav; Gullberg, Grant T.; Schechtmann, Norberto

    2012-02-01

    Motion is a serious artifact in Cardiac nuclear imaging because the scanning operation takes a long time. Since reconstruction algorithms assume consistent or stationary data the quality of resulting image is affected by motion, sometimes significantly. Even after adoption of the gold standard MoCo(R) algorithm from Cedars-Sinai by most vendors, heart motion remains a significant challenge. Also, any serious study in quantitative analysis necessitates correction for motion artifacts. It is generally recognized that human eye is a very sensitive tool for detecting motion. However, two reasons prevent such manual correction: (1) it is costly in terms of specialist's time, and (2) no such tool for manual correction is available currently. Previously, at SPIE-MIC'11, we presented a simple tool (SinoCor) that allows sinograms to be corrected manually or automatically. SinoCor performs correction of sinograms containing inter-frame patient or respiratory motions using rigid-body dynamics. The software is capable of detecting the patient motion and estimating the body-motion vector using scanning geometry parameters. SinoCor applies appropriate geometrical correction to all the frames subsequent to the frame when the movement has occurred in a manual or automated mode. For respiratory motion, it is capable of automatically smoothing small oscillatory (frame-wise local) movements. Lower order image moments are used to represent a frame and the required rigid body movement compensation is computed accordingly. Our current focus is on enhancement of SinoCor with the capability to automatically detect and compensate for intra-frame motion that causes motion blur on the respective frame. Intra-frame movements are expected in both patient and respiratory motions. For a controlled study we also have developed a motion simulator. A stable version of SinoCor is available under license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  7. Defect formation and coarsening in hexagonal 2D curved crystals.

    PubMed

    García, Nicolás A; Pezzutti, Aldo D; Register, Richard A; Vega, Daniel A; Gómez, Leopoldo R

    2015-02-07

    In this work we study the processes of defect formation and coarsening of two-dimensional (2D) curved crystal structures. These processes are found to strongly deviate from their counterparts in flat systems. In curved backgrounds the process of defect formation is deeply affected by the curvature, and at the onset of a phase transition the early density of defects becomes highly inhomogeneous. We observe that even a single growing crystal can produce varying densities of defects depending on its initial position and local orientation with regard to the substrate. This process is completely different from flat space, where grain boundaries are formed due to the impingement of different propagating crystals. Quenching the liquid into the crystal phase leads to the formation of a curved polycrystalline structure, characterized by complex arrays of defects. During annealing, mechanisms of geodesic curvature-driven grain boundary motion and defect annihilation lead to increasing crystalline order. Linear arrays of defects diffuse to regions of high curvature, where they are absorbed by disclinations. At the early stage of coarsening the density of dislocations is insensitive to the geometry while the population of isolated disclinations is deeply affected by curvature. The regions with high curvature act as traps for the diffusion of different structures of defects, including disclinations and domain walls.

  8. Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.

  9. Autoadaptive motion modelling for MR-based respiratory motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian F; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory motion poses significant challenges in image-guided interventions. In emerging treatments such as MR-guided HIFU or MR-guided radiotherapy, it may cause significant misalignments between interventional road maps obtained pre-procedure and the anatomy during the treatment, and may affect intra-procedural imaging such as MR-thermometry. Patient specific respiratory motion models provide a solution to this problem. They establish a correspondence between the patient motion and simpler surrogate data which can be acquired easily during the treatment. Patient motion can then be estimated during the treatment by acquiring only the simpler surrogate data. In the majority of classical motion modelling approaches once the correspondence between the surrogate data and the patient motion is established it cannot be changed unless the model is recalibrated. However, breathing patterns are known to significantly change in the time frame of MR-guided interventions. Thus, the classical motion modelling approach may yield inaccurate motion estimations when the relation between the motion and the surrogate data changes over the duration of the treatment and frequent recalibration may not be feasible. We propose a novel methodology for motion modelling which has the ability to automatically adapt to new breathing patterns. This is achieved by choosing the surrogate data in such a way that it can be used to estimate the current motion in 3D as well as to update the motion model. In particular, in this work, we use 2D MR slices from different slice positions to build as well as to apply the motion model. We implemented such an autoadaptive motion model by extending our previous work on manifold alignment. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle of the proposed technique on cardiac gated data of the thorax and evaluate its adaptive behaviour on realistic synthetic data containing two breathing types generated from 6 volunteers, and real data from 4 volunteers. On synthetic data

  10. Planar dynamics of a uniform beam with rigid bodies affixed to the ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, J.; Gates, S.

    1983-01-01

    The planar dynamics of a uniform elastic beam subject to a variety of geometric and natural boundary conditions and external excitations were analyzed. The beams are inextensible and capable of small transverse bending deformations only. Classical beam vibration eigenvalue problems for a cantilever with tip mass, a cantilever with tip body and an unconstrained beam with rigid bodies at each are examined. The characteristic equations, eigenfunctions and orthogonality relations for each are derived. The forced vibration of a cantilever with tip body subject to base acceleration is analyzed. The exact solution of the governing nonhomogeneous partial differential equation with time dependent boundary conditions is presented and compared with a Rayleigh-Ritz approximate solution. The arbitrary planar motion of an elastic beam with rigid bodies at the ends is addressed. Equations of motion are derived for two modal expansions of the beam deflection. The motion equations are cast in a first order form suitable for numerical integration. Selected FORTRAN programs are provided.

  11. Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1985-02-01

    Brownian motion, the doubly random motion of small particles suspended in a liquid due to molecular collisions, and its implications and applications in the history of modern science are discussed. Topics examined include probabilistic phenomena, the kinetic theory of gases, Einstein's atomic theory of Brownian motion, particle displacement, diffusion measurements, the determination of the mass of the atom and of Avogadro's number, the statistical mechanics of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium systems, Langevin's equation of motion, time-reversed evolution, mathematical analogies, and applications in economics and radio navigation. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  12. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  13. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  14. Measuring the equation of state for a 2D colloidal membrane: A microfluidic approach to buffer exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balchunas, Andrew; Cabanas, Rafael; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Previous work has shown that monodisperse rod-like colloidal particles, such as a filamentous bacteriophage, self assemble into a 2D monolayer smectic in the presence of a non-adsorbing depleting polymer. These structures have the same functional form of bending rigidity and lateral compressibility as conventional lipid bi-layers, so we name the monolayer smectic a colloidal membrane. We have developed a microfluidic device such that the osmotic pressure acting on a colloidal membrane may be controlled via a full in situ buffer exchange. Rod density within individual colloidal membranes was measured as a function of osmotic pressure and a first order phase transition, from 2D fluid to 2D solid, was observed. kon and koff rates of rod to membrane binding were measured by lowering the osmotic pressure until membrane evaporation occurred.

  15. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  16. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  17. NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.

    1992-01-24

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  18. On the aerodynamic characteristics of hovering rigid and flexible hawkmoth-like wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lua, K. B.; Lai, K. C.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are subjected to fluid, inertia and gravitational forces during flapping flight. Owing to their limited rigidity, they bent under the influence of these forces. Numerical study by Hamamoto et al. (Adv Robot 21(1-2):1-21, 2007) showed that a flexible wing is able to generate almost as much lift as a rigid wing during flapping. In this paper, we take a closer look at the relationship between wing flexibility (or stiffness) and aerodynamic force generation in flapping hovering flight. The experimental study was conducted in two stages. The first stage consisted of detailed force measurement and flow visualization of a rigid hawkmoth-like wing undergoing hovering hawkmoth flapping motion and simple harmonic flapping motion, with the aim of establishing a benchmark database for the second stage, which involved hawkmoth-like wing of different flexibility performing the same flapping motions. Hawkmoth motion was conducted at Re = 7,254 and reduced frequency of 0.26, while simple harmonic flapping motion at Re = 7,800 and 11,700, and reduced frequency of 0.25. Results show that aerodynamic force generation on the rigid wing is governed primarily by the combined effect of wing acceleration and leading edge vortex generated on the upper surface of the wing, while the remnants of the wake vortices generated from the previous stroke play only a minor role. Our results from the flexible wing study, while generally supportive of the finding by Hamamoto et al. (Adv Robot 21(1-2):1-21, 2007), also reveal the existence of a critical stiffness constant, below which lift coefficient deteriorates significantly. This finding suggests that although using flexible wing in micro air vehicle application may be beneficial in term of lightweight, too much flexibility can lead to deterioration in flapping performance in terms of aerodynamic force generation. The results further show that wings with stiffness constant above the critical value can deliver mean lift coefficient

  19. A positioning QA procedure for 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D (CT/CBCT) image matching for radiotherapy patient setup.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huaiqun; Hammoud, Rabih; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2009-10-06

    A positioning QA procedure for Varian's 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D (planCT/CBCT) matching was developed. The procedure was to check: (1) the coincidence of on-board imager (OBI), portal imager (PI), and cone beam CT (CBCT)'s isocenters (digital graticules) to a linac's isocenter (to a pre-specified accuracy); (2) that the positioning difference detected by 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D(planCT/CBCT) matching can be reliably transferred to couch motion. A cube phantom with a 2 mm metal ball (bb) at the center was used. The bb was used to define the isocenter. Two additional bbs were placed on two phantom surfaces in order to define a spatial location of 1.5 cm anterior, 1.5 cm inferior, and 1.5 cm right from the isocenter. An axial scan of the phantom was acquired from a multislice CT simulator. The phantom was set at the linac's isocenter (lasers); either AP MV/R Lat kV images or CBCT images were taken for 2D/2D or 3D/3D matching, respectively. For 2D/2D, the accuracy of each device's isocenter was obtained by checking the distance between the central bb and the digital graticule. Then the central bb in orthogonal DRRs was manually moved to overlay to the off-axis bbs in kV/MV images. For 3D/3D, CBCT was first matched to planCT to check the isocenter difference between the two CTs. Manual shifts were then made by moving CBCT such that the point defined by the two off-axis bbs overlay to the central bb in planCT. (PlanCT can not be moved in the current version of OBI1.4.) The manual shifts were then applied to remotely move the couch. The room laser was used to check the accuracy of the couch movement. For Trilogy (or Ix-21) linacs, the coincidence of imager and linac's isocenter was better than 1 mm (or 1.5 mm). The couch shift accuracy was better than 2 mm.

  20. Soap film as a 2D system: Diffusion and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric

    2014-03-01

    We use microrheology to measure the 2D (interfacial) viscosity of soap films. Microrheology uses the diffusivity of tracer particles suspended in the soap film to infer viscosity. Our tracer particles are colloids of diameters d = 0.10 and 0.18 microns. We measure the interfacial viscosity of soap films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 3 microns. The thickness of these films is measured using the infrared absorbance of the water based soap films. From film thickness, viscosity of the fluid used to make the film and particle diffusivity, we can infer the interfacial viscosity due to the surfactant layers at the film/air interfaces. We find positive constant interfacial viscosities for thin films (h/d < 5), within error. For thicker films, we find negative viscosities, indicating 3D effects begin to play a role, as air stresses become less important. The transition from 2D to 3D properties as a function of h/d is sharp at about h/d=6. Additionally, we measure larger length scale flow fields from correlated particle motions and find good agreement with what is expected from the theory of 2D fluids for all our films. In conclusion, single particle diffusion shows a sharp transition away from 2D like behavior as h/d increases, but the long-range flow fields still act as 2D.

  1. Non-rigid registration of tomographic images with Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Ar; Isoardi, Ra; Mato, G.

    2007-11-01

    Spatial image registration of deformable body parts such as thorax and abdomen has important medical applications, but at the same time, it represents an important computational challenge. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm to perform non-rigid registration of tomographic images using a non-rigid model based on Fourier transforms. As a measure of similarity, we use the correlation coefficient, finding that the optimal order of the transformation is n = 3 (36 parameters). We apply this method to a digital phantom and to 7 pairs of patient images corresponding to clinical CT scans. The preliminary results indicate a fairly good agreement according to medical experts, with an average registration error of 2 mm for the case of clinical images. For 2D images (dimensions 512×512), the average running time for the algorithm is 15 seconds using a standard personal computer. Summarizing, we find that intra-modality registration of the abdomen can be achieved with acceptable accuracy for slight deformations and can be extended to 3D with a reasonable execution time.

  2. Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.

  3. Low thermal conductance rigidizer for reducing torsional oscillations in cryogenic Dewars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A rigidizer, which provides greater rigidity against torsional oscillations, is highly resistant to radial motions, and has low thermal conductivity, has been developed to decrease vibrational levels affecting infrared detectors operated in cryostats (e.g., HD-3L Dewar) in aircraft such as NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The rigidizer is composed of two triangular elements and an intermediate support structure which joins them at the centers of their sides. The reentrant design provides a long heat path, while the triangular truss structure provides high rigidity in the horizontal plane. The structure is relatively compliant in the vertical direction, a desirable feature since the internal structure of the Dewar contracts as it cools. Rigidity in the vertical direction is provided by the neck tube. The support structure is quite compact. Several variants of the rigidizer have been fabricated, using flat sheets of G-10 fiberglass epoxy in thicknesses between 0.75-1.5 mm for the upper and lower truss assemblies, and either G-10 or stainless steel for the intermediate structure.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures.

  5. An adaptive model approach for quantitative wrist rigidity evaluation during deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Assis, Sofia; Costa, Pedro; Rosas, Maria Jose; Vaz, Rui; Silva Cunha, Joao Paulo

    2016-08-01

    Intraoperative evaluation of the efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation includes evaluation of the effect on rigidity. A subjective semi-quantitative scale is used, dependent on the examiner perception and experience. A system was proposed previously, aiming to tackle this subjectivity, using quantitative data and providing real-time feedback of the computed rigidity reduction, hence supporting the physician decision. This system comprised of a gyroscope-based motion sensor in a textile band, placed in the patients hand, which communicated its measurements to a laptop. The latter computed a signal descriptor from the angular velocity of the hand during wrist flexion in DBS surgery. The first approach relied on using a general rigidity reduction model, regardless of the initial severity of the symptom. Thus, to enhance the performance of the previously presented system, we aimed to develop models for high and low baseline rigidity, according to the examiner assessment before any stimulation. This would allow a more patient-oriented approach. Additionally, usability was improved by having in situ processing in a smartphone, instead of a computer. Such system has shown to be reliable, presenting an accuracy of 82.0% and a mean error of 3.4%. Relatively to previous results, the performance was similar, further supporting the importance of considering the cogwheel rigidity to better infer about the reduction in rigidity. Overall, we present a simple, wearable, mobile system, suitable for intra-operatory conditions during DBS, supporting a physician in decision-making when setting stimulation parameters.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures. PMID:27513661

  7. GENERAL THEORY OF THE ROTATION OF THE NON-RIGID EARTH AT THE SECOND ORDER. I. THE RIGID MODEL IN ANDOYER VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Getino, J.; Miguel, D.; Escapa, A.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is the first part of an investigation where we will present an analytical general theory of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth at the second order, which considers the effects of the interaction of the rotation of the Earth with itself, also named as the spin-spin coupling. Here, and as a necessary step in the development of that theory, we derive complete, explicit, analytical formulae of the rigid Earth rotation that account for the second-order rotation-rotation interaction. These expressions are not provided in this form by any current rigid Earth model. Working within the Hamiltonian framework established by Kinoshita, we study the second-order effects arising from the interaction of the main term in the Earth geopotential expansion with itself, and with the complementary term arising when referring the rotational motion to the moving ecliptic. To this aim, we apply a canonical perturbation method to solve analytically the canonical equations at the second order, determining the expressions that provide the nutation-precession, the polar motion, and the length of day. In the case of the motion of the equatorial plane, nutation-precession, we compare our general approach with the particular study for this motion developed by Souchay et al., showing the existence of new terms whose numerical values are within the truncation level of 0.1 {mu}as adopted by those authors. These terms emerge as a consequence of not assuming in this work the same restrictive simplifications taken by Souchay et al. The importance of these additional contributions is that, as the analytical formulae show, they depend on the Earth model considered, in such a way that the fluid core resonance could amplify them significatively when extending this theory to the non-rigid Earth models.

  8. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with t.he direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency- reference cavity of order 1 Hz/square root Hz(0.01 Hz/square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  9. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity Used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/rtHz at 10mHz at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  10. Rigid-cluster models of conformational transitions in macromolecular machines and assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon K; Jernigan, Robert L; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2005-07-01

    We present a rigid-body-based technique (called rigid-cluster elastic network interpolation) to generate feasible transition pathways between two distinct conformations of a macromolecular assembly. Many biological molecules and assemblies consist of domains which act more or less as rigid bodies during large conformational changes. These collective motions are thought to be strongly related with the functions of a system. This fact encourages us to simply model a macromolecule or assembly as a set of rigid bodies which are interconnected with distance constraints. In previous articles, we developed coarse-grained elastic network interpolation (ENI) in which, for example, only Calpha atoms are selected as representatives in each residue of a protein. We interpolate distance differences of two conformations in ENI by using a simple quadratic cost function, and the feasible conformations are generated without steric conflicts. Rigid-cluster interpolation is an extension of the ENI method with rigid-clusters replacing point masses. Now the intermediate conformations in an anharmonic pathway can be determined by the translational and rotational displacements of large clusters in such a way that distance constraints are observed. We present the derivation of the rigid-cluster model and apply it to a variety of macromolecular assemblies. Rigid-cluster ENI is then modified for a hybrid model represented by a mixture of rigid clusters and point masses. Simulation results show that both rigid-cluster and hybrid ENI methods generate sterically feasible pathways of large systems in a very short time. For example, the HK97 virus capsid is an icosahedral symmetric assembly composed of 60 identical asymmetric units. Its original Hessian matrix size for a Calpha coarse-grained model is >(300,000)(2). However, it reduces to (84)(2) when we apply the rigid-cluster model with icosahedral symmetry constraints. The computational cost of the interpolation no longer scales heavily with

  11. 3-D object recognition using 2-D views.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Bebis, George; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G

    2008-11-01

    We consider the problem of recognizing 3-D objects from 2-D images using geometric models and assuming different viewing angles and positions. Our goal is to recognize and localize instances of specific objects (i.e., model-based) in a scene. This is in contrast to category-based object recognition methods where the goal is to search for instances of objects that belong to a certain visual category (e.g., faces or cars). The key contribution of our work is improving 3-D object recognition by integrating Algebraic Functions of Views (AFoVs), a powerful framework for predicting the geometric appearance of an object due to viewpoint changes, with indexing and learning. During training, we compute the space of views that groups of object features can produce under the assumption of 3-D linear transformations, by combining a small number of reference views that contain the object features using AFoVs. Unrealistic views (e.g., due to the assumption of 3-D linear transformations) are eliminated by imposing a pair of rigidity constraints based on knowledge of the transformation between the reference views of the object. To represent the space of views that an object can produce compactly while allowing efficient hypothesis generation during recognition, we propose combining indexing with learning in two stages. In the first stage, we sample the space of views of an object sparsely and represent information about the samples using indexing. In the second stage, we build probabilistic models of shape appearance by sampling the space of views of the object densely and learning the manifold formed by the samples. Learning employs the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and takes place in a "universal," lower-dimensional, space computed through Random Projection (RP). During recognition, we extract groups of point features from the scene and we use indexing to retrieve the most feasible model groups that might have produced them (i.e., hypothesis generation). The likelihood

  12. Theories of Notation and Polar Motion I,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AD-AO99 015 OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF GEODETIC SCIENCE F/B 8/5 ’ETHEORIES OF NUTATION AND POLAR MOTION .U D C 80 H MORITZ F19628-79-C-0075...DUNCLASSIFIED DS309 AFGL-TR-80-0363 ML ENEEOEEE- ImEEOhEE g A L .... .. -80I0 j THEORIES OF NUTATION AND POLAR MOTION I f ŝ".. TICI YELMUT/MiORITZOT T...theories of the earth’s rotation (precession, nutation , and polar motion) for a rigid earth, a purely elastic earth, inil the Poincare model

  13. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Degertekin, Muzaffer

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for patient data; and

  14. A Parametric Investigation of Breaking Bow Waves using a 2D+T Wave Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxeiner, E. A.; Shakeri, M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    An experimental study of bow waves generated by a 2D+T (Two Dimensions plus Time) wave maker in a tank that is 14.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 2.2 m deep is presented. Rather than simulating a specific ship hull, here we use a parametric set of wave maker motions with each parameter simulating a common feature of a ship hull form. Three categories of wave maker motions are used: ``slap'' (rotation of the wave board (held flat) about the keel), ``fixed'' (translation the wave board while it is upper part remains flat and at a fixed angle relative to horizontal), and ``full'' (simultaneous rotation and translation). The wave maker motions are run over a range of speeds and, in the ``fixed'' cases, over a range of angles. The temporal histories of the wave profiles were measured using a cinematic LIF technique. The relationship between various geometrical features of the waves and the wave maker motion parameters is explored. Each category of wave maker motions produces waves that develop and break in markedly different ways, thus highlighting the complex nature of bow waves. The wave crest speeds vary between 2 and 2.5 times the maximum speed of the wave maker and, for a given class of wave maker motion, vary with wave maker speed.

  15. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  16. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  17. On the Rigidity in Bending of a Sandwich with Thick CFRP Facings and Thin Soft Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprino, G.; Iaccarino, P.; Langella, A.; Lamboglia, A.

    2009-06-01

    Flexure tests in three-point bending were performed in the elastic domain on sandwich specimens whose facings were made of T800H/3900-2 laminates, and the core by a soft rubbery layer. The contribution of the shear and flexural deformations to the overall deflection was varied by varying the slenderness ratio. The rigidities yielded by the load-displacement curve were corrected for the indentation occurring at the points of load introduction, using an experimentally determined calibration curve. Due to the thinness of the sandwich, indentation negligibly affected the precision of the results, with the apparent rigidities differing from the actual ones by less than 2%. By an analytical formula previously developed for sandwich structures, a prediction of the rigidities in flexure was attempted, adopting elastic constants available in the literature. The correlation with the data points was poor, with the theoretical results largely overestimating the actual rigidities. However, the reliability of the closed-form formula was supported by finite element analysis, carried out modelling the facings by 2D plate elements, and the core by 3D brick elements. Through the formula, the core shear modulus was individuated as responsible of the discrepancies observed. Assuming a suitable value for this parameter, both the analytic solution and the finite element models were able to match with accuracy the rigidities measured.

  18. Fundamental performance assessment of 2-D myocardial elastography in a phased-array configuration.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianwen; Lee, Wei-Ning; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2009-10-01

    Two-dimensional myocardial elastography, an RF-based, speckle-tracking technique, uses 1-D cross-correlation and recorrelation methods in a 2-D search, and can estimate and image the 2-D transmural motion and deformation of the myocardium so as to characterize the cardiac function. Based on a 3-D finite-element (FE) canine left-ventricular model, a theoretical framework was previously developed by our group to evaluate the estimation quality of 2-D myocardial elastography using a linear array. In this paper, an ultrasound simulation program, Field II, was used to generate the RF signals of a model of the heart in a phased-array configuration and under 3-D motion conditions; thus simulating a standard echocardiography exam. The estimation method of 2-D myocardial elastography was adapted for use with such a configuration. All elastographic displacements and strains were found to be in good agreement with the FE solutions, as indicated by the mean absolute error (MAE) between the two. The classified first and second principal strains approximated the radial and circumferential strains, respectively, in the phased-array configuration. The results at different sonographic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR(s)) showed that the MAEs of the axial, lateral, radial, and circumferential strains remained relatively constant when the SNR(s) was equal to or higher than 20 dB. The MAEs of the strain estimation were not significantly affected when the acoustic attenuation was included in the simulations. A significantly reduced number of scatterers could be used to speed up the simulation, without sacrificing the estimation quality.The proposed framework can further be used to assess the estimation quality, explore the theoretical limitation and investigate the effects of various parameters in 2-D myocardial elastography under more realistic conditions.

  19. 2D-3D registration for brain radiation therapy using a 3D CBCT and a single limited field-of-view 2D kV radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munbodh, R.; Moseley, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    We report results of an intensity-based 2D-3D rigid registration framework for patient positioning and monitoring during brain radiotherapy. We evaluated two intensity-based similarity measures, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Maximum Likelihood with Gaussian noise (MLG) derived from the statistics of transmission images. A useful image frequency band was identified from the bone-to-no-bone ratio. Validation was performed on gold-standard data consisting of 3D kV CBCT scans and 2D kV radiographs of an anthropomorphic head phantom acquired at 23 different poses with parameter variations along six degrees of freedom. At each pose, a single limited field of view kV radiograph was registered to the reference CBCT. The ground truth was determined from markers affixed to the phantom and visible in the CBCT images. The mean (and standard deviation) of the absolute errors in recovering each of the six transformation parameters along the x, y and z axes for ICC were varphix: 0.08(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.03(0.03)°, tx: 0.13(0.11) mm, ty: 0.08(0.06) mm and tz: 0.44(0.23) mm. For MLG, the corresponding results were varphix: 0.10(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.05(0.07)°, tx: 0.11(0.13) mm, ty: 0.05(0.05) mm and tz: 0.44(0.31) mm. It is feasible to accurately estimate all six transformation parameters from a 3D CBCT of the head and a single 2D kV radiograph within an intensity-based registration framework that incorporates the physics of transmission images.

  20. Modeling the polar motion of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyette, Alexis; Van Hoolst, Tim; Baland, Rose-Marie; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    The angular momentum of the atmosphere and of the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan have a large equatorial component that can excite polar motion, a variable orientation of the rotation axis of Titan with respect to its surface. We here use the angular momentum obtained from a General Circulation Model of the atmosphere of Titan and from an Ocean Circulation Model for Titan's polar lakes to model the polar motion of Titan as a function of the interior structure. Besides the gravitational torque exerted by Saturn on Titan's aspherical mass distribution, the rotational model also includes torques arising due to the presence of an ocean under a thin ice shell as well as the influence of the elasticity of the different layers. The Chandler wobble period of a solid and rigid Titan without its atmosphere is about 279 years. The period of the Chandler wobble is mainly influenced by the atmosphere of Titan (-166 years) and the presence of an internal global ocean (+135 to 295 years depending on the internal model) and to a lesser extent by the elastic deformations (+3.7 years). The forced polar motion of a solid and rigid Titan is elliptical with an amplitude of about 50 m and a main period equal to the orbital period of Saturn. It is mainly forced by the atmosphere of Titan while the lakes of Titan are at the origin of a displacement of the mean polar motion, or polar offset. The subsurface ocean can largely increase the polar motion amplitude due to resonant amplification with a wobble free mode of Titan. The amplitudes as well as the main periods of the polar motion depend on whether and which forcing period is close to the period of a free mode. For a thick ice shell, the polar motion mainly has an annual period and an amplitude of about 1 km. For thinner ice shells, the polar motion amplitude can reach several tens of km and shorter periods become dominant. We demonstrate that for thick ice shells, the ice shell rigidity weakly influences the amplitude of the polar motion

  1. Some pathophysiological aspects of the parkinsonian rigidity.

    PubMed

    Delwaide, P J; Sabbatino, M; Delwaide, C

    1986-01-01

    The neurophysiological mechanisms explaining parkinsonian rigidity are still poorly understood. Its reflex nature is well established but the peripheral afferents causing it are likely multiple and not restricted to IA afferents. Few modifications appear in spinal cord reflex mechanisms and are limited to some interneurones (reciprocal inhibition and flexor reflex). At present, the most plausible explanation of rigidity relies on hyperactivity in long loop reflex pathways relaying in the brain.

  2. Langevin thermostat for rigid body dynamics.

    PubMed

    Davidchack, Ruslan L; Handel, Richard; Tretyakov, M V

    2009-06-21

    We present a new method for isothermal rigid body simulations using the quaternion representation and Langevin dynamics. It can be combined with the traditional Langevin or gradient (Brownian) dynamics for the translational degrees of freedom to correctly sample the canonical distribution in a simulation of rigid molecules. We propose simple, quasisymplectic second-order numerical integrators and test their performance on the TIP4P model of water. We also investigate the optimal choice of thermostat parameters.

  3. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  4. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  5. 2D DEM model of sand transport with wind interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oger, L.; Valance, A.

    2013-06-01

    The advance of the dunes in the desert is a threat to the life of the local people. The dunes invade houses, agricultural land and perturb the circulation on the roads. It is therefore very important to understand the mechanism of sand transport in order to fight against desertification. Saltation in which sand grains are propelled by the wind along the surface in short hops, is the primary mode of blown sand movement [1]. The saltating grains are very energetic and when impact a sand surface, they rebound and consequently eject other particles from the sand bed. The ejected grains, called reptating grains, contribute to the augmentation of the sand flux. Some of them can be promoted to the saltation motion. We use a mechanical model based on the Discrete Element Method to study successive collisions of incident energetic beads with granular packing in the context of Aeolian saltation transport. We investigate the collision process for the case where the incident bead and those from the packing have identical mechanical properties. We analyze the features of the consecutive collision processes made by the transport of the saltating disks by a wind in which its profile is obtained from the counter-interaction between air flow and grain flows. We used a molecular dynamics method known as DEM (soft Discrete Element Method) with a initial static packing of 20000 2D particles. The dilation of the upper surface due to the consecutive collisions is responsible for maintaining the flow at a given energy input due to the wind.

  6. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs.

  7. Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-04-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.

  8. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  9. Attitude dynamics simulation subroutines for systems of hinge-connected rigid bodies with nonrigid appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.; Likins, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Three computer subroutines designed to solve the vector-dyadic differential equations of rotational motion for systems that may be idealized as a collection of hinge-connected rigid bodies assembled in a tree topology, with an optional flexible appendage attached to each body are reported. Deformations of the appendages are mathematically represented by modal coordinates and are assumed small. Within these constraints, the subroutines provide equation solutions for (1) the most general case of unrestricted hinge rotations, with appendage base bodies nominally rotating at a constant speed, (2) the case of unrestricted hinge rotations between rigid bodies, with the restriction that those rigid bodies carrying appendages are nominally nonspinning, and (3) the case of small hinge rotations and nominally nonrotating appendages. Sample problems and their solutions are presented to illustrate the utility of the computer programs.

  10. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length.

    PubMed

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-05-04

    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  11. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjects in vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D

  12. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pal, Saikat; Beaupré, Gary S.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjectsin vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D

  13. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  14. Metrology of Non-Rigid Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Smith, D W; Claudet, A A; Kasper, E P; Patterson, S R

    2002-01-01

    Dimensional characterization of non-rigid parts presents many challenges. For example, when a non-rigid part is mounted in an inspection apparatus the effects of fixturing constraints cause significant deformation of the part. If the part is not used in normal service with the same load conditions as during inspection, the dimensional characteristics in service will deviate from the reported values during inspection. Further, the solution of designing specialized fixturing to duplicate ''as-installed'' conditions does not fully resolve the problem because each inspection requires its own methodology. The goal of this project is to formulate the research problem and propose a method of assessing the dimensional characteristics of non-rigid parts. The measured dimension of a rigid component is traceable at some level of confidence to a single source (NIST in the USA). Hence the measurement of one component of an assembly can be related to the measurement of another component of that assembly. There is no generalized analog to this pedigreed process for dimensionally characterizing non-rigid bodies. For example, a measurement made on a sheet-metal automobile fender is heavily influenced by how it is held during the measurement making it difficult to determine how well that fender will assemble to the rest of the (non-rigid) car body. This problem is often overcome for specific manufacturing problems by constructing rigid fixtures that over-constrain the non-rigid parts to be assembled and then performing the dimensional measurement of the contour of each component to check whether each meets specification. Note that such inspection measurements will yield only an approximation to the assembled shape, which is a function of both the geometry and the compliance of the component parts of the assembly. As a result, non-rigid components are more difficult to specify and inspect and therefore are more difficult to purchase from outside vendors compared to rigid components

  15. Algorithms for three-dimensional rigidity analysis and a first-order percolation transition.

    PubMed

    Chubynsky, M V; Thorpe, M F

    2007-10-01

    A fast computer algorithm, the pebble game, has been used successfully to analyze the rigidity of two-dimensional (2D) elastic networks, as well as of a special class of 3D networks, the bond-bending networks, and enabled significant progress in studies of rigidity percolation on such networks. Application of the pebble game approach to general 3D networks has been hindered by the fact that the underlying mathematical theory is, strictly speaking, invalid in this case. We construct an approximate pebble game algorithm for general 3D networks, as well as a slower but exact algorithm, the relaxation algorithm, that we use for testing the new pebble game. Based on the results of these tests and additional considerations, we argue that in the particular case of randomly diluted central-force networks on bcc and fcc lattices, the pebble game is essentially exact. Using the pebble game, we observe an extremely sharp jump in the largest rigid cluster size in bond-diluted central-force networks in 3D, with the percolating cluster appearing and taking up most of the network after a single bond addition. This strongly suggests a first-order rigidity percolation transition, which is in contrast to the second-order transitions found previously for the 2D central-force and 3D bond-bending networks. While a first order rigidity transition has been observed previously for Bethe lattices and networks with "chemical order," here it is in a regular randomly diluted network. In the case of site dilution, the transition is also first order for bcc lattices, but results for fcc lattices suggest a second-order transition. Even in bond-diluted lattices, while the transition appears massively first order in the order parameter (the percolating cluster size), it is continuous in the elastic moduli. This, and the apparent nonuniversality, make this phase transition highly unusual.

  16. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique.

  17. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  18. Lyapunov instability of fluids composed of rigid diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzsák, István; Posch, H. A.; Baranyai, András

    1996-04-01

    We study the Lyapunov instability of a two-dimensional fluid composed of rigid diatomic molecules, with two interaction sites each, and interacting with a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson site-site potential. We compute full spectra of Lyapunov exponents for such a molecular system. These exponents characterize the rate at which neighboring trajectories diverge or converge exponentially in phase space. Qualitative different degrees of freedom, such as rotation and translation, affect the Lyapunov spectrum differently. We study this phenomenon by systematically varying the molecular shape and the density. We define and evaluate ``rotation numbers'' measuring the time averaged modulus of the angular velocities for vectors connecting perturbed satellite trajectories with an unperturbed reference trajectory in phase space. For reasons of comparison, various time correlation functions for translation and rotation are computed. The relative dynamics of perturbed trajectories is also studied in certain subspaces of the phase space associated with center-of-mass and orientational molecular motion.

  19. Inertial and viscoelastic forces on rigid colloids in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Howard, Michael P; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2015-06-14

    We perform hybrid molecular dynamics simulations to study the flow behavior of rigid colloids dispersed in a dilute polymer solution. The underlying Newtonian solvent and the ensuing hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated through multiparticle collision dynamics, while the constituent polymers are modeled as bead-spring chains, maintaining a description consistent with the colloidal nature of our system. We study the cross-stream migration of the solute particles in slit-like channels for various polymer lengths and colloid sizes and find a distinct focusing onto the channel center under specific solvent and flow conditions. To better understand this phenomenon, we systematically measure the effective forces exerted on the colloids. We find that the migration originates from a competition between viscoelastic forces from the polymer solution and hydrodynamically induced inertial forces. Our simulations reveal a significantly stronger fluctuation of the lateral colloid position than expected from thermal motion alone, which originates from the complex interplay between the colloid and polymer chains.

  20. Persistence-Driven Durotaxis: Generic, Directed Motility in Rigidity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Elizaveta A.; Raab, Matthew; Discher, Dennis E.; Storm, Cornelis

    2017-02-01

    Cells move differently on substrates with different rigidities: the persistence time of their motion is higher on stiffer substrates. We show that this behavior—in and of itself—results in a net flux of cells directed up a soft-to-stiff gradient. Using simple random walk models with varying persistence and stochastic simulations, we characterize the propensity to move in terms of the durotactic index also measured in experiments. A one-dimensional model captures the essential features and highlights the competition between diffusive spreading and linear, wavelike propagation. Persistence-driven durokinesis is generic and may be of use in the design of instructive environments for cells and other motile, mechanosensitive objects.

  1. Spin relaxations in 2D electron gas determined by the memory in the carrier dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Eugene; Glazov, Mikhail

    2007-03-01

    The effects of long memory, in carrier dynamics in a magnetic field, on spin polarization evolution in 2D electron gas are investigated qualitatively and quantitatively. As examples we consider (i) systems with random Rashba-type SO coupling and (ii) quantum wells with rigid short-range scatterers (antidotes) and regular Dresselhaus SO coupling. In both cases the spin dynamics is strongly non-Markovian. In the system with the random SO coupling the time dependence of the spin polarization shows Gaussian rather than exponential behavior with the cusps corresponding to the electron revolutions. The relaxation speeds up with the increase of the magnetic field. In the system with antidotes scattering, the spin polarization shows a long-tail behavior with the relaxation rate determined by inelastic electron-phonon and electron-electron collisions and demonstrates unusual field dependence.

  2. Rigidity Dependence of Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The various observed harmonics of the cosmic ray variation may be understood on a unified basis if the free space cosmic ray anisotropy is non-sinusoidal in form. The major objective of this paper is to study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-1990 for Deep River, Goose Bay and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for Deep River having low cutoff rigidity as compared to Tokyo neutron monitor having high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases in 1987 at Deep River and in 1986 at Tokyo during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction at both the stations having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station i.e. Deep River as compared to the high cut off rigidity station i.e. Tokyo on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The solar wind velocity significantly remains in the range 350 to 425 km/s i.e. being nearly average on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of low and high cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics.

  3. Patient comfort during flexible and rigid cystourethroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojowy, Romuald; Wojciechowska, Joanna; Kościelska, Katarzyna; Dembowski, Janusz; Matuszewski, Michał; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Małkiewicz, Bartosz; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystourethroscopy (CS) is an endoscopic method used to visualize the urethra and the bladder. Aim In this study, we prospectively evaluated pain in men undergoing cyclic cystoscopic assessment with rigid and flexible instruments after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB). Material and methods One hundred and twenty male patients who were under surveillance after a TURB procedure due to urothelial cell carcinoma and who had undergone at least one rigid cystourethroscopy in the past were enrolled in the trial. Patients were prospectively randomized to age-matched groups for flexible (group F) or rigid (group R) CS. Patient's comfort was evaluated on an 11-grade scale, ranging from 0 (free from pain) to 10 points (unbearable pain). Results The patients described the pain during the previous rigid CS as ranging from 4 to 10 (mean: 6.8) in group F and from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.8) in group R. Group R patients described the pain during the current rigid CS as ranging from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.7). No mean change in the grade was observed between the two pain descriptions (no change 11 patients, weaker pain 25 patients, stronger pain 24 patients, gamma 0.51, p < 0.0001). Group F described the pain as 1 to 5 (mean: 2.1). In the case of flexible CS the pain experience was greatly lowered compared to the previous rigid CS. All flexible CS patients reported lowered pain (by 1 to 9 grades). Patients’ age did not influence the comfort of the flexible CS or the change in pain level. Conclusions Flexible CS is better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy by male patients regardless of patients’ age. PMID:27458489

  4. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-07

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.

  5. Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van

    1999-10-01

    About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.

  6. Nonrigid motion compensation in B-mode and contrast enhanced ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we investigate nonrigid motion compensation in simultaneously acquired (side-by-side) B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences of the carotid artery. These images are acquired to study the presence of intraplaque neovascularization (IPN), which is a marker of plaque vulnerability. IPN quantification is visualized by performing the maximum intensity projection (MIP) on the CEUS image sequence over time. As carotid images contain considerable motion, accurate global nonrigid motion compensation (GNMC) is required prior to the MIP. Moreover, we demonstrate that an improved lumen and plaque differentiation can be obtained by averaging the motion compensated BMUS images over time. We propose to use a previously published 2D+t nonrigid registration method, which is based on minimization of pixel intensity variance over time, using a spatially and temporally smooth B-spline deformation model. The validation compares displacements of plaque points with manual trackings by 3 experts in 11 carotids. The average (+/- standard deviation) root mean square error (RMSE) was 99+/-74μm for longitudinal and 47+/-18μm for radial displacements. These results were comparable with the interobserver variability, and with results of a local rigid registration technique based on speckle tracking, which estimates motion in a single point, whereas our approach applies motion compensation to the entire image. In conclusion, we evaluated that the GNMC technique produces reliable results. Since this technique tracks global deformations, it can aid in the quantification of IPN and the delineation of lumen and plaque contours.

  7. Multiple triangulation analysis: application to determine the velocity of 2-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Zhang, X. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Cao, J. B.

    2006-11-01

    In order to avoid the ambiguity of the application of the Triangulation Method (multi-spacecraft timing method) to two-dimensional structures, another version of this method, the Multiple Triangulation Analysis (MTA) is used, to calculate the velocities of these structures based on 4-point measurements. We describe the principle of MTA and apply this approach to a real event observed by the Cluster constellation on 2 October 2003. The resulting velocity of the 2-D structure agrees with the ones obtained by some other methods fairly well. So we believe that MTA is a reliable version of the Triangulation Method for 2-D structures, and thus provides us a new way to describe their motion.

  8. Control-structure interaction/mirror motion compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, Mark; Chu, Peter; Price, Xen

    1992-01-01

    Space Systems/Loral (formerly Ford Aerospace, Space Systems Division) has implemented a rigid-body Mirror Motion Compensation (MMC) scheme for the GOES-I/M spacecraft currently being built for NASA and NOAA. This has resulted in a factor of 15 reduction in pointing error due to rigid-body spacecraft motion induced by the periodic black-body calibration maneuvers required for the instruments. For GOES the spacecraft and the payload mirrors are considered as rigid bodies. The structural flexibility effects are small and are included in the total pointing budget as a separate item. This paper extends the MMC technique to include structural flexibility. For large multi-payload platforms, the structural flexibility effects can be more important in sensor pointing jitter as the result of payload motion. Sensitivity results are included to show the importance of the dynamic model fidelity.

  9. Circular photogalvanic effect caused by the transitions between edge and 2D states in a 2D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electron absorption and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator are studied for transitions between edge states to 2D states. The circular polarized light is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation. It is shown that the edge-state current is found to exceed the 2D current owing to the topological protection of the edge states.

  10. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...

  11. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...

  12. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic...

  13. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...

  14. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...

  15. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...

  16. Rigidity loss in disordered network materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Hagh, Varda F.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; van Hecke, Martin

    Weakly jammed sphere packings show a very peculiar elasticity, with a ratio of compression modulus to shear modulus that diverges as the number of contacts approaches the minimum required for rigidity. Creating artificial isotropic network materials with this property is a challenge: so far, the least elaborate way to generate them is to actually simulate weakly compressed repulsive spheres. The next steps in designing such networks hinge upon a solid understanding of what properties of the sphere-packing derived network are essential for its elasticity. We elucidate the topological aspects of this question by comparing the rigidity transition in these networks to that in other random spring network models, including the common bond-diluted triangular net and a self-stress-free variant of that. We use the pebble game algorithm for identifying rigid clusters in mechanical networks to demonstrate that the marginally rigid state in sphere packings is perfectly isostatic everywhere, and the addition or removal of a single bond creates a globally stressed or globally floppy network, respectively. By contrast, the other classes of random network random networks show a more localized response to addition and removal of bonds, and, correspondingly, a more gradual rigidity transition.

  17. Crystal structure prediction of rigid molecules.

    PubMed

    Elking, Dennis M; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Nichols, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    A non-polarizable force field based on atomic multipoles fit to reproduce experimental crystal properties and ab initio gas-phase dimers is described. The Ewald method is used to calculate both long-range electrostatic and 1/r(6) dispersion energies of crystals. The dispersion energy of a crystal calculated by a cutoff method is shown to converge slowly to the exact Ewald result. A method for constraining space-group symmetry during unit-cell optimization is derived. Results for locally optimizing 4427 unit cells including volume, cell parameters, unit-cell r.m.s.d. and CPU timings are given for both flexible and rigid molecule optimization. An algorithm for randomly generating rigid molecule crystals is described. Using the correct experimentally determined space group, the average and maximum number of random crystals needed to find the correct experimental structure is given for 2440 rigid single component crystals. The force field energy rank of the correct experimental structure is presented for the same set of 2440 rigid single component crystals assuming the correct space group. A complete crystal prediction is performed for two rigid molecules by searching over the 32 most probable space groups.

  18. Rigid body constraints realized in massively-parallel molecular dynamics on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) methods compute the trajectory of a system of point particles in response to a potential function by numerically integrating Newton's equations of motion. Extending these basic methods with rigid body constraints enables composite particles with complex shapes such as anisotropic nanoparticles, grains, molecules, and rigid proteins to be modeled. Rigid body constraints are added to the GPU-accelerated MD package, HOOMD-blue, version 0.10.0. The software can now simulate systems of particles, rigid bodies, or mixed systems in microcanonical (NVE), canonical (NVT), and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles. It can also apply the FIRE energy minimization technique to these systems. In this paper, we detail the massively parallel scheme that implements these algorithms and discuss how our design is tuned for the maximum possible performance. Two different case studies are included to demonstrate the performance attained, patchy spheres and tethered nanorods. In typical cases, HOOMD-blue on a single GTX 480 executes 2.5-3.6 times faster than LAMMPS executing the same simulation on any number of CPU cores in parallel. Simulations with rigid bodies may now be run with larger systems and for longer time scales on a single workstation than was previously even possible on large clusters.

  19. Flexural rigidity of microtubules and actin filaments measured from thermal fluctuations in shape

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Microtubules are long, proteinaceous filaments that perform structural functions in eukaryotic cells by defining cellular shape and serving as tracks for intracellular motor proteins. We report the first accurate measurements of the flexural rigidity of microtubules. By analyzing the thermally driven fluctuations in their shape, we estimated the mean flexural rigidity of taxol-stabilized microtubules to be 2.2 x 10(-23) Nm2 (with 6.4% uncertainty) for seven unlabeled microtubules and 2.1 x 10(-23) Nm2 (with 4.7% uncertainty) for eight rhodamine-labeled microtubules. These values are similar to earlier, less precise estimates of microtubule bending stiffness obtained by modeling flagellar motion. A similar analysis on seven rhodamine-phalloidin- labeled actin filaments gave a flexural rigidity of 7.3 x 10(-26) Nm2 (with 6% uncertainty), consistent with previously reported results. The flexural rigidity of these microtubules corresponds to a persistence length of 5,200 microns showing that a microtubule is rigid over cellular dimensions. By contrast, the persistence length of an actin filament is only approximately 17.7 microns, perhaps explaining why actin filaments within cells are usually cross-linked into bundles. The greater flexural rigidity of a microtubule compared to an actin filament mainly derives from the former's larger cross-section. If tubulin were homogeneous and isotropic, then the microtubule's Young's modulus would be approximately 1.2 GPa, similar to Plexiglas and rigid plastics. Microtubules are expected to be almost inextensible: the compliance of cells is due primarily to filament bending or sliding between filaments rather than the stretching of the filaments themselves. PMID:8432732

  20. The role of shortening reaction in mediating rigidity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ruiping; Rymer, W Zev

    2004-06-01

    Rigidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined as an increased resistance to passive movement of a joint. The plastic-type rigidity is uniform and constant throughout the entire range of motion, whereas the cogwheel-type rigidity is accompanied by tremor. Rigidity in PD has been understudied. Thus, its pathophysiological basis remains unclear. The purpose of the study is to examine neuromuscular/biomechanical properties of PD rigidity and to provide its physiological characteristics. We hypothesize that PD rigidity presents as a flattened trace of joint torque vs. angular position (torque-angle relation) of the wrist, because the forces generated by lengthening muscles are offset by activation of the antagonist, i.e. show "shortening reaction" (SR). Experiments were conducted on six PD subjects medication OFF and ON. PD severity was assessed based on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale. Each subject sat on a chair and was instructed to relax, with the wrist coupled to the device. The servomotor applied constant velocity displacement to create wrist flexion/extension. Electromyographic (EMG) responses were monitored from wrist muscles, along with position, velocity and torque. EMG magnitudes were computed over the movement period. Slopes were derived from the torque-angle trace. Results showed that SRs were routinely recorded OFF medication, but substantially reduced ON medication. Due to the interaction of SR, torque-angle relation was flatter OFF medication and became steeper ON medication. Correlation analyses showed that a strong correlation (R=0.65) existed between SR and torque-angle slope OFF medication, exclusively. We suggest that SR may play an important role in mediating the mechanical features of PD rigidity.

  1. Fast rigid registration in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich; Hesser, Jürgen; Walter, Cornelia; Dobler, Barbara; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Based on a stochastic mutual information type matching and RPROP as stochastic optimizer, an interactive image-based registration of a CT volume onto two 2D images provided by a megavoltage system is presented. The matching process is based on semi-automatic pre-segmentation, an approximate 2D-2D matching with precomputed virtual projections (DRRs) followed by an accurate 3D-2D matching step. Our sample-based approach requires only a fraction of computed DRRs for 3D-2D. A simultaneous computation of the DRR rays and their perturbations in 6 dimensions speeds up the rendering process by a factor of 6.8. The complete registration process takes 5.6 +/- 2.3 seconds on a 3 GHz Pentium IV PC, being the fastest non-parallel approach for this sort of application the authors are aware of.

  2. The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in rigid body dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, P. E.

    2014-07-31

    The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in the problem of motion of a rigid body in a fluid is investigated using the method of Boolean functions, which was developed by Kharlamov for algebraically separated systems. The bifurcation diagram of the moment map is found and the Fomenko invariant, which classifies the systems up to rough Liouville equivalence, is specified. Bibliography: 15 titles. (paper)

  3. A discrete momentum-conserving explicit algorithm for rigid body dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A discrete momentum-conserving explicit time integration is presented. The accurate feature and simplicity of the present algorithm are realized by a mid-point implicit formula for integrating the Euler parameters and a second-order discrete momentum-conserving form of the central difference algorithm, respectively. The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated by example problems which exhibit large overall rigid motions under holonomic constraints.

  4. A Rigid Nested Metal-Organic Framework Featuring a Thermoresponsive Gating Effect Dominated by Counterions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Jian; Cao, Dapeng; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-11-21

    We herein report a rigid nested metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring a unique thermoresponsive gating adsorption behavior, which, in contrast to any known flexibility modes for stimuli-responsive MOFs, depends on the thermal motion of the extra-framework counterions. In addition, this MOF also exhibits adsorption selectivity of CO2 over N2 , H2 , and Ar at 273 K, thus enabling a strategic separation and encapsulation of CO2 .

  5. A statistical approach to estimate the 3D size distribution of spheres from 2D size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kong, M.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; James, C.; Basu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Size distribution of rigidly embedded spheres in a groundmass is usually determined from measurements of the radii of the two-dimensional (2D) circular cross sections of the spheres in random flat planes of a sample, such as in thin sections or polished slabs. Several methods have been devised to find a simple factor to convert the mean of such 2D size distributions to the actual 3D mean size of the spheres without a consensus. We derive an entirely theoretical solution based on well-established probability laws and not constrained by limitations of absolute size, which indicates that the ratio of the means of measured 2D and estimated 3D grain size distribution should be r/4 (=.785). Actual 2D size distribution of the radii of submicron sized, pure Fe0 globules in lunar agglutinitic glass, determined from backscattered electron images, is tested to fit the gamma size distribution model better than the log-normal model. Numerical analysis of 2D size distributions of Fe0 globules in 9 lunar soils shows that the average mean of 2D/3D ratio is 0.84, which is very close to the theoretical value. These results converge with the ratio 0.8 that Hughes (1978) determined for millimeter-sized chondrules from empirical measurements. We recommend that a factor of 1.273 (reciprocal of 0.785) be used to convert the determined 2D mean size (radius or diameter) of a population of spheres to estimate their actual 3D size. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  6. Flipping, scooping, and spinning: Drift of rigid curved nonchiral fibers in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghui; Tozzi, Emilio J.; Graham, Michael D.; Klingenberg, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    The motion of isolated, rigid, neutrally-buoyant, non-Brownian, curved, nonchiral fibers in simple shear flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number is studied by computer simulation. For some initial orientations, fibers with small curvature drift steadily in the gradient direction without external forces or torques. The average drift velocity and direction depend on the fiber aspect ratio, curvature, and initial orientation. The drift results from the coupling of rotational and translational dynamics, and the combined effects of flipping, scooping, and spinning motions of the fiber.

  7. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  8. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  9. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  10. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  11. The dynamics of a rigid body in potential flow with circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankerschaver, J.; Kanso, E.; Marsden, J. E.

    2010-10-01

    We consider the motion of a two-dimensional body of arbitrary shape in a planar irrotational, incompressible fluid with a given amount of circulation around the body. We derive the equations of motion for this system by performing symplectic reduction with respect to the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and obtain the relevant Poisson structures after a further Poisson reduction with respect to the group of translations and rotations. In this way, we recover the equations of motion given for this system by Chaplygin and Lamb, and we give a geometric interpretation for the Kutta-Zhukowski force as a curvature-related effect. In addition, we show that the motion of a rigid body with circulation can be understood as a geodesic flow on a central extension of the special Euclidian group SE(2), and we relate the cocycle in the description of this central extension to a certain curvature tensor.

  12. GAIA: A WINDOW TO LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2012-08-10

    Using redshifts as a proxy for galaxy distances, estimates of the two-dimensional (2D) transverse peculiar velocities of distant galaxies could be obtained from future measurements of proper motions. We provide the mathematical framework for analyzing 2D transverse motions and show that they offer several advantages over traditional probes of large-scale motions. They are completely independent of any intrinsic relations between galaxy properties; hence, they are essentially free of selection biases. They are free from homogeneous and inhomogeneous Malmquist biases that typically plague distance indicator catalogs. They provide additional information to traditional probes that yield line-of-sight peculiar velocities only. Further, because of their 2D nature, fundamental questions regarding vorticity of large-scale flows can be addressed. Gaia, for example, is expected to provide proper motions of at least bright galaxies with high central surface brightness, making proper motions a likely contender for traditional probes based on current and future distance indicator measurements.

  13. Endoscope shaft-rigidity control mechanism: "FORGUIDE".

    PubMed

    Loeve, Arjo J; Plettenburg, Dick H; Breedveld, Paul; Dankelman, Jenny

    2012-02-01

    Recent developments in flexible endoscopy and other fields of medical technology have raised the need for compact slender shafts that can be made rigid and compliant at will. A novel compact mechanism, named FORGUIDE, with this functionality was developed. The FORGUIDE shaft rigidifies due to friction between a ring of cables situated between a spring and an inflated tube. A mathematical model for the FORGUIDE mechanism working principle was made and used to obtain understanding of this mechanism, predict the maximum rigidity of a FORGUIDE shaft design, and tune its design variables. The mathematical model gave suggestions for significant performance improvement by fine-tuning the design. A prototype FORGUIDE shaft was built and put to a series of bench tests. These tests showed that the FORGUIDE mechanism provides a reliable and simple way to control the rigidity of a flexible shaft.

  14. A semi-automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with adaptive key-frame selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Kuanyu; Xiong, Hongkai

    2014-11-01

    To compensate the deficit of 3D content, 2D to 3D video conversion (2D-to-3D) has recently attracted more attention from both industrial and academic communities. The semi-automatic 2D-to-3D conversion which estimates corresponding depth of non-key-frames through key-frames is more desirable owing to its advantage of balancing labor cost and 3D effects. The location of key-frames plays a role on quality of depth propagation. This paper proposes a semi-automatic 2D-to-3D scheme with adaptive key-frame selection to keep temporal continuity more reliable and reduce the depth propagation errors caused by occlusion. The potential key-frames would be localized in terms of clustered color variation and motion intensity. The distance of key-frame interval is also taken into account to keep the accumulated propagation errors under control and guarantee minimal user interaction. Once their depth maps are aligned with user interaction, the non-key-frames depth maps would be automatically propagated by shifted bilateral filtering. Considering that depth of objects may change due to the objects motion or camera zoom in/out effect, a bi-directional depth propagation scheme is adopted where a non-key frame is interpolated from two adjacent key frames. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing 2D-to-3D scheme with fixed key-frame interval.

  15. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun

    2014-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206

  16. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  17. New generation transistor technologies enabled by 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D.

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of graphene opened the door to 2D crystal materials. The lack of a bandgap in 2D graphene makes it unsuitable for electronic switching transistors in the conventional field-effect sense, though possible techniques exploiting the unique bandstructure and nanostructures are being explored. The transition metal dichalcogenides have 2D crystal semiconductors, which are well-suited for electronic switching. We experimentally demonstrate field effect transistors with current saturation and carrier inversion made from layered 2D crystal semiconductors such as MoS2, WS2, and the related family. We also evaluate the feasibility of such semiconducting 2D crystals for tunneling field effect transistors for low-power digital logic. The article summarizes the current state of new generation transistor technologies either proposed, or demonstrated, with a commentary on the challenges and prospects moving forward.

  18. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-05-07

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.

  19. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  20. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... but it is more common in children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling and cold sweats. It can then lead to dizziness and nausea and vomiting. Your brain senses movement by getting signals from your inner ears, eyes, ...

  1. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼ 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter.

  2. Motion and shape recovery based on iterative stabilization for modest deviation from planar motion.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Isao; Arakawa, Kenichi

    2006-07-01

    We describe an iterative stabilization method that can simultaneously recover camera motion and 3D shape from an image sequence captured under modest deviation from planar motion. This technique iteratively applies a factorization method based on planar motion and can approximate the observed image points to the 2D points projected under planar motion by stabilizing the camera motion. We apply the proposed method to aerial images acquired by a helicopter-borne camera and show better reconstruction of both motion and shape than Christy-Horaud's perspective factorization. Moreover, we confirm that the reprojection errors calculated from the recovered camera motion and 3D shape are very similar to the optimum results yielded by bundle adjustment.

  3. Rigid spine syndrome and fatal cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Colver, A F; Steer, C R; Godman, M J; Uttley, W S

    1981-01-01

    A 7 1/2-year-old girl had the clinical features of the rigid spine syndrome of Dubowitz. Muscle biopsy showed a predominance of type 2 fibres with neither myopathic features nor an increase in connective tissue. In addition, she had a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with which she presented in heart failure and from which she died suddenly one month later. The association of rigid spine syndrome with cardiomyopathy has not been reported previously. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7193439

  4. Thin structured rigid body for acoustic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, T. A.; Smith, J. D.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Rance, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a thin acoustic metamaterial absorber, comprised of only rigid metal and air, that gives rise to near unity absorption of airborne sound on resonance. This simple, easily fabricated, robust structure comprising a perforated metal plate separated from a rigid wall by a deeply subwavelength channel of air is an ideal candidate for a sound absorbing panel. The strong absorption in the system is attributed to the thermo-viscous losses arising from a sound wave guided between the plate and the wall, defining the subwavelength channel.

  5. On Saturnian cosmic ray cutoff rigidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, H. H.

    1980-03-01

    It has been determined that Saturn possesses a relatively pure dipolar magnetic field through magnetometer measurements made by Ness et al. (1979, private comm.) and Smith et al. (1979). The paper briefly outlines the dipole geomagnetic cutoff theory and demonstrates the scaling required for its applicability to energetic particle measurements in the vicinity of Saturn. Since the cutoff rigidity is a function of viewing direction, the effective cutoff rigidity must be determined as an integration over the finite viewing angle of a physical detector.

  6. A Mixture Model for Robust Point Matching under Multi-Layer Motion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiayi; Chen, Jun; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient mixture model for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points under multi-layer motion. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to the true correspondences (inliers). Next we solve for correspondence by interpolating a set of spatial transformations on the putative correspondence set based on a mixture model, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a non-parametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose non-parametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We further provide a fast implementation based on sparse approximation which can achieve a significant speed-up without much performance degradation. We illustrate the proposed method on 2D and 3D real images for sparse feature correspondence, as well as a public available dataset for shape matching. The quantitative results demonstrate that our method is robust to non-rigid deformation and multi-layer/large discontinuous motion. PMID:24658087

  7. A mixture model for robust point matching under multi-layer motion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiayi; Chen, Jun; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient mixture model for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points under multi-layer motion. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to the true correspondences (inliers). Next we solve for correspondence by interpolating a set of spatial transformations on the putative correspondence set based on a mixture model, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a non-parametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose non-parametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We further provide a fast implementation based on sparse approximation which can achieve a significant speed-up without much performance degradation. We illustrate the proposed method on 2D and 3D real images for sparse feature correspondence, as well as a public available dataset for shape matching. The quantitative results demonstrate that our method is robust to non-rigid deformation and multi-layer/large discontinuous motion.

  8. Assessing breathing motion by shape matching of lung and diaphragm surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urschler, Martin; Bischof, Horst

    2005-04-01

    Studying complex thorax breating motion is an important research topic for accurate fusion of functional and anatomical data, radiotherapy planning or reduction of breathing motion artifacts. We investigate segmented CT lung, airway and diaphragm surfaces at several different breathing states between Functional Residual and Total Lung Capacity. In general, it is hard to robustly derive corresponding shape features like curvature maxima from lung and diaphragm surfaces since diaphragm and rib cage muscles tend to deform the elastic lung tissue such that e.g. ridges might disappear. A novel registration method based on the shape context approach for shape matching is presented where we extend shape context to 3D surfaces. The shape context approach was reported as a promising method for matching 2D shapes without relying on extracted shape features. We use the point correspondences for a non-rigid thin-plate-spline registration to get deformation fields that describe the movement of lung and diaphragm. Our validation consists of experiments on phantom and real sheep thorax data sets. Phantom experiments make use of shapes that are manipulated with known transformations that simulate breathing behaviour. Real thorax data experiments use a data set showing lungs and diaphragm at 5 distinct breathing states, where we compare subsets of the data sets and qualitatively and quantitatively asses the registration performance by using manually identified corresponding landmarks.

  9. Rigid and semi rigid polyurethane resins: A structural investigation using DMA, SAXS and Le Bail method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovati, Graziella; Sanches, Edgar A.; de Souza, Sérgio M.; dos Santos, Amanda L.; Neto, Salvador C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Chierice, Gilberto O.

    2014-10-01

    Two different types of polyurethane (PU) resins were synthesized with pre-polymer/polyol (-NCO/-OH) mass proportions of 1:1 (Rigid PU) and 1:1.5 (Semi rigid PU). Based on the results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), rigid PU showed a higher Storage Modulus (E‧) which may be related to the macromolecules crosslinking process. In contrast, the greater Loss Modulus (E″) in semi rigid PU was related to the greater ability to dissipate energy, suggesting that the change in polyol/pre-polymer ratio promotes structural changes in PU resins. Le Bail method was performed with a triclinic crystal structure (for rigid PU, a = 4.9117 (2) Å, b = 8.1103 (2) Å, c = 19.7224 (2) Å, α = 116.2831 (2)°, β = 125.4058 (2)° and γ = 83.6960 (2)°). Average crystallite size was found in the range of 26 (1) Å for rigid PU and somewhat smaller around 20 (1) Å for semi rigid PU. The Guinier radii of gyration (Rg) and the maximum particle sizes (Dmax) were calculated based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) curves. Two different values for Radii of gyration (Rg) were calculated, one obtained from Guinier’s plot using the program Microcal Origin 7.5 (RgORIGIN) and other from the pair-distance distribution function (p(r)) calculation, using the GNOM (RgGNOM) program package The possible highest values of (RgORIGIN) were obtained from Guinier’s curves. For rigid and semi rigid PU resins, the (RgORIGIN) values were, respectively, (320 ± 1) and (260 ± 1) Å. The average radii of gyration (RgGNOM) were obtained from the calculated pair-distance distribution function (p(r)). For rigid and semi rigid PU resins, the RgGNOM values were, respectively, (95 ± 1) Å and (86 ± 1) Å. Dmax values were obtained from the p(r) and ranged from (330 ± 3) Å to (260 ± 3) Å for rigid and semi rigid PU, respectively. Kratky curves showed that less organized systems were produced when the polyol amount was increased.

  10. A high speed 2D time-to-impact algorithm targeted for smart image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Anders; Forchheimer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a 2D extension of a previously described 1D method for a time-to-impact sensor [5][6]. As in the earlier paper, the approach is based on measuring time instead of the apparent motion of points in the image plane to obtain data similar to the optical flow. The specific properties of the motion field in the time-to-impact application are used, such as using simple feature points which are tracked from frame to frame. Compared to the 1D case, the features will be proportionally fewer which will affect the quality of the estimation. We give a proposal on how to solve this problem. Results obtained are as promising as those obtained from the 1D sensor.

  11. Electrostatic micromembrane actuator arrays as motion generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. T.; Hui, J.; Young, M.; Kayatta, P.; Wong, J.; Kennith, D.; Zhe, J.; Warde, C.

    2004-05-01

    A rigid-body motion generator based on an array of micromembrane actuators is described. Unlike previous microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, the architecture employs a large number (typically greater than 1000) of micron-sized (10-200 μm) membrane actuators to simultaneously generate the displacement of a large rigid body, such as a conventional optical mirror. For optical applications, the approach provides optical design freedom of MEMS mirrors by enabling large-aperture mirrors to be driven electrostatically by MEMS actuators. The micromembrane actuator arrays have been built using a stacked architecture similar to that employed in the Multiuser MEMS Process (MUMPS), and the motion transfer from the arrayed micron-sized actuators to macro-sized components was demonstrated.

  12. Dynamics of 2D Dust Clusters with a Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Franko; Carstensen, Jan; Hou Lujing; Piel, Alexander

    2008-09-07

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) dust clusters in an unmagnetized plasma sheath has been understood in dept. However, introduction of a perpendicular magnetic field into the dusty plasma sheath leads to some new effects, such as rotation and compression of dust clusters, whose mechanism is still unclear. It is found that even for a magnetic field as low as the earth magnetic field ({approx_equal}40 {mu}T), clusters rotate as rigid about their centers. It was proposed [U. Konopka, PRE 61, 1890 (2000)] that the ExB-induced ion flow drives the dust clusters into rotation. Simulations [L.-J. Hou, PoP 12, 042104 (2005)] based on the same hypothesis also reproduced the rotation of 2D clusters in a qualitative manner. However, this model cannot fully explain the experimental observations. We present detailed experimental investigations, which show that the rotation of a dust cluster critically depends on the detailed discharge geometry. In particular, the co-rotation of the background neutral gas and its role in driving dust-cluster rotation is proposed as a mechanism to set the dust cluster in rotation.

  13. Fusion of autoradiographs with an MR volume using 2-D and 3-D linear transformations.

    PubMed

    Malandain, Grégoire; Bardinet, Eric; Nelissen, Koen; Vanduffel, Wim

    2004-09-01

    In the past years, the development of 3-D medical imaging has enabled the 3-D imaging of in vivo tissues, from an anatomical (MR, CT) or even functional (fMRI, PET, SPECT) point of view. However, despite immense technological progress, the resolution of these images is still short of the level of anatomical or functional details that in vitro imaging (e.g., histology, autoradiography) permits. The motivation of this work is to compare fMRI activations to activations observed in autoradiographic images from the same animals. We aim to fuse post-mortem autoradiographic data with a pre-mortem anatomical MR image. We first reconstruct a 3-D volume from the 2-D autoradiographic sections, coherent both in geometry and intensity. Then, this volume is fused with the MR image. This way, we ensure that the reconstructed 3-D volume can be superimposed onto the MR image that represents the reference anatomy. We demonstrate that this fusion can be achieved by using only simple global transformations (rigid and/or affine, 2-D and 3-D), while yielding very satisfactory results.

  14. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-04

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  15. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Claudius Gellrich, Niels; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-01

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(°) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(°) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  16. A Deformed Shape Monitoring Model for Building Structures Based on a 2D Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Bub Ryur; Lee, Hong Min; Kim, Yousok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1) module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2) module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3) module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4) module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5) module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible. PMID:23698269

  17. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels Claudius; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-21

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  18. Marker-free motion correction in weight-bearing cone-beam CT of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M.; Müller, K.; Aichert, A.; Unberath, M.; Thies, J.; Choi, J.-H.; Fahrig, R.; Maier, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To allow for a purely image-based motion estimation and compensation in weight-bearing cone-beam computed tomography of the knee joint. Methods: Weight-bearing imaging of the knee joint in a standing position poses additional requirements for the image reconstruction algorithm. In contrast to supine scans, patient motion needs to be estimated and compensated. The authors propose a method that is based on 2D/3D registration of left and right femur and tibia segmented from a prior, motion-free reconstruction acquired in supine position. Each segmented bone is first roughly aligned to the motion-corrupted reconstruction of a scan in standing or squatting position. Subsequently, a rigid 2D/3D registration is performed for each bone to each of K projection images, estimating 6 × 4 × K motion parameters. The motion of individual bones is combined into global motion fields using thin-plate-spline extrapolation. These can be incorporated into a motion-compensated reconstruction in the backprojection step. The authors performed visual and quantitative comparisons between a state-of-the-art marker-based (MB) method and two variants of the proposed method using gradient correlation (GC) and normalized gradient information (NGI) as similarity measure for the 2D/3D registration. Results: The authors evaluated their method on four acquisitions under different squatting positions of the same patient. All methods showed substantial improvement in image quality compared to the uncorrected reconstructions. Compared to NGI and MB, the GC method showed increased streaking artifacts due to misregistrations in lateral projection images. NGI and MB showed comparable image quality at the bone regions. Because the markers are attached to the skin, the MB method performed better at the surface of the legs where the authors observed slight streaking of the NGI and GC methods. For a quantitative evaluation, the authors computed the universal quality index (UQI) for all bone regions

  19. Dynamical analysis of an orbiting three-rigid-body system

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnozzi, Daniele E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk; Biggs, James D. E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk

    2014-12-10

    The development of multi-joint-spacecraft mission concepts calls for a deeper understanding of their nonlinear dynamics to inform and enhance system design. This paper presents a study of a three-finite-shape rigid-body system under the action of an ideal central gravitational field. The aim of this paper is to gain an insight into the natural dynamics of this system. The Hamiltonian dynamics is derived and used to identify relative attitude equilibria of the system with respect to the orbital reference frame. Then a numerical investigation of the behaviour far from the equilibria is provided using tools from modern dynamical systems theory such as energy methods, phase portraits and Poincarè maps. Results reveal a complex structure of the dynamics as well as the existence of connections between some of the equilibria. Stable equilibrium configurations appear to be surrounded by very narrow regions of regular and quasi-regular motions. Trajectories evolve on chaotic motions in the rest of the domain.

  20. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  1. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  2. Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David

    2016-09-01

    Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.

  3. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Lewis L.

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808

  5. NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-06-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and subsets of CD4(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells (iNKT), and γδ T cells. In humans, NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit, and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least eight genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslation. In general, healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyperproliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves as a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone "stress." Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system, and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

  6. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.

  7. Motion sequence analysis in the presence of figural cues

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pawan; Vaina, Lucia M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of 3D structure in dynamic sequences is believed to be subserved primarily through the use of motion cues. However, real-world sequences contain many figural shape cues besides the dynamic ones. We hypothesize that if figural cues are perceptually significant during sequence analysis, then inconsistencies in these cues over time would lead to percepts of non-rigidity in sequences showing physically rigid objects in motion. We develop an experimental paradigm to test this hypothesis and present results with two patients with impairments in motion perception due to focal neurological damage, as well as two control subjects. Consistent with our hypothesis, the data suggest that figural cues strongly influence the perception of structure in motion sequences, even to the extent of inducing non-rigid percepts in sequences where motion information alone would yield rigid structures. Beyond helping to probe the issue of shape perception, our experimental paradigm might also serve as a possible perceptual assessment tool in a clinical setting. PMID:26028822

  8. Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A.

    1995-12-31

    Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

  9. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  10. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  11. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  12. Number Rigidity in Superhomogeneous Random Point Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhro; Lebowitz, Joel

    2017-02-01

    We give sufficient conditions for the number rigidity of a large class of point processes in dimension d=1 and 2, based on the decay of correlations. Number rigidity implies that the probability distribution of the number of particles in a bounded domain Λ subset R^d, conditional on the configuration on Λ ^\\complement , is concentrated on a single integer N_Λ . Our conditions are: (a) ρ _1(x)= - int _{R^d} ρ _tr^{(2)}(x,y) dy for all x, where ρ _1 and ρ _tr^{(2)} are the intensity and the truncated pair correlation function resp., and (b)|ρ _tr^{(2)}(x,y)| is bounded by C_1[|x-y|+1]^{-2} in d=1 and by C_2[|x-y|+1]^{-(4+ɛ)} in d=2. Condition (a) covers a wide class of processes, including translation invariant or periodic point process on R^d, d=1,2, that are superhomogeneous or hyperuniform (that is the variance of the number of particles in a bounded domain Ω subset R^d grows slower than the volume of Ω ). It also covers determinantal point processes having a projection kernel. Our conditions for number rigidity are satisfied by all known processes with number rigidity in d=1,2. We also observe, in the light of the results of [26], that no such criteria exist in d>2.

  13. Balancing of Rigid and Flexible Rotors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    rotor conr- Igjurations that can be "dialed In" are shown at left. (Cour- tesy of’ Schenak Trebel Corporation.) ŕ 1,4 BALANJCING MACHINES ANI...anice, For all rigid rotors in any grado , the specific balance requirement for that grade should provide smooth operation. Tlhe grstde number represents

  14. Plastic flow around rigid spherical inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Nelson, D. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The extent of plastic flow in a spherical solid (assumed to be homogeneous and elastically and plastically isotropic), surrounding a concentric rigid sphere was calculated as a function of applied external pressure. The applied pressure necessary to cause plastic deformation throughout the solid was obtained.

  15. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  16. Quantification of the UPDRS Rigidity Scale.

    PubMed

    Patrick, S K; Denington, A A; Gauthier, M J; Gillard, D M; Prochazka, A

    2001-03-01

    In the clinical setting, parkinsonian rigidity is assessed using subjective rating scales such as that of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System (UPDRS). However, such scales are susceptible to problems of sensitivity and reliability. Here, we evaluate the reliability and validity of a device designed to quantify parkinsonian rigidity at the elbow and the wrist. The method essentially quantifies the clinical examination and employs small sensors to monitor forces and angular displacements imposed by the clinician onto the limb segment distal to the joint being evaluated. Force and displacement data are used to calculate elastic and viscous stiffnesses and their vectorial sum, mechanical impedance. Interexaminer agreement of measures of mechanical impedance in subjects with Parkinson's disease was comparable to that of clinical UPDRS scores. Examiners tended to overrate rigidity on the UPDRS scale during reinforcement manoeuvres. Mechanical impedance was nonlinearly related to UPDRS ratings of rigidity at the elbow and wrist; characterization of such relationships allows interpretation of impedance measurements in terms of the clinical rating scales.

  17. Analysis and Modeling of Rigid Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkati, Farshad

    In this thesis, we investigate magnetically actuated rigid microswimmers based on analytical and numerical schemes. These swimming micro-robots have medical applications such as drug delivery and in vivo diagnostics. Our model employs the method of regularized Stokeslets to faithfully incorporate the low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics of arbitrary rigid geometries. We show how these magnetized swimmers can be actuated and controlled by externally rotating uniform magnetic fields. Our model predicts the swimming characteristics such as speed and direction. We show how to determine the dynamic stability of steadily rotating microswimmers. First, we address what is the simplest geometry capable of swimming. We illustrate that, despite the common belief that rigid microswimmers need to be chiral to be able to cause propulsion, a simple achiral 3-bead geometry can exhibit appreciable propulsion and controllability. We generalize this to explain the minimum geometric requirements for rigid rotating propulsion based on a symmetry analysis. Next, we investigate the implications of the stability analysis on the control of the 3-bead swimmer. We show that by adjusting the angle between the magnetic field and its rotation, one can control the existence of multiple stable rotation modes, leading to control of swimming direction and speed.

  18. Phosphorescence and Energy Transfer in Rigid Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso, E.; Cabello, A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates the general aspects of intermolecular energy transfer between triplet states in rigid solutions of organic compounds solved in an ethanol-ether mixture. Measurements of quenching and energy transfer processes are made using the chemicals of benzophenone and naphthalene. (CS)

  19. Multiple-Purpose Rigid Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Matthew T.

    1989-01-01

    Plastic foam promises to serve as multiple-purpose thermal insulation. Material is rigid, closed-cell, thermally stable foam or urethane-modified isocyanate. Made by reacting polyol mixture with polymeric diphenyl methane disocyanate in presence of catalyst and flurocarbon blowing agent. Properties customized for particular application by adjusting proportions of ingredients in polyol mixture.

  20. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).