2D-3D rigid registration to compensate for prostate motion during 3D TRUS-guided biopsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Silva, Tharindu; Fenster, Aaron; Bax, Jeffrey; Gardi, Lori; Romagnoli, Cesare; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.
2012-02-01
Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of targeting suspicious locations, systems have been developed that can plan and record biopsy locations in a 3D TRUS image acquired at the beginning of the procedure. Some systems are designed for maximum compatibility with existing ultrasound equipment and are thus designed around the use of a conventional 2D TRUS probe, using controlled axial rotation of this probe to acquire a 3D TRUS reference image at the start of the biopsy procedure. Prostate motion during the biopsy procedure causes misalignments between the prostate in the live 2D TRUS images and the pre-acquired 3D TRUS image. We present an image-based rigid registration technique that aligns live 2D TRUS images, acquired immediately prior to biopsy needle insertion, with the pre-acquired 3D TRUS image to compensate for this motion. Our method was validated using 33 manually identified intrinsic fiducials in eight subjects and the target registration error was found to be 1.89 mm. We analysed the suitability of two image similarity metrics (normalized cross correlation and mutual information) for this task by plotting these metrics as a function of varying parameters in the six degree-of-freedom transformation space, with the ground truth plane obtained from registration as the starting point for the parameter exploration. We observed a generally convex behaviour of the similarity metrics. This encourages their use for this registration problem, and could assist in the design of a tool for the detection of misalignment, which could trigger the execution of a non-real-time registration, when needed during the procedure.
An experimental method for eliminating effect of rigid out-of-plane motion on 2D-DIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhiqiang, Wang; Fengzhou, Fang; Bing, Liu; Zhiyong, Wang
2015-10-01
The out-of-plane motion is one of the most important factors that affect the precision of two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC). In this paper, a novel solution is presented to improve conventional 2D-DIC by eliminating the effect of out-of-plane motion, including translation and rotation. Firstly, an experimental technique using two projected laser strips is proposed to measure the out-of-plane motion of a planar specimen. A theoretical model is then established to predict the pseudostrains caused by out-of-plane motion based on the pin-hole imaging model. Using the measured out-of-plane displacement, the captured deformed images used in 2D-DIC are amended to eliminate the effect of out-of-plane motion by the theoretical model. Finally, two experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results indicate that application of the proposed method can effectively eliminate the errors caused by out-of-plane motion.
Spoerk, Jakob; Gendrin, Christelle; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Furtado, Hugo; Fabri, Daniella; Bloch, Christoph; Bergmann, Helmar; Gröller, Eduard; Birkfellner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
A common problem in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of lung cancer as well as other malignant diseases is the compensation of periodic and aperiodic motion during dose delivery. Modern systems for image-guided radiation oncology allow for the acquisition of cone-beam computed tomography data in the treatment room as well as the acquisition of planar radiographs during the treatment. A mid-term research goal is the compensation of tumor target volume motion by 2D/3D registration. In 2D/3D registration, spatial information on organ location is derived by an iterative comparison of perspective volume renderings, so-called digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) from computed tomography volume data, and planar reference x-rays. Currently, this rendering process is very time consuming, and real-time registration, which should at least provide data on organ position in less than a second, has not come into existence. We present two GPU-based rendering algorithms which generate a DRR of 512 × 512 pixels size from a CT dataset of 53 MB size at a pace of almost 100 Hz. This rendering rate is feasible by applying a number of algorithmic simplifications which range from alternative volume-driven rendering approaches – namely so-called wobbled splatting – to sub-sampling of the DRR-image by means of specialized raycasting techniques. Furthermore, general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming paradigms were consequently utilized. Rendering quality and performance as well as the influence on the quality and performance of the overall registration process were measured and analyzed in detail. The results show that both methods are competitive and pave the way for fast motion compensation by rigid and possibly even non-rigid 2D/3D registration and, beyond that, adaptive filtering of motion models in IGRT. PMID:21782399
Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel
2013-11-01
The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.
Non-rigid target tracking in 2D ultrasound images using hierarchical grid interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royer, Lucas; Babel, Marie; Krupa, Alexandre
2014-03-01
In this paper, we present a new non-rigid target tracking method within 2D ultrasound (US) image sequence. Due to the poor quality of US images, the motion tracking of a tumor or cyst during needle insertion is considered as an open research issue. Our approach is based on well-known compression algorithm in order to make our method work in real-time which is a necessary condition for many clinical applications. Toward that end, we employed a dedicated hierarchical grid interpolation algorithm (HGI) which can represent a large variety of deformations compared to other motion estimation algorithms such as Overlapped Block Motion Compensation (OBMC), or Block Motion Algorithm (BMA). The sum of squared difference of image intensity is selected as similarity criterion because it provides a good trade-off between computation time and motion estimation quality. Contrary to the others methods proposed in the literature, our approach has the ability to distinguish both rigid and non-rigid motions which are observed in ultrasound image modality. Furthermore, this technique does not take into account any prior knowledge about the target, and limits the user interaction which usually complicates the medical validation process. Finally, a technique aiming at identifying the main phases of a periodic motion (e.g. breathing motion) is introduced. The new approach has been validated from 2D ultrasound images of real human tissues which undergo rigid and non-rigid deformations.
Rotating rigid motion in general relativity
Mason, D.P.; Pooe, C.A.
1987-11-01
Kinematic and dynamic expressions are derived for the Lie derivative of vorticity along a particle world line in a rigid motion. It is found that the evolution of vorticity in a rigid motion is governed by the electric part of the Weyl tensor. Necessary and sufficient kinematic and dynamic conditions are established for a rotating rigid motion to be isometric.
Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.
Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues
2014-02-01
We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping. PMID:26270925
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-12-15
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the
Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.
2011-01-01
The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.
Long waves induced motions to rigid spheroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hongkun; Hong, Lianjin
2015-05-01
Responses of unconstrained and rigid spheroidal bodies subjected to long sound waves are analyzed by means of approaching hydrodynamic method. It is shown that in the low-frequency approximation the amplitude of translational velocity is completely determined by the density as well as the acoustic added mass which is equal to hydrodynamic one associated with the body. The inconformity of responses to sound waves in virtue of geometric asymmetry is also presented. In addition, rotational movement engendered by acoustic oblique incidence is discussed, and it represents as the modulated angular oscillation similar to the beat-frequency vibration. All these analyses on acoustically induced motions provide a theoretical evidence for developing spheroidal inertial vector receivers.
Rapid determination of RMSDs corresponding to macromolecular rigid body motions.
Popov, Petr; Grudinin, Sergei
2014-05-01
Finding the root mean sum of squared deviations (RMSDs) between two coordinate vectors that correspond to the rigid body motion of a macromolecule is an important problem in structural bioinformatics, computational chemistry, and molecular modeling. Standard algorithms compute the RMSD with time proportional to the number of atoms in the molecule. Here, we present RigidRMSD, a new algorithm that determines a set of RMSDs corresponding to a set of rigid body motions of a macromolecule in constant time with respect to the number of atoms in the molecule. Our algorithm is particularly useful for rigid body modeling applications, such as rigid body docking, and also for high-throughput analysis of rigid body modeling and simulation results. We also introduce a constant-time rotation RMSD as a similarity measure for rigid molecules. A C++ implementation of our algorithm is available at http://nano-d.inrialpes.fr/software/RigidRMSD. PMID:24615729
Flipping and scooping of curved 2D rigid fibers in simple shear: The Jeffery equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowdy, Darren
2016-05-01
The dynamical system governing the motion of a curved rigid two-dimensional circular-arc fiber in simple shear is derived in analytical form. This is achieved by finding the solution for the associated low-Reynolds-number flow around such a fiber using the methods of complex analysis. Solutions of the dynamical system display the "flipping" and "scooping" recently observed in computational studies of three-dimensional fibers using linked rigid rod and bead-shell models [J. Wang et al., "Flipping, scooping, and spinning: Drift of rigid curved nonchiral fibers in simple shear flows," Phys. Fluids 24, 123304 (2012)]. To complete the Jeffery-type equations for a curved fiber in a linear flow field we also derive its evolution equations in an extensional flow. It is expected that the equations derived here also govern the motion of slender, curved, three-dimensional rigid fibers when they evolve purely in the plane of shear or strain.
Rigid Body Motion in Stereo 3D Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between…
Nonrigid 2D registration of fluoroscopic coronary artery image sequence with layered motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Taewoo; Jung, Hoyup; Yun, Il Dong
2016-03-01
We present a new method for nonrigid registration of coronary artery models with layered motion information. 2D nonrigid registration method is proposed that brings layered motion information into correspondence with fluoroscopic angiograms. The registered model is overlaid on top of interventional angiograms to provide surgical assistance during image-guided chronic total occlusion procedures. The proposed methodology is divided into two parts: layered structures alignments and local nonrigid registration. In the first part, inpainting method is used to estimate a layered rigid transformation that aligns layered motion information. In the second part, a nonrigid registration method is implemented and used to compensate for any local shape discrepancy. Experimental evaluation conducted on a set of 7 fluoroscopic angiograms results in a reduced target registration error, which showed the effectiveness of the proposed method over single layered approach.
On the inertial motions of liquid-filled rigid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzone, Giusy; Galdi, Giovanni; Zunino, Paolo
2013-11-01
We consider a rigid body with a cavity completely filled by a viscous liquid and study the inertial motions of the system liquid-filled rigid body S . The equations governing the motion of this coupled system are given by the Navier-Stokes equations and the equations of the balance of the total angular momentum of S in absence of external forces and torques. Given any initial motion to the coupled system, characterized by an initial relative velocity of the fluid and an initial total angular momentum, we give a complete description of the behavior that the system liquid-filled rigid body will show at large times. From both analytical and numerical viewpoints, we are able to prove a longstanding conjecture stated by Zhukovskii, namely that S will eventually reach a steady state which is a rigid body permanent rotation. In other words, the liquid goes to rest with respect to the rigid body and the coupled system will rotate as a whole rigid body, with a constant angular velocity that is directed along one of the principal axes of inertia of the system.
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology
Particle Filters and Occlusion Handling for Rigid 2D-3D Pose Tracking.
Lee, Jehoon; Sandhu, Romeil; Tannenbaum, Allen
2013-08-01
In this paper, we address the problem of 2D-3D pose estimation. Specifically, we propose an approach to jointly track a rigid object in a 2D image sequence and to estimate its pose (position and orientation) in 3D space. We revisit a joint 2D segmentation/3D pose estimation technique, and then extend the framework by incorporating a particle filter to robustly track the object in a challenging environment, and by developing an occlusion detection and handling scheme to continuously track the object in the presence of occlusions. In particular, we focus on partial occlusions that prevent the tracker from extracting an exact region properties of the object, which plays a pivotal role for region-based tracking methods in maintaining the track. To this end, a dynamical choice of how to invoke the objective functional is performed online based on the degree of dependencies between predictions and measurements of the system in accordance with the degree of occlusion and the variation of the object's pose. This scheme provides the robustness to deal with occlusions of an obstacle with different statistical properties from that of the object of interest. Experimental results demonstrate the practical applicability and robustness of the proposed method in several challenging scenarios. PMID:24058277
A rigid motion correction method for helical computed tomography (CT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.-H.; Nuyts, J.; Kyme, A.; Kuncic, Z.; Fulton, R.
2015-03-01
We propose a method to compensate for six degree-of-freedom rigid motion in helical CT of the head. The method is demonstrated in simulations and in helical scans performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. Scans of a Hoffman brain phantom were acquired while an optical motion tracking system recorded the motion of the bed and the phantom. Motion correction was performed by restoring projection consistency using data from the motion tracking system, and reconstructing with an iterative fully 3D algorithm. Motion correction accuracy was evaluated by comparing reconstructed images with a stationary reference scan. We also investigated the effects on accuracy of tracker sampling rate, measurement jitter, interpolation of tracker measurements, and the synchronization of motion data and CT projections. After optimization of these aspects, motion corrected images corresponded remarkably closely to images of the stationary phantom with correlation and similarity coefficients both above 0.9. We performed a simulation study using volunteer head motion and found similarly that our method is capable of compensating effectively for realistic human head movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first practical demonstration of generalized rigid motion correction in helical CT. Its clinical value, which we have yet to explore, may be significant. For example it could reduce the necessity for repeat scans and resource-intensive anesthetic and sedation procedures in patient groups prone to motion, such as young children. It is not only applicable to dedicated CT imaging, but also to hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, where it could also ensure an accurate CT image for lesion localization and attenuation correction of the functional image data.
Hurricane Balls: A rigid-body-motion project for undergraduates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, David P.; Mertens, David; Pearson, Brett J.
2015-11-01
We discuss a project on rigid-body motion that is appropriate for students in an upper-division course in classical mechanics. We analyze the motion of Hurricane Balls, two spheres that are welded (or glued) together so they act as a single object that can be spun like a top. The steady-state motion consists of purely rotational motion about the center of mass, such that only one ball is in contact with the table as it rolls without slipping. We give a qualitative explanation for why one ball rises into the air, and we theoretically analyze the system using multiple approaches. We also perform a high-speed video analysis to obtain experimental data on how the orientation depends on the spin rate, and find agreement within a few percent of the theory.
Rigid facial motion influences featural, but not holistic, face processing.
Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Ge, Liezhong; Lee, Kang
2012-03-15
We report three experiments in which we investigated the effect of rigid facial motion on face processing. Specifically, we used the face composite effect to examine whether rigid facial motion influences primarily featural or holistic processing of faces. In Experiments 1-3, participants were first familiarized with dynamic displays in which a target face turned from one side to another; then at test, participants judged whether the top half of a composite face (the top half of the target/foil face aligned or misaligned with the bottom half of a foil face) belonged to the target face. We compared performance in the dynamic condition to various static control conditions in Experiments 1-3, which differed from each other in terms of the display order of the multiple static images or the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the images. We found that the size of the face composite effect in the dynamic condition was significantly smaller than that in the static conditions. In other words, the dynamic face display influenced participants to process the target faces in a part-based manner and consequently their recognition of the upper portion of the composite face at test became less interfered with by the aligned lower part of the foil face. The findings from the present experiments provide the strongest evidence to date to suggest that the rigid facial motion mainly influences facial featural, but not holistic, processing. PMID:22342561
The ‘twin paradox’ in relativistic rigid motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Ya’acov, Uri
2016-09-01
Relativistic rigid motion suggests a new version for the so-called ‘twin paradox’, comparing the ages of two astronauts on a very long spaceship. Although there is always an instantaneous inertial frame in which the whole spaceship, being rigid, is simultaneously at rest, the twins’ ages, measured as the proper-times along their individual world lines, are different when they are located at remote parts of the spaceship. The age, or proper-time, difference depends on the distance at rest between the astronauts and the rapidity difference between start to end. The relation of the age difference with the relative Doppler shift of light signals transmitted between the astronauts and implications for the possibility to assign a common age (proper-time) to complex, spatially extended, relativistic systems are also discussed.
``Meta''-rigid motions and frames of reference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bel, Lluís; Llosa, Josep
1995-10-01
We define the “meta”-rigid motions as particular classes of time-like congruences which are solutions of intrinsically defined partial differential equations that generalize Born's conditions. We consider in particular two hierarchies of such congruences. The first one is a geometrically motivated direct generalization of the symmetry concept inherent in Born congruences. The second one is an indirect generalization based on the conditions which guarantee the existence of a particular class of adapted coordinates of space, named quo-harmonic coordinates, whose definition is akin to the definition of harmonic coordinates but which differs from it in an essential point.
Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N
2015-04-01
There is growing evidence to suggest that facial motion is an important cue for face recognition. However, it is poorly understood whether motion is integrated with facial form information or whether it provides an independent cue to identity. To provide further insight into this issue, we compared the effect of motion on face perception in two developmental prosopagnosics and age-matched controls. Participants first learned faces presented dynamically (video), or in a sequence of static images, in which rigid (viewpoint) or non-rigid (expression) changes occurred. Immediately following learning, participants were required to match a static face image to the learned face. Test face images varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and were learned or novel face images. We found similar performance across prosopagnosics and controls in matching facial identity across changes in viewpoint when the learned face was shown moving in a rigid manner. However, non-rigid motion interfered with face matching across changes in expression in both individuals with prosopagnosia compared to the performance of control participants. In contrast, non-rigid motion did not differentially affect the matching of facial expressions across changes in identity for either prosopagnosics (Experiment 3). Our results suggest that whilst the processing of rigid motion information of a face may be preserved in developmental prosopagnosia, non-rigid motion can specifically interfere with the representation of structural face information. Taken together, these results suggest that both form and motion cues are important in face perception and that these cues are likely integrated in the representation of facial identity. PMID:25737056
Percepts of rigid motion within and across apertures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiffrar, Maggie; Pavel, M.
1991-01-01
Humans consistently err in their percepts of rotational motion viewed through an aperture. Such errors provide insight into the constraints observers use to interpret retinal images. In the first of two experiments, the subjects consistently perceived the fixed center of rotation for an unmarked line viewed through an aperture as located on the line, regardless of its actual location. Accuracy greatly improved with visible line endings. This finding was extended to explain why a square appears nonrigid when it rotates behind a partial occluder. This illusion is theorized to result from observers misperceiving the center of rotation of the unmarked square sides. In this situation, the subjects seemed unable to apply an object rigidity constraint across apertures. These findings support a conceptualization of the visual system in which consistent local information must be clearly present before prior knowledge can be used to interpret retinal stimulation.
Percepts of rigid motion within and across apertures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiffrar, Maggie; Pavel, M.
1991-01-01
Humans consistently err in their percepts of rotational motion viewed through an aperture. Such errors provide insight into the constraints observers use to interpret retinal images. In the first of two experiments, Ss consistently perceived the fixed center of rotation for an unmarked line viewed through an aperture as located on the line, regardless of its actual location. Accuracy greatly improved with visible line endings. This finding was extended to explain why a square appears nonrigid when it rotates behind a partial occluder. This illusion may result from observers misperceiving the center of rotation of the unmarked square sides. In this situation, Ss seemed unable to apply an object rigidity constraint across apertures. These findings support a conceptualization of the visual system in which consistent local information must be clearly present before prior knowledge can be used to interpret retinal stimulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2016-07-01
Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout.
Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X-L
2016-01-01
Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout. PMID:27464908
Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2016-01-01
Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout. PMID:27464908
Non-Iterative Rigid 2D/3D Point-Set Registration Using Semidefinite Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoo, Yuehaw; Kapoor, Ankur
2016-07-01
We describe a convex programming framework for pose estimation in 2D/3D point-set registration with unknown point correspondences. We give two mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINP) formulations of the 2D/3D registration problem when there are multiple 2D images, and propose convex relaxations for both of the MINPs to semidefinite programs (SDP) that can be solved efficiently by interior point methods. Our approach to the 2D/3D registration problem is non-iterative in nature as we jointly solve for pose and correspondence. Furthermore, these convex programs can readily incorporate feature descriptors of points to enhance registration results. We prove that the convex programs exactly recover the solution to the original nonconvex 2D/3D registration problem under noiseless condition. We apply these formulations to the registration of 3D models of coronary vessels to their 2D projections obtained from multiple intra-operative fluoroscopic images. For this application, we experimentally corroborate the exact recovery property in the absence of noise and further demonstrate robustness of the convex programs in the presence of noise.
Interactions between rigid-body and flexible-body motions in maneuvering spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silverberg, Larry M.; Park, Sungtae
1990-01-01
The present consideration of the significant interactions between rigid-body and flexible-body motions in maneuvering spacecraft proceeds by distinguishing between the two types of motion on the basis of a tracking coordinate system which coincides with the rigid-body component of the motion, as well as by maintaining the motion relative to the tracking coordinate as orthogonal to the rigid-body motion. The elastic motion is excited by the rigid-body motion via Coriolis terms, angular acceleration terms, and centrifugal terms. These interactions are illustrated for spacecraft undergoing bidirectional elastic motions via the dynamics of constantly rotating free-free beams subject to combined bending and longitudinal vibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stahr, Donald W.; Law, Richard D.
2014-11-01
We model the development of shape preferred orientation (SPO) of a large population of two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) rigid clasts suspended in a linear viscous matrix deformed by superposed steady and continuously non-steady plane strain flows to investigate the sensitivity of clasts to changing boundary conditions during a single or superposed deformation events. Resultant clast SPOs are compared to one developed by an identical initial population that experienced a steady flow history of constant kinematic vorticity and reached an identical finite strain state, allowing examination of SPO sensitivity to deformation path. Rotation paths of individual triaxial inclusions are complex, even for steady plane strain flow histories. It has been suggested that the 3D nature of the system renders predictions based on 2D models inadequate for applied clast-based kinematic vorticity gauges. We demonstrate that for a large population of clasts, simplification to a 2D model does provide a good approximation to the SPO predicted by full 3D analysis for steady and non-steady plane strain deformation paths. Predictions of shape fabric development from 2D models are not only qualitatively similar to the more complex 3D analysis, but they display the same limitations of techniques based on clast SPO commonly used as a quantitative kinematic vorticity gauge. Our model results from steady, superposed, and non-steady flow histories with a significant pure shearing component at a wide range of finite strain resemble predictions for an identical initial population that experienced a single steady simple shearing deformation. We conclude that individual 2D and 3D clasts respond instantaneously to changes in boundary conditions, however, in aggregate, the SPO of a population of rigid inclusions does not reflect the late-stage kinematics of deformation, nor is it an indicator of the unique 'mean' kinematic vorticity experienced by a deformed rock volume.
Evaluation of low-dose limits in 3D-2D rigid registration for surgical guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uneri, A.; Wang, A. S.; Otake, Y.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Gallia, G. L.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2014-09-01
An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy is evaluated for use in surgical guidance, specifically considering the low-dose limits of the fluoroscopic x-ray projections. The registration method is based on a framework using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to identify the 3D patient pose that maximizes the gradient information similarity metric. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intracranial neurosurgery, using target registration error (TRE) to characterize accuracy and robustness in terms of 95% confidence upper bound in comparison to that of an infrared surgical tracking system. Three clinical scenarios were considered: (1) single-view image + guidance, wherein a single x-ray projection is used for visualization and 3D-2D guidance; (2) dual-view image + guidance, wherein one projection is acquired for visualization, combined with a second (lower-dose) projection acquired at a different C-arm angle for 3D-2D guidance; and (3) dual-view guidance, wherein both projections are acquired at low dose for the purpose of 3D-2D guidance alone (not visualization). In each case, registration accuracy was evaluated as a function of the entrance surface dose associated with the projection view(s). Results indicate that images acquired at a dose as low as 4 μGy (approximately one-tenth the dose of a typical fluoroscopic frame) were sufficient to provide TRE comparable or superior to that of conventional surgical tracking, allowing 3D-2D guidance at a level of dose that is at most 10% greater than conventional fluoroscopy (scenario #2) and potentially reducing the dose to approximately 20% of the level in a conventional fluoroscopically guided procedure (scenario #3).
Elastic image registration via rigid object motion induced deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xiaofen; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Hirsch, Bruce E.
2011-03-01
In this paper, we estimate the deformations induced on soft tissues by the rigid independent movements of hard objects and create an admixture of rigid and elastic adaptive image registration transformations. By automatically segmenting and independently estimating the movement of rigid objects in 3D images, we can maintain rigidity in bones and hard tissues while appropriately deforming soft tissues. We tested our algorithms on 20 pairs of 3D MRI datasets pertaining to a kinematic study of the flexibility of the ankle complex of normal feet as well as ankles affected by abnormalities in foot architecture and ligament injuries. The results show that elastic image registration via rigid object-induced deformation outperforms purely rigid and purely nonrigid approaches.
Personalized x-ray reconstruction of the proximal femur via a non-rigid 2D-3D registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Weimin; Zysset, Philippe; Zheng, Guoyan
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new approach for a personalized X-ray reconstruction of the proximal femur via a non-rigid registration of a 3D volumetric template to 2D calibrated C-arm images. The 2D-3D registration is done with a hierarchical two-stage strategy: the global scaled rigid registration stage followed by a regularized deformable b-spline registration stage. In both stages, a set of control points with uniform spacing are placed over the domain of the 3D volumetric template and the registrations are driven by computing updated positions of these control points, which then allows to accurately register the 3D volumetric template to the reference space of the C-arm images. Comprehensive experiments on simulated images, on images of cadaveric femurs and on clinical datasets are designed and conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation results are given, which demonstrate the efficacy of the present approach.
An incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the motion of rigid bodies in fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tofighi, N.; Ozbulut, M.; Rahmat, A.; Feng, J. J.; Yildiz, M.
2015-09-01
A two-dimensional incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme is presented for simulation of rigid bodies moving through Newtonian fluids. The scheme relies on combined usage of the rigidity constraints and the viscous penalty method to simulate rigid body motion. Different viscosity ratios and interpolation schemes are tested by simulating a rigid disc descending in quiescent medium. A viscosity ratio of 100 coupled with weighted harmonic averaging scheme has been found to provide satisfactory results. The performance of the resulting scheme is systematically tested for cases with linear motion, rotational motion and their combination. The test cases include sedimentation of a single and a pair of circular discs, sedimentation of an elliptic disc and migration and rotation of a circular disc in linear shear flow. Comparison with previous results at various Reynolds numbers indicates that the proposed method captures the motion of rigid bodies driven by flow or external body forces accurately.
Learning Spatially-Smooth Mappings in Non-Rigid Structure from Motion.
Hamsici, Onur C; Gotardo, Paulo F U; Martinez, Aleix M
2012-01-01
Non-rigid structure from motion (NRSFM) is a classical underconstrained problem in computer vision. A common approach to make NRSFM more tractable is to constrain 3D shape deformation to be smooth over time. This constraint has been used to compress the deformation model and reduce the number of unknowns that are estimated. However, temporal smoothness cannot be enforced when the data lacks temporal ordering and its benefits are less evident when objects undergo abrupt deformations. This paper proposes a new NRSFM method that addresses these problems by considering deformations as spatial variations in shape space and then enforcing spatial, rather than temporal, smoothness. This is done by modeling each 3D shape coefficient as a function of its input 2D shape. This mapping is learned in the feature space of a rotation invariant kernel, where spatial smoothness is intrinsically defined by the mapping function. As a result, our model represents shape variations compactly using custom-built coefficient bases learned from the input data, rather than a pre-specified set such as the Discrete Cosine Transform. The resulting kernel-based mapping is a by-product of the NRSFM solution and leads to another fundamental advantage of our approach: for a newly observed 2D shape, its 3D shape is recovered by simply evaluating the learned function. PMID:23946937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmez, O.; Ozbulut, M.; Yildiz, M.; Goren, O.
2016-06-01
The present study investigates the vortical and nonlinear effects in the roll motion of a 2-D body with square cross-sections by using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A 2-D rigid body with square cross-section is taken into account for the benchmark study and subjected to the oscillatory roll motion with a given angular frequency. The governing equations are continuity equation and Euler's equation with artificial viscosity term. Weakly Compressible SPH (WCSPH) scheme is employed for the discretization of the governing equations. Velocities of the fluid particles are updated by means of XSPH+Artificial Particle Displacement (VXSPH+APD) algorithm. In this method only the free surface fluid particles are subjected to VXSPH algorithm while the APD algorithm is employed for the fully populated flow regions. The hybrid usage of numerical treatment keeps free surface particles together by creating an artificial surface tension on the free surface. VXSPH+APD is a proven numerical treatment to provide the most accurate results for this type of free surface flows (Ozbulut et al. 2014). The results of the present study are compared with those of the experimental studies as well as with those of the numerical methods obtained from the current literature.
Lorenz, Kevin S.; Salama, Paul; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Delp, Edward J.
2013-01-01
Digital image analysis is a fundamental component of quantitative microscopy. However, intravital microscopy presents many challenges for digital image analysis. In general, microscopy volumes are inherently anisotropic, suffer from decreasing contrast with tissue depth, lack object edge detail, and characteristically have low signal levels. Intravital microscopy introduces the additional problem of motion artifacts, resulting from respiratory motion and heartbeat from specimens imaged in vivo. This paper describes an image registration technique for use with sequences of intravital microscopy images collected in time-series or in 3D volumes. Our registration method involves both rigid and non-rigid components. The rigid registration component corrects global image translations, while the non-rigid component manipulates a uniform grid of control points defined by B-splines. Each control point is optimized by minimizing a cost function consisting of two parts: a term to define image similarity, and a term to ensure deformation grid smoothness. Experimental results indicate that this approach is promising based on the analysis of several image volumes collected from the kidney, lung, and salivary gland of living rodents. PMID:22092443
Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio
2005-01-01
This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…
Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Franklin, Jerrold
2010-01-01
The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…
Edge preserving motion estimation with occlusions correction for assisted 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pohl, Petr; Sirotenko, Michael; Tolstaya, Ekaterina; Bucha, Victor
2014-02-01
In this article we propose high quality motion estimation based on variational optical flow formulation with non-local regularization term. To improve motion in occlusion areas we introduce occlusion motion inpainting based on 3-frame motion clustering. Variational formulation of optical flow proved itself to be very successful, however a global optimization of cost function can be time consuming. To achieve acceptable computation times we adapted the algorithm that optimizes convex function in coarse-to-fine pyramid strategy and is suitable for modern GPU hardware implementation. We also introduced two simplifications of cost function that significantly decrease computation time with acceptable decrease of quality. For motion clustering based motion inpaitning in occlusion areas we introduce effective method of occlusion aware joint 3-frame motion clustering using RANSAC algorithm. Occlusion areas are inpainted by motion model taken from cluster that shows consistency in opposite direction. We tested our algorithm on Middlebury optical flow benchmark, where we scored around 20th position, but being one of the fastest method near the top. We also successfully used this algorithm in semi-automatic 2D to 3D conversion tool for spatio-temporal background inpainting, automatic adaptive key frame detection and key points tracking.
Sequential Non-Rigid Structure from Motion Using Physical Priors.
Agudo, Antonio; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Calvo, Begona; Montiel, Jose M Martinez
2016-05-01
We propose a new approach to simultaneously recover camera pose and 3D shape of non-rigid and potentially extensible surfaces from a monocular image sequence. For this purpose, we make use of the Extended Kalman Filter based Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (EKF-SLAM) formulation, a Bayesian optimization framework traditionally used in mobile robotics for estimating camera pose and reconstructing rigid scenarios. In order to extend the problem to a deformable domain we represent the object's surface mechanics by means of Navier's equations, which are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM). With these main ingredients, we can further model the material's stretching, allowing us to go a step further than most of current techniques, typically constrained to surfaces undergoing isometric deformations. We extensively validate our approach in both real and synthetic experiments, and demonstrate its advantages with respect to competing methods. More specifically, we show that besides simultaneously retrieving camera pose and non-rigid shape, our approach is adequate for both isometric and extensible surfaces, does not require neither batch processing all the frames nor tracking points over the whole sequence and runs at several frames per second. PMID:27046840
Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W; Pretorius, P H; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A
2014-01-01
The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used XCAT phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the MRI acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The MR slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a GUI. Thus far we have created 5 body motion and 5 respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from MRI acquisitions of 6 healthy volunteers (3 males and 3 females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory and body motion phantoms with a varying extent and character for each individual. In addition to these phantoms, we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.
2014-07-01
The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory
Rigid 2D/3D registration of intraoperative digital x-ray images and preoperative CT and MR images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo
2002-05-01
This paper describes a novel approach to register 3D computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images to a set of 2D X-ray images. Such a registration may be a valuable tool for intraoperative determination of the precise position and orientation of some anatomy of interest, defined in preoperative images. The registration is based solely on the information present in 2D and 3D images. It does not require fiducial markers, X-ray image segmentation, or construction of digitally reconstructed radiographs. The originality of the approach is in using normals to bone surfaces, preoperatively defined in 3D MR or CT data, and gradients of intraoperative X-ray images, which are back-projected towards the X-ray source. The registration is then concerned with finding that rigid transformation of a CT or MR volume, which provides the best match between surface normals and back projected gradients, considering their amplitudes and orientations. The method is tested on a lumbar spine phantom. Gold standard registration is obtained by fidicual markers attached to the phantom. Volumes of interest, containing single vertebrae, are registered to different pairs of X-ray images from different starting positions, chosen randomly and uniformly around the gold standard position. Target registration errors and rotation errors are in order of 0.3 mm and 0.35 degrees for the CT to X-ray registration and 1.3 mm and 1.5 degrees for MR to X-ray registration. The registration is shown to be fast and accurate.
Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bydlon, Samuel A.; Dunham, Eric M.
2015-03-01
We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ˜20 km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ˜3 km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length.
Estimation of motion parameters for a rigid body from its orthogonal projection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, B.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.
1989-01-01
An estimate is presented of the motion parameters, namely, linear and angular velocities of a rigid body rotating and translating in three-dimensional-space. It is assumed that the velocities are constant and that only the orthogonal projection of the motion is observable. In particular, if (x, y, z) is the Cartesian coordinate, it is assumed that the projection of the motion on the x-y plane is observed and the information along the z coordinate is lost.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.
1974-01-01
Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.
Hurricane Balls: A rigid-body-motion student project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, David; Mertens, David; Pearson, Brett
Hurricane Balls is a spinning-top toy that consists of two metal spheres that are welded (or glued) together. The motion of Hurricane Balls provides a beautiful example of rotational motion in which the angular velocity and angular momentum point in different directions. Because the motion is both captivating to students and extremely reproducible, this system is an ideal example to include in a classical mechanics course. Moreover, the excellent agreement between theory and experiment makes a detailed analysis of Hurricane Balls a perfect topic for an independent student project. This talk will give an overview of the system and will provide some tips on how to make such a project a successful student experience.
Rigid Structure from Motion from a Blind Source Separation Perspective
Fortuna, Jeff
2013-01-01
We present an information theoretic approach to define the problem of structure from motion (SfM) as a blind source separation one. Given that for almost all practical joint densities of shape points, the marginal densities are non-Gaussian, we show how higher-order statistics can be used to provide improvements in shape estimates over the methods of factorization via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), bundle adjustment and Bayesian approaches. Previous techniques have either explicitly or implicitly used only second-order statistics in models of shape or noise. A further advantage of viewing SfM as a blind source problem is that it easily allows for the inclusion of noise and shape models, resulting in Maximum Likelihood (ML) or Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) shape and motion estimates. A key result is that the blind source separation approach has the ability to recover the motion and shape matrices without the need to explicitly know the motion or shape pdf. We demonstrate that it suffices to know whether the pdf is sub-or super-Gaussian (i.e., semi-parametric estimation) and derive a simple formulation to determine this from the data. We provide extensive experimental results on synthetic and real tracked points in order to quantify the improvement obtained from this technique. PMID:23682206
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mechler, S.; Pershan, P. S.; Yahel, E.; Stoltz, S. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.; Sellner, S.
2010-10-01
The structural and mechanical properties of 2D crystalline surface phases that form at the surface of liquid eutectic Au82Si18 are studied using synchrotron x-ray scattering over a large temperature range. In the vicinity of the eutectic temperature the surface consists of a 2D atomic bilayer crystalline phase that transforms into a 2D monolayer crystalline phase during heating. The latter phase eventually melts into a liquidlike surface on further heating. We demonstrate that the short wavelength capillary wave fluctuations are suppressed due to the bending rigidity of 2D crystalline phases. The corresponding reduction in the Debye-Waller factor allows for measured reflectivity to be explained in terms of an electron density profile that is consistent with the 2D surface crystals.
The use of 2D ultrasound elastography for measuring tendon motion and strain.
Chernak Slane, Laura; Thelen, Darryl G
2014-02-01
The goal of the current study was to investigate the fidelity of a 2D ultrasound elastography method for the measurement of tendon motion and strain. Ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo porcine flexor tendons were cyclically stretched to 4% strain while cine ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data and video data were simultaneously collected. 2D ultrasound elastography was used to estimate tissue motion and strain from RF data, and surface tissue motion and strain were separately estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). There were strong correlations (R(2)>0.97) between DIC and RF measurements of phantom displacement and strain, and good agreement in estimates of peak phantom strain (DIC: 3.5±0.2%; RF: 3.7±0.1%). For tendon, elastographic estimates of displacement profiles also correlated well with DIC measurements (R(2)>0.92), and exhibited similar estimated peak tendon strain (DIC: 2.6±1.4%; RF: 2.2±1.3%). Elastographic tracking with B-Mode images tended to under-predict peak strain for both the phantom and tendon. This study demonstrates the capacity to use quantitative elastographic techniques to measure tendon displacement and strain within an ultrasound image window. The approach may be extendible to in vivo use on humans, which would allow for the non-invasive analysis of tendon deformation in both normal and pathological states. PMID:24388164
The Use of 2D Ultrasound Elastography for Measuring Tendon Motion and Strain
Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G.
2014-01-01
The goal of the current study was to investigate the fidelity of a 2D ultrasound elastography method for the measurement of tendon motion and strain. Ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo porcine flexor tendons were cyclically stretched to 4% strain while cine ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data and video data were simultaneously collected. 2D ultrasound elastography was used to estimate tissue motion and strain from RF data, and surface tissue motion and strain were separately estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). There were strong correlations (R2 > 0.97) between DIC and RF measurements of phantom displacement and strain, and good agreement in estimates of peak phantom strain (DIC: 3.5 ± 0.2%; RF: 3.7 ± 0.1%). For tendon, elastographic estimates of displacement profiles also correlated well with DIC measurements (R2 > 0.92), and exhibited similar estimated peak tendon strain (DIC: 2.6 ± 1.4%; RF: 2.2 ± 1.3%). Elastographic tracking with B-Mode images tended to under-predict peak strain for both the phantom and tendon. This study demonstrates the capacity to use quantitative elastographic techniques to measure tendon displacement and strain within an ultrasound image window. The approach may be extendible to in vivo use on humans, which would allow for the non-invasive analysis of tendon deformation in both normal and pathological states. PMID:24388164
Coronary arteries motion modeling on 2D x-ray images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yang; Sundar, Hari
2012-02-01
During interventional procedures, 3D imaging modalities like CT and MRI are not commonly used due to interference with the surgery and radiation exposure concerns. Therefore, real-time information is usually limited and building models of cardiac motion are difficult. In such case, vessel motion modeling based on 2-D angiography images become indispensable. Due to issues with existing vessel segmentation algorithms and the lack of contrast in occluded vessels, manual segmentation of certain branches is usually necessary. In addition, such occluded branches are the most important vessels during coronary interventions and obtaining motion models for these can greatly help in reducing the procedure time and radiation exposure. Segmenting different cardiac phases independently does not guarantee temporal consistency and is not efficient for occluded branches required manual segmentation. In this paper, we propose a coronary motion modeling system which extracts the coronary tree for every cardiac phase, maintaining the segmentation by tracking the coronary tree during the cardiac cycle. It is able to map every frame to the specific cardiac phase, thereby inferring the shape information of the coronary arteries using the model corresponding to its phase. Our experiments show that our motion modeling system can achieve promising results with real-time performance.
Emergence of electromotive force in precession-less rigid motion of deformed domain wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajollahpour, Tohid; Darmiani, Narges; Phirouznia, Arash
2016-08-01
Recently it has been recognized that the electromotive force (emf) can be induced just by the spin precession where the generation of the electromotive force has been considered as a real-space topological pumping effect. It has been shown that the amount of the electromotive force is independent of the functionality of the localized moments. It was also demonstrated that the rigid domain wall (DW) motion cannot generate electromotive force in the system. Based on real-space topological pumping approach in the current study we show that the electromotive force can be induced by rigid motion of a deformed DW. We also demonstrate that the generated electromotive force strongly depends on the DW bulging. Meanwhile results show that the DW bulging leads to generation of the electromotive force both along the axis of the DW motion and normal to the direction of motion.
On the motion of a heavy rigid body in an ideal fluid with circulation.
Borisov, Alexey V; Mamaev, Ivan S
2006-03-01
We consider Chaplygin's equations [Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR 3, 3 (1933)] describing the planar motion of a rigid body in an unbounded volume of an ideal fluid while circulation around the body is not zero. Hamiltonian structures and new integrable cases are revealed; certain remarkable partial solutions are found and their stability is examined. The nonintegrability of the system describing the motion of a body in the field of gravity is proved and the chaotic behavior of the system is illustrated. PMID:16599749
Geometrical connection between catacaustics and kinematics of planar motion of a rigid solid.
Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Danta, Marcelo
2016-09-01
Unnoticed and hidden optomechanical analogies between kinematics of planar motion of a rigid solid and catacaustics generated by mirror reflection on smooth profiles in geometrical optics are discussed. A concise and self-consistent theory is developed, which intends to explain and clarify many partial aspects covered by the literature. PMID:27607500
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.
The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…
Pan, Xiaochang; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinghua; Gao, Jing; Huang, Lingyun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen
2015-11-01
Tissue motion estimation is widely used in many ultrasound techniques. Rigid-model-based and nonrigid-modelbased methods are two main groups of space-domain methods of tissue motion estimation. The affine model is one of the commonly used nonrigid models. The performances of the rigid model and affine model have not been compared on ultrasound RF signals, which have been demonstrated to obtain higher accuracy, precision, and resolution in motion estimation compared with B-mode images. In this study, three methods, i.e., the normalized cross-correlation method with rigid model (NCC), the optical flow method with rigid model (OFRM), and the optical flow method with affine model (OFAM), are compared using ultrasound RF signals, rather than the B-mode images used in previous studies. Simulations, phantom, and in vivo experiments are conducted to make the comparison. In the simulations, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of axial and lateral displacements and strains are used to assess the accuracy of motion estimation, and the elastographic signal-tonoise ratio (SNRe) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) are used to evaluate the quality of axial strain images. In the phantom experiments, the registration error between the pre- and postdeformation RF signals, as well as the SNRe and CNRe of axial strain images, are utilized as the evaluation criteria. In the in vivo experiments, the registration error is used to evaluate the estimation performance. The results show that the affinemodel- based method (i.e., OFAM) obtains the lowest RMSE or registration error and the highest SNRe and CNRe among all the methods. The affine model is demonstrated to be superior to the rigid model in motion estimation based on RF signals. PMID:26559623
An Interface for Specifying Rigid-Body Motions for CFD Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Scott M.; Chan, William; Aftosmis, Michael; Meakin, Robert L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
An interface for specifying rigid-body motions for CFD applications is presented. This interface provides a means of describing a component hierarchy in a geometric configuration, as well as the motion (prescribed or six-degree-of-freedom) associated with any component. The interface consists of a general set of datatypes, along with rules for their interaction, and is designed to be flexible in order to evolve as future needs dictate. The specification is currently implemented with an XML file format which is portable across platforms and applications. The motion specification is capable of describing general rigid body motions, and eliminates the need to write and compile new code within the application software for each dynamic configuration, allowing client software to automate dynamic simulations. The interface is integrated with a GUI tool which allows rigid body motions to be prescribed and verified interactively, promoting access to non-expert users. Illustrative examples, as well as the raw XML source of the file specifications, are included.
Nonlinear state-space modeling of human motion using 2-D marker observations.
Vartiainen, Paavo; Bragge, Timo; Arokoski, Jari P; Karjalainen, Pasi A
2014-07-01
A novel method for the estimation of human kinematics, based on state-space modeling, is proposed. The state consists of the positions, orientations, velocities, and accelerations of an articulated model. Estimation is performed using the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm with a fixed-interval smoother. Impulsive acceleration at floor contact of the foot is estimated by implementing a contact constraint in the UKF evolution model. The constraint inserts an acceleration impulse into the model state. The estimation method was applied to marker-based motion analysis in a motion laboratory. Validation measurements were performed with a rigid test device and with human gait. A triaxial accelerometer was used to evaluate acceleration estimates. Comparison between the proposed method and the extended Kalman smoother showed a clear difference in the quality of estimates during impulsive accelerations. The proposed approach enables estimation of human kinematics during both continuous and transient accelerations. The approach provides a novel way of estimating acceleration at foot initial contact, and thus enables more accurate evaluation of loading from the beginning of the floor contact. PMID:24760898
Coupled motion of rigid bodies about their center of mass. [Shuttle/payload system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jezewski, D. J.; Donaldson, J. D.
1979-01-01
Nontrivial analytical solutions for the coupled motion of two rigid bodies about their center of mass are obtained on the assumptions that the rigid bodies are coupled by a massless rigid boom and that no external forces are acting on the system. Both relative rotational and translational motions of the two bodies are considered. General equations of motion are derived by regarding the two bodies as consisting of two distinct systems of particles and by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum. It is shown that a basic nontrivial solution can be obtained for the translational problem if an assumption is made concerning the relative orientation of one principal axis of inertia of each body and that fundamental nontrivial solutions are readily obtained for the rotational problem if an additional assumption is made with respect to the symmetry of one body. Certain stability criteria are found for some of these motions by defining regions of constraint for the relative translational and rotational elements.
Quantifying Rigid and Nonrigid Motion of Liver Tumors During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Xu, Qianyi; Hanna, George; Grimm, Jimm; Kubicek, Gregory; Pahlajani, Niraj; Asbell, Sucha; Fan, Jiajin; Chen, Yan; LaCouture, Tamara
2014-09-01
Purpose: To quantify rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors using reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) fiducials from stereo imaging during CyberKnife-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-three liver patients treated with 3 fractions of SBRT were used in this study. After 2 orthogonal kilovoltage images were taken during treatment, the 3D locations of the fiducials were generated by the CyberKnife system and validated using geometric derivations. A total of 4824 pairs of kilovoltage images from start to end of treatment were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts were reported by aligning 3D fiducial groups from different image pairs, using least-squares fitting. For nonrigid motion, we quantified interfractional tumor volume variations by using the proportional volume derived from the fiducials, which correlates to the sum of interfiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported (1) after rigid corrections and (2) without angle corrections. Results: The proportional volume derived by the fiducials demonstrated a volume-increasing trend in the second (101.9% ± 3.6%) and third (101.0 ± 5.9%) fractions among most patients, possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all patients, the translational shifts in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior directions were 2.1 ± 2.3 mm, 2.9 ± 2.8 mm, and 6.4 ± 5.5 mm, respectively. The greatest translational shifts occurred in the superoinferior direction, likely due to respiratory motion from the diaphragm. The rotational angles in roll, pitch, and yaw were 1.2° ± 1.8°, 1.8° ± 2.4°, and 1.7° ± 2.1°, respectively. The 3D individual fiducial displacements with rigid corrections were 0.2 ± 0.2 mm and increased to 0.5 ± 0.4 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusions: Accurate 3D locations of internal fiducials can be reconstructed from stereo imaging during treatment. As an
Chen, Chia-Hsiung; Azari, David; Hu, Yu Hen; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Thelen, Darryl; Yen, Thomas Y.; Radwin, Robert G.
2015-01-01
Objective Marker-less 2D video tracking was studied as a practical means to measure upper limb kinematics for ergonomics evaluations. Background Hand activity level (HAL) can be estimated from speed and duty cycle. Accuracy was measured using a cross correlation template-matching algorithm for tracking a region of interest on the upper extremities. Methods Ten participants performed a paced load transfer task while varying HAL (2, 4, and 5) and load (2.2 N, 8.9 N and 17.8 N). Speed and acceleration measured from 2D video were compared against ground truth measurements using 3D infrared motion capture. Results The median absolute difference between 2D video and 3D motion capture was 86.5 mm/s for speed, and 591 mm/s2 for acceleration, and less than 93 mm/s for speed and 656 mm/s2 for acceleration when camera pan and tilt were within ±30 degrees. Conclusion Single-camera 2D video had sufficient accuracy (< 100 mm/s) for evaluating HAL. Practitioner Summary This study demonstrated that 2D video tracking had sufficient accuracy to measure HAL for ascertaining the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value® for repetitive motion when the camera is located within ±30 degrees off the plane of motion when compared against 3D motion capture for a simulated repetitive motion task. PMID:25978764
Chen, Chia-Hsiung; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Lindstrom, Mary J; Thelen, Darryl; Yen, Thomas Y; Radwin, Robert G
2015-01-01
Marker-less 2D video tracking was studied as a practical means to measure upper limb kinematics for ergonomics evaluations. Hand activity level (HAL) can be estimated from speed and duty cycle. Accuracy was measured using a cross-correlation template-matching algorithm for tracking a region of interest on the upper extremities. Ten participants performed a paced load transfer task while varying HAL (2, 4, and 5) and load (2.2 N, 8.9 N and 17.8 N). Speed and acceleration measured from 2D video were compared against ground truth measurements using 3D infrared motion capture. The median absolute difference between 2D video and 3D motion capture was 86.5 mm/s for speed, and 591 mm/s(2) for acceleration, and less than 93 mm/s for speed and 656 mm/s(2) for acceleration when camera pan and tilt were within ± 30 degrees. Single-camera 2D video had sufficient accuracy (< 100 mm/s) for evaluating HAL. Practitioner Summary: This study demonstrated that 2D video tracking had sufficient accuracy to measure HAL for ascertaining the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value(®) for repetitive motion when the camera is located within ± 30 degrees off the plane of motion when compared against 3D motion capture for a simulated repetitive motion task. PMID:25978764
Flexibility and rigidity of cross-linked Straight Fibrils under axial motion constraints.
Nagy Kem, Gyula
2016-09-01
The Straight Fibrils are stiff rod-like filaments and play a significant role in cellular processes as structural stability and intracellular transport. Introducing a 3D mechanical model for the motion of braced cylindrical fibrils under axial motion constraint; we provide some mechanism and a graph theoretical model for fibril structures and give the characterization of the flexibility and the rigidity of this bar-and-joint spatial framework. The connectedness and the circuit of the bracing graph characterize the flexibility of these structures. In this paper, we focus on the kinematical properties of hierarchical levels of fibrils and evaluate the number of the bracing elements for the rigidity and its computational complexity. The presented model is a good characterization of the frameworks of bio-fibrils such as microtubules, cellulose, which inspired this work. PMID:27289214
New conditional integrable cases of motion of a rigid body with Kovalevskaya's configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yehia, H. M.; Elmandouh, A. A.
2011-01-01
We consider the general problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point under the action of an axisymmetric combination of potential and gyroscopic forces. We introduce two new cases of this problem which are integrable on the zero level of the cyclic integral. The new cases are combined generalizations of several previously known ones, namely those of Kovalevskaya, Yehia, Sokolov, Yehia and Bedweihi and Goriatchev, by the introduction of additional parameters to the structure of each.
Stabilization of the rotational motion of a rigid body on a vibrating base
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krementulo, V. V.
1984-12-01
The problem of the optimum (in a certain sense) stabilization of the permanent rotation of a heavy rigid body on a vibrating base is solved in the context of analytical control theory. Stabilization is achieved by means of a gimbal-suspended balanced gyroscope controlled by three moments. The control moments, obtained in explicit form, ensure the asymptotic stability of the rotational motion of the body along all of its phase coordinates and a minimum of a certain integral functional.
Flap-lag equations of motion of rigid, articulated rotor blades with three hinge sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Robert T. N.
1987-01-01
A derivation of coupled flap-lag equations of motion for a rigid articulated rotor with hinge springs and viscous dampers is reported. Three different flapping-lag-pitch hinge sequences are considered and the Lagrange method is used to derive the equations. The effects of the complete six degrees-of-freedom aircraft motions are included and all the inertia dynamic terms are retained; no small-angle assumptions are used in the development. Comparisons of the results with those available in the literature are made. Sources of terms missing in previous analyses, especially those of the inertia dynamics, are identified.
Computing 3-D structure of rigid objects using stereo and motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Thinh V.
1987-01-01
Work performed as a step toward an intelligent automatic machine vision system for 3-D imaging is discussed. The problem considered is the quantitative 3-D reconstruction of rigid objects. Motion and stereo are the two clues considered in this system. The system basically consists of three processes: the low level process to extract image features, the middle level process to establish the correspondence in the stereo (spatial) and motion (temporal) modalities, and the high level process to compute the 3-D coordinates of the corner points by integrating the spatial and temporal correspondences.
Identification of motion parameters of a rigid body from its orthogonal and perspective projections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, B.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.
1989-01-01
An estimate is made of the motion parameters, namely, linear and angular velocities, of a rigid body rotating and translating in three-space. The authors assume that the velocities are constant and that the motion is not completely observable. They consider two separate cases of partial observations corresponding to the orthogonal and the perspective projections, respectively. If (x, y, z) is the Cartesian coordinate of the three-space, the authors assume in the first case that the projection of the motion on the x-y plane is observed. If (r, theta, phi) is the polar coordinates of the three-space, they assume in the second case that the parameter vector (theta, phi) is observed. The use of both of these cases to estimate the motion parameters is discussed.
Time-correlation analysis of simulated water motion in flexible and rigid gramicidin channels.
Chiu, S W; Jakobsson, E; Subramaniam, S; McCammon, J A
1991-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have been done on a system consisting of the polypeptide membrane channel former gramicidin, plus water molecules in the channel and caps of waters at the two ends of the channel. In the absence of explicit simulation of the surrounding membrane, the helical form of the channel was maintained by artificial restraints on the peptide motion. The characteristic time constant of the artificial restraint was varied to assess the effect of the restraints on the channel structure and water motions. Time-correlation analysis was done on the motions of individual channel waters and on the motions of the center of mass of the channel waters. It is found that individual water molecules confined in the channel execute higher frequency motions than bulk water, for all degrees of channel peptide restraint. The center-of-mass motion of the chain of channel waters (which is the motion that is critical for transmembrane transport, due to the mandatory single filing of water in the channel) does not exhibit these higher frequency motions. The mobility of the water chain is dramatically reduced by holding the channel rigid. Thus permeation through the channel is not like flow through a rigid pipe; rather permeation is facilitated by peptide motion. For the looser restraints we used, the mobility of the water chain was not very much affected by the degree of restraint. Depending on which set of experiments is considered, the computed mobility of our water chain in the flexible channel is four to twenty times too high to account for the experimentally measured resistance of the gramicidin channel to water flow. From this result it appears likely that the peptide motions of an actual gramicidin channel embedded in a lipid membrane may be more restrained than in our flexible channel model, and that these restraints may be a significant modulator of channel permeability. For the completely rigid channel model the "trapping" of the water molecules in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Likins, P. W.
1974-01-01
Equations of motion are derived for use in simulating a spacecraft or other complex electromechanical system amenable to idealization as a set of hinge-connected rigid bodies of tree topology, with rigid axisymmetric rotors and nonrigid appendages attached to each rigid body in the set. In conjunction with a previously published report on finite-element appendage vibration equations, this report provides a complete minimum-dimension formulation suitable for generic programming for digital computer numerical integration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The two-particle, steady-state Schroedinger equation is transformed to center of mass and internuclear distance vector coordinates, leading to the free particle wave equation for the kinetic energy motion of the molecule and a decoupled wave equation for a single particle of reduced mass moving in a spherical potential field. The latter describes the vibrational and rotational energy modes of the diatomic molecule. For fixed internuclear distance, this becomes the equation of rigid rotator motion. The classical partition function for the rotator is derived and compared with the quantum expression. Molecular symmetry effects are developed from the generalized Pauli principle that the steady-state wave function of any system of fundamental particles must be antisymmetric. Nuclear spin and spin quantum functions are introduced and ortho- and para-states of rotators, along with their degeneracies, are defined. Effects of nuclear spin on entropy are deduced. Next, rigid polyatomic rotators are considered and the partition function for this case is derived. The patterns of rotational energy levels for nonlinear molecules are discussed for the spherical symmetric top, for the prolate symmetric top, for the oblate symmetric top, and for the asymmetric top. Finally, the equilibrium energy and specific heat of rigid rotators are derived.
Myocardial motion estimation in tagged MR sequences by using alphaMI-based non rigid registration.
Oubel, E; Tobon-Gomez, C; Hero, A O; Frangi, A F
2005-01-01
Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently the reference MR modality for myocardial motion and strain analysis. NMI-based non rigid registration has proven to be an accurate method to retrieve cardiac deformation fields. The use of alphaMI permits higher dimensional features to be implemented in myocardial deformation estimation through image registration. This paper demonstrates that this is feasible with a set of Haar wavelet features of high dimension. While we do not demonstrate performance improvement for this set of features, there is no significant degradation as compared to implementing the registration method with the traditional NMI metric. We use Entropic Spanning Graphs (ESGs) to estimate the alphaMI of the wavelet feature vectors WFVs since this is not possible with histograms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that ESGs are used for non rigid registration. PMID:16685969
Gradient-Driven Vortex Motion in Nonneutral Plasmas and Ideal 2D Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, David A.
2000-10-01
Two-dimensional (2D) turbulent flows can relax to metastable patterns without dissipation of kinetic energy. This ``rapid'' relaxation has been observed in computer simulations of ideal 2D fluids, and more recently in experiments with pure electron plasmas, which can obey similar dynamics. The late stage of relaxation often involves small vortices moving in a larger ``background'' shear-flow.(X.P. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995). In time, positive vortices (rotating counter-clockwise) move to peaks in background vorticity, whereas negative vortices (rotating clockwise) move to minima.(C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7), 175 (1948); C.H. Liu and L. Ting, Comp. & Fluids 15, 77 (1987). In general, the rate of this migration increases with the magnitude of the background vorticity gradient, whereas it decreases as the background shear intensifies.\\vspace12pt Positive and negative vortices can also be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. Surprisingly, a retrograde vortex moves up or down a background vorticity gradient orders of magnitude faster than a prograde vortex of equal strength.(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). An accurate expression for the velocity of a weak retrograde vortex is obtained from an analytic calculation, in which the response of the background flow to the vortex is linearized. However, this linear theory fails for prograde vortices of any strength. Interestingly, the velocity of a prograde vortex can be obtained from a simple estimate, which accounts for the nonlinear ``trapping'' of background fluid around the vortex. The analytic expressions for the velocities of both prograde and retrograde vortices are in good quantitative agreement with vortex-in-cell simulations, and with electron plasma experiments, when the background shear is below a critical level. When the ratio of background shear to background vorticity
Unsteady hydrodynamic effect of rotation on steady rigid-body motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.
2005-08-01
Owing to the inertial effect of the flow, an unsteady hydrodynamic force will act on a particle of arbitrary shape undergoing a steady rigid-body motion with small but finite Reynolds number if the axis of rotation of the particle is not its axis of rotational symmetry. Unsteady flow field is generated owing to such rotation of the body and as a result the particle experiences a time-dependent translational resistance. In this paper, we analyse this time-dependent hydrodynamic force and obtain its higher-order correction by systematically expanding the Navier Stokes equation in small Reynolds number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, N.; Zong, Z.
2011-11-01
The dynamic elastic response of a floating ship hull girder to an underwater explosion bubble is normally composed of two parts: rigid-body motion and elastic deformation. However, the effects of rigid-body motion have consistently been neglected in the current literature based on the assumption that they are small. In this paper, our focus is on the study of rigid-body motion effects on the hull girder's elastic deformation, also known as the ‘whipping response’. A theory of interaction between a gas bubble and a hull girder is presented. The bubble dynamic equations combined with the bubble migration, free surface effect and drag force considerations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method. The rigid-body and elastic responses of the hull that are induced by the impulsive pressure of a bubble are calculated using the methods presented herein. Two different examples of real ships are given to demonstrate the effect of rigid-body motion on whipping responses. The numerical results show that rigid-body motions reduce the amplitudes and vibration natural periods of the bending moments of the hull girder. These effects can be ignored for slender hulls, but must be taken into consideration for shorter/wider hulls so as not to underestimate the longitudinal strength.
Chen, Mingqing; Bai, Junjie; Siochi, R Alfredo C
2013-02-01
To present a new method of estimating 3D positions of the ipsi-lateral hemi-diaphragm apex (IHDA) from 2D projection images of mega-voltage cone beam CT (MVCBCT). The detection framework reconstructs a 3D volume from all the 2D projection images. An initial estimated 3D IHDA position is determined in this volume based on an imaging processing pipeline, including Otsu thresholding, connected component labeling and template matching. This initial position is then projected onto each 2D projection image to create a region of interest (ROI). To accurately detect the IHDA position in 2D projection space, two methods, dynamic Hough transform (DHT) and a tracking approach based on a joint probability density function (PDF) are developed. Both methods utilize a double-parabola model to fit the 2D diaphragm boundary. The 3D IHDA motion in the superior-inferior (SI) direction is estimated from the initial static 3D position and the detected 2D positions in projection space. The two Hough-based detection methods are tested on 35 MVCBCT scans from 15 patients. The detection is compared to manually identified IHDA positions in 2D projection space by three clinicians. An average and standard deviation of 4.252 ± 3.354 and 2.485 ± 1.750 mm was achieved for DHT and tracking-based approaches respectively, compared with the inter-expert variance among three experts of 1.822 ± 1.106 mm. Based on the results of the scans, the PDF tracking-based approach appears more robust than the DHT. The combination of the automatic ROI localization and the tracking-based approach is a quicker and more accurate method of extracting 3D IHDA motion from 2D projection images. PMID:23321998
Analytic Theory and Control of the Motion of Spinning Rigid Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
1993-01-01
Numerical simulations are often resorted to, in order to understand the attitude response and control characteristics of a rigid body. However, this approach in performing sensitivity and/or error analyses may be prohibitively expensive and time consuming, especially when a large number of problem parameters are involved. Thus, there is an important role for analytical models in obtaining an understanding of the complex dynamical behavior. In this dissertation, new analytic solutions are derived for the complete attitude motion of spinning rigid bodies, under minimal assumptions. Hence, we obtain the most general solutions reported in the literature so far. Specifically, large external torques and large asymmetries are included in the problem statement. Moreover, problems involving large angular excursions are treated in detail. A new tractable formulation of the kinematics is introduced which proves to be extremely helpful in the search for analytic solutions of the attitude history of such kinds of problems. The main utility of the new formulation becomes apparent however, when searching for feedback control laws for stabilization and/or reorientation of spinning spacecraft. This is an inherently nonlinear problem, where standard linear control techniques fail. We derive a class of control laws for spin axis stabilization of symmetric spacecraft using only two pairs of gas jet actuators. Practically, this could correspond to a spacecraft operating in failure mode, for example. Theoretically, it is also an important control problem which, because of its difficulty, has received little, if any, attention in the literature. The proposed control laws are especially simple and elegant. A feedback control law that achieves arbitrary reorientation of the spacecraft is also derived, using ideas from invariant manifold theory. The significance of this research is twofold. First, it provides a deeper understanding of the fundamental behavior of rigid bodies subject to body
Dynamics and cortical distribution of neural responses to 2D and 3D motion in human
McKee, Suzanne P.; Norcia, Anthony M.
2013-01-01
The perception of motion-in-depth is important for avoiding collisions and for the control of vergence eye-movements and other motor actions. Previous psychophysical studies have suggested that sensitivity to motion-in-depth has a lower temporal processing limit than the perception of lateral motion. The present study used functional MRI-informed EEG source-imaging to study the spatiotemporal properties of the responses to lateral motion and motion-in-depth in human visual cortex. Lateral motion and motion-in-depth displays comprised stimuli whose only difference was interocular phase: monocular oscillatory motion was either in-phase in the two eyes (lateral motion) or in antiphase (motion-in-depth). Spectral analysis was used to break the steady-state visually evoked potentials responses down into even and odd harmonic components within five functionally defined regions of interest: V1, V4, lateral occipital complex, V3A, and hMT+. We also characterized the responses within two anatomically defined regions: the inferior and superior parietal cortex. Even harmonic components dominated the evoked responses and were a factor of approximately two larger for lateral motion than motion-in-depth. These responses were slower for motion-in-depth and were largely independent of absolute disparity. In each of our regions of interest, responses at odd-harmonics were relatively small, but were larger for motion-in-depth than lateral motion, especially in parietal cortex, and depended on absolute disparity. Taken together, our results suggest a plausible neural basis for reduced psychophysical sensitivity to rapid motion-in-depth. PMID:24198326
Taylor, L.M.; Preece, D.S.
1989-07-01
The computer program DMC (Distinct Motion Code) determines the two-dimensional planar rigid body motion of an arbitrary number of spherical shaped particles. The code uses an explicit central difference time integration algorithm to calculate the motion of the particles. Contact constraints between the particles are enforced using the penalty method. Coulomb friction and viscous damping are included in the collisions. The explicit time integration is conditionally stable with a time increment size which is dependent on the mass of the smallest particle in the mesh and the penalty stiffness used for the contact forces. The code chooses the spring stiffness based on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the material. The ability to tie spheres in pairs with a constraint condition is included in the code. The code has been written in an extremely efficient manner with particular emphasis placed on vector processing. While this does not impose any restrictions on non-vector processing computers, it does provide extremely fast results on vector processing computers. A bucket sorting or boxing algorithm is used to reduce the number of comparisons which must be made between spheres to determine the contact pairs. The sorting algorithm is completely algebraic and contains no logical branching. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, L. M.; Preece, D. S.
1989-07-01
The computer program Distinct Motion Code (DMC) determines the two-dimensional planar rigid body motion of an arbitrary number of spherical shaped particles. The code uses an explicit central difference time integration algorithm to calculate the motion of the particles. Contact constraints between the particles are enforced using the penalty method. Coulomb friction and viscous damping are included in the collisions. The explicit time integration is conditionally stable with a time increment size which is dependent on the mass of the smallest particle in the mesh and the penalty stiffness used for the contact forces. The code chooses the spring stiffness based on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the material. The ability to tie spheres in pairs with a constraint condition is included in the code. The code has been written in an extremely efficient manner with particular emphasis placed on vector processing. While this does not impose any restrictions on non-vector processing computers, it does provide extremely fast results on vector processing computers. A bucket sorting or boxing algorithm is used to reduce the number of comparisons which must be made between spheres to determine the contact pairs. The sorting algorithm is completely algebraic and contains no logical branching.
Hydrodynamic lubrication of rigid nonconformal contacts in combined rolling and normal motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, M. K.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.
1984-01-01
A numerical solution to the problem of hydrodynamic lubrication of rigid point contacts with an isoviscous, incompressible lubricant was obtained. The hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity under unsteady (or dynamic) conditions arising from the combined effects of squeeze motion superposed upon the entraining motion was determined for both normal approach and separation. Superposed normal motion considerably increases net load-carrying capacity during normal approach and substantially reduces net load-carrying capacity during separation. Geometry was also found to have a significant influence on the dynamic load-carrying capacity. The ratio of dynamic to steady state load-carrying capacity increases with increasing geometry parameter for normal approach and decreases during separation. The cavitation (film rupture) boundary is also influenced significantly by the normal motion, moving downstream during approach and upstream during separation. For sufficiently high normal separation velocity the rupture boundary may even move upstream of the minimum-film-thickness position. Sixty-three cases were used to derive a functional relationship for the ratio of the dynamic to steady state load-carrying capacity in terms of the dimensionless normal velocity parameter (incorporating normal velocity, entraining velocity, and film thickness) and the geometry parameter.
Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2012-12-01
Descending subducted slabs affect both plate tectonics at the surface and overall mantle flow (e.g. Conrad and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002). For time-dependent numerical models, the potential evolution of these slabs, ranging from immediate penetration into the lower mantle to prior buckling and stagnation, are affected by parameters such as the plate age, the viscosity jump into the lower mantle, the presence of phase transitions, trench motion and the chosen governing equation approximation (e.g. Billen and Hirth, 2007). Similarly, the overall deviatoric stress within the slab, especially where modified by the phase transitions, may explain the uneven distribution of deep earthquakes with depth (e.g. Bina, 1997). Better understanding of these processes may arise from a more realistic 2-D model that is fully-dynamic, with an overriding plate, freely-moving trench, compositionally-layered slab and seven major phase transitions, in addition to using the compressible (TALA) form of the governing equations. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, this study aims to test the latest data and encourage further mineralogical research. We will present fully-dynamic models, which explore the importance of the phase transitions, especially those that have been previously excluded such as the wadsleyite to ringwoodite and the pyroxene and garnet phase transitions. These phase transitions, coupled with the modeled compositionally distinct crust, harzburgite, and pyrolite lithosphere layers, may produce new large-scale dynamic behavior not seen in past numerical models, as well as stress variations within the slab related to deep slab seismicity. Feedback from the compositionally complex slab to the dynamic trench may provide further insight on the mechanics of slab stagnation and behavior in the upper and lower mantle. Billen, M. I., and G. Hirth, Rheologic controls on slab dynamics, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 8 (Q08012
Wu Jian; Kim, Minho; Peters, Jorg; Chung, Heeteak; Samant, Sanjiv S.
2009-12-15
Purpose: Rigid 2D-3D registration is an alternative to 3D-3D registration for cases where largely bony anatomy can be used for patient positioning in external beam radiation therapy. In this article, the authors evaluated seven similarity measures for use in the intensity-based rigid 2D-3D registration using a variation in Skerl's similarity measure evaluation protocol. Methods: The seven similarity measures are partitioned intensity uniformity, normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross correlation (NCC), entropy of the difference image, pattern intensity (PI), gradient correlation (GC), and gradient difference (GD). In contrast to traditional evaluation methods that rely on visual inspection or registration outcomes, the similarity measure evaluation protocol probes the transform parameter space and computes a number of similarity measure properties, which is objective and optimization method independent. The variation in protocol offers an improved property in the quantification of the capture range. The authors used this protocol to investigate the effects of the downsampling ratio, the region of interest, and the method of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) calculation [i.e., the incremental ray-tracing method implemented on a central processing unit (CPU) or the 3D texture rendering method implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU)] on the performance of the similarity measures. The studies were carried out using both the kilovoltage (kV) and the megavoltage (MV) images of an anthropomorphic cranial phantom and the MV images of a head-and-neck cancer patient. Results: Both the phantom and the patient studies showed the 2D-3D registration using the GPU-based DRR calculation yielded better robustness, while providing similar accuracy compared to the CPU-based calculation. The phantom study using kV imaging suggested that NCC has the best accuracy and robustness, but its slow function value change near the global maximum requires a
Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo
2014-10-15
Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo
2014-10-01
Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.
Xu, Q; Hanna, G; Kubicek, G; Asbell, S; Chen, Y; LaCouture, T; Grimm, J; Pahlajani, N; Fan, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors based on fiducial tracking in 3D by stereo imaging during CyberKnife SBRT. Methods: Twenty-five liver patients previously treated with three-fractions of SBRT were retrospectively recruited in this study. During treatment, the 3D locations of fiducials were reported by the CyberKnife system after two orthogonal kV X-ray images were taken and further validated by geometry derivations. A total of 5004 pairs of X-ray images acquired during the course of treatment for all the patients, were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts by aligning 3D fiducial groups in different image pairs after least-square fitting were reported. For nonrigid motion, the relative interfractional tumor shape variations were reported and correlated to the sum of inter-fiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported after rigid corrections and without angle corrections. Results: The relative tumor volume variation indicated by the inter-fiducial distances demonstrated an increasing trend in the second (101.6±3.4%) and third fraction (101.2±5.6%) among most patients. The cause could be possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all the patients, the translational shift was 8.1±5.7 mm, with shifts in LR, AP and SI were 2.1±2.4 mm, 2.8±2.9 mm and 6.7±5.1 mm, respectively. The greatest translation shift occurred in SI, mainly due the breathing motion of diaphragm The rotational angles were 1.1±1.7°, 1.9±2.6° and 1.6±2.2°, in roll, pitch, and yaw, respectively. The 3D fiducial displacement with rigid corrections were 0.2±0.2 mm and increased to 0.6±0.3 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusion: The fiducial locations in 3D can be precisely reconstructed from CyberKnife stereo imaging system during treatment. The fiducials provide close estimation of both rigid and nonrigid motion of .liver tumors. The reported data could be further
Evaluating angular deflections from the digital gradient sensing method with rigid-motion deleted
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui
2016-06-01
The digital gradient sensing method is used for measuring small angular deflections of light rays due to local stresses in transparent planar solids. The method is based on two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) to measure the angular deflection of light rays; however, when a specimen is subjected to loading, deformation measurement from DIC is not perfect because of the existence of small in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the test sample surface that occurred after loading. These disadvantages will lead to errors in the measured angular deflections. The influence of unavoidable in-plane and out-of-plane motions was discussed, and a method to eliminate the influence to show the pure stress gradient of polymethy methacrylate is demonstrated.
Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.
2015-06-15
Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merckel, Loic; Nishida, Toyoaki
In this paper, we introduce a method for recognizing a subject complex object in real world environment. We use a three dimensional model described by line segments of the object and the data provided by a three-axis orientation sensor attached to the video camera. We assume that existing methods for finding line features in the image allow at least one model line segment to be detected as a single continuous segment. The method consists of two main steps: generation of pose hypotheses and then evaluation of each pose in order to select the most appropriate one. The first stage is three-fold: model visibility, line matching and pose estimation; the second stage aims to rank the poses by evaluating the similarity between the projected model lines and the image lines. Furthermore, we propose an additional step that consists of refining the best candidate pose by using the Lie group formalism of spatial rigid motions. Such a formalism provides an efficient local parameterization of the set of rigid rotation via the exponential map. A set of experiments demonstrating the robustness of this approach is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Damodaran, Murali
1988-01-01
Unsteady inviscid transonic flow over airfoils in arbitrary rigid body motion is analyzed numerically by solving the two-dimensional unsteady Euler equations in integral form using a finite volume scheme. The solution procedure is based on an explicit Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme wherein the spatial terms are central-differenced and a combination of second- and fourth-differences in the flow variables are used to form the numerical dissipation terms to stabilize the scheme. Unsteady calculations are started from converged steady-state solutions as initial conditions. Nonreflective boundary conditions are imposed on the far-field boundaries. Results are presented and, where possible, validated against available numerical and experimental data for airfoils subjected to a step change in angle of attack, airfoils oscillating and plunging in transonic flow, and airfoils immersed in a time-varying free stream.
The acoustic far-field of rigid bodies in arbitrary motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.
1974-01-01
The far-field sound produced by a rigid body in arbitrary motion, with shock discontinuities close to the body, is studied. The analysis is based on the work of Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (1969). An expression for the far-field sound pressure is obtained in the form of surface and line integrals carried out over a contracting sphere and its intersection with the body and shock surfaces. It is also found that in addition to the quadrupole distribution, the discontinuities in Lighthill stress at the shock, the fluid stresses at the body surface, and the curvatures (principal and mean) of the body and shock surfaces contribute to the sound field. Two examples are worked out.
Unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid-body motion. [UFLO5
Chang, I C
1981-03-01
With the aim of developing a fast and accurate computer code for predicting the aerodynamic forces needed for a flutter analysis, some basic concepts in computational transonics are reviewed. The unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid body motion is adequately described by the potential flow equation as long as the boundary layer remains attached. The two dimensional unsteady transonic potential flow equation in quasilinear form with first order radiation boundary conditions is solved by an alternating direction implicit scheme in an airfoil attached sheared parabolic coordinate system. Numerical experiments show that the scheme is very stable and is able to resolve the higher nonlinear transonic effects for filter analysis within the context of an inviscid theory.
The Accuracy of Webcams in 2D Motion Analysis: Sources of Error and Their Control
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Page, A.; Moreno, R.; Candelas, P.; Belmar, F.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohr, M. B.
2008-10-01
The rotational motion of a torque-free axisymmetric rigid body is precession. This motion has been expressed analytically in the literature given the body's initial orientation and rotational dynamics parameters, i.e. inertia ratio and initial angular velocities or precession parameters. The inverse problem of deriving these dynamics parameters given orientation in time has been implemented numerically but has not yet been solved analytically. If a rigid body is precessing, and its orientation with respect to an arbitrary inertial frame is provided at three equally spaced points in time such that the rotational motion is not undersampled, an analytical inverse solution is presented for the precession rate, relative spin rate, coning angle and angular velocities; if the precessional motion is due to inertial axisymmetry and torque-free motion, the inertia ratio is also derived. Additionally, an analytical methodology is presented to test for non-precessional motion. These techniques are applicable to various problems in space science and astronomy, where non-precessional motion or the rotational dynamics parameters of this type of rigid body must be accurately derived from its orientation or relative orientation in time.
Vehicular motion in 2D city traffic network with signals controlled by phase shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komada, Kazuhito; Kojima, Kengo; Nagatani, Takashi
2011-03-01
We study the dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic through the series of traffic lights controlled by phase shift in two-dimensional (2D) city traffic network. The nonlinear-map model is presented for the vehicular traffic. The city traffic network is made of one-way perpendicular streets arranged in a square lattice with traffic signals where vertical streets are oriented upwards and horizontal streets are oriented rightwards. There are two traffic lights for the movement to north or that to east at each crossing. The traffic lights are controlled by the cycle time, split, and phase shift. The vehicle moves through the series of signals on a path selected by the driver. The city traffic with a heterogeneous density distribution is also studied. The dependence of the arrival time on cycle time, split, phase shift, selected path, and density is clarified for 2D city traffic. It is shown that the vehicular traffic is efficiently controlled by the phase shift.
Parker, Jason G; Mair, Bernard A; Gilland, David R
2009-10-01
In this article, a new method is introduced for estimating the motion of the heart due to respiration in gated cardiac SPECT using a rigid-body model with rotation parametrized by a unit quaternion. The method is based on minimizing the sum of squared errors between the reference and the deformed frames resulting from the usual optical flow constraint by using an optimized conjugate gradient routine. This method does not require any user-defined parameters or penalty terms, which simplifies its use in a clinical setting. Using a mathematical phantom, the method was quantitatively compared to the principal axis method, as well as an iterative method in which the rotation matrix was represented by Euler angles. The quaternion-based method was shown to be substantially more accurate and robust across a wide range of extramyocardial activity levels than the principal axis method. Compared with the Euler angle representation, the quaternion-based method resulted in similar accuracy but a significant reduction in computation times. Finally, the quaternion-based method was investigated using a respiratory-gated cardiac SPECT acquisition of a human subject. The motion-corrected image has increased sharpness and myocardial uniformity compared to the uncorrected image. PMID:19928105
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, M. K.; Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.
1987-01-01
The effect of inlet starvation on the hydrodynamic lubrication of lightly loaded rigid nonconformal contacts in combined rolling and normal motion is determined through a numerical solution of the Reynolds' equation for an isoviscous, incompressible lubricant. Starvation is effected by systematically reducing the fluid inlet level. The pressures are taken to be ambient at the inlet meniscus boundary and Reynolds' boundary condition is applied for film rupture in the exit region. Results are presented for the dynamic performance of the starved contacts in combined rolling and normal motion for both normal approach and separation. During normal approach the dynamic load ratio (i.e. ratio of dynamic to steady state load capacity) increases considerably with increase in the inlet starvation. The effect of starvation on the dynamic peak pressure ratio is relatively small. Further, it has been observed that with increasing starvation, film thickness effects become significant in the dynamic behavior of the nonconformal contacts. For significantly starved contacts the dynamic load ratio increases with increase in film thickness during normal approach and a similar reduction is observed during separation. A similar effect is noted for the dynamic peak pressure ratio.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, M. K.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.
1986-01-01
The effect of inlet starvation on the hydrodynamic lubrication of lightly loaded rigid nonconformal contacts in combined rolling and normal motion is determined through a numerical solution of the Reynolds' equation for an isoviscous, incompressible lubricant. Starvation is effected by systematically reducing the fluid inlet level. The pressures are taken to be ambient at the inlet meniscus boundary and Reynolds' boundary condition is applied for film rupture in the exit region. Results are presented for the dynamic performance of the starved contacts in combined rolling and normal motion for both normal approach and separation. During normal approach the dynamic load ratio (i.e. ratio of dynamic to steady state load capacity) increases considerably with increase in the inlet starvation. The effect of starvation on the dynamic peak pressure ratio is relatively small. Further, it has been observed that with increasing starvation, film thickness effects become significant in the dynamic behavior of the nonconformal contacts. For significantly starved contacts the dynamic load ratio increases with increase in film thickness during normal approach and a similar reduction is observed during separation. A similar effect is noted for the dynamic peak pressure ratio.
A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, H. P.
1974-01-01
The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.
GPS Constraints on Lesser Antilles Forearc Motion and Rigid Caribbean Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, A. M.; Stein, S.; Sella, G.; Dixon, T. H.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P. E.
2005-05-01
We are using a decade of Global Positioning System data to address two tectonic problems of the Caribbean (CA) plate; 1) Whether a forearc sliver exists along the Lesser Antilles forearc and if so what is its dynamics and location, and 2) Whether the Caribbean plate is deforming internally. We approach this problem by developing GPS-derived velocity vectors at sites within the CA plate and its boundaries and comparing them to four decades of earthquake data. In a number of subduction zones, misfits between slip vectors and predicted convergence azimuths from Euler vectors suggest the presence of a forearc sliver, where trench-parallel motion is accommodated along a strike-slip fault system. Such a situation may be occurring at the eastern boundary of the CA plate along the Lesser Antilles (LA) forearc, where the North America (NA) plate subducts obliquely. Comparing slip vectors of shallow (0-60 km) thrust events to the predicted motions of GPS-based Euler vectors show a systematic northerly misfit, suggesting a trench-parallel component of motion taken up by the forearc sliver. This possibility can be tested with GPS data from the forearc. In addition, we use new GPS data to constrain the internal rigidity of the plate. Previous GPS work yielded a possible upper bound on internal deformation of 4-6 mm/yr. With an expansion in the data set on critically located stations in the CA plate (SANA, ROJO, CRO1 and AVES), we have computed new sets of Euler vector pairs for the CA-NA and CA-South America plate pairs.
Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.
1974-01-01
The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.
1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.
Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi
2015-04-01
Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power. PMID:25879969
The oscillatory motion of a surfactant-laden liquid plug in a 2D-channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujioka, Hideki; Grotberg, James B.
2004-11-01
Liquid plugs can form in the lung's small airways near the end of expiration. This happens more frequently when the amount of pulmonary surfactant is reduced. In medical treatments such as surfactant replacement therapy, partial liquid ventilation, and drug delivery, the formation of plugs in an airway is important to deliver the instilled liquid uniformly throughout the lung. In this study, we investigate numerically the oscillatory motion of a surfactant-laden liquid plug within a two-dimensional channel lined by a thin liquid film. The viscosity of both the left and right air phases is assumed to be negligible, so that the only fluid dynamics of the liquid phase is considered. The plug motion is regulated by the flow rate in the left air phase, which is prescribed as a sinusoidal function of time. The pressure drop between the left and right air phases varies for time with a different phase of the flow rate. The plug length and the film thickness oscillate with an average value during a cycle. These behaviors changes by system parameters, Reynolds number, Womersley number, Capillary number, and surfactant properties. The significance of this study on mechanical stresses acting on airway epithelial cells caused by the motion of a liquid plug during normal breath, conventional or high-frequency ventilation is discussed. Supported by NIH grant HL41126, NASA grant NAG3-2740.
Arterial Mechanical Motion Estimation Based on a Semi-Rigid Body Deformation Approach
Guzman, Pablo; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Ros, Rafael; Ros, Eduardo
2014-01-01
Arterial motion estimation in ultrasound (US) sequences is a hard task due to noise and discontinuities in the signal derived from US artifacts. Characterizing the mechanical properties of the artery is a promising novel imaging technique to diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies and a new way of obtaining relevant clinical information, such as determining the absence of dicrotic peak, estimating the Augmentation Index (AIx), the arterial pressure or the arterial stiffness. One of the advantages of using US imaging is the non-invasive nature of the technique unlike Intra Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS) or angiography invasive techniques, plus the relative low cost of the US units. In this paper, we propose a semi rigid deformable method based on Soft Bodies dynamics realized by a hybrid motion approach based on cross-correlation and optical flow methods to quantify the elasticity of the artery. We evaluate and compare different techniques (for instance optical flow methods) on which our approach is based. The goal of this comparative study is to identify the best model to be used and the impact of the accuracy of these different stages in the proposed method. To this end, an exhaustive assessment has been conducted in order to decide which model is the most appropriate for registering the variation of the arterial diameter over time. Our experiments involved a total of 1620 evaluations within nine simulated sequences of 84 frames each and the estimation of four error metrics. We conclude that our proposed approach obtains approximately 2.5 times higher accuracy than conventional state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24871987
Arterial mechanical motion estimation based on a semi-rigid body deformation approach.
Guzman, Pablo; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Ros, Rafael; Ros, Eduardo
2014-01-01
Arterial motion estimation in ultrasound (US) sequences is a hard task due to noise and discontinuities in the signal derived from US artifacts. Characterizing the mechanical properties of the artery is a promising novel imaging technique to diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies and a new way of obtaining relevant clinical information, such as determining the absence of dicrotic peak, estimating the Augmentation Index (AIx), the arterial pressure or the arterial stiffness. One of the advantages of using US imaging is the non-invasive nature of the technique unlike Intra Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS) or angiography invasive techniques, plus the relative low cost of the US units. In this paper, we propose a semi rigid deformable method based on Soft Bodies dynamics realized by a hybrid motion approach based on cross-correlation and optical flow methods to quantify the elasticity of the artery. We evaluate and compare different techniques (for instance optical flow methods) on which our approach is based. The goal of this comparative study is to identify the best model to be used and the impact of the accuracy of these different stages in the proposed method. To this end, an exhaustive assessment has been conducted in order to decide which model is the most appropriate for registering the variation of the arterial diameter over time. Our experiments involved a total of 1620 evaluations within nine simulated sequences of 84 frames each and the estimation of four error metrics. We conclude that our proposed approach obtains approximately 2.5 times higher accuracy than conventional state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24871987
Binocular Perception of 2D Lateral Motion and Guidance of Coordinated Motor Behavior.
Fath, Aaron J; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P
2016-04-01
Zannoli, Cass, Alais, and Mamassian (2012) found greater audiovisual lag between a tone and disparity-defined stimuli moving laterally (90-170 ms) than for disparity-defined stimuli moving in depth or luminance-defined stimuli moving laterally or in depth (50-60 ms). We tested if this increased lag presents an impediment to visually guided coordination with laterally moving objects. Participants used a joystick to move a virtual object in several constant relative phases with a laterally oscillating stimulus. Both the participant-controlled object and the target object were presented using a disparity-defined display that yielded information through changes in disparity over time (CDOT) or using a luminance-defined display that additionally provided information through monocular motion and interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Performance was comparable for both disparity-defined and luminance-defined displays in all relative phases. This suggests that, despite lag, perception of lateral motion through CDOT is generally sufficient to guide coordinated motor behavior. PMID:26614099
Energy Exchange during Plunge/Surge Motions of a 2D Wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerstens, Wesley; Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David
2011-11-01
The rate of energy transfer between an NACA-0006 wing and an unsteady flow is examined at pre-stall and post-stall conditions using numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments. The plunge and surge motions simulate the fluctuating vertical (wz) and longitudinal (wx) velocity components of a wind gust. In a steady flow the wing loses energy to the flow through the drag power term, but in an unsteady flow the wing may gain energy from the fluctuating lift power and fluctuating drag power terms. The net energy transfer averaged over the period of oscillation depends on the phase angle between the plunge and surge motions. The largest increase of energy occurs when wx and wz are in-phase. When the fluctuations are large enough, then it is possible for the net energy gain to be positive. The numerical simulations conducted at Reynolds numbers near the critical value for vortex shedding show qualitative agreement with the experiments. The simulations highlight the role of vortex shedding in determining the optimal frequency and phase for energy extraction from the gust. Support of the AFOSR through grant FA9550-09-1-0189 managed by Dr. Douglas Smith is gratefully acknnowledged.
On the relative rotational motion between rigid fibers and fluid in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchioli, C.; Zhao, L.; Andersson, H. I.
2016-01-01
In this study, the rotation of small rigid fibers relative to the surrounding fluid in wall-bounded turbulence is examined by means of direct numerical simulations coupled with Lagrangian tracking. Statistics of the relative (fiber-to-fluid) angular velocity, referred to as slip spin in the present study, are evaluated by modelling fibers as prolate spheroidal particles with Stokes number, St, ranging from 1 to 100 and aspect ratio, λ, ranging from 3 to 50. Results are compared one-to-one with those obtained for spherical particles (λ = 1) to highlight effects due to fiber length. The statistical moments of the slip spin show that differences in the rotation rate of fibers and fluid are influenced by inertia, but depend strongly also on fiber length: Departures from the spherical shape, even when small, are associated with an increase of rotational inertia and prevent fibers from passively following the surrounding fluid. An increase of fiber length, in addition, decouples the rotational dynamics of a fiber from its translational dynamics suggesting that the two motions can be modelled independently only for long enough fibers (e.g., for aspect ratios of order ten or higher in the present simulations).
Inertial Motions of a Rigid Body with a Cavity Filled with a Viscous Liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Disser, Karoline; Galdi, Giovanni P.; Mazzone, Giusy; Zunino, Paolo
2016-07-01
We study inertial motions of the coupled system, {S}, constituted by a rigid body containing a cavity entirely filled with a viscous liquid. We show that for arbitrary initial data having only finite kinetic energy, every corresponding weak solution (à la Leray-Hopf) converges, as time goes to infinity, to a uniform rotation, unless two central moments of inertia of {S} coincide and are strictly greater than the third one. This corroborates a famous "conjecture" of N.Ye. Zhukovskii in several physically relevant cases. Moreover, we show that, in a known range of initial data, this rotation may only occur along the central axis of inertia of {S} with the larger moment of inertia. We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the rigorous nonlinear stability of permanent rotations, which improve and/or generalize results previously given by other authors under different types of approximation. Finally, we present results obtained by a targeted numerical simulation that, on the one hand, complement the analytical findings, whereas, on the other hand, point out new features that the analysis is yet not able to catch, and, as such, lay the foundation for interesting and challenging future investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoshelham, Kourosh
2016-04-01
Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion
Robust 2D/3D registration for fast-flexion motion of the knee joint using hybrid optimization.
Ohnishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Naomoto, Shinji; Sukegawa, Tomoyuki; Nawata, Atsushi; Haneishi, Hideaki
2013-01-01
Previously, we proposed a 2D/3D registration method that uses Powell's algorithm to obtain 3D motion of a knee joint by 3D computed-tomography and bi-plane fluoroscopic images. The 2D/3D registration is performed consecutively and automatically for each frame of the fluoroscopic images. This method starts from the optimum parameters of the previous frame for each frame except for the first one, and it searches for the next set of optimum parameters using Powell's algorithm. However, if the flexion motion of the knee joint is fast, it is likely that Powell's algorithm will provide a mismatch because the initial parameters are far from the correct ones. In this study, we applied a hybrid optimization algorithm (HPS) combining Powell's algorithm with the Nelder-Mead simplex (NM-simplex) algorithm to overcome this problem. The performance of the HPS was compared with the separate performances of Powell's algorithm and the NM-simplex algorithm, the Quasi-Newton algorithm and hybrid optimization algorithm with the Quasi-Newton and NM-simplex algorithms with five patient data sets in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), target registration error (TRE), success rate, and processing time. The RMSE, TRE, and the success rate of the HPS were better than those of the other optimization algorithms, and the processing time was similar to that of Powell's algorithm alone. PMID:23138929
Towards real-time 2D/3D registration for organ motion monitoring in image-guided radiation therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gendrin, C.; Spoerk, J.; Bloch, C.; Pawiro, S. A.; Weber, C.; Figl, M.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W.
2010-02-01
Nowadays, radiation therapy systems incorporate kV imaging units which allow for the real-time acquisition of intra-fractional X-ray images of the patient with high details and contrast. An application of this technology is tumor motion monitoring during irradiation. For tumor tracking, implanted markers or position sensors are used which requires an intervention. 2D/3D intensity based registration is an alternative, non-invasive method but the procedure must be accelerate to the update rate of the device, which lies in the range of 5 Hz. In this paper we investigate fast CT to a single kV X-ray 2D/3D image registration using a new porcine reference phantom with seven implanted fiducial markers. Several parameters influencing the speed and accuracy of the registrations are investigated. First, four intensity based merit functions, namely Cross-Correlation, Rank Correlation, Mutual Information and Correlation Ratio, are compared. Secondly, wobbled splatting and ray casting rendering techniques are implemented on the GPU and the influence of each algorithm on the performance of 2D/3D registration is evaluated. Rendering times for a single DRR of 20 ms were achieved. Different thresholds of the CT volume were also examined for rendering to find the setting that achieves the best possible correspondence with the X-ray images. Fast registrations below 4 s became possible with an inplane accuracy down to 0.8 mm.
Modeling Selective Local Interactions with Memory: Motion on a 2D Lattice.
Weinberg, Daniel; Levy, Doron
2014-06-15
We consider a system of particles that simultaneously move on a two-dimensional periodic lattice at discrete times steps. Particles remember their last direction of movement and may either choose to continue moving in this direction, remain stationary, or move toward one of their neighbors. The form of motion is chosen based on predetermined stationary probabilities. Simulations of this model reveal a connection between these probabilities and the emerging patterns and size of aggregates. In addition, we develop a reaction diffusion master equation from which we derive a system of ODEs describing the dynamics of the particles on the lattice. Simulations demonstrate that solutions of the ODEs may replicate the aggregation patterns produced by the stochastic particle model. We investigate conditions on the parameters that influence the locations at which particles prefer to aggregate. This work is a two-dimensional generalization of [Galante & Levy, Physica D, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2012.10.010], in which the corresponding one-dimensional problem was studied. PMID:25045193
Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2013-12-01
While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and
Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattioli, Glen; Miller, Jamie; DeMets, Charles; Jansma, Pamela
2014-05-01
observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some sites in the western Caribbean included in our analysis may be biased by small, but significant coseismic deformation, which has not been removed from the site velocities used in our inversion to define Caribbean motion and rigidity. Scenarios for possible east-west deformation accommodated across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise and Beata Ridge will be presented.
Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.
2015-12-01
sites in the western Caribbean included in our analysis may be biased by small, but significant coseismic deformation, which has not been removed from the site velocities used in our inversion to define Caribbean motion and rigidity. Scenarios for possible east-west deformation accommodated across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise and Beata Ridge will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shunguang; Hong, Lang
2008-04-01
A framework of simultaneously estimating the motion and structure parameters of a 3D object by using high range resolution (HRR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) measurements with template information is given. By decoupling the motion and structure information and employing rigid-body constraints, we have developed the kinematic and measurement equations of the problem. Since the kinematic system is unobservable by using only one scan HRR and GMTI measurements, we designed an architecture to run the motion and structure filters in parallel by using multi-scan measurements. Moreover, to improve the estimation accuracy in large noise and/or false alarm environments, an interacting multi-template joint tracking (IMTJT) algorithm is proposed. Simulation results have shown that the averaged root mean square errors for both motion and structure state vectors have been significantly reduced by using the template information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Njoroge, M. W.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.; Mokhtari, M.; Voytenko, D.
2014-12-01
Plate rigidity is one of the main paradigms of plate tectonics and a fundamental assumption in the definition of a global reference frame as ITRF. Although still far for optimal, the increased GPS instrumentation of the African region can allow us to understand how rigid one of the major plate can be. The presence of diffused band of seismicity, the Cameroon volcanic line, Pan African Kalahari orogenic belt and East Africa Rift suggest the possibility of relative motion among the different regions within the Nubia. The study focuses on the rigidity of Nubia plate. We divide the plate into three regions: Western (West Africa craton plus Nigeria), Central (approximately the region of the Congo craton) and Southern (Kalahari craton plus South Africa) and we utilize Euler Vector formulation to study internal rigidity and eventual relative motion. Developing five different reference frames with different combinations of the 3 regions, we try to understand the presence of the relative motion between the 3 cratons thus the stability of the Nubia plate as a whole. All available GPS stations from the regions are used separately or combined in creation of the reference frames. We utilize continuous stations with at least 2.5 years of data between 1994 and 2014. Given the small relative velocity, it is important to eliminate eventual biases in the analysis and to have a good estimation in the uncertainties of the observed velocities. For this reason we perform our analysis using both Bernese and Gipsy-oasis codes to generate time series for each station. Velocities and relative uncertainties are analyzed using the Allan variance of rate technique, taking in account for colored noise. An analysis of the color of the noise as function of latitude and climatic region is also performed to each time series. Preliminary results indicate a slight counter clockwise motion of West Africa craton with respect to South Africa Kalahari, and South Africa Kalahari-Congo Cratons. In addition
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...
Efficient framework for deformable 2D-3D registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fluck, Oliver; Aharon, Shmuel; Khamene, Ali
2008-03-01
Using 2D-3D registration it is possible to extract the body transformation between the coordinate systems of X-ray and volumetric CT images. Our initial motivation is the improvement of accuracy of external beam radiation therapy, an effective method for treating cancer, where CT data play a central role in radiation treatment planning. Rigid body transformation is used to compute the correct patient setup. The drawback of such approaches is that the rigidity assumption on the imaged object is not valid for most of the patient cases, mainly due to respiratory motion. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a flexible framework for deformable 2D-3D registration consisting of a learning phase incorporating 4D CT data sets and hardware accelerated free form DRR generation, 2D motion computation, and 2D-3D back projection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo
2009-01-01
An apparently unnoticed analogy between the torque-free motion of a rotating rigid body about a fixed point and the propagation of light in anisotropic media is stated. First, a new plane construction for visualizing this torque-free motion is proposed. This method uses an intrinsic representation alternative to angular momentum and independent of…
Lorenz, K S; Salama, P; Dunn, K W; Delp, E J
2012-02-01
Digital image analysis is a fundamental component of quantitative microscopy. However, intravital microscopy presents many challenges for digital image analysis. In general, microscopy volumes are inherently anisotropic, suffer from decreasing contrast with tissue depth, lack object edge detail and characteristically have low signal levels. Intravital microscopy introduces the additional problem of motion artefacts, resulting from respiratory motion and heartbeat from specimens imaged in vivo. This paper describes an image registration technique for use with sequences of intravital microscopy images collected in time-series or in 3D volumes. Our registration method involves both rigid and nonrigid components. The rigid registration component corrects global image translations, whereas the nonrigid component manipulates a uniform grid of control points defined by B-splines. Each control point is optimized by minimizing a cost function consisting of two parts: a term to define image similarity, and a term to ensure deformation grid smoothness. Experimental results indicate that this approach is promising based on the analysis of several image volumes collected from the kidney, lung and salivary gland of living rodents. PMID:22092443
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jokinen, Olli
2013-10-01
The paper deals with measurement of human facial deformations from synchronized image sequences taken with multiple calibrated cameras from different viewpoints. SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) keypoints are utilized as image feature points in the first place to determine spatial and temporal correspondences between images. If no temporal match is found for an image point by keypoint matching, then the tracking of the point is switched to least squares matching provided the point has one or more spatial corresponding points in the other views of the previous frame. For this purpose, a new method based on affine multi-image least squares matching is proposed where multiple spatial and temporal template images are simultaneously matched against each search image and part of the spatial template images also change during adjustment. A new method based on analyzing temporal changes in the image coordinates of the tracked points in multiple views is then presented for detecting the 3-D points which move only rigidly between consecutive frames. These points are used to eliminate the effect of rigid motion of the head and to obtain the changes in the 3-D points and in the corresponding image points due to pure deformation of the face. The methods are thoroughly tested with three multi-image sequences of four cameras including also quite large changes of facial deformations. The test results prove that the proposed affine multi-image least squares matching yields better results than another method using only fixed templates of the previous frame. The elimination of the effect of rigid motion works well and the points where the face is deforming can be correctly detected and the true deformation estimated. A method based on a novel adaptive threshold is also proposed for automated extraction and tracking of circular targets on a moving calibration object.
Bi-planar 2D-to-3D registration in Fourier domain for stereoscopic x-ray motion tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zosso, Dominique; Le Callennec, Benoît; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Aminian, Kamiar; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
2008-03-01
In this paper we present a new method to track bone movements in stereoscopic X-ray image series of the knee joint. The method is based on two different X-ray image sets: a rotational series of acquisitions of the still subject knee that allows the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional volume (model), and a stereoscopic image series of orthogonal projections as the subject performs movements. Tracking the movements of bones throughout the stereoscopic image series means to determine, for each frame, the best pose of every moving element (bone) previously identified in the 3D reconstructed model. The quality of a pose is reflected in the similarity between its theoretical projections and the actual radiographs. We use direct Fourier reconstruction to approximate the three-dimensional volume of the knee joint. Then, to avoid the expensive computation of digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) for pose recovery, we develop a corollary to the 3-dimensional central-slice theorem and reformulate the tracking problem in the Fourier domain. Under the hypothesis of parallel X-ray beams, the heavy 2D-to-3D registration of projections in the signal domain is replaced by efficient slice-to-volume registration in the Fourier domain. Focusing on rotational movements, the translation-relevant phase information can be discarded and we only consider scalar Fourier amplitudes. The core of our motion tracking algorithm can be implemented as a classical frame-wise slice-to-volume registration task. Results on both synthetic and real images confirm the validity of our approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almesallmy, Mohammed
Methodologies are developed for dynamic analysis of mechanical systems with emphasis on inertial propulsion systems. This work adopted the Lagrangian methodology. Lagrangian methodology is the most efficient classical computational technique, which we call Equations of Motion Code (EOMC). The EOMC is applied to several simple dynamic mechanical systems for easier understanding of the method and to aid other investigators in developing equations of motion of any dynamic system. In addition, it is applied to a rigid multibody system, such as Thomson IPS [Thomson 1986]. Furthermore, a simple symbolic algorithm is developed using Maple software, which can be used to convert any nonlinear n-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems into 1st-order ODE system in ready format to be used in Matlab software. A side issue, but equally important, we have started corresponding with the U.S. Patent office to persuade them that patent applications, claiming gross linear motion based on inertial propulsion systems should be automatically rejected. The precedent is rejection of patent applications involving perpetual motion machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varkhalev, Iu. P.
1988-07-01
The first Liapunov method is used to investigate sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotically pendulum motions of a rigid body with a single fixed point. A region of permissible values of the parameters characterizing the body mass corresponding to the asymptotically pendulum motions is defined. The existence of such motions in the case of the Kovalevskii solution and their absence in the Goriachev-Chapolygin solution are demonstrated.
Regular and chaotic motions in applied dynamics of a rigid body.
Beletskii, V. V.; Pivovarov, M. L.; Starostin, E. L.
1996-06-01
Periodic and regular motions, having a predictable functioning mode, play an important role in many problems of dynamics. The achievements of mathematics and mechanics (beginning with Poincare) have made it possible to establish that such motion modes, generally speaking, are local and form "islands" of regularity in a "chaotic sea" of essentially unpredictable trajectories. The development of computer techniques together with theoretical investigations makes it possible to study the global structure of the phase space of many problems having applied significance. A review of a number of such problems, considered by the authors in the past four or five years, is given in this paper. These include orientation and rotation problems of artificial and natural celestial bodies and the problem of controlling the motion of a locomotion robot. The structure of phase space is investigated for these problems. The phase trajectories of the motion are constructed by a numerical implementation of the Poincare point map method. Distinctions are made between regular (or resonance), quasiregular (or conditionally periodic), and chaotic trajectories. The evolution of the phase picture as the parameters are varied is investigated. A large number of "phase portraits" gives a notion of the arrangement and size of the stability islands in the "sea" of chaotic motions, about the appearance and disappearance of these islands as the parameters are varied, etc. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12780243
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Kutzer, M. D.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.
2014-03-01
Background: Snake-like dexterous manipulators may offer significant advantages in minimally-invasive surgery in areas not reachable with conventional tools. Precise control of a wire-driven manipulator is challenging due to factors such as cable deformation, unknown internal (cable friction) and external forces, thus requiring correcting the calibration intraoperatively by determining the actual pose of the manipulator. Method: A method for simultaneously estimating pose and kinematic configuration of a piecewise-rigid object such as a snake-like manipulator from a single x-ray projection is presented. The method parameterizes kinematics using a small number of variables (e.g., 5), and optimizes them simultaneously with the 6 degree-of-freedom pose parameter of the base link using an image similarity between digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the manipulator's attenuation model and the real x-ray projection. Result: Simulation studies assumed various geometric magnifications (1.2-2.6) and out-of-plane angulations (0°-90°) in a scenario of hip osteolysis treatment, which demonstrated the median joint angle error was 0.04° (for 2.0 magnification, +/-10° out-of-plane rotation). Average computation time was 57.6 sec with 82,953 function evaluations on a mid-range GPU. The joint angle error remained lower than 0.07° while out-of-plane rotation was 0°-60°. An experiment using video images of a real manipulator demonstrated a similar trend as the simulation study except for slightly larger error around the tip attributed to accumulation of errors induced by deformation around each joint not modeled with a simple pin joint. Conclusions: The proposed approach enables high precision tracking of a piecewise-rigid object (i.e., a series of connected rigid structures) using a single projection image by incorporating prior knowledge about the shape and kinematic behavior of the object (e.g., each rigid structure connected by a pin joint parameterized by a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnier, F.; Vallet, B.; Paparoditis, N.; Papelard, J.-P.; David, N.
2013-10-01
This article presents a generic and efficient method to register terrestrial mobile data with imperfect location on a geographic database with better overall accuracy but less details. The registration method proposed in this paper is based on a semi-rigid point to plane ICP ("Iterative Closest Point"). The main applications of such registration is to improve existing geographic databases, particularly in terms of accuracy, level of detail and diversity of represented objects. Other applications include fine geometric modelling and fine façade texturing, object extraction such as trees, poles, road signs marks, facilities, vehicles, etc. The geopositionning system of mobile mapping systems is affected by GPS masks that are only partially corrected by an Inertial Navigation System (INS) which can cause an important drift. As this drift varies non-linearly, but slowly in time, it will be modelled by a translation defined as a piecewise linear function of time which variation over time will be minimized (rigidity term). For each iteration of the ICP, the drift is estimated in order to minimise the distance between laser points and planar model primitives (data attachment term). The method has been tested on real data (a scan of the city of Paris of 3.6 million laser points registered on a 3D model of approximately 71,400 triangles).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.
Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…
Ladstein, Jarle; Evensmoen, Hallvard R.; Håberg, Asta K.; Kristoffersen, Anders; Goa, Pål E.
2016-01-01
Purpose: To compare 2D and 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) in a higher cognitive level fMRI paradigm. In particular, to study the link between the presence of task-correlated physiological fluctuations and motion and the fMRI contrast estimates from either 2D EPI or 3D EPI datasets, with and without adding nuisance regressors to the model. A signal model in the presence of partly task-correlated fluctuations is derived, and predictions for contrast estimates with and without nuisance regressors are made. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one healthy volunteers were scanned using 2D EPI and 3D EPI during a virtual environmental learning paradigm. In a subgroup of 7 subjects, heart rate and respiration were logged, and the correlation with the paradigm was evaluated. FMRI analysis was performed using models with and without nuisance regressors. Differences in the mean contrast estimates were investigated by analysis-of-variance using Subject, Sequence, Day, and Run as factors. The distributions of group level contrast estimates were compared. Results: Partially task-correlated fluctuations in respiration, heart rate and motion were observed. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean contrast estimates between the 2D EPI and 3D EPI when using a model without nuisance regressors. The inclusion of nuisance regressors for cardiorespiratory effects and motion reduced the difference to a statistically non-significant level. Furthermore, the contrast estimate values shifted more when including nuisance regressors for 3D EPI compared to 2D EPI. Conclusion: The results are consistent with 3D EPI having a higher sensitivity to fluctuations compared to 2D EPI. In the presence partially task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion, proper correction is necessary to get expectation correct contrast estimates when using 3D EPI. As such task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion is difficult to avoid in paradigms exploring higher cognitive functions, 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Longuski, J. M.
1980-01-01
Analytic expressions are found for Euler's Equations of Motion and for the Eulerian Angles for both symmetric and near symmetric rigid bodies under the influence of arbitrary constant body-fixed torques. These solutions provide the body-fixed angular velocities and the attitude of the body, respectively, as functions of time. They are of special interest in applications to spinning spacecraft (such as the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched in 1984) because they include the effect of time-varying spin rate. Thus they can be applied to spin-up and spin-down maneuvers as well as to error analysis for thruster misalignments. The solutions are given for arbitrary initial conditions in terms of Fresnel, Sine and Cosine Integrals. Numerical integration of the governing differential equations has verified that the approximate analytic solutions are very accurate in many physical situations of interest.
Goksel, Orcun; Zahiri-Azar, Reza; Salcudean, Septimiu E
2007-01-01
Motion estimation in sequences of ultrasound echo signals is essential for a wide range of applications. In time domain cross correlation, which is a common motion estimation technique, the displacements are typically not integral multiples of the sampling period. Therefore, to estimate the motion with sub-sample accuracy, 1D and 2D interpolation methods such as parabolic, cosine, and ellipsoid fitting have been introduced in the literature. In this paper, a simulation framework is presented in order to compare the performance of currently available techniques. First, the tissue deformation is modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and then the corresponding pre-/post-deformation radio-frequency (RF) signals are generated using Field II ultrasound simulation software. Using these simulated RF data of deformation, both axial and lateral tissue motion are estimated with sub-sample accuracy. The estimated displacements are then evaluated by comparing them to the known displacements computed by the FEM. This simulation approach was used to evaluate three different lateral motion estimation techniques employing (i) two separate 1D sub-sampling, (ii) two consecutive 1D sub-sampling, and (iii) 2D joint sub-sampling estimators. The estimation errors during two different tissue compression tests are presented with and without spatial filtering. Results show that RF signal processing methods involving tissue deformation can be evaluated using the proposed simulation technique, which employs accurate models. PMID:18002416
Response of a polymer network to the motion of a rigid sphere.
Diamant, Haim
2015-05-01
In view of recent microrheology experiments we re-examine the problem of a rigid sphere oscillating inside a dilute polymer network. The network and its solvent are treated using the two-fluid model. We show that the dynamics of the medium can be decomposed into two independent incompressible flows. The first, dominant at large distances and obeying the Stokes equation, corresponds to the collective flow of the two components as a whole. The other, governing the dynamics over an intermediate range of distances and following the Brinkman equation, describes the flow of the network and solvent relative to one another. The crossover between these two regions occurs at a dynamic length scale which is much larger than the network's mesh size. The analysis focuses on the spatial structure of the medium's response and the role played by the dynamic crossover length. We examine different boundary conditions at the sphere surface. The large-distance collective flow is shown to be independent of boundary conditions and network compressibility, establishing the robustness of two-point microrheology at large separations. The boundary conditions that fit the experimental results for inert spheres in entangled F-actin networks are those of a free network, which does not interact directly with the sphere. Closed-form expressions and scaling relations are derived, allowing for the extraction of material parameters from a combination of one- and two-point microrheology. We discuss a basic deficiency of the two-fluid model and a way to bypass it when analyzing microrheological data. PMID:25957176
Chen, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Zhi-Fa; Wang, Shuai-Hua; Xiao, Yu; Li, Rong; Xu, Jian-Gang; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Fa-Kun; Guo, Guo-Cong
2015-06-01
Two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb(NO3)(tzib)]n (1) and [Pb(tzib)2]n (2), were successfully synthesized from the reaction of a rigid ligand 1-tetrazole-4-imidazole-benzene (Htzib) and lead(II) nitrate in different solvents. The obtained polymers have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, which show that both polymers feature 2D layer structures. The inorganic anion nitrate in 1 shows a μ2-κO3:κO3 bridging mode to connect adjacent lead ions into a zigzag chain, and then the organic ligands tzib(-) join the neighboring chains into a 2D layer by a μ3-κN1:κN2:κN6 connection mode. In 2, there are two different bridging modes of the tzib(-) ligand: μ3-κN1:κN2:κN6 and μ3-κN1:κN6 to coordinate the lead ions into a 2D layer structure. Interestingly, both polymers displayed broadband emissions covering the entire visible spectra, which could be tunable to near white-light emission by varying excitation wavelengths. PMID:25952460
Bonanno, Gabriele; Puy, Gilles; Wiaux, Yves; van Heeswijk, Ruud B.; Piccini, Davide; Stuber, Matthias
2014-01-01
Purpose Respiratory motion correction remains a challenge in coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and current techniques, such as navigator gating, suffer from sub-optimal scan efficiency and ease-of-use. To overcome these limitations, an image-based self-navigation technique is proposed that uses “sub-images” and compressed sensing (CS) to obtain translational motion correction in 2D. The method was preliminarily implemented as a 2D technique and tested for feasibility for targeted coronary imaging. Methods During a 2D segmented radial k-space data acquisition, heavily undersampled sub-images were reconstructed from the readouts collected during each cardiac cycle. These sub-images may then be used for respiratory self-navigation. Alternatively, a CS reconstruction may be used to create these sub-images, so as to partially compensate for the heavy undersampling. Both approaches were quantitatively assessed using simulations and in vivo studies, and the resulting self-navigation strategies were then compared to conventional navigator gating. Results Sub-images reconstructed using CS showed a lower artifact level than sub-images reconstructed without CS. As a result, the final image quality was significantly better when using CS-assisted self-navigation as opposed to the non-CS approach. Moreover, while both self-navigation techniques led to a 69% scan time reduction (as compared to navigator gating), there was no significant difference in image quality between the CS-assisted self-navigation technique and conventional navigator gating, despite the significant decrease in scan time. Conclusions CS-assisted self-navigation using 2D translational motion correction demonstrated feasibility of producing coronary MRA data with image quality comparable to that obtained with conventional navigator gating, and does so without the use of additional acquisitions or motion modeling, while still allowing for 100% scan efficiency and an improved ease-of-use. In
Li, Wei
2016-05-01
Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body. PMID:27093718
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef
2013-04-01
Central to our investigation is determination of dynamic behaviour of a highly reflective platform floating on water, as well as derivation of parameters defining instantaneous water state. The employed imaging setup consists of three off-the-shelf dSLR cameras capable of video recording at a 30Hz frame rate. In order to observe a change, the non-rigid and non-diffuse bodies impose the adoption of artificial targetting and custom measurement algorithms. Attention will be given to an in-house software tool implemented to carry out point measurement, correspondence search, tracking and outlier detection methods in the presence of specular reflections and a multimedia scene. A methodology for retrieval of wave parameters in regular wave conditions is also automatically handled by the software and will be discussed. In the context of performed measurements and achieved results, we will point out the extent to which consumer grade camera can fulfil automation and accuracy demands of industrial applications and the pitfalls entailed. Lastly, we will elaborate on visual representation of computed motion and deformations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haris, L.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Viridi, S.
2014-02-01
Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel.
Real-time ultrasound-tagging to track the 2D motion of the common carotid artery wall in vivo
Zahnd, Guillaume; Salles, Sébastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Moulin, Philippe
2015-02-15
Purpose: Tracking the motion of biological tissues represents an important issue in the field of medical ultrasound imaging. However, the longitudinal component of the motion (i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis) remains more challenging to extract due to the rather coarse resolution cell of ultrasound scanners along this direction. The aim of this study is to introduce a real-time beamforming strategy dedicated to acquire tagged images featuring a distinct pattern in the objective to ease the tracking. Methods: Under the conditions of the Fraunhofer approximation, a specific apodization function was applied to the received raw channel data, in real-time during image acquisition, in order to introduce a periodic oscillations pattern along the longitudinal direction of the radio frequency signal. Analytic signals were then extracted from the tagged images, and subpixel motion tracking of the intima–media complex was subsequently performed offline, by means of a previously introduced bidimensional analytic phase-based estimator. Results: The authors’ framework was applied in vivo on the common carotid artery from 20 young healthy volunteers and 6 elderly patients with high atherosclerosis risk. Cine-loops of tagged images were acquired during three cardiac cycles. Evaluated against reference trajectories manually generated by three experienced analysts, the mean absolute tracking error was 98 ± 84 μm and 55 ± 44 μm in the longitudinal and axial directions, respectively. These errors corresponded to 28% ± 23% and 13% ± 9% of the longitudinal and axial amplitude of the assessed motion, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed framework enables tagged ultrasound images of in vivo tissues to be acquired in real-time. Such unconventional beamforming strategy contributes to improve tracking accuracy and could potentially benefit to the interpretation and diagnosis of biomedical images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velioǧlu, Deniz; Cevdet Yalçıner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey
2016-04-01
Tsunamis are huge waves with long wave periods and wave lengths that can cause great devastation and loss of life when they strike a coast. The interest in experimental and numerical modeling of tsunami propagation and inundation increased considerably after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In this study, two numerical codes, FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE, that analyze tsunami propagation and inundation patterns are considered. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear propagating surface waves as well as long waves by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3D-NS) equations. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve 2D depth-averaged linear and nonlinear forms of shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically tsunamis. In order to validate these two codes and analyze the differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations, two benchmark problems are applied. One benchmark problem investigates the runup of long waves over a complex 3D beach. The experimental setup is a 1:400 scale model of Monai Valley located on the west coast of Okushiri Island, Japan. Other benchmark problem is discussed in 2015 National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Annual meeting in Portland, USA. It is a field dataset, recording the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii. The computed water surface elevation and velocity data are compared with the measured data. The comparisons showed that both codes are in fairly good agreement with each other and benchmark data. The differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations are highlighted. All results are presented with discussions and comparisons. Acknowledgements: Partial support by Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region (JICA SATREPS - MarDiM Project), 603839 ASTARTE Project of EU, UDAP-C-12-14 project of AFAD Turkey, 108Y227, 113M556 and 213M534 projects of TUBITAK Turkey, RAPSODI (CONCERT_Dis-021) of CONCERT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc
2015-03-01
We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furtado, H.; Steiner, E.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Birkfellner, W.
2014-03-01
Intra-fractional respiratorymotion during radiotherapy is one of themain sources of uncertainty in dose application creating the need to extend themargins of the planning target volume (PTV). Real-time tumormotion tracking by 2D/3D registration using on-board kilo-voltage (kV) imaging can lead to a reduction of the PTV. One limitation of this technique when using one projection image, is the inability to resolve motion along the imaging beam axis. We present a retrospective patient study to investigate the impact of paired portal mega-voltage (MV) and kV images, on registration accuracy. We used data from eighteen patients suffering from non small cell lung cancer undergoing regular treatment at our center. For each patient we acquired a planning CT and sequences of kV and MV images during treatment. Our evaluation consisted of comparing the accuracy of motion tracking in 6 degrees-of-freedom(DOF) using the anterior-posterior (AP) kV sequence or the sequence of kV-MV image pairs. We use graphics processing unit rendering for real-time performance. Motion along cranial-caudal direction could accurately be extracted when using only the kV sequence but in AP direction we obtained large errors. When using kV-MV pairs, the average error was reduced from 3.3 mm to 1.8 mm and the motion along AP was successfully extracted. The mean registration time was of 190+/-35ms. Our evaluation shows that using kVMV image pairs leads to improved motion extraction in 6 DOF. Therefore, this approach is suitable for accurate, real-time tumor motion tracking with a conventional LINAC.
Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
2014-01-01
Purpose Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories, and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and sub-millimeter accuracy. Method We examined the accuracy and precision of 2D and 3D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially-available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. Results Overall mean error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3 vs. 6 mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2D and 3D data. Conclusion Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve sub-millimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484
Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
2014-04-01
PURPOSE Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable alternative, provided that they offer high temporal resolution and submillimeter accuracy. METHOD The authors examined the accuracy and precision of 2-D and 3-D data recorded with a system that combines consumer-grade digital cameras capturing 60, 120, or 240 frames per second (fps), retro-reflective markers, commercially available computer software (APAS, Ariel Dynamics), and a custom calibration device. RESULTS Overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) across tests was 0.15 mm for static tracking and 0.26 mm for dynamic tracking, with corresponding precision (SD) values of 0.11 and 0.19 mm, respectively. The effect of frame rate varied across conditions, but, generally, accuracy was reduced at 240 fps. The effect of marker size (3- vs. 6-mm diameter) was negligible at all frame rates for both 2-D and 3-D data. CONCLUSION Motion tracking with consumer-grade digital cameras and the APAS software can achieve submillimeter accuracy at frame rates that are appropriate for kinematic analyses of lip/jaw movements for both research and clinical purposes. PMID:24686484
Feng, Bing; Gifford, Howard C.; Beach, Richard D.; Boening, Guido; Gennert, Michael A.; King, Michael A.
2008-01-01
Due to the extended imaging times employed in SPECT and PET, patient motion during imaging is a common clinical occurrence. The fast and accurate correction of the three-dimensional (3D) translational and rotational patient motion in iterative reconstruction is thus necessary to address this important cause of artifacts. We propose a method of incorporating 3D Gaussian interpolation in the projector/backprojector pair to facilitate compensation for rigid-body motion in addition to attenuation and distance-dependent blurring. The method works as the interpolation step for moving the current emission voxel estimates and attenuation maps in the global coordinate system to the new patient location in the rotating coordinate system when calculating the expected projection. It also is employed for moving back the backprojection of the ratio of the measured projection to the expected projection and backprojection of the unit value (sensitivity factor) to the original location. MCAT simulations with known six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) motion were employed to evaluate the accuracy of our method of motion compensation. We also tested the method with acquisitions of the Data Spectrum Anthropomorphic phantom where motion during SPECT acquisition was measured using the Polaris IR motion tracking system. No motion artifacts were seen on the reconstructions with the motion compensation. PMID:16827485
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.
2011-03-01
Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, J. J. F.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.
1973-01-01
Variational equations were applied to the case of a rapidly spinning triaxial body moving in an elliptic orbit, in which the orbital plane is regressing at a constant rate. The explicit differential equations obtained in this application were integrated by the method of averaging to develop secular analytical expressions, which, to first-order in a small parameter, describe the complete space motions of the rigid body under the influence of nonresonant gravity-gradient perturbations. The effects of aerodynamic torque on the rotational motion of an orbiting satellite are studied, as another example of the application of the variational equations derived and the method of averaging.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macala, G. A.
1983-01-01
A computer program is described that can automatically generate symbolic equations of motion for systems of hinge-connected rigid bodies with tree topologies. The dynamical formulation underlying the program is outlined, and examples are given to show how a symbolic language is used to code the formulation. The program is applied to generate the equations of motion for a four-body model of the Galileo spacecraft. The resulting equations are shown to be a factor of three faster in execution time than conventional numerical subroutines.
Wang, Zhirui; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Long, Teng; Bao, Qian
2016-01-01
To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target’s position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target’s offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target’s azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26999140
Wang, Zhirui; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Long, Teng; Bao, Qian
2016-01-01
To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target's position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target's offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target's azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26999140
Hou, Gary Y.; Provost, Jean; Grondin, Julien; Wang, Shutao; Marquet, Fabrice; Bunting, Ethan; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2015-01-01
Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method. HMIFU utilizes an Amplitude-Modulated (fAM = 25 Hz) HIFU beam to induce a localized focal oscillatory motion, which is simultaneously estimated and imaged by confocally-aligned imaging transducer. HMIFU feasibilities have been previously shown in silico, in vitro, and in vivo in 1-D or 2-D monitoring of HIFU treatment. The objective of this study is to develop and show the feasibility of a novel fast beamforming algorithm for image reconstruction using GPU-based sparse-matrix operation with real-time feedback. In this study, the algorithm was implemented onto a fully integrated, clinically relevant HMIFU system composed of a 93-element HIFU transducer (fcenter = 4.5MHz) and coaxially-aligned 64-element phased array (fcenter = 2.5MHz) for displacement excitation and motion estimation, respectively. A single transmit beam with divergent beam transmit was used while fast beamforming was implemented using a GPU-based delay-and-sum method and a sparse-matrix operation. Axial HMI displacements were then estimated from the RF signals using a 1-D normalized cross-correlation method and streamed to a graphic user interface. The present work developed and implemented a sparse matrix beamforming onto a fully-integrated, clinically relevant system, which can stream displacement images up to 15 Hz using a GPU-based processing, an increase of 100 fold in rate of streaming displacement images compared to conventional CPU-based conventional beamforming and reconstruction processing. The achieved feedback rate is also currently the fastest and only approach that does not require interrupting the HIFU treatment amongst the acoustic radiation force based HIFU imaging techniques. Results in phantom experiments showed reproducible displacement imaging, and monitoring of twenty two in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2D system showed a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frew, D. A.; Scheffer, C.
2008-01-01
Accurate rotordynamic analysis is critical in the achievement of efficient rotary machine design, however the majority of models concern flexible shafts with concentrated supports. The modified Euler equations of motion are used in a numerical model to calculate the natural frequencies and whirl amplitudes of a rigid rotor supported by a single-aerostatic bearing. The bearing is modelled with a non-constant stiffness distribution along its length and a non-symmetric centre of gravity. The results are compared with experimental modal analysis (EMA).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Fung, George; Tsui, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) degrade the quality and resolution in cardiac PET scans. We have developed non-rigid motion estimation methods to estimate both RM and CM based on 4D cardiac gated PET data alone, and compensate the dual respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motions after (MCAR), during (MCDR), and before (MCBR) image reconstruction. In all three R&C motion correction methods, attenuation-activity mismatch effect was modeled by using transformed attenuation maps using the estimated RM. The difference of using activity preserving and non-activity preserving models in R&C correction was also studied. Realistic Monte Carlo simulated 4D cardiac PET data using the 4D XCAT phantom and accurate models of the scanner design parameters and performance characteristics at different noise levels were employed as the known truth and for method development and evaluation. Results from the simulation study suggested that all three dual R&C motion correction methods provide substantial improvement in the quality of 4D cardiac gated PET images as compared with no motion correction. Specifically, the MCDR method yields the best performance for all different noise levels compared with the MCAR and MCBR methods. While MCBR reduces computational time dramatically but the resultant 4D cardiac gated PET images has overall inferior image quality when compared to that from the MCAR and MCDR approaches in the ‘almost’ noise free case. Also, the MCBR method has better noise handling properties when compared with MCAR and provides better quantitative results in high noise cases. When the goal is to reduce scan time or patient radiation dose, MCDR and MCBR provide a good compromise between image quality and computational times.
2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning
Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen
2013-01-01
In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2015-12-01
Observations of seismicity and seismic tomography provide constraints on the geometry of slabs within mantle, while compression/tension axis derived from moment tensor solutions provide constraints on the internal deformation of slabs. However, since these observations provide only a somewhat blurred or incomplete snapshot of the slab in time, it is difficult to directly relate these observations to the evolution of the slab geometry and the forces acting on and within the slab. In contrast, plate tectonic reconstructions provide time-dependent constraints on the surface motion of plates and the trench at subduction zones, which are related to the dynamical evolution of the slab. We use 2D geodynamical simulations of subduction to explore the relationship between dynamical process within the deforming slab and the observations of surface plate motion and the state-of-stress in slabs. Specifically we utilize models that include the extended Boussinesq approximation (shear heating and latent heat terms in the energy equation), a layered lithosphere with pyrolite, harzburgite and basalt/eclogite, compositionally-dependent phase transitions, and a composite rheology with yielding. The models employ a weak crustal layer that decouples the overriding and subducting plates and allows for dynamically determined trench motion. Here we show that, 1) multiple phase transitions increase slab folding, 2) ridge push significantly increases trench retreat, and 3) strength of the weak crustal layer influences slab detachment. Compared to past studies a more realistic treatment of the phase transitions makes trench retreat more difficult to generate: a weaker plate may encourage slab retreat but detaches once the slab tip crosses into the transition zone due to the rapid increase in slab density. As suggested by previous studies, slab folding within the transition zone changes the direction of forces on the slab and causes periodic changes from trench retreat to trench advance. We
O’Halloran, R; Aksoy, M; Aboussouan, E; Peterson, E; Van, A; Bammer, R
2014-01-01
Purpose Diffusion contrast in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI is generated through the constructive addition of signal from many coherence pathways. Motion-induced phase causes destructive interference which results in loss of signal magnitude and diffusion contrast. In this work, a 3D navigator-based real-time correction of the rigid-body-motion-induced phase errors is developed for diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI. Methods The efficacy of the real-time prospective correction method in preserving phase coherence of the steady-state is tested in 3D phantom experiments and 3D scans of healthy human subjects. Results In nearly all experiments, the signal magnitude in images obtained with proposed prospective correction was higher than the signal magnitude in images obtained with no correction. In the human subjects the mean magnitude signal in the data was up to 30 percent higher with prospective motion correction than without. Prospective correction never resulted in a decrease in mean signal magnitude in either the data or in the images. Conclusions The proposed prospective motion correction method is shown to preserve the phase coherence of the steady state in diffusion-weighted steady state free precession MRI, thus mitigating signal magnitude losses that would confound the desired diffusion contrast. PMID:24715414
Feng, Bing; King, Michael A
2006-11-01
We developed a unique method for estimating and compensating rigid-body translations and rotations from scatter and-attenuation-compensated projection data in iterative reconstruction when multiple projection angles are acquired at the same time. During reconstruction, both the non-attenuated and attenuated line-integrals are calculated. Their ratios are then multiplied to the scatter-corrected projection data to estimate scatter-and-attenuation- compensated projection data. At the end of each iteration, the sets of compensated projection data for the angles acquired at the same time are employed to calculate the center-of mass and the inertia tensor, which are used to estimate the location and orientation of the imaging object by the principle-axes method. The estimated motion is applied in the next iteration to reposition the estimated slices and attenuation map in the projector and back-projector to match the pose of the patient at time the projections were acquired. To evaluate our method, we simulated an acquisition of the MCAT phantom with a 3-head SPECT system and imaged the Data Spectrum anthropomorphic phantom on a 3-head IRIX SPECT system. In simulations the phantom translated and rotated by the same amount 9 times. A numerical projector modeling the motion, attenuation, and distance-dependent blurring was used to generate the projection data. Poisson noise was added and 30 noise-realizations were generated. In the experiment with the anthropomorphic phantom, four 360-degree acquisitions were performed with the phantom translated or rotated beforehand. A motion-present dataset was made by mixing the 4 acquisitions. For both the MCAT phantom simulations and anthropomorphic phantom experiment, the motion-present data were reconstructed with 10 iterations of the OSEM which estimates and corrects the motion as described above. Our method obtained visually artifact-free reconstructions, while the reconstruction with no motion correction showed severe artifacts
Vreeburg, J. P. B.
1999-01-22
The paper reports on a current line of research in accelerometry. Two subjects are addressed: the reconstruction of the location and attitude of a linear, or uni-axial, accelerometer from its output under a known motion, and the reconstruction of the acceleration field constituent vectors from the combined output of a known arrangement of linear accelerometers. The arrangement can be arbitrary and, consequently, does not require precision mounting. The component of the acceleration along the sensitive direction gives the ideal output of the accelerometer. When the motion that induces the acceleration is known, a set of five ideal measurement data may suffice to recover the location and attitude of the accelerometer. The formulas for this calculation are given. Their use is illustrated by simulation of an accelerometer and its output. The effects of errors are shown; noisy data are much less detrimental to the reconstruction calculations than systematic errors in the known motion. If the geometry of a set of accelerometers is known, their output can be combined for the reconstruction of the linear and angular motion components that induce the acceleration. Conventionally this is achieved by elimination of the contribution of the angular rate of the geometry to the acceleration field. Only special arrangements of accelerometers, discussed in the literature, allow elimination by elementary operations. A method, thought to be new, is presented for the elimination of the linear and angular acceleration contributions to the field sensed by an arbitrary arrangement of accelerometers, and the consequent recovery of the angular rate vector from the reduced data set. Particular difficulties are encountered in this process but it has been shown that successful reconstruction is possible when a redundant set of data is available. Various options are suggested for further analysis, with the goal to determine the minimum arrangement, identify system errors or improve data
Developing rigid constraint for the estimation of pose and structure from a single image.
Wei, Bao-Gang; Liu, Yong-Huai
2004-07-01
Pose and structure estimation from a single image is a fundamental problem in machine vision and multiple sensor fusion and integration. In this paper we propose using rigid constraints described in different coordinate frames to iteratively estimate structural and camera pose parameters. Using geometric properties of reflected correspondences we put forward a new concept, the reflected pole of a rigid transformation. The reflected pole represents a general analysis of transformations that can be applied to both 2D and 3D transformations. We demonstrate how the concept is applied to calibration by proposing an iterative method to estimate the structural parameters of objects. The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy in which initial estimation is obtained through a classical linear algorithm which is then refined by iteration. For a comparative study of performance, we also implemented an extended motion estimation algorithm (from 2D-2D to 3D-2D case) based on epipolar geometry. PMID:15495305
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feng, Yongqiang; Max, Ludo
2014-01-01
Purpose: Studying normal or disordered motor control requires accurate motion tracking of the effectors (e.g., orofacial structures). The cost of electromagnetic, optoelectronic, and ultrasound systems is prohibitive for many laboratories and limits clinical applications. For external movements (lips, jaw), video-based systems may be a viable…
Rigidity of the abdomen ... is a sore area inside the belly or abdomen, the pain will get worse when a hand ... Causes can include: Abscess inside the abdomen Appendicitis ... small intestine, large bowel, or gallbladder ( gastrointestinal ...
Tracking of deformable target in 2D ultrasound images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royer, Lucas; Marchal, Maud; Le Bras, Anthony; Dardenne, Guillaume; Krupa, Alexandre
2015-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically tracking deformable target within 2D ultrasound images. Our approach uses only dense information combined with a physically-based model and has therefore the advantage of not using any fiducial marker nor a priori knowledge on the anatomical environment. The physical model is represented by a mass-spring damper system driven by different types of forces where the external forces are obtained by maximizing image similarity metric between a reference target and a deformed target across the time. This deformation is represented by a parametric warping model where the optimal parameters are estimated from the intensity variation. This warping function is well-suited to represent localized deformations in the ultrasound images because it directly links the forces applied on each mass with the motion of all the pixels in its vicinity. The internal forces constrain the deformation to physically plausible motions, and reduce the sensitivity to the speckle noise. The approach was validated on simulated and real data, both for rigid and free-form motions of soft tissues. The results are very promising since the deformable target could be tracked with a good accuracy for both types of motion. Our approach opens novel possibilities for computer-assisted interventions where deformable organs are involved and could be used as a new tool for interactive tracking of soft tissues in ultrasound images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.
2015-12-01
Plate rigidity is the central tenet of plate tectonics. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that significant intraplate deformation occurs in oceanic lithosphere due to horizontal thermal contraction, the rate of which decreases as ≈ 1/age [Kumar & Gordon 2009]. Support for this hypothesis comes from the azimuths of submarine transform faults, which are fit significantly better assuming shrinking plates than by assuming rigid plates [Mishra & Gordon 2015]. Previously we estimated the intraplate velocity field of the Pacific plate accounting for horizontal thermal contraction. The ≈2 mm/yr southeastward motion predicted for the northeastern part of the plate relative to the Pacific-Antarctic Rise may contribute to the non-closure of the Pacific-North America plate motion circuit. In a reference frame in which fix the oldest portion of the Pacific plate, some sites on the plate move up to ≈2 mm/yr [Kreemer & Gordon 2014]. Here we present intraplate velocity fields of the Cocos and Nazca plates and discuss their implications for the non-rigidity of plates and the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit, which fails closure by a stunning 14 ±5 mm/yr [DeMets et al. 2010]. If we fix the oldest part of the Cocos plate, intraplate velocities of up to ≈2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring at the northern end of the plate. If we fix the oldest part of the Nazca plate, displacement rates up to 2 mm/yr are estimated, with the fastest motion occurring in the northeasternmost portion of the plate. In the velocity fields for both plates, the lithosphere adjacent to transform faults along the East Pacific Rise tends to move to the south, which would skew the azimuths of the transform faults clockwise of the values expected for rigid plates, which is the same as the sense of misfit between observed azimuths of transform faults and the azimuths calculated from the MORVEL global set of relative angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]. Direct
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.
This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Judith, Ed.
2002-01-01
This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David
2001-03-01
We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.
Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Machuzak, Michael S
2014-12-01
The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to rigid bronchoscopy (RB). We will briefly discuss its history, evolution, and resurgence while we highlight its versatility and usefulness for today's interventional pulmonologist and thoracic surgeon. Despite being one of the earliest pulmonary procedures described, RB is still an important technique. Advances in thoracic medicine have made this skill critical for a fully functional interventional pulmonary program. If the interventional pulmonologist of this century is to be successful, he or she should be facile in this technique. Despite the availability of RB for decades, the invention of flexible bronchoscopy in 1966 led to a significant downturn in its usage. The growth of the interventional pulmonology field brought RB back into the spot light. Apart from the historic role of RB in treatment of central airway lesions and mechanical debulking of endobronchial lesions, RB is the key instrument that can adapt modern therapeutic tools such as laser, argon plasma coagulation, electrocautery, cryotherapy, and stent deployment. Performing RB requires proper preprocedure preparation, exceptional understanding of upper airway anatomy, specific hand-eye coordination, and open communication between the bronchoscopist and the anesthesiologist. These skills can be primarily learned and maintained with repetition. This article will review information relevant to this technique and lay a foundation to be built upon for years to come. PMID:25463158
Benavides, G.L.; Burt, J.D.
1994-07-12
The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object. 12 figs.
Benavides, Gilbert L.; Burt, Jack D.
1994-01-01
The invention relates to a clamp mechanism that can be used to attach or temporarily support objects inside of tubular goods. The clamp mechanism can also be modified so that it grips objects. The clamp has a self-centering feature to accommodate out-of-roundness or other internal defections in tubular objects such as pipe. A plurality of clamping shoes are expanded by a linkage which is preferably powered by a motor to contact the inside of a pipe. The motion can be reversed and jaw elements can be connected to the linkage so as to bring the jaws together to grab an object.
2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.
2009-12-01
This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.
Welsh, Mark F; Willing, Ryan T; Giles, Joshua W; Athwal, George S; Johnson, James A
2016-02-29
The purpose of this study was to employ subject-specific computer models to evaluate the interaction of glenohumeral range-of-motion and Hill-Sachs humeral head bone defect size on engagement and shoulder dislocation. We hypothesized that the rate of engagement would increase as defect size increased, and that greater shoulder ROM would engage smaller defects. Three dimensional computer models of 12 shoulders were created. For each shoulder, additional models were created with simulated Hill-Sachs defects of varying severities (XS=15%, S=22.5%, M=30%, L=37.5%, XL=45% and XXL=52.5% of the humeral head diameter, respectively). Rotational motion simulations without translation were conducted. The simulations ended if the defect engaged the anterior glenoid rim with resultant dislocation. The results showed that the rate of engagement was significantly different between defect sizes (0.001
motions are considered. Since engagement of XS and S size Hill-Sachs defects is believed to occur clinically, we suspect that some amount of joint translation may be occurring, causing these defects to engage. Therefore, further studies on clinical pre-operative joint laxity and ROM may enable the prediction of engagement. PMID:26862040
2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria
2006-01-01
A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems
Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit
2014-01-01
Background: With the advancement of technologies there is more interest in the maintenance of the spine's biomechanical properties focusing on the preservation of the functional motion segment. In present article we describe our experience with 25 cases managed with artificial cervical discs with 28 Solis cage following cervical discectomy with a mean follow-up period of 7.5 year. Materials and Methods: All surgeries were performed by single surgeon from March 2004 to June 2005 with a follow-up till date. Patients with symptomatic single or multiple level diseases that had no prior cervical surgery were candidates for the study. Cohort demographics were comparable. Standardized clinical outcome measures and radiographic examinations were used at prescribed post-operative intervals to compare the treatment groups. Relief in radicular pain, cervical spine motion, and degenerative changes at follow-up were noted. Results: In a total 53 cases, the mean age in prosthesis group was 47 years (age range: 30-63 years) and mean age in cage group was 44 years (32-62 years). Mean hospital stay was 2.7 days in both the groups. At 4 weeks complete cervical movements could be achieved in 19 cases in artificial disc group. Maintenance of movement after 7.5 years was in 76% of these patients. Lordosis was maintained in all cases till date. There was no mortality or wound infection in our series. Conclusions: We conclude that artificial cervical disc could be an alternative to fixed spinal fusion as it represents the most physiological substitute of disc. However, there is need for further studies to support the use of artificial cervical disc prosthesis. PMID:25685218
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
Nonrigid Autofocus Motion Correction for Coronary MR Angiography with a 3D Cones Trajectory
Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Addy, Nii Okai; Cheng, Joseph Y.; Yang, Phillip C.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.
2014-01-01
Purpose: To implement a nonrigid autofocus motion correction technique to improve respiratory motion correction of free-breathing whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) acquisitions using an image-navigated 3D cones sequence. Methods: 2D image navigators acquired every heartbeat are used to measure superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left translation of the heart during a free-breathing CMRA scan using a 3D cones readout trajectory. Various tidal respiratory motion patterns are modeled by independently scaling the three measured displacement trajectories. These scaled motion trajectories are used for 3D translational compensation of the acquired data, and a bank of motion-compensated images is reconstructed. From this bank, a gradient entropy focusing metric is used to generate a nonrigid motion-corrected image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The performance of the autofocus motion correction technique is compared with rigid-body translational correction and no correction in phantom, volunteer, and patient studies. Results: Nonrigid autofocus motion correction yields improved image quality compared to rigid-body-corrected images and uncorrected images. Quantitative vessel sharpness measurements indicate superiority of the proposed technique in 14 out of 15 coronary segments from three patient and two volunteer studies. Conclusion: The proposed technique corrects nonrigid motion artifacts in free-breathing 3D cones acquisitions, improving image quality compared to rigid-body motion correction. PMID:24006292
Greg Flach, Frank Smith
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotsch, Bettina V.
2015-07-01
Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.
Rigid particulate matter sensor
Hall, Matthew
2011-02-22
A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.
Pneumatically erected rigid habitat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salles, Bradley
1992-01-01
The pneumatically erected rigid habitat concept consists of a structure based on an overexpanded metal bellows. The basic concept incorporates the advantages of both inflatable and rigid structures. The design and erection detail are presented with viewgraphs.
Electron spin-echo techniques for the study of protein motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Leela; Johnson, Michael E.; Bowman, Michael K.
Electron spin-echo (ESE) spectroscopy has been used to make the first direct measurements of spin-spin relaxation times of a spin-labeled protein at physiological temperatures. Results from experiments using maleimide-labeled deoxygenated hemoglobin (dHb) from individuals homozygous for sickle cell anemia (dHbS) have been compared with those from control experiments using dHb from normal adults (dHbA). Hb "immobilized" by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by siloxane polymer entrapment have been studied for a suitable "rigid" reference. Two-dimensional ESE (2D-ESE) experiments have been performed using all of these systems. The 2D contour plots show that 2D-ESE is sensitive to the slow motion of dHbS polymers and can differentiate it from both that of immobilized Hb and of HbA molecules in solution at the same temperature and concentration. More importantly, the 2D-ESE technique enables one to select for slower motion and thereby extract the dHbS polymer signal from the total signal generated by the heterogeneous system containing dHbS molecules in solution as well as in the polymer. Computer simulations using current slow motional theories show that detailed motional and structural information may be obtained by such studies. The considerable potential of 2D-ESE spectroscopy in the study of macromolecular motion is illustrated by comparing 2D-ESE with the nonlinear technique of saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance.
Lie-Poisson integrators for rigid body dynamics in the solar system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Touma, J.; Wisdom, J.
1994-03-01
The n-body mapping method of Wisdom & Holman (1991) is generalized to encompass rotational dynamics. The Lie-Poisson structure of rigid body dynamics is discussed. Integrators which preserve that structure are derived for the motion of a free rigid body and for the motion of rigid bodies interacting gravitationally with mass points.
Modeling and Control of 2-D Grasping of an Object with Arbitrary Shape under Rolling Contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arimoto, Suguru; Yoshida, Morio; Sekimoto, Masahiro; Tahara, Kenji
Modeling, control, and stabilization of dynamics of two-dimensional object grasping by using a pair of multi-joint robot fingers are investigated under rolling contact constraints and an arbitrary geometry of the object and fingertips. First, a fundamental testbed problem of modeling and control of rolling motion between 2-D rigid bodies with an arbitrary shape is treated under the assumption that the two contour curves coincide at the contact point and share the same tangent. The rolling constraint induces the Euler equation of motion that is parameterized by a common arclength parameter and constrained onto the kernel space orthogonally complemented to the image space spanned from the constraint gradient. By extending the analysis to the problem of stable grasp of a 2-D object with an arbitrary shape by a pair of robot fingers, the Euler-Lagrange equation of motion of the overall fingers/object system parametrized by arclength parameters is derived, together with a couple of first-order differential equations that express evolutions of contact points in terms of the second fundamental form. It is shown that 2-D rolling constraints are integrable in the sense of Frobonius even if their Pfaffian forms are characterized by arclength parameters. A control signal called “blind grasping” is introduced and shown to be effective in stabilization of grasping without using the details of the object shape and parameters or external sensing. An extension of the Dirichlet-Lagrange stability theorem to a class of systems with DOF-redundancy under constraints is suggested by using a Morse-Bott-Lyapunov function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mettier, Ralph; Pfiffner, O. Adrian
2010-05-01
Surface motion is, apart from the obvious topography, the most easily accessible and best quantifiable characteristic of a typical alpine-style orogen. While it is understood that several different processes, such as i.e. isostatic unloading and thermodynamic effects contribute to the overall motion, it is mostly unclear how large the individual contributions are, and how much of the observed motion is a consequence of ongoing tectonic shortening. A number of methods, such as enhanced GPS measurements, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and fission track (FT) dating, as well as precise leveling can now provide us with a good description of the vertical motion at present as well as in the fairly recent history of the orogen. This in turn, provides us with reliable, and often much needed, criteria for calibrating conceptual and numerical models of orogenesis and the involved processes. We present a series of finite element models, that attempt to reproduce the observed vertical surface motion on a roughly north-south cross section of the Swiss Alps in the 'ABAQUS' commercial FEM package. Unlike most comparable modeling approaches, we apply a fairly simple formulation of rheology, and focus on a highly complex geometrical representation of the cross section, constructed of individual tectonomorphic units such as the Aar- and Gotthard massifs, the Helvetic and Penninic nappe structures as well as the underlying subduction of the European crust. The models simulate a short timespan, with a fixed rate of shortening prescribed by the boundary conditions and the various interactions between the tectonomorphic units being the dominant adjustable parameters. The resulting motion at the surface of the model, as well as the internal deformation of the individual tectonomorphic units is then examined, interpreted and compared to their real-world counterparts. The models incorporate variations in the chosen physical descriptions of the materials, deforming in
Enhanced rigid-bond restraints
Thorn, Andrea; Dittrich, Birger; Sheldrick, George M.
2012-07-01
An extension is proposed to the rigid-bond description of atomic thermal motion in crystals. The rigid-bond model [Hirshfeld (1976 ▶). Acta Cryst. A32, 239–244] states that the mean-square displacements of two atoms are equal in the direction of the bond joining them. This criterion is widely used for verification (as intended by Hirshfeld) and also as a restraint in structure refinement as suggested by Rollett [Crystallographic Computing (1970 ▶), edited by F. R. Ahmed et al., pp. 167–181. Copenhagen: Munksgaard]. By reformulating this condition, so that the relative motion of the two atoms is required to be perpendicular to the bond, the number of restraints that can be applied per anisotropic atom is increased from about one to about three. Application of this condition to 1,3-distances in addition to the 1,2-distances means that on average just over six restraints can be applied to the six anisotropic displacement parameters of each atom. This concept is tested against very high resolution data of a small peptide and employed as a restraint for protein refinement at more modest resolution (e.g. 1.7 Å)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najafi, Amin
2014-05-01
Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe
2014-11-01
A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.
Curve-based 2D-3D registration of coronary vessels for image guided procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duong, Luc; Liao, Rui; Sundar, Hari; Tailhades, Benoit; Meyer, Andreas; Xu, Chenyang
2009-02-01
3D roadmap provided by pre-operative volumetric data that is aligned with fluoroscopy helps visualization and navigation in Interventional Cardiology (IC), especially when contrast agent-injection used to highlight coronary vessels cannot be systematically used during the whole procedure, or when there is low visibility in fluoroscopy for partially or totally occluded vessels. The main contribution of this work is to register pre-operative volumetric data with intraoperative fluoroscopy for specific vessel(s) occurring during the procedure, even without contrast agent injection, to provide a useful 3D roadmap. In addition, this study incorporates automatic ECG gating for cardiac motion. Respiratory motion is identified by rigid body registration of the vessels. The coronary vessels are first segmented from a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) volume and correspondent vessel segments are identified on a single gated 2D fluoroscopic frame. Registration can be explicitly constrained using one or multiple branches of a contrast-enhanced vessel tree or the outline of guide wire used to navigate during the procedure. Finally, the alignment problem is solved by Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. To be computationally efficient, a distance transform is computed from the 2D identification of each vessel such that distance is zero on the centerline of the vessel and increases away from the centerline. Quantitative results were obtained by comparing the registration of random poses and a ground truth alignment for 5 datasets. We conclude that the proposed method is promising for accurate 2D-3D registration, even for difficult cases of occluded vessel without injection of contrast agent.
Ambiguous fluidity and rigidity and diamonds that ooze!
Meyer, G E; Dougherty, T J
1990-01-01
If white hemicircles rotate over the edges of a black diamond, there occurs an ambiguity of rigidity and motion. As the hemicircles obscure the vertices of the diamond, the figure transforms from a diamond to a rotating, nonrigid cross made of a tar-like fluid. When the corners reappear, the stimulus again becomes a rigid, solid diamond. Visibility of the vertices implies rigidity. If white squares are rotated, fluidity is not perceived. If the diamond has sawtooth edges and the hemicircles are rotated, no fluidity is perceived. Similarly, if illusory contours suggest the amodal completion of the vertices, rigidity is maintained. PMID:2096367
Local Metric Learning in 2D/3D Deformable Registration With Application in the Abdomen
Chou, Chen-Rui; Mageras, Gig; Pizer, Stephen
2015-01-01
In image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of disease sites subject to respiratory motion, soft tissue deformations can affect localization accuracy. We describe the application of a method of 2D/3D deformable registration to soft tissue localization in abdomen. The method, called registration efficiency and accuracy through learning a metric on shape (REALMS), is designed to support real-time IGRT. In a previously developed version of REALMS, the method interpolated 3D deformation parameters for any credible deformation in a deformation space using a single globally-trained Riemannian metric for each parameter. We propose a refinement of the method in which the metric is trained over a particular region of the deformation space, such that interpolation accuracy within that region is improved. We report on the application of the proposed algorithm to IGRT in abdominal disease sites, which is more challenging than in lung because of low intensity contrast and nonrespiratory deformation. We introduce a rigid translation vector to compensate for nonrespiratory deformation, and design a special region-of-interest around fiducial markers implanted near the tumor to produce a more reliable registration. Both synthetic data and actual data tests on abdominal datasets show that the localized approach achieves more accurate 2D/3D deformable registration than the global approach. PMID:24771575
Efficient implementation of the rank correlation merit function for 2D/3D registration.
Figl, M; Bloch, C; Gendrin, C; Weber, C; Pawiro, S A; Hummel, J; Markelj, P; Pernus, F; Bergmann, H; Birkfellner, W
2010-10-01
A growing number of clinical applications using 2D/3D registration have been presented recently. Usually, a digitally reconstructed radiograph is compared iteratively to an x-ray image of the known projection geometry until a match is achieved, thus providing six degrees of freedom of rigid motion which can be used for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy or computer-assisted interventions. Recently, stochastic rank correlation, a merit function based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, was presented as a merit function especially suitable for 2D/3D registration. The advantage of this measure is its robustness against variations in image histogram content and its wide convergence range. The considerable computational expense of computing an ordered rank list is avoided here by comparing randomly chosen subsets of the DRR and reference x-ray. In this work, we show that it is possible to omit the sorting step and to compute the rank correlation coefficient of the full image content as fast as conventional merit functions. Our evaluation of a well-calibrated cadaver phantom also confirms that rank correlation-type merit functions give the most accurate results if large differences in the histogram content for the DRR and the x-ray image are present. PMID:20844334
Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave
2016-05-01
We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid.
2004-08-01
AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.
Bao, Zhaosheng; Hong, Jeong-Mo; Teran, Joseph; Fedkiw, Ronald
2007-01-01
We propose a novel approach to fracturing (and denting) brittle materials. To avoid the computational burden imposed by the stringent time step restrictions of explicit methods or with solving nonlinear systems of equations for implicit methods, we treat the material as a fully rigid body in the limit of infinite stiffness. In addition to a triangulated surface mesh and level set volume for collisions, each rigid body is outfitted with a tetrahedral mesh upon which finite element analysis can be carried out to provide a stress map for fracture criteria. We demonstrate that the commonly used stress criteria can lead to arbitrary fracture (especially for stiff materials) and instead propose the notion of a time averaged stress directly into the FEM analysis. When objects fracture, the virtual node algorithm provides new triangle and tetrahedral meshes in a straightforward and robust fashion. Although each new rigid body can be rasterized to obtain a new level set, small shards can be difficult to accurately resolve. Therefore, we propose a novel collision handling technique for treating both rigid bodies and rigid body thin shells represented by only a triangle mesh. PMID:17218752
Method to estimate center of rigidity using vibration recordings
Safak, Erdal; Celebi, Mehmet
1990-01-01
A method to estimate the center of rigidity of buildings by using vibration recordings is presented. The method is based on the criterion that the coherence of translational motions with the rotational motion is minimum at the center of rigidity. Since the coherence is a function of frequency, a gross but frequency-independent measure of the coherency is defined as the integral of the coherence function over the frequency. The center of rigidity is determined by minimizing this integral. The formulation is given for two-dimensional motions. Two examples are presented for the method; a rectangular building with ambient-vibration recordings, and a triangular building with earthquake-vibration recordings. Although the examples given are for buildings, the method can be applied to any structure with two-dimensional motions.
Hallquist, J.O.
1982-02-01
This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.
Pal, Tanmoy; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M
2016-05-01
The temperature dependence of DNA flexibility is studied in the presence of stretching and unzipping forces. Two classes of models are considered. In one case the origin of elasticity is entropic due to the polymeric correlations, and in the other the double-stranded DNA is taken to have an intrinsic rigidity for bending. In both cases single strands are completely flexible. The change in the elastic constant for the flexible case due to thermally generated bubbles is obtained exactly. For the case of intrinsic rigidity, the elastic constant is found to be proportional to the square root of the bubble number fluctuation. PMID:27300825
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Tanmoy; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.
2016-05-01
The temperature dependence of DNA flexibility is studied in the presence of stretching and unzipping forces. Two classes of models are considered. In one case the origin of elasticity is entropic due to the polymeric correlations, and in the other the double-stranded DNA is taken to have an intrinsic rigidity for bending. In both cases single strands are completely flexible. The change in the elastic constant for the flexible case due to thermally generated bubbles is obtained exactly. For the case of intrinsic rigidity, the elastic constant is found to be proportional to the square root of the bubble number fluctuation.
Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.
2012-11-01
We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baka, N.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; Schultz, C.; Niessen, W.; van Walsum, T.
2015-05-01
During percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) catheters and arteries are visualized by x-ray angiography (XA) sequences, using brief contrast injections to show the coronary arteries. If we could continue visualizing the coronary arteries after the contrast agent passed (thus in non-contrast XA frames), we could potentially lower contrast use, which is advantageous due to the toxicity of the contrast agent. This paper explores the possibility of such visualization in mono-plane XA acquisitions with a special focus on respiratory based coronary artery motion estimation. We use the patient specific coronary artery centerlines from pre-interventional 3D CTA images to project on the XA sequence for artery visualization. To achieve this, a framework for registering the 3D centerlines with the mono-plane 2D + time XA sequences is presented. During the registration the patient specific cardiac and respiratory motion is learned. We investigate several respiratory motion estimation strategies with respect to accuracy, plausibility and ease of use for motion prediction in XA frames with and without contrast. The investigated strategies include diaphragm motion based prediction, and respiratory motion extraction from the guiding catheter tip motion. We furthermore compare translational and rigid respiratory based heart motion. We validated the accuracy of the 2D/3D registration and the respiratory and cardiac motion estimations on XA sequences of 12 interventions. The diaphragm based motion model and the catheter tip derived motion achieved 1.58 mm and 1.83 mm median 2D accuracy, respectively. On a subset of four interventions we evaluated the artery visualization accuracy for non-contrast cases. Both diaphragm, and catheter tip based prediction performed similarly, with about half of the cases providing satisfactory accuracy (median error < 2 mm).
Effective rigidity of membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peliti, L.
1986-12-01
The role of thermal fluctuations of shape (undulations) in reducing the effective rigidity of membranes is reviewed. The consequences of this effect on vesicle size distribution and on the structure of microemulsions, as well as on other physical phenomena, are sketched.
Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Mitchell, M.A.; Aspen, P.G.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability, and processing. Rigid molecular foams or {open_quotes}organic zeolites{close_quotes} would not be crystalline materials and could be tailored over a broader range of pore sizes and volumes. A novel process for preparing hypercrosslinked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, biphenyl, m-terphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with dichloroxylene (DCX) as the pore size. After drying the foams are robust and rigid. Densities of the resulting foams can range from 0.15 g/cc to 0.75 g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and the crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking and the cure time of the resulting gel, the pore size, pore size distribution, and the total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6 {angstrom} to 2,000 {angstrom}.
Electrostatics of Rigid Polyelectrolytes
Wong, G.C.L.
2009-06-04
The organization of rigid biological polyelectrolytes by multivalent ions and macroions are important for many fundamental problems in biology and biomedicine, such as cytoskeletal regulation and antimicrobial sequestration in cystic fibrosis. These polyelectrolytes have been used as model systems for understanding electrostatics in complex fluids. Here, we review some recent results in theory, simulations, and experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayor, Louise
2016-05-01
Graphene might be the most famous example, but there are other 2D materials and compounds too. Louise Mayor explains how these atomically thin sheets can be layered together to create flexible “van der Waals heterostructures”, which could lead to a range of novel applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.
2008-08-01
Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.
Motion and deformation compensation for freehand prostate biopsies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khallaghi, Siavash; Nouranian, Saman; Sojoudi, Samira; Ashab, Hussam A.; Machan, Lindsay; Chang, Silvia; Black, Peter; Gleave, Martin; Goldenberg, Larry; Abolmaesumi, Purang
2014-03-01
In this paper, we present a registration pipeline to compensate for prostate motion and deformation during targeted freehand prostate biopsies. We perform 2D-3D registration by reconstructing a thin-volume around the real-time 2D ultrasound imaging plane. Constrained Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and gradient descent optimization are used to rigidly align the moving volume to the fixed thin-volume. Subsequently, B-spline de- formable registration is performed to compensate for remaining non-linear deformations. SSD and zero-bounded Limited memory Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shannon (LBFGS) optimizer are used to find the optimum B-spline parameters. Registration results are validated on five prostate biopsy patients. Initial experiments suggest thin- volume-to-volume registration to be more effective than slice-to-volume registration. Also, a minimum consistent 2 mm improvement of Target Registration Error (TRE) is achieved following the deformable registration.
Silt motion simulation using finite volume particle method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jahanbakhsh, E.; Vessaz, C.; Avellan, F.
2014-03-01
In this paper, we present a 3-D FVPM which features rectangular top-hat kernels. With this method, interaction vectors are computed exactly and efficiently. We introduce a new method to enforce the no-slip boundary condition. With this boundary enforcement, the interaction forces between fluid and wall are computed accurately. We employ the boundary force to predict the motion of rigid spherical silt particles inside the fluid. To validate the model, we simulate the 2-D sedimentation of a single particle in viscous fluid tank and compare results with benchmark data. The particle resolution is verified by convergence study. We also simulate the sedimentation of two particles exhibiting drafting, kissing and tumbling phenomena in 2-D and 3-D. We compare the results with other numerical solutions.
Kitazaki, M; Shimojo, S
1996-01-01
The generic-view principle (GVP) states that given a 2-D image the visual system interprets it as a generic view of a 3-D scene when possible. The GVP was applied to 3-D-motion perception to show how the visual system decomposes retinal image motion into three components of 3-D motion: stretch/shrinkage, rotation, and translation. First, the optical process of retinal image motion was analyzed, and predictions were made based on the GVP in the inverse-optical process. Then experiments were conducted in which the subject judged perception of stretch/shrinkage, rotation in depth, and translation in depth for a moving bar stimulus. Retinal-image parameters-2-D stretch/shrinkage, 2-D rotation, and 2-D translation-were manipulated categorically and exhaustively. The results were highly consistent with the predictions. The GVP seems to offer a broad and general framework for understanding the ambiguity-solving process in motion perception. Its relationship to other constraints such as that of rigidity is discussed. PMID:8923550
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gasch, Matthew J.
2011-01-01
NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.
Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Julian
2015-06-01
Many proteins undergo large-scale motions where relatively rigid domains move against each other. The identification of rigid domains, as well as the hinge residues important for their relative movements, is important for various applications including flexible docking simulations. In this work, we develop a method for protein rigid domain identification based on an exhaustive enumeration of maximal rigid domains, the rigid domains not fully contained within other domains. The computation is performed by mapping the problem to that of finding maximal cliques in a graph. A minimal set of rigid domains are then selected, which cover most of the protein with minimal overlap. In contrast to the results of existing methods that partition a protein into non-overlapping domains using approximate algorithms, the rigid domains obtained from exact enumeration naturally contain overlapping regions, which correspond to the hinges of the inter-domain bending motion. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on several proteins. PMID:25820699
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Avino, G.; Maffettone, P. L.; Hulsen, M. A.; Peters, G. W. M.
2007-09-01
In this work a new numerical method for concentrated inertialess rigid particle suspensions in a planar elongational flow using a fixed mesh is presented. The main concept is to randomly relocate a particle on an inflow section of the domain when it crosses the outflow boundaries. A three-layer domain is considered in order to: (i) develop a small computational domain as the representative sample of the whole suspension, (ii) impose the elongational flow boundary conditions far from the particles, (iii) achieve a steady state (in a statistical meaning). Our scheme uses a time-independent fixed grid avoiding the difficulties involved in deforming meshes and remeshing of the domain. In this way, computations can proceed indefinitely and micro-structural fluctuations around a steady state can be studied. A fictitious domain is implemented in order to easily manage the rigid-body motion. The particles are described by their boundaries only (rigid-ring description) and the rigid-body motion is imposed through Lagrange multipliers. The bulk properties are recovered by using an averaging procedure where the traction forces on the particle surface are recovered by the Lagrange multipliers. The scheme has been combined with a standard velocity-pressure finite element formulation and 2D simulations of a large number (150 and 225) of particles in a Newtonian medium are performed. Local as well as bulk properties are evaluated and discussed. The results show very good agreement with dilute theory as well as with other numerical simulations in the literature for higher concentrations. Our formulation is well suited for viscoelastic suspensions and can be easily extended to 3D simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang
2014-02-01
The ideal pinhole imaging model commonly assumed for an ordinary two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) system is neither perfect nor stable because of the existence of small out-of-plane motion of the test sample surface that occurred after loading, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target due to temperature variation of a camera and unavoidable geometric distortion of an imaging lens. In certain cases, these disadvantages can lead to significant errors in the measured displacements and strains. Although a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens has been strongly recommended to be used in the 2D-DIC system as an essential optical component to achieve high-accuracy measurement, it is not generally applicable due to its fixed field of view, limited depth of focus and high cost. To minimize the errors associated with the imperfectness and instability of a common 2D-DIC system using a low-cost imaging lens, a generalized compensation method using a non-deformable reference sample is proposed in this work. With the proposed method, the displacement of the reference sample rigidly attached behind the test sample is first measured using 2D-DIC, and then it is fitted using a parametric model. The fitted parametric model is then used to correct the displacements of the deformed sample to remove the influences of these unfavorable factors. The validity of the proposed compensation method is first verified using out-of-plane translation, out-of-plane rotation, in-plane translation tests and their combinations. Uniaxial tensile tests of an aluminum specimen were also performed to quantitatively examine the strain accuracy of the proposed compensation method. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method is an easy-to-implement yet effective technique for achieving high-accuracy deformation measurement using an ordinary 2D-DIC system.
Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schift, Helmut
2015-11-01
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.
Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Elastic Contacts Involving FGMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.
2014-05-01
The response of elastic indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous elastic half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane strain problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of elastic indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.
Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.
2000-01-01
The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.
FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhle, Milind A.
1994-12-01
The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.
3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.
Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo
2016-08-01
This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement. PMID:27093439
Prospective Motion Correction using Inductively-Coupled Wireless RF Coils
Ooi, Melvyn B.; Aksoy, Murat; Maclaren, Julian; Watkins, Ronald D.; Bammer, Roland
2013-01-01
Purpose A novel prospective motion correction technique for brain MRI is presented that uses miniature wireless radio-frequency (RF) coils, or “wireless markers”, for position tracking. Methods Each marker is free of traditional cable connections to the scanner. Instead, its signal is wirelessly linked to the MR receiver via inductive coupling with the head coil. Real-time tracking of rigid head motion is performed using a pair of glasses integrated with three wireless markers. A tracking pulse-sequence, combined with knowledge of the markers’ unique geometrical arrangement, is used to measure their positions. Tracking data from the glasses is then used to prospectively update the orientation and position of the image-volume so that it follows the motion of the head. Results Wireless-marker position measurements were comparable to measurements using traditional wired RF tracking coils, with the standard deviation of the difference < 0.01 mm over the range of positions measured inside the head coil. RF safety was verified with B1 maps and temperature measurements. Prospective motion correction was demonstrated in a 2D spin-echo scan while the subject performed a series of deliberate head rotations. Conclusion Prospective motion correction using wireless markers enables high quality images to be acquired even during bulk motions. Wireless markers are small, avoid RF safety risks from electrical cables, are not hampered by mechanical connections to the scanner, and require minimal setup times. These advantages may help to facilitate adoption in the clinic. PMID:23813444
Non-rigid alignment in electron tomography in materials science.
Printemps, Tony; Bernier, Nicolas; Bleuet, Pierre; Mula, Guido; Hervé, Lionel
2016-09-01
Electron tomography is a key technique that enables the visualization of an object in three dimensions with a resolution of about a nanometre. High-quality 3D reconstruction is possible thanks to the latest compressed sensing algorithms and/or better alignment and preprocessing of the 2D projections. Rigid alignment of 2D projections is routine in electron tomography. However, it cannot correct misalignments induced by (i) deformations of the sample due to radiation damage or (ii) drifting of the sample during the acquisition of an image in scanning transmission electron microscope mode. In both cases, those misalignments can give rise to artefacts in the reconstruction. We propose a simple-to-implement non-rigid alignment technique to correct those artefacts. This technique is particularly suited for needle-shaped samples in materials science. It is initiated by a rigid alignment of the projections and it is then followed by several rigid alignments of different parts of the projections. Piecewise linear deformations are applied to each projection to force them to simultaneously satisfy the rigid alignments of the different parts. The efficiency of this technique is demonstrated on three samples, an intermetallic sample with deformation misalignments due to a high electron dose typical to spectroscopic electron tomography, a porous silicon sample with an extremely thin end particularly sensitive to electron beam and another porous silicon sample that was drifting during image acquisitions. PMID:27018779
Ultrasound 2D Strain Estimator Based on Image Registration for Ultrasound Elastography
Yang, Xiaofeng; Torres, Mylin; Kirkpatrick, Stephanie; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a new approach to calculate 2D strain through the registration of the pre- and post-compression (deformation) B-mode image sequences based on an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm (INRA). Compared with the most commonly used cross-correlation (CC) method, our approach is not constrained to any particular set of directions, and can overcome displacement estimation errors introduced by incoherent motion and variations in the signal under high compression. This INRA method was tested using phantom and in vivo data. The robustness of our approach was demonstrated in the axial direction as well as the lateral direction where the standard CC method frequently fails. In addition, our approach copes well under large compression (over 6%). In the phantom study, we computed the strain image under various compressions and calculated the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNS) ratios. The SNR and CNS values of the INRA method were much higher than those calculated from the CC-based method. Furthermore, the clinical feasibility of our approach was demonstrated with the in vivo data from patients with arm lymphedema. PMID:25914492
Ultrasound 2D strain estimator based on image registration for ultrasound elastography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaofeng; Torres, Mylin; Kirkpatrick, Stephanie; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian
2014-03-01
In this paper, we present a new approach to calculate 2D strain through the registration of the pre- and post-compression (deformation) B-mode image sequences based on an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm (INRA). Compared with the most commonly used cross-correlation (CC) method, our approach is not constrained to any particular set of directions, and can overcome displacement estimation errors introduced by incoherent motion and variations in the signal under high compression. This INRA method was tested using phantom and in vivo data. The robustness of our approach was demonstrated in the axial direction as well as the lateral direction where the standard CC method frequently fails. In addition, our approach copes well under large compression (over 6%). In the phantom study, we computed the strain image under various compressions and calculated the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNS) ratios. The SNR and CNS values of the INRA method were much higher than those calculated from the CC-based method. Furthermore, the clinical feasibility of our approach was demonstrated with the in vivo data from patients with arm lymphedema.
Interactive initialization for 2D/3D intra-operative registration using the Microsoft Kinect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgur; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-03-01
All 2D/3D anatomy based rigid registration algorithms are iterative, requiring an initial estimate of the 3D data pose. Current initialization methods have limited applicability in the operating room setting, due to the constraints imposed by this environment or due to insufficient accuracy. In this work we use the Microsoft Kinect device to allow the surgeon to interactively initialize the registration process. A Kinect sensor is used to simulate the mouse-based operations in a conventional manual initialization approach, obviating the need for physical contact with an input device. Different gestures from both arms are detected from the sensor in order to set or switch the required working contexts. 3D hand motion provides the six degree-of-freedom controls for manipulating the pre-operative data in the 3D space. We evaluated our method for both X-ray/CT and X-ray/MR initialization using three publicly available reference data sets. Results show that, with initial target registration errors of 117:7 +/- 28:9 mm a user is able to achieve final errors of 5:9 +/- 2:6 mm within 158 +/- 65 sec using the Kinect-based approach, compared to 4:8+/-2:0 mm and 88+/-60 sec when using the mouse for interaction. Based on these results we conclude that this method is sufficiently accurate for initialization of X-ray/CT and X-ray/MR registration in the OR.
The coupling VIV analysis of SCRs with rigid swing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Juan; Huang, Weiping
2015-08-01
With the development of deepwater oil and gas exploration, Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs) become preferred risers for resource production, import and export. Vortex induced vibration (VIV) is the key problem encountered in the design of SCRs. In this study, a new model, the rigid swing model, is proposed based on the consideration of large curvature of SCRs. The sag bend of SCRs is assumed as a rigid swing system around the axis from the hanging point to the touch down point (TDP) in the model. The torque, produced by the lift force and the swing vector, provides the driving torque for the swing system, and the weight of SCRs provides the restoring torque. The simulated response of rigid swing is coupled with bending vibration, and then the coupling VIV model of SCRs is studied in consideration of bending vibration and rigid motion. The calculated results indicate that the rigid swing has a magnitude equal to that of bending vibration, and the rigid motion affects the dynamic response of SCRs and can not be neglected in the VIV analysis.
Generalized flexibility-rigidity index
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2016-06-01
Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.
Projectile transverse motion and stability in electromagnetic induction launchers
Shokair, I.R.
1993-12-31
The transverse motion of a projectile in an electromagnetic induction launcher is considered. The equations of motion for translation and rotation are derived assuming a rigid projectile and a flyway restoring force per unit length that is proportional to the local displacement. Linearized transverse forces and torques due to energized coils are derived for displaced or tilted armature elements based on a first order perturbation method. The resulting equations of motion for a rigid projectile composed of multiple elements in a multi-coil launcher are analyzed as a coupled oscillator system of equations and a simple linear stability condition is derived. The equations of motion are incorporated into the 2-D Slingshot circuit code and numerical solutions for the transverse motion are obtained. For a launcher with a 10 cm bore radius with a 40 cm long solid armature, we find that stability is achieved with a restoring force (per unit length) constant of k {approx} 1 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2}. For k = 1.5 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2} and sample coil misalignment modeled as a sine wave of 1 mm amplitude at wavelengths of one or two meters, the projectile displacement grows to a maximum of 4 mm. This growth is due to resonance between the natural frequency of the projectile transverse motion and the coil displacement wavelength. This resonance does not persist because of the changing axial velocity. Random coil displacement is also found to cause roughly the same projectile displacement. For the maximum displacement a rough estimate of the transverse pressure is 50 bars. Results for a wound armature with uniform current density throughout show very similar displacements.
Shirvanyants, David; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.
2011-01-01
Motivation: Identifying the location of binding sites on proteins is of fundamental importance for a wide range of applications, including molecular docking, de novo drug design, structure identification and comparison of functional sites. Here we present Erebus, a web server that searches the entire Protein Data Bank for a given substructure defined by a set of atoms of interest, such as the binding scaffolds for small molecules. The identified substructure contains atoms having the same names, belonging to same amino acids and separated by the same distances (within a given tolerance) as the atoms of the query structure. The accuracy of a match is measured by the root-mean-square deviation or by the normal weight with a given variance. Tests show that our approach can reliably locate rigid binding scaffolds of drugs and metal ions. Availability and Implementation: We provide this service through a web server at http://erebus.dokhlab.org. Contact: dokh@unc.edu PMID:21460026
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz; West, Bruce J.
2004-04-01
We study the middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAfv) in humans using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Scaling properties of time series of the axial flow velocity averaged over a cardiac beat interval may be characterized by two exponents. The short time scaling exponent (STSE) determines the statistical properties of fluctuations of blood flow velocities in short-time intervals while the Hurst exponent describes the long-term fractal properties. In many migraineurs the value of the STSE is significantly reduced and may approach that of the Hurst exponent. This change in dynamical properties reflects the significant loss of short-term adaptability and the overall hyperexcitability of the underlying cerebral blood flow control system. We call this effect fractal rigidity.
Rigid collapsible dish structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smania, Daniel
2007-07-01
We describe a new and robust method to prove rigidity results in complex dynamics. The new ingredient is the geometry of the critical puzzle pieces: under control of geometry and ``complex bounds'', two generalized polynomial-like maps which admit a topological conjugacy, quasiconformal outside the filled-in Julia set, are indeed quasiconformally conjugate. The proof uses a new abstract removability-type result for quasiconformal maps, following ideas of Heinonen and Koskela and of Kallunki and Koskela, optimized for applications in complex dynamics. We prove, as the first application of this new method, that, for even criticalities distinct from two, the period two cycle of the Fibonacci renormalization operator is hyperbolic with 1 -dimensional unstable manifold.
The physics of 2D microfluidic droplet ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beatus, Tsevi; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.; Tlusty, Tsvi
2012-07-01
We review non-equilibrium many-body phenomena in ensembles of 2D microfluidic droplets. The system comprises of continuous two-phase flow with disc-shaped droplets driven in a channel, at low Reynolds number of 10-4-10-3. The basic physics is that of an effective potential flow, governed by the 2D Laplace equation, with multiple, static and dynamic, boundaries of the droplets and the walls. The motion of the droplets induces dipolar flow fields, which mediate 1/r2 hydrodynamic interaction between the droplets. Summation of these long-range 2D forces over droplet ensembles converges, in contrast to the divergence of the hydrodynamic forces in 3D. In analogy to electrostatics, the strong effect of boundaries on the equations of motion is calculated by means of image dipoles. We first consider the dynamics of droplets flowing in a 1D crystal, which exhibits unique phonon-like excitations, and a variety of nonlinear instabilities-all stemming from the hydrodynamic interactions. Narrowing the channel results in hydrodynamic screening of the dipolar interactions, which changes salient features of the phonon spectra. Shifting from a 1D ordered crystal to 2D disordered ensemble, the hydrodynamic interactions induce collective density waves and shocks, which are superposed on single-droplet randomized motion and dynamic clustering. These collective modes originate from density-velocity coupling, whose outcome is a 1D Burgers equation. The rich observational phenomenology and the tractable theory render 2D droplet ensembles a suitable table-top system for studying non-equilibrium many-body physics with long-range interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Searle, G. F. C.
2014-05-01
1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.
Direct numerical simulation of rigid bodies in multiphase flow within an Eulerian framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauschenberger, P.; Weigand, B.
2015-06-01
A new method is presented to simulate rigid body motion in the Volume-of-Fluid based multiphase code Free Surface 3D. The specific feature of the new method is that it works within an Eulerian framework without the need for a Lagrangian representation of rigid bodies. Several test cases are shown to prove the validity of the numerical scheme. The technique is able to conserve the shape of arbitrarily shaped rigid bodies and predict terminal velocities of rigid spheres. The instability of a falling ellipsoid is captured. Multiple rigid bodies including collisions may be considered using only one Volume-of-Fluid variable which allows to simulate the drafting, kissing and tumbling phenomena of two rigid spheres. The method can easily be extended to rigid bodies undergoing phase change processes.
Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam
Neet, Thomas E.; Spieker, David A.
1985-03-19
A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.
Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam
Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.
1983-12-08
A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.
Intraventricular flow alterations due to dyssynchronous wall motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pope, Audrey M.; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind
2015-11-01
Roughly 30% of patients with systolic heart failure suffer from left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD), in which mechanical discoordination of the ventricle walls leads to poor hemodynamics and suboptimal cardiac function. There is currently no clear mechanistic understanding of how abnormalities in septal-lateral (SL) wall motion affects left ventricle (LV) function, which is needed to improve the treatment of LVD using cardiac resynchronization therapy. We use an experimental flow phantom with an LV physical model to study mechanistic effects of SL wall motion delay on LV function. To simulate mechanical LVD, two rigid shafts were coupled to two segments (apical and mid sections) along the septal wall of the LV model. Flow through the LV model was driven using a piston pump, and stepper motors coupled to the above shafts were used to locally perturb the septal wall segments relative to the pump motion. 2D PIV was used to examine the intraventricular flow through the LV physical model. Alterations to SL delay results in a reduction in the kinetic energy (KE) of the flow field compared to synchronous SL motion. The effect of varying SL motion delay from 0% (synchronous) to 100% (out-of-phase) on KE and viscous dissipation will be presented. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies.
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-14
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales. PMID:26472363
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-01
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales.
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-14
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales.
Registration of 2D cardiac images to real-time 3D ultrasound volumes for 3D stress echocardiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, K. Y. Esther; van Stralen, Marijn; Voormolen, Marco M.; van Burken, Gerard; Nemes, Attila; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Bosch, Johan G.
2006-03-01
Three-dimensional (3D) stress echocardiography is a novel technique for diagnosing cardiac dysfunction, by comparing wall motion of the left ventricle under different stages of stress. For quantitative comparison of this motion, it is essential to register the ultrasound data. We propose an intensity based rigid registration method to retrieve two-dimensional (2D) four-chamber (4C), two-chamber, and short-axis planes from the 3D data set acquired in the stress stage, using manually selected 2D planes in the rest stage as reference. The algorithm uses the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to find the optimal transformation of one uniform scaling, three rotation, and three translation parameters. We compared registration using the SAD, SSD, and NCC metrics, performed on four resolution levels of a Gaussian pyramid. The registration's effectiveness was assessed by comparing the 3D positions of the registered apex and mitral valve midpoints and 4C direction with the manually selected results. The registration was tested on data from 20 patients. Best results were found using the NCC metric on data downsampled with factor two: mean registration errors were 8.1mm, 5.4mm, and 8.0° in the apex position, mitral valve position, and 4C direction respectively. The errors were close to the interobserver (7.1mm, 3.8mm, 7.4°) and intraobserver variability (5.2mm, 3.3mm, 7.0°), and better than the error before registration (9.4mm, 9.0mm, 9.9°). We demonstrated that the registration algorithm visually and quantitatively improves the alignment of rest and stress data sets, performing similar to manual alignment. This will improve automated analysis in 3D stress echocardiography.
Supramolecular Synthons: Will Giant Rigid Superspheres Do?
2016-01-01
For the first time, the concept of supramolecular synthons was applied to giant rigid superspheres based on pentaphosphaferrocene [CpRFe(η5-P5)] (R = Me, Et) and Cu(I) halides, which reach 2.1–3.0 nm in diameter. Two supramolecular synthons, σ–π and π–π, are discovered based on halogen···CpR and Cp*···Cp* specific interactions, respectively. The geometry of the synthons is reproducible in a series of crystal structures of various supramolecules. The σ–π synthon alone is realized more frequently for Br-containing superspheres. A combination of the σ–π and π–π synthons is more typical for Cl-containing supramolecules. Each supramolecule can bear up to nine synthons to give mostly 2D and 3D architectures. PMID:27081373
NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets
Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.
2013-01-01
The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565
New generalizations of the integrable problems in rigid body dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yehia, H. M.
1997-10-01
We consider the general problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point under the action of an axisymmetric combination of potential and gyroscopic forces. We introduce six cases of this problem which are completely integrable for arbitrary initial conditions. The new cases generalize by several parameters all, but one, of the known results in the subject of rigid body dynamics. Namely, we generalize all the results due to Euler, Lagrange, Clebsch, Kovalevskaya, Brun and Lyapunov and also their subsequent generalizations by Rubanovsky and the present author.
H infinity controller design to a rigid-flexible satellite with two vibration modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Souza, A. G.; de Souza, L. C. G.
2015-10-01
The satellite attitude control system (ACS) design becomes more complex when the satellite structure has components like, flexible solar panels, antennas and mechanical manipulators. These flexible structures can interact with the satellite rigid parts during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. This paper deals with the rigid-flexible satellite ACS design using the H infinity method. The rigid-flexible satellite is represented by a beam connected to a central rigid hub at one end and free at the other one. The equations of motions are obtained considering small flexible deformations and the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis. The results of the simulations have shown that the H-infinity controller was able to control the rigid motion and suppress the vibrations.
Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.
Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S
2010-01-01
We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy. PMID:19884075
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
Magnetic rigid rotor in the quantum regime: Theoretical toolbox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusconi, Cosimo C.; Romero-Isart, Oriol
2016-02-01
We describe the quantum dynamics of a magnetic rigid rotor in the mesoscopic scale where the Einstein-De Haas effect is predominant. In particular, we consider a single-domain magnetic nanoparticle with uniaxial anisotropy in a magnetic trap. Starting from the basic Hamiltonian of the system under the macrospin approximation, we derive a bosonized Hamiltonian describing the center-of-mass motion, the total angular momentum, and the macrospin degrees of freedom of the particle treated as a rigid body. This bosonized Hamiltonian can be approximated by a simple quadratic Hamiltonian that captures the rich physics of a nanomagnet tightly confined in position, nearly not spinning, and with its macrospin antialigned to the magnetic field. The theoretical tools derived and used here can be applied to other quantum mechanical rigid rotors.
A 2D MEMS stage for optical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ataman, Caglar; Petremand, Yves; Noell, Wilfried; Ürey, Hakan; Epitaux, Marc; de Rooij, Nico F.
2006-04-01
A 2D MEMS platform for a microlens scanner application is reported. The platform is fabricated on an SOI wafer with 50 μm thick device layer. Entire device is defined with a single etching step on the same layer. Through four S-shaped beams, the device is capable of producing nonlinear 2D motion from linear 1D translation of two pairs of comb actuator sets. The device has a clear aperture of 2mm by 2mm, which is hallowed from the backside for micro-optics assembly. In this paper, a numerical device model and its validation via experimental characterization results are presented. Integration of the micro-optical components with the stage is also discussed. Additionally, a new driving scheme to minimize the settling time of the device in DC operation is explored.
Quantification of rigidity in Parkinson's disease.
Sepehri, Behrooz; Esteki, Ali; Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Esmaeal; Shahidi, Golam-Ali; Khamseh, Fatemeh; Moinodin, Marzieh
2007-12-01
In this paper, a new method for quantification of rigidity in elbow joint of Parkinsonian patients is introduced. One of the most known syndromes in Parkinson's disease (PD) is increased passive stiffness in muscles, which leads to rigidity in joints. Clinical evaluation of stiffness in wrist and/or elbow, commonly used by clinicians, is based on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System (UPDRS). Subjective nature of this method may influence the accuracy and precision of evaluations. Hence, introducing an objective standard method based on quantitative measurements may be helpful. A test rig was designed and fabricated to measure range of motion and viscous and elastic components of passive stiffness in elbow joint. Measurements were done for 41 patients and 11 controls. Measures were extracted using Matlab-R14 software and statistic analyses were done by Spss-13. Relation between each computed measure and the level of illness were analyzed. Results showed a better correlation between viscous component of stiffness and UPDRS score compared to the elastic component. Results of this research may help to introduce a standard objective method for evaluation of PD. PMID:17909970
Magnetic Control of Rigid Achiral Microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheang, U.; Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun
2013-11-01
We report control of rigid achiral microswimmers in low Reynolds number environments. A rotating magnetic field was used to actuate the microswimmers wirelessly by rotating the microswimmers, which produces propulsion. Previous magnetically actuated microswimmers in bulk fluids have been designed with either flexibility or chiral geometry; we show that simpler geometries with neither flexibility nor chirality can produce propulsion. The microswimmer consists of three magnetic beads conjugated using avidin-biotin linkages into an arc formation. We designed a magnetic field generator consisting of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration. A highspeed camera provided realtime imaging of the microswimmers' motion in a PDMS chamber. The rigidity of the microswimmer was characterized by tracking the position of the individual beads and calculating their relative distances. As a function of field strength and rotation frequency, we observed changes in the rotational axis of the microswimmers and the corresponding effects on their velocities. The achiral microswimmers exhibited active propulsion and were controllable in both speed and direction, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications such as drug delivery.
Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures
Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila
2003-05-02
Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Rigid body dynamics approach to Stokesian dynamics simulations of nonspherical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutteh, Ramzi
2010-05-01
We describe an algorithm for performing Stokesian dynamics (SD) simulations of suspensions of arbitrary shape rigid particles with hydrodynamic interactions, modeled as rigid groups of spheres, the hydrodynamic mobility matrix of which is accurately computable by several established schemes for spheres. The algorithm is based on Stokesian rigid body equations of translational and rotational motion, which we have derived by an approach formally analogous to that of Newtonian rigid body dynamics. Particle orientation is represented in terms of Euler parameters (quaternion of rotation). This rigid body SD algorithm (RBSDA) complements recently described constraint SD algorithms [R. Kutteh, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 9280 (2003); R. Kutteh, Phys. Rev. E 69, 011406 (2004)], over which it offers the same computational advantages in imposing total rigidity that the basic rigid body molecular dynamics (MD) algorithm offers over constraint MD algorithms. We show that SD simulation results generated with the RBSDA, in bounded and unbounded geometries, agree very well with those from experiment and other SD and non-SD methods, and are numerically identical to those from a constraint SD algorithm, HSHAKE. Finally, for completeness we also describe a third (additional to the constraint SD and rigid body SD approaches) more traditional approach for SD simulations of arbitrary shape rigid particles modeled as rigid groups of spheres.
Rigid body dynamics approach to Stokesian dynamics simulations of nonspherical particles.
Kutteh, Ramzi
2010-05-01
We describe an algorithm for performing Stokesian dynamics (SD) simulations of suspensions of arbitrary shape rigid particles with hydrodynamic interactions, modeled as rigid groups of spheres, the hydrodynamic mobility matrix of which is accurately computable by several established schemes for spheres. The algorithm is based on Stokesian rigid body equations of translational and rotational motion, which we have derived by an approach formally analogous to that of Newtonian rigid body dynamics. Particle orientation is represented in terms of Euler parameters (quaternion of rotation). This rigid body SD algorithm (RBSDA) complements recently described constraint SD algorithms [R. Kutteh, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 9280 (2003); R. Kutteh, Phys. Rev. E 69, 011406 (2004)], over which it offers the same computational advantages in imposing total rigidity that the basic rigid body molecular dynamics (MD) algorithm offers over constraint MD algorithms. We show that SD simulation results generated with the RBSDA, in bounded and unbounded geometries, agree very well with those from experiment and other SD and non-SD methods, and are numerically identical to those from a constraint SD algorithm, HSHAKE. Finally, for completeness we also describe a third (additional to the constraint SD and rigid body SD approaches) more traditional approach for SD simulations of arbitrary shape rigid particles modeled as rigid groups of spheres. PMID:20459156
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patrinopoulos, Matthaios; Kefalis, Chrysovalantis
2015-12-01
In this paper, we focus on smartphones as experimental tools; specifically we use the gyroscope sensor of a smartphone to study the turning motion of a rigid body. Taking into consideration recent work concerning that topic, we try to use the gyroscope sensor in studying the complex motion of a rolling cylinder on a slope.
Nearly automatic motion capture system for tracking octopus arm movements in 3D space.
Zelman, Ido; Galun, Meirav; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar
2009-08-30
Tracking animal movements in 3D space is an essential part of many biomechanical studies. The most popular technique for human motion capture uses markers placed on the skin which are tracked by a dedicated system. However, this technique may be inadequate for tracking animal movements, especially when it is impossible to attach markers to the animal's body either because of its size or shape or because of the environment in which the animal performs its movements. Attaching markers to an animal's body may also alter its behavior. Here we present a nearly automatic markerless motion capture system that overcomes these problems and successfully tracks octopus arm movements in 3D space. The system is based on three successive tracking and processing stages. The first stage uses a recently presented segmentation algorithm to detect the movement in a pair of video sequences recorded by two calibrated cameras. In the second stage, the results of the first stage are processed to produce 2D skeletal representations of the moving arm. Finally, the 2D skeletons are used to reconstruct the octopus arm movement as a sequence of 3D curves varying in time. Motion tracking, segmentation and reconstruction are especially difficult problems in the case of octopus arm movements because of the deformable, non-rigid structure of the octopus arm and the underwater environment in which it moves. Our successful results suggest that the motion-tracking system presented here may be used for tracking other elongated objects. PMID:19505502
Equations of motion for maneuvering flexible spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meirovitch, L.; Quinn, R. D.
1987-01-01
This paper is concerned with the derivation of the equations of motion for maneuvering flexible spacecraft both in orbit and in an earth-based laboratory. The structure is assumed to undergo large rigid-body maneuvers and small elastic deformations. A perturbation approach is presented in which the quantities defining the rigid-body maneuver are regarded as the unperturbed motion and the elastic motions and deviations from the rigid-body motions are regarded as the perturbed motion. The perturbation equations are linear, non-self-adjoint, and with time-dependent coefficients. A maneuver force distribution exciting the least amount of elastic deformation of the spacecraft is developed. Numerical results highlight the vibration caused by rotational maneuvers.
Glassy dislocation dynamics in 2D colloidal dimer crystals.
Gerbode, Sharon J; Agarwal, Umang; Ong, Desmond C; Liddell, Chekesha M; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai
2010-08-13
Although glassy relaxation is typically associated with disorder, here we report on a new type of glassy dynamics relating to dislocations within 2D crystals of colloidal dimers. Previous studies have demonstrated that dislocation motion in dimer crystals is restricted by certain particle orientations. Here, we drag an optically trapped particle through such dimer crystals, creating dislocations. We find a two-stage relaxation response where initially dislocations glide until encountering particles that cage their motion. Subsequent relaxation occurs logarithmically slowly through a second process where dislocations hop between caged configurations. Finally, in simulations of sheared dimer crystals, the dislocation mean squared displacement displays a caging plateau typical of glassy dynamics. Together, these results reveal a novel glassy system within a colloidal crystal. PMID:20868079
Rigidity generation by nonthermal fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheshka, R.; Recho, P.; Truskinovsky, L.
2016-05-01
Active stabilization in systems with zero or negative stiffness is an essential element of a wide variety of biological processes. We study a prototypical example of this phenomenon and show how active rigidity, interpreted as a formation of a pseudowell in the effective energy landscape, can be generated in an overdamped stochastic system. We link the transition from negative to positive rigidity with time correlations in the additive noise, and we show that subtle differences in the out-of-equilibrium driving may compromise the emergence of a pseudowell.
Light field morphing using 2D features.
Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung
2005-01-01
We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field. PMID:15631126
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin
Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
2D electronic materials for army applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Regan, Terrance; Perconti, Philip
2015-05-01
The record electronic properties achieved in monolayer graphene and related 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride show promise for revolutionary high-speed and low-power electronic devices. Heterogeneous 2D-stacked materials may create enabling technology for future communication and computation applications to meet soldier requirements. For instance, transparent, flexible and even wearable systems may become feasible. With soldier and squad level electronic power demands increasing, the Army is committed to developing and harnessing graphene-like 2D materials for compact low size-weight-and-power-cost (SWAP-C) systems. This paper will review developments in 2D electronic materials at the Army Research Laboratory over the last five years and discuss directions for future army applications.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel
2015-06-01
We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083
Segmentation in structure from motion: modeling and psychophysics.
Caudek, C; Rubin, N
2001-09-01
Much work has been done on the question of how the visual system extracts the three-dimensional (3D) structure and motion of an object from two-dimensional (2D) motion information, a problem known as 'Structure from Motion', or SFM. Much less is known, however, about the human ability to recover structure and motion when the optic flow field arises from multiple objects, although observations of this ability date as early as Ullman's well-known two-cylinders stimulus [The interpretation of visual motion (1979)]. In the presence of multiple objects, the SFM problem is further aggravated by the need to solve the segmentation problem, i.e. deciding which motion signal belongs to which object. Here, we present a model for how the human visual system solves the combined SFM and segmentation problems, which we term SSFM, concurrently. The model is based on computation of a simple scalar property of the optic flow field known as def, which was previously shown to be used by human observers in SFM. The def values of many triplets of moving dots are computed, and the identification of multiple objects the image is based on detecting multiple peaks in the histogram of def values. In five experiments, we show that human SSFM performance is consistent with the predictions of the model. We compare the predictions of our model to those of other theoretical approaches, in particular those that use a rigidity hypothesis, and discuss the validity of each approach as a model for human SSFM. PMID:11587722
Extended 2D generalized dilaton gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mello, R. O.
2008-09-01
We show that an anomaly-free description of matter in (1+1) dimensions requires a deformation of the 2D relativity principle, which introduces a non-trivial centre in the 2D Poincaré algebra. Then we work out the reduced phase space of the anomaly-free 2D relativistic particle, in order to show that it lives in a noncommutative 2D Minkowski space. Moreover, we build a Gaussian wave packet to show that a Planck length is well defined in two dimensions. In order to provide a gravitational interpretation for this noncommutativity, we propose to extend the usual 2D generalized dilaton gravity models by a specific Maxwell component, which guages the extra symmetry associated with the centre of the 2D Poincaré algebra. In addition, we show that this extension is a high energy correction to the unextended dilaton theories that can affect the topology of spacetime. Further, we couple a test particle to the general extended dilaton models with the purpose of showing that they predict a noncommutativity in curved spacetime, which is locally described by a Moyal star product in the low energy limit. We also conjecture a probable generalization of this result, which provides strong evidence that the noncommutativity is described by a certain star product which is not of the Moyal type at high energies. Finally, we prove that the extended dilaton theories can be formulated as Poisson Sigma models based on a nonlinear deformation of the extended Poincaré algebra.
3D track initiation in clutter using 2D measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Lin; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov
2001-11-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for initiating 3-D tracks using range and azimuth (bearing) measurements from a 2-D radar on a moving platform. The work is motivated by the need to track possibly low-flying targets, e.g., cruise missiles, using reports from an aircraft-based surveillance radar. Previous work on this problem considered simple linear motion in a flat earth coordinate frame. Our research extends this to a more realistic scenario where the earth"s curvature is also considered. The target is assumed to be moving along a great circle at a constant altitude. After the necessary coordinate transformations, the measurements are nonlinear functions of the target state and the observability of target altitude is severely limited. The observability, quantified by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), is very sensitive to the sensor-to-target geometry. The paper presents a Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator for estimating the target motion parameters in the Earth Centered Earth Fixed coordinate frame from 2-D range and angle measurements. In order to handle the possibility of false measurements and missed detections, which was not considered in, we use the Probabilistic Data Association (PDA) algorithm to weight the detections in a frame. The PDA-based modified global likelihood is optimized using a numerical search. The accuracies obtained by the resulting ML-PDA estimator are quantified using the CRLB for different sensor-target configurations. It is shown that the proposed estimator is efficient, that is, it meets the CRLB. Of particular interest is the achievable accuracy for estimating the target altitude, which is not observed directly by the 2-D radar, but can be only inferred from the range and bearing observations.
Comparative analysis of rigidity across protein families.
Wells, S A; Jimenez-Roldan, J E; Römer, R A
2009-01-01
We present a comparative study in which 'pebble game' rigidity analysis is applied to multiple protein crystal structures, for each of six different protein families. We find that the main-chain rigidity of a protein structure at a given hydrogen bond energy cutoff is quite sensitive to small structural variations, and conclude that the hydrogen bond constraints in rigidity analysis should be chosen so as to form and test specific hypotheses about the rigidity of a particular protein. Our comparative approach highlights two different characteristic patterns ('sudden' or 'gradual') for protein rigidity loss as constraints are removed, in line with recent results on the rigidity transitions of glassy networks. PMID:19773604
Teaching Motion with the Global Positioning System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budisa, Marko; Planinsic, Gorazd
2003-01-01
We have used the GPS receiver and a PC interface to track different types of motion. Various hands-on experiments that enlighten the physics of motion at the secondary school level are suggested (visualization of 2D and 3D motion, measuring car drag coefficient and fuel consumption). (Contains 8 figures.)
A novel parametric method for non-rigid image registration.
Cuzol, Anne; Hellier, Pierre; Mémin, Etienne
2005-01-01
This paper presents a novel non-rigid registration method. The main contribution of the method is the modeling of the vorticity (respectively divergence) of the deformation field using vortex (respectively sink and source) particles. Two parameters are associated with a particle: the vorticity (or divergence) strength and the influence domain. This leads to a very compact representation of vorticity and divergence fields. In addition, the optimal position of these particles is determined using a mean shift process. 2D experiments of this method are presented and demonstrate its ability to recover evolving phenomena (MS lesions) so as to register images from 20 patients. PMID:17354717
Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D
DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.
2014-01-01
Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909–912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model’s ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior–posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation. PMID:24477760
Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D.
Bakshi, Avijit; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R
2014-04-01
Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation. PMID:24477760
State-variable models of structures having rigid-body modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tsu-Jeng; Ni, Zhenhua
1990-01-01
In cases where the equations of motion of a structure having rigid-body freedom are cast in state-variable form, generalized state rigid-body modes may be needed. It is possible to find a linearly-independent set of generalized vectors which transform an n x n matrix into the almost-diagonal Jordan form. Attention is presently given to equations governing these generalized eigenvectors, together with illustrative examples of the damped and undamped structure cases.
Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking
2013-03-19
Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less
Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking
Goddard, Jr., James S.
2013-03-19
Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcclure, P.
1973-01-01
An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.
Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, Adrián
2013-12-01
To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of "physical cluster". For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of CV, that suggest the existence of two kinds of "physical percolation", namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter.
Associative memory through rigid origami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael
2015-03-01
Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Eric
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.; Luhmann, N. C.
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.
Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247
2D-Crystal-Based Functional Inks.
Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bartolotta, Antonino; Coleman, Jonathan N; Backes, Claudia
2016-08-01
The possibility to produce and process graphene, related 2D crystals, and heterostructures in the liquid phase makes them promising materials for an ever-growing class of applications as composite materials, sensors, in flexible optoelectronics, and energy storage and conversion. In particular, the ability to formulate functional inks with on-demand rheological and morphological properties, i.e., lateral size and thickness of the dispersed 2D crystals, is a step forward toward the development of industrial-scale, reliable, inexpensive printing/coating processes, a boost for the full exploitation of such nanomaterials. Here, the exfoliation strategies of graphite and other layered crystals are reviewed, along with the advances in the sorting of lateral size and thickness of the exfoliated sheets together with the formulation of functional inks and the current development of printing/coating processes of interest for the realization of 2D-crystal-based devices. PMID:27273554
Rigidity versus flexibility: the dilemma of understanding protein thermal stability.
Karshikoff, Andrey; Nilsson, Lennart; Ladenstein, Rudolf
2015-10-01
The role of fluctuations in protein thermostability has recently received considerable attention. In the current literature a dualistic picture can be found: thermostability seems to be associated with enhanced rigidity of the protein scaffold in parallel with the reduction of flexible parts of the structure. In contradiction to such arguments it has been shown by experimental studies and computer simulation that thermal tolerance of a protein is not necessarily correlated with the suppression of internal fluctuations and mobility. Both concepts, rigidity and flexibility, are derived from mechanical engineering and represent temporally insensitive features describing static properties, neglecting that relative motion at certain time scales is possible in structurally stable regions of a protein. This suggests that a strict separation of rigid and flexible parts of a protein molecule does not describe the reality correctly. In this work the concepts of mobility/flexibility versus rigidity will be critically reconsidered by taking into account molecular dynamics calculations of heat capacity and conformational entropy, salt bridge networks, electrostatic interactions in folded and unfolded states, and the emerging picture of protein thermostability in view of recently developed network theories. Last, but not least, the influence of high temperature on the active site and activity of enzymes will be considered. PMID:26074325
The 2D lingual appliance system.
Cacciafesta, Vittorio
2013-09-01
The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938
Measurement of 2D birefringence distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguchi, Masato; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masahiro; Tachihara, Satoru
1992-10-01
A new measuring method of 2-D birefringence distribution has been developed. It has not been an easy job to get a birefringence distribution in an optical element with conventional ellipsometry because of its lack of scanning means. Finding an analogy between the rotating analyzer method in ellipsometry and the phase-shifting method in recently developed digital interferometry, we have applied the phase-shifting algorithm to ellipsometry, and have developed a new method that makes the measurement of 2-D birefringence distribution easy and possible. The system contains few moving parts, assuring reliability, and measures a large area of a sample at one time, making the measuring time very short.
Force Coefficients on Surging Rigid and Flexible Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael
2013-11-01
This study considers an aspect ratio 4 rigid flat plate and an aspect ratio 4.5 flexible wing, undergoing rectilinear motion in a water tunnel over several chord lengths at a Reynolds number of 20,000. Varying incidence angle, Reynolds number, and acceleration profile led to an extensive parameter study for both wings. Acceleration regions were linear with time and varied with distances of 0.25 to 6.0 chord-lengths. Measurements include lift and drag histories along with flow visualization of leading and trailing edge vortices throughout the entire motion by fluorescent dye injection illuminated by a laser sheet. A non-circulatory bump in lift coefficient at the end of the acceleration region was observed for each rigid wing case. The rigid wing also experienced a significant decrease in lift shortly after the wing reached its terminal velocity. This dip was followed by a second peak in lift around 6 chords traveled for every case, although the magnitudes differed among the acceleration profiles. Conversely, the flexible wing exhibited little to no non-circulatory peak at the end of acceleration and did not experience this dip and rise in lift. This study explores the influence of planform and chordwise flexibility on leading edge vortex formation, retention, and shedding.
Coupled rotor and fuselage equations of motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warmbrodt, W.
1979-01-01
The governing equations of motion of a helicopter rotor coupled to a rigid body fuselage are derived. A consistent formulation is used to derive nonlinear periodic coefficient equations of motion which are used to study coupled rotor/fuselage dynamics in forward flight. Rotor/fuselage coupling is documented and the importance of an ordering scheme in deriving nonlinear equations of motion is reviewed. The nature of the final equations and the use of multiblade coordinates are discussed.
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing
2016-03-01
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits. PMID:26813882
Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, Jan; Jain, Sanjay; Thorleifsson, Gudmar
1993-06-01
We investigate the fractal structure of 2d quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent γstring.
Observation of kinetic networks of hydrogen-bond exchange using 2D IR echo spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yung Sam; Hochstrasser, Robin M.
The ultrafast H-bond motion in acetonitrile/methanol and of methanol and water around a dicarbonyl (piperidone) dominates the mechanism of vibrational coherence transfer in linear and 2D IR echo spectra. Multiple state coherence transfer and energy transfer are seen at and between the two carbonyl groups of the piperidone in both water and methanol.
Minimum time attitude slewing maneuvers of a rigid spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.
1988-01-01
The minimum time attitude slewing motion of a rigid spacecraft with its controls provided by torques and forces, which have their upper and lower limits prescribed, is considered. The two-point boundary-value problem is derived by applying the Pontriagin's Maximum Principle to the system and solved by using a quasi-linearization algorithm. The nominal solutions to the problem as well as the starting values of the total slewing time and the unknown initial costates for this algorithm are generated by using Euler's eigenaxis rotation theorem. It is pointed out that one of the four initial costates associated with the quaternions can be arbitrarily selected without affecting the optimal controls and, thus, simplifying the computation. The minimum slewing time is determined by shortening the total slewing time until at least one of the controls becomes a bang-bang type. Several numerical tests for the rigidized SCOLE model are presented to show the applications of the methods.
A density-independent rigidity transition in biological tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa
2015-12-01
Cell migration is important in many biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell’s motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbours, leading to glassy dynamics. Although self-propelled particle models exhibit a density-driven glass transition, this does not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and therefore the density is constant. Here we demonstrate the existence of a new type of rigidity transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers at constant density. We find that the onset of rigidity is governed by a model parameter that encodes single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension, providing an explanation for liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues and making testable predictions about how these transitions differ from those in particulate matter.
An algorithm for studying rigidity in disordered 3D networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubynsky, M. V.; Thorpe, M. F.
2004-03-01
Some physical systems, such as covalent glasses and proteins, can be modeled as elastic networks, by dividing the interactions between particles into strong and weak, representing the former as constraints and neglecting the latter. For low enough connectivities, motions maintaining the constraints and thus having zero energy cost are possible. The goal of rigidity analysis is finding the number of such zero energy modes, the rigid clusters and flexible joints between them, as well as stressed bonds. For a certain class of networks there is a very fast graph-theoretical algorithm (the Pebble Game) for doing this analysis, but for more general networks, there are known counterexamples. While generalizing the Pebble Game is the ultimate goal, we propose a slower algorithm capable of doing all the same analyses as the Pebble Game but applicable to any networks. We discuss the applications of this algorithm to specific examples of 3D networks, such as diluted central force lattices, colloidal glasses and proteins.
PLAN2D - A PROGRAM FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF PLANAR FRAMES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, C.
1994-01-01
PLAN2D is a FORTRAN computer program for the plastic analysis of planar rigid frame structures. Given a structure and loading pattern as input, PLAN2D calculates the ultimate load that the structure can sustain before collapse. Element moments and plastic hinge rotations are calculated for the ultimate load. The location of hinges required for a collapse mechanism to form are also determined. The program proceeds in an iterative series of linear elastic analyses. After each iteration the resulting elastic moments in each member are compared to the reserve plastic moment capacity of that member. The member or members that have moments closest to their reserve capacity will determine the minimum load factor and the site where the next hinge is to be inserted. Next, hinges are inserted and the structural stiffness matrix is reformulated. This cycle is repeated until the structure becomes unstable. At this point the ultimate collapse load is calculated by accumulating the minimum load factor from each previous iteration and multiplying them by the original input loads. PLAN2D is based on the program STAN, originally written by Dr. E.L. Wilson at U.C. Berkeley. PLAN2D has several limitations: 1) Although PLAN2D will detect unloading of hinges it does not contain the capability to remove hinges; 2) PLAN2D does not allow the user to input different positive and negative moment capacities and 3) PLAN2D does not consider the interaction between axial and plastic moment capacity. Axial yielding and buckling is ignored as is the reduction in moment capacity due to axial load. PLAN2D is written in FORTRAN and is machine independent. It has been tested on an IBM PC and a DEC MicroVAX. The program was developed in 1988.
Portable device for quantifying parkinsonian wrist rigidity.
Caligiuri, M P
1994-01-01
The need for objectivity in the assessment of parkinsonism prompted the development of a portable transducer capable of quantifying muscular rigidity. This paper describes the development and use of a device for measuring wrist rigidity and reports the preliminary findings from 25 normal healthy controls and 29 patients, many of whom were undergoing antiparkinsonian treatment to alleviate rigidity or antipsychotic treatment, which produced parkinsonian rigidity. An objective rigidity score, representing the degree to which motor activity increases muscular stiffness in the wrist, correlates highly with clinical ratings of parkinsonian rigidity and demonstrates 89% specificity and 82% sensitivity. Unlike previous techniques for quantifying rigidity, this transducer offers greater portability and apparent face validity. PMID:7908119
2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy
Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.
2013-02-15
Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.
Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.
2015-12-01
In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.
Mei, Lei; Wang, Lin; Yuan, Li-yong; An, Shu-wen; Zhao, Yu-liang; Chai, Zhi-fang; Burns, Peter C; Shi, Wei-qun
2015-08-01
The assembly of two-dimensional (2D) large channel uranyl-organic polyrotaxane networks as well as structural regulation of uranyl-bearing units using jointed cucurbit[6]uril-based pseudorotaxanes with integral rigidity based on supramolecular inclusion is presented for the first time. This construction strategy concerning controlling molecular integral rigidity based on supramolecular inclusion may afford an entirely new methodology for coordination chemistry. PMID:26121567
Enhancement of biomixing by swimming cells in 2D films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollub, Jerry; Kurtuldu, Huseyin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Johnson, Karl
2011-11-01
Fluid mixing in active suspensions of microorganisms is important to ecological phenomena and shows surprising statistical behavior. We investigate the mixing produced by swimming unicellular algal cells (Chlamydomonas) in quasi-2D films by tracking the motions of cells and of microscopic passive tracer particles advected by the fluid. The reduced spatial dimension of the system leads to long-range flows and a surprisingly strong dependence of tracer transport on the swimmer concentration. The mean square displacements are well described by a stochastic Langevin model, with an effective diffusion coefficient D growing as the 3/2 power of the swimmer concentration, due to the interaction of tracer particles with multiple swimmers. We also discuss the anomalous probability distributions of tracer displacements, which become Gaussian at high concentration, but show strong power-law tails at low concentration. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0803153.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Rigid separator lead acid batteries
Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.
1996-11-01
Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.
Ureteroscopes: flexible, rigid, and semirigid.
Basillote, Jay B; Lee, David I; Eichel, Louis; Clayman, Ralph V
2004-02-01
Since its introduction, the ureteroscope has undergone significant improvements. Using the currently available rigid, semirigid, and flexible ureteroscopes and working instruments, urologists can diagnose and treat lesions throughout the upper urinary tract. Over the past 25 years, the ureteroscope in combination with shock wave lithotripsy has transformed the diagnosis and treatment of more than 90% of upper urinary tract pathology from an open to an endourologic procedure. With endoscope manufacturers continually incorporating new technology into their ureteroscopes, future models will undoubtedly provide better optics, increased durability, and improved capabilities, resulting in greater success when urologists perform endoscopic forays into the upper urinary tract. PMID:15040398
Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams
Frost, Charles B.
1985-01-01
A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.
Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams
Frost, C.B.
1984-05-18
A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.
Lubrication of rigid ellipsida solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1982-01-01
The influence of geometry on the isothermal hydrodynamic film separating two rigid solids was investigated. The minimum film thickness is derived for fully flooded conjunctions by using the Reynolds boundary conditions. It was found that the minimum film thickness had the same speed, viscosity, and load dependence as Kapitza' classical solution. However, the incorporation of Reynolds boundary conditions resulted in an additional geometry effect. Solutions using the parabolic film approximation are compared by using the exact expression for the film in the analysis. Contour plots are known that indicate in detail the pressure developed between the solids.
Numerical simulation of a moving rigid body in a rarefied gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Samir; Tiwari, Sudarshan; Klar, Axel; Hardt, Steffen
2015-07-01
In this paper we present a numerical scheme to simulate a moving rigid body with arbitrary shape suspended in a rarefied gas. The rarefied gas is simulated by solving the Boltzmann equation using a DSMC particle method. The motion of the rigid body is governed by the Newton-Euler equations, where the force and the torque on the rigid body are computed from the momentum transfer of the gas molecules colliding with the body. On the other hand, the motion of the rigid body influences the gas flow in its surroundings. We validate the numerical scheme by considering a moving piston problem in 1D and the Einstein relation for Brownian motion of the suspended particle in 3D. In the piston problem it is shown that the equilibrium position of the moving piston converges to the analytical solution for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. In the case of Brownian motion the translational as well as the rotational degrees of freedom are taken into account. In this case it is shown that the numerically computed translational and rotational diffusion coefficients converge to the theoretical values. Finally, the motion of an object of complex shape under the influence of a thermophoretic force is investigated.
Dynamic soil pressures on rigid cylindrical vaults
Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H )
1993-02-01
A critical evaluation is made of the dynamic pressures and the associated forces induced by ground shaking on an upright, circular, rigid vault that is embedded in a uniform viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and infinite extent in the horizontal plane. Both the vault and the stratum are presumed to be supported on a non- deformable base undergoing a space-invariant, uniform horizontal motion. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake-induced excitations are examined. Simple approximate expressions for the responses of the system are formulated, and comprehensive numerical data are presented which elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. The parameters investigated include the height to radius ratio for the vault, the conditions at the vault-medium interface, and the material properties of the stratum. In addition to valuable insights into the response of the particular system being examined, the results presented provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and interpretation of solutions for more involved systems as well.
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Maier, Andreas
2013-01-01
Purpose: Human subjects in standing positions are apt to show much more involuntary motion than in supine positions. The authors aimed to simulate a complicated realistic lower body movement using the four-dimensional (4D) digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom. The authors also investigated fiducial marker-based motion compensation methods in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. The level of involuntary movement-induced artifacts and image quality improvement were investigated after applying each method. Methods: An optical tracking system with eight cameras and seven retroreflective markers enabled us to track involuntary motion of the lower body of nine healthy subjects holding a squat position at 60° of flexion. The XCAT-based knee model was developed using the 4D XCAT phantom and the optical tracking data acquired at 120 Hz. The authors divided the lower body in the XCAT into six parts and applied unique affine transforms to each so that the motion (6 degrees of freedom) could be synchronized with the optical markers’ location at each time frame. The control points of the XCAT were tessellated into triangles and 248 projection images were created based on intersections of each ray and monochromatic absorption. The tracking data sets with the largest motion (Subject 2) and the smallest motion (Subject 5) among the nine data sets were used to animate the XCAT knee model. The authors defined eight skin control points well distributed around the knees as pseudo-fiducial markers which functioned as a reference in motion correction. Motion compensation was done in the following ways: (1) simple projection shifting in 2D, (2) deformable projection warping in 2D, and (3) rigid body warping in 3D. Graphics hardware accelerated filtered backprojection was implemented and combined with the three correction methods in order to speed up the simulation process. Correction fidelity was evaluated as a function of number of markers used (4–12) and
Metrics and connections for rigid-body kinematics
Zefran, M.; Kumar, V.; Croke, C.
1999-02-01
The set of rigid-body motions forms a Lie group called SE(3), the special Euclidean group in three dimensions. In this paper, the authors investigate possible choices of Riemannian metrics and affine connections on SE(3) for applications to kinematic analysis and robot-trajectory planning. In the first part of the paper, they study metrics whose geodesics are screw motions. They prove that no Riemannian metric can have such geodesics, and they show that the metrics whose geodesics are screw motions from a two-parameter family of semi-Riemannian metrics. In the second part of the paper, they investigate affine connections which through the covariant derivative give the correct expression for the acceleration of a rigid body. They prove that there is a unique symmetric connection with this property. Furthermore, they show that there is a family of Riemannian metrics that are compatible with such a connection. These metrics are products of the bi-invariant metric on the group of rotations and a positive-definite constant metric on the group of translations.
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Chen, Jinsong
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.
2016-07-01
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.
He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel
2016-07-01
A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan
1998-07-01
2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana
2003-05-01
We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.
2D materials: Graphene and others
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-01
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Mason, W.E.
1983-03-01
A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.
Tomosynthesis imaging with 2D scanning trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khare, Kedar; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.
2011-03-01
Tomosynthesis imaging in chest radiography provides volumetric information with the potential for improved diagnostic value when compared to the standard AP or LAT projections. In this paper we explore the image quality benefits of 2D scanning trajectories when coupled with advanced image reconstruction approaches. It is intuitively clear that 2D trajectories provide projection data that is more complete in terms of Radon space filling, when compared with conventional tomosynthesis using a linearly scanned source. Incorporating this additional information for obtaining improved image quality is, however, not a straightforward problem. The typical tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms are based on direct inversion methods e.g. Filtered Backprojection (FBP) or iterative algorithms that are variants of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART). The FBP approach is fast and provides high frequency details in the image but at the same time introduces streaking artifacts degrading the image quality. The iterative methods can reduce the image artifacts by using image priors but suffer from a slow convergence rate, thereby producing images lacking high frequency details. In this paper we propose using a fast converging optimal gradient iterative scheme that has advantages of both the FBP and iterative methods in that it produces images with high frequency details while reducing the image artifacts. We show that using favorable 2D scanning trajectories along with the proposed reconstruction method has the advantage of providing improved depth information for structures such as the spine and potentially producing images with more isotropic resolution.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.
Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells. PMID:25602462
Tongue Motion Averaging from Contour Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Min; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Stone, Maureen
2005-01-01
In this paper, a method to get the best representation of a speech motion from several repetitions is presented. Each repetition is a representation of the same speech captured at different times by sequence of ultrasound images and is composed of a set of 2D spatio-temporal contours. These 2D contours in different repetitions are time aligned…
2D superconductivity by ionic gating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Yoshi
2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially
Motion correction in MRI of the brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godenschweger, F.; Kägebein, U.; Stucht, D.; Yarach, U.; Sciarra, A.; Yakupov, R.; Lüsebrink, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.
2016-03-01
Subject motion in MRI is a relevant problem in the daily clinical routine as well as in scientific studies. Since the beginning of clinical use of MRI, many research groups have developed methods to suppress or correct motion artefacts. This review focuses on rigid body motion correction of head and brain MRI and its application in diagnosis and research. It explains the sources and types of motion and related artefacts, classifies and describes existing techniques for motion detection, compensation and correction and lists established and experimental approaches. Retrospective motion correction modifies the MR image data during the reconstruction, while prospective motion correction performs an adaptive update of the data acquisition. Differences, benefits and drawbacks of different motion correction methods are discussed.
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Domini, F.; Caudek, C.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)
1997-01-01
Accuracy in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion was investigated for orthographic projections of three-dimension rotating objects. In 3 experiments the hypothesis that magnitudes of angular velocity are misperceived in the kinetic depth effect was tested, and in 4 other experiments the hypothesis that misperceiving angular velocities leads to misperceiving rigidity was tested. The principal findings were (a) the magnitude of perceived angular velocity is derived heuristically as a function of a property of the first-order optic flow called deformation and (b) perceptual performance in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion is accurate in cases when the variability of the deformations of the individual triplets of points of the stimulus displays favors this interpretation and not accurate in other cases.
Rigidity and flexibility of biological networks.
Gáspár, Merse E; Csermely, Peter
2012-11-01
The network approach became a widely used tool to understand the behaviour of complex systems in the last decade. We start from a short description of structural rigidity theory. A detailed account on the combinatorial rigidity analysis of protein structures, as well as local flexibility measures of proteins and their applications in explaining allostery and thermostability is given. We also briefly discuss the network aspects of cytoskeletal tensegrity. Finally, we show the importance of the balance between functional flexibility and rigidity in protein-protein interaction, metabolic, gene regulatory and neuronal networks. Our summary raises the possibility that the concepts of flexibility and rigidity can be generalized to all networks. PMID:23165349
Mooring and ground handling rigid airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, H., Jr.
1975-01-01
The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.
Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-03-01
Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver
Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.
1995-12-01
Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.
2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin
2015-07-01
We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.
Use of interseismic GPS data: a novel way to evaluate the lithosphere rigidity variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furst, Severine; Peyret, Michel; Chéry, Jean; Mohammadi, Bijan
2016-04-01
Although the flexure of the lithosphere is well constrained using a simple secular cooling model in the ocean (Stewart and Watts, 1997), this mechanical parameter is not obvious to determine in the continents. One commonly estimates the flexural rigidity, expressed through the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere, by studying the lithosphere's vertical motion induced by long-term geological loads. Here, we suggest a similar approach, using the horizontal velocities to evaluate lateral rigidity variations. To illustrate our method, we select the Western United States zone, where areas with high rigidity (Sierra Nevada) are connected with others displaying low rigidities (San Andreas Fault). Our technique is based on an inversion problem, aiming to infer the effective rigidity from interseismic strain distribution measured by geodetic methods. The forward problem is defined using the equations of linear elasticity in a plane stress finite element code. This method involves the minimisation of a cost function defined as the quadratic measure of the differences between measured and modeled velocity fields on a discrete set of points. Gradient of the functional, with respect to the independent parameters of the model, is computed using an adjoint formulation. Thanks to this construction, the mapping of the rigidity can be fulfilled with a large number of parameters. The optimisation chart is validated first on synthetic velocity data sets corresponding to the surface motion of a screw dislocation with different locking depths. Then, the effective rigidity variations of the Western United States are estimated using a dense geodetic network. The inversion displays low effective rigidities along the San Andreas Fault and in the Eastern California Shear zone, while rigid areas are found in the Sierra Nevada and in the South Basin and Range. High rigidity values are strongly correlated with regions presenting small deformations and vice-versa. In addition to
Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts. [acoustic propagation within rigid walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostafinski, W.
1974-01-01
Investigation of the ability of circular bends to transmit acoustic energy flux. A formulation of wave-energy flow is developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies shows the ability of circular bends to transmit energy in the case of perfectly rigid walls.
Emergent Behavior in the Macro World: Rigidity of Granular Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Bulbul
2015-03-01
Diversity in the natural world emerges from the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting objects. The origin of collectively organized structures over the vast range of length scales from the subatomic to colloidal is the competition between energy and entropy. Thermal motion provides the mechanism for organization by allowing particles to explore the space of configurations. This well-established paradigm of emergent behavior breaks down for collections of macroscopic objects ranging from grains of sand to asteroids. In this macro-world of particulate systems, thermal motion is absent, and mechanical forces are all important. We lack understanding of the basic, unifying principles that underlie the emergence of order in this world. In this talk, I will explore the origin of rigidity of granular solids, and present a new paradigm for emergence of order in these athermal systems. This work has been supported by NSF-DMR 1409093 and by the W. M. Keck foundation
Formation and properties of a terpyridine-based 2D MOF on the surface of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koitz, Ralph; Hutter, Jürg; Iannuzzi, Marcella
2016-06-01
Two-dimensional networks inspired by graphene are of prime importance in nanoscience. We present a computational study of an infinite molecular sheet confined on a water surface to assess its properties and formation mechanism. Terpyridine-based ligand molecules are interlinked by Zn ions to form an extended 2D metal-organic framework. We show that the network is stable on the water surface, and that the substrate affects the dynamic properties of the sheet, exhibiting a confining effect and flattening the sheet by 30%. We use metadynamics to characterize the process of network formation and breaking and determine an intra-network binding energy of 143 kJ mol‑1. Based on this mechanistic insight we propose that the 2D network strength can be tuned by varying the rigidity of the ligand through its chemical structure.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanbin
Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.
Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobden, David
Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2
Validation and Comparison of Approaches to Respiratory Motion Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabus, Sven; Klinder, Tobias; Murphy, Keelin; Werner, René; Sarrut, David
The accuracy of respiratory motion estimation has a direct impact on the success of clinical applications such as diagnosis, as well as planning, delivery, and assessment of therapy for lung or other thoracic diseases. While rigid registration is well suited to validation and has reached a mature state in clinical applications, for non-rigid registration no gold-standard exists. This chapter investigates the validation of non-rigid registration accuracy with a focus on lung motion. The central questions addressed in this chapter are (1) how to measure registration accuracy, (2) how to generate ground-truth for validation, and (3) how to interpret accuracy assessment results.
A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.
2011-01-01
A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.
The Rigid Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
ten Berge, Jos M. F.
2006-01-01
The problem of rotating a matrix orthogonally to a best least squares fit with another matrix of the same order has a closed-form solution based on a singular value decomposition. The optimal rotation matrix is not necessarily rigid, but may also involve a reflection. In some applications, only rigid rotations are permitted. Gower (1976) has…
21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....
21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....
21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....
21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....
21 CFR 868.5540 - Rigid laryngoscope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid laryngoscope. 868.5540 Section 868.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5540 Rigid laryngoscope. (a) Identification....
Rigid fibrous ceramics for entry systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banas, Ronald P.
1993-01-01
The topics addressed are: (1) high payoff areas with reusable surface insulation; (2) technology opportunities/gap; (3) coatings for rigid fibrous ceramics; (4) challenges for reusable rigid fibrous ceramics - Lunar/Mars aerobraking heatshield; (5) comparison of LI-900 and HTP properties; and (6) comparison of microstructures.
Unbiased rigid registration using transfer functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Dieter A.; Hornegger, Joachim; Bautz, Werner; Kuwert, Torsten; Roemer, Wolfgang
2005-04-01
The evaluation of tumor growth as regression under therapy is an important clinical issue. Rigid registration of sequentially acquired 3D-images has proven its value for this purpose. Existing approaches to rigid image registration use the whole volume for the estimation of the rigid transform. Non-rigid soft tissue deformation, however, will imply a bias to the registration result, because local deformations cannot be modeled by rigid transforms. Anatomical substructures, like bones or teeth, are not affected by these deformations, but follow a rigid transform. This important observation is incorporated in the proposed registration algorithm. The selection of anatomical substructure is done by manual interaction of medical experts adjusting the transfer function of the volume rendering software. The parameters of the transfer function are used to identify the voxels that are considered for registration. A rigid transform is estimated by a quaternion gradient descent algorithm based on the intensity values of the specified tissue classes. Commonly used voxel intensity measures are adjusted to the modified registration algorithm. The contribution describes the mathematical framework of the proposed registration method and its implementation in a commercial software package. The experimental evaluation includes the discussion of different similarity measures, the comparison of the proposed method to established rigid registration techniques and the evaluation of the efficiency of the new method. We conclude with the discussion of potential medical applications of the proposed registration algorithm.
Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity Computer Program: Theory, Software Description and Example
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.
2001-01-01
The access of charged particles to the earth from space through the geomagnetic field has been of interest since the discovery of the cosmic radiation. The early cosmic ray measurements found that cosmic ray intensity was ordered by the magnetic latitude and the concept of cutoff rigidity was developed. The pioneering work of Stoermer resulted in the theory of particle motion in the geomagnetic field, but the fundamental mathematical equations developed have 'no solution in closed form'. This difficulty has forced researchers to use the 'brute force' technique of numerical integration of individual trajectories to ascertain the behavior of trajectory families or groups. This requires that many of the trajectories must be traced in order to determine what energy (or rigidity) a charged particle must have to penetrate the magnetic field and arrive at a specified position. It turned out the cutoff rigidity was not a simple quantity but had many unanticipated complexities that required many hundreds if not thousands of individual trajectory calculations to solve. The accurate calculation of particle trajectories in the earth's magnetic field is a fundamental problem that limited the efficient utilization of cosmic ray measurements during the early years of cosmic ray research. As the power of computers has improved over the decades, the numerical integration procedure has grown more tractable, and magnetic field models of increasing accuracy and complexity have been utilized. This report is documentation of a general FORTRAN computer program to trace the trajectory of a charged particle of a specified rigidity from a specified position and direction through a model of the geomagnetic field.
The influence of pressure on the structure of a 2D uranium(VI) carboxyphosphonoate compound
Spencer, Elinor C.; Ross, Nancy L.; Surbella, Robert G.; Cahill, Christopher L.
2014-10-15
We report the first quantitative analysis of the structural evolution of a uranyl bearing coordination polymer in response to pressure. The material that is central to this study, (UO{sub 2})(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CO{sub 2}H) (1), is constructed from rigid 2D inorganic layers comprising edge sharing UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids cross-linked by [PO{sub 3}(COOH)]{sup 2−} anions. Strong hydrogen bonding interactions exist between the pendent carboxylic acid groups on adjacent layers. Under pressure, 1 exhibits compressional behaviour primarily in the direction perpendicular to the inorganic layers, which is aided by a reduction in the interlayer distance and shifting of the layers with respect to each other. The bulk modulus for the 2D compound 1 is unexpectedly high [18.1(1) GPa] and is within the range reported for 3D CPs assembled from Zn{sup II} cations and inflexible imidazolate anions, and is at the lower end of the range of moduli observed for aluminosilicate zeolites (19–59 GPa). - Graphical Abstract: The compression mechanism and elastic constants for a 2D Uranium(VI) carboxyphosphonoate compound are reported. - Highlights: • The response to pressure of a uranium carboxyphosphonoate compound has been studied. • High-pressure single-crystal XRD data for this 2D uranium compound were collected. • Elastic constants for this material have been determined. • The compression mechanism for the compound has been elucidated.
Tendon strain imaging using non-rigid image registration: a validation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Nuno M.; Slagmolen, Pieter; Barbosa, Daniel; Scheys, Lennart; Geukens, Leonie; Fukagawa, Shingo; Peers, Koen; Bellemans, Johan; Suetens, Paul; D'Hooge, Jan
2012-03-01
Ultrasound image has already been proved to be a useful tool for non-invasive strain quantifications in soft tissue. While clinical applications only include cardiac imaging, the development of techniques suitable for musculoskeletal system is an active area of research. On this study, a technique for speckle tracking on ultrasound images using non-rigid image registration is presented. This approach is based on a single 2D+t registration procedure, in which the temporal changes on the B-mode speckle patterns are locally assessed. This allows estimating strain from ultrasound image sequences of tissues under deformation while imposing temporal smoothness in the deformation field, originating smooth strain curves. METHODS: The tracking algorithm was systematically tested on synthetic images and gelatin phantoms, under sinusoidal deformations with amplitudes between 0.5% and 4.0%, at frequencies between 0.25Hz and 2.0Hz. Preliminary tests were also performed on Achilles tendons isolated from human cadavers. RESULTS: The strain was estimated with deviations of -0.011%+/-0.053% on the synthetic images and agreements of +/-0.28% on the phantoms. Some tests with real tendons show good tracking results. However, significant variability between the trials still exists. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed image registration methodology constitutes a robust tool for motion and deformation tracking in both simulated and real phantom data. Strain estimation in both cases reveals that the proposed method is accurate and provides good precision. Although the ex-vivo results are still preliminary, the potential of the proposed algorithm is promising. This suggests that further improvements, together with systematic testing, can lead to in-vivo and clinical applications.
Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang
As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.
Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolkovska, Natalia
2016-02-01
A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani
2016-01-01
Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
2013-09-01
The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:23672590
Gordon, R.G. )
1991-01-01
The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.
Planar dynamics of a uniform beam with rigid bodies affixed to the ends
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storch, J.; Gates, S.
1983-01-01
The planar dynamics of a uniform elastic beam subject to a variety of geometric and natural boundary conditions and external excitations were analyzed. The beams are inextensible and capable of small transverse bending deformations only. Classical beam vibration eigenvalue problems for a cantilever with tip mass, a cantilever with tip body and an unconstrained beam with rigid bodies at each are examined. The characteristic equations, eigenfunctions and orthogonality relations for each are derived. The forced vibration of a cantilever with tip body subject to base acceleration is analyzed. The exact solution of the governing nonhomogeneous partial differential equation with time dependent boundary conditions is presented and compared with a Rayleigh-Ritz approximate solution. The arbitrary planar motion of an elastic beam with rigid bodies at the ends is addressed. Equations of motion are derived for two modal expansions of the beam deflection. The motion equations are cast in a first order form suitable for numerical integration. Selected FORTRAN programs are provided.
Non-rigid registration of multiphoton microscopy images using B-splines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Kevin S.; Salama, Paul; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Delp, Edward J.
2011-03-01
Optical microscopy poses many challenges for digital image analysis. One particular challenge includes correction of image artifacts due to respiratory motion from specimens imaged in vivo. We describe a non-rigid registration method using B-splines to correct these motion artifacts. Current attempts at non-rigid medical image registration have typically involved only a single pair of images. Extending these techniques to an entire series of images, possibly comprising hundreds of images, is presented in this paper. Our method involves creating a uniform grid of control points across each image in a stack. Each control point is manipulated by optimizing a cost function consisting of two parts: a term to determine image similarity, and a term to evaluate deformation grid smoothness. This process is repeated for all images in the stack. Analysis is evaluated using block motion estimation and other visualization techniques.
Snapshot 2D tomography via coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging
MacCabe, Kenneth P.; Holmgren, Andrew D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Brady, David J.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a fan beam coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging system which acquires a tomographic image from each snapshot. This technique exploits cylindrical symmetry of the scattering cross section to avoid the scanning motion typically required by projection tomography. We use a coded aperture with a harmonic dependence to determine range, and a shift code to determine cross-range. Here we use a forward-scatter configuration to image 2D objects and use serial exposures to acquire tomographic video of motion within a plane. Our reconstruction algorithm also estimates the angular dependence of the scattered radiance, a step toward materials imaging and identification. PMID:23842254
Asymptotic Solutions of Detonation Propagation in a 2D Circular Arc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Short, Mark; Meyer, Chad; Quirk, James
2015-11-01
The large pressure of the product gas generated by detonating high explosives causes lateral motion of the explosive at the material interface between the explosive and its confinement. In turn, this leads to streamline divergence and curvature of the detonation front (typically in a divergent fashion). The propagation of a detonation front in a given geometry depends on the amount of curvature generated. Here we describe an asymptotic analysis of detonation propagation in a 2D circular arc, examining dependencies of the motion on the size of the inner and outer arc radii, and the relation between the detonation velocity and curvature for different types of explosive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Qiyuan; Isobe, Keisuke; Hirosawa, Kenichi; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Kannari, Fumihiko
2015-03-01
Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) multiphoton microscopy offers us widefield imaging with sectioning ability. As extending the idea to 2D SSTF, people can utilize a 2D spectral disperser. In this study, we use a 2D spectral disperser via a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA) and a diffraction grating to fulfill the back aperture of objective lens with a spectrum matrix. This offers us an axial resolution enhanced by a factor of ~1.7 compared with conventional SSTF microscopy. Furthermore, the small free spectral range (FSR) of VIPA will reduce the temporal self-imaging effect around out-of-focus region and thus will reduce the out-of-focus multiphoton excited fluorescence (MPEF) signal of 2D SSTF microscopy. We experimentally show that inside a sample with dense MPEF, the contrast of the sectioning image is increased in our 2D SSTF microscope compared with SSTF microscope. In our microscope, we use a 1 kHz chirped amplification laser, a piezo stage and a sCMOS camera integrated with 2D SSTF to realize high speed volume imaging at a speed of 50 volumes per second as well as improved sectioning ability. Volume imaging of Brownian motions of fluorescent beads as small as 1μm has been demonstrated. Not only the lateral motion but also the axial motion could be traced.
Nonrigid point registration for 2D curves and 3D surfaces and its various applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hesheng; Fei, Baowei
2013-06-01
A nonrigid B-spline-based point-matching (BPM) method is proposed to match dense surface points. The method solves both the point correspondence and nonrigid transformation without features extraction. The registration method integrates a motion model, which combines a global transformation and a B-spline-based local deformation, into a robust point-matching framework. The point correspondence and deformable transformation are estimated simultaneously by fuzzy correspondence and by a deterministic annealing technique. Prior information about global translation, rotation and scaling is incorporated into the optimization. A local B-spline motion model decreases the degrees of freedom for optimization and thus enables the registration of a larger number of feature points. The performance of the BPM method has been demonstrated and validated using synthesized 2D and 3D data, mouse MRI and micro-CT images. The proposed BPM method can be used to register feature point sets, 2D curves, 3D surfaces and various image data.
Simulation of the flow and mass transfer for KDP crystals undergoing 2D translation during growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chuan; Li, Mingwei; Hu, Zhitao; Yin, Huawei; Wang, Bangguo; Cui, Qidong
2016-09-01
In this study, a novel motion mode for crystals during growth, i.e., 2D translation, is proposed. Numerical simulations of flow and mass transfer are conducted for the growth of large-scale potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals subjected to the new motion mode. Surface supersaturation and shear stress are obtained as functions of the translational velocity, distance, size, orientation of crystals. The dependence of these two parameters on the flow fields around the crystals is also discussed. The thicknesses of the solute boundary layer varied with translational velocity are described. The characteristics of solution flow and surface supersaturation distribution are summarized, where it suggests that the morphological stability of a crystal surface can be enhanced if the proposed 2D translation is applied to crystal growth.
Propagator-resolved 2D exchange in porous media in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.
Burcaw, Lauren M; Hunter, Mark W; Callaghan, Paul T
2010-08-01
We present a propagator-resolved 2D exchange spectroscopy technique for observing fluid motion in a porous medium. The susceptibility difference between the matrix and the fluid is exploited to produce an inhomogeneous internal magnetic field, causing the Larmor frequency to change as molecules migrate. We test our method using a randomly packed monodisperse 100 microm diameter glass bead matrix saturated with distilled water. Building upon previous 2D exchange spectroscopy work we add a displacement dimension which allows us to obtain 2D exchange spectra that are defined by both mixing time and spatial displacement rather than by mixing time alone. We also simulate our system using a Monte Carlo process in a random nonpenetrating monodisperse bead pack, finding good agreement with experiment. A simple analytic model is used to interpret the NMR data in terms of a characteristic length scale over which molecules must diffuse to sample the inhomogeneous field distribution. PMID:20554230
Studies on the dynamics of vacuum encapsulated 2D MEMS scanners by laser Doppler vibrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janes, Joachim; Hofmann, Ulrich
2014-03-01
2D MEMS scanners are used for e.g. Laser projection purposes or Lidar applications. Electrostatically driven resonant torsional oscillations of both axes of the scanners lead to Lissajous trajectories for Laser beams reflected from the micro mirror. Wafer level vacuum encapsulation with tilt glass capping ensures high angular amplitudes at low driving voltages additionally preventing environmental impacts. Applying Laser Doppler Vibrometry, the effect of residual gas friction, squeezed film damping and internal friction on 2D MEMS scanners is analyzed by measuring the Q-values associated with the torsional oscillations. Vibrometry is also used to analyze the oscillatory motion of the micro mirror and the gimbal of the scanners. Excited modes of the scanner structures are identified giving rise to coupling effects influencing the scanning performance of the 2D MEMS mirrors.
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
Plane stress problems using hysteretic rigid body spring network models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christos, Sofianos D.; Vlasis, Koumousis K.
2016-08-01
In this work, a discrete numerical scheme is presented capable of modeling the hysteretic behavior of 2D structures. Rigid Body Spring Network (RBSN) models that were first proposed by Kawai (Nucl Eng Des 48(1):29-207, 1978) are extended to account for hysteretic elastoplastic behavior. Discretization is based on Voronoi tessellation, as proposed specifically for RBSN models to ensure uniformity. As a result, the structure is discretized into convex polygons that form the discrete rigid bodies of the model. These are connected with three zero length, i.e., single-node springs in the middle of their common facets. The springs follow the smooth hysteretic Bouc-Wen model which efficiently incorporates classical plasticity with no direct reference to a yield surface. Numerical results for both static and dynamic loadings are presented, which validate the proposed simplified spring-mass formulation. In addition, they verify the model's applicability on determining primarily the displacement field and plastic zones compared to the standard elastoplastic finite element method.
Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.
Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D
2016-08-01
Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320
Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession
Hestenes, D.
1986-06-01
The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived.
Equations of motion of a space station with emphasis on the effects of the gravity gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuell, L. P.
1987-01-01
The derivation of the equations of motion is based upon the principle of virtual work. As developed, these equations apply only to a space vehicle whose physical model consists of a rigid central carrier supporting several flexible appendages (not interconnected), smaller rigid bodies, and point masses. Clearly evident in the equations is the respect paid to the influence of the Earth's gravity field, considerably more than has been the custom in simulating vehicle motion. The effect of unpredictable crew motion is ignored.
Auto-masked 2D/3D image registration and its validation with clinical cone-beam computed tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steininger, P.; Neuner, M.; Weichenberger, H.; Sharp, G. C.; Winey, B.; Kametriser, G.; Sedlmayer, F.; Deutschmann, H.
2012-07-01
Image-guided alignment procedures in radiotherapy aim at minimizing discrepancies between the planned and the real patient setup. For that purpose, we developed a 2D/3D approach which rigidly registers a computed tomography (CT) with two x-rays by maximizing the agreement in pixel intensity between the x-rays and the corresponding reconstructed radiographs from the CT. Moreover, the algorithm selects regions of interest (masks) in the x-rays based on 3D segmentations from the pre-planning stage. For validation, orthogonal x-ray pairs from different viewing directions of 80 pelvic cone-beam CT (CBCT) raw data sets were used. The 2D/3D results were compared to corresponding standard 3D/3D CBCT-to-CT alignments. Outcome over 8400 2D/3D experiments showed that parametric errors in root mean square were <0.18° (rotations) and <0.73 mm (translations), respectively, using rank correlation as intensity metric. This corresponds to a mean target registration error, related to the voxels of the lesser pelvis, of <2 mm in 94.1% of the cases. From the results we conclude that 2D/3D registration based on sequentially acquired orthogonal x-rays of the pelvis is a viable alternative to CBCT-based approaches if rigid alignment on bony anatomy is sufficient, no volumetric intra-interventional data set is required and the expected error range fits the individual treatment prescription.
Auto-masked 2D/3D image registration and its validation with clinical cone-beam computed tomography.
Steininger, P; Neuner, M; Weichenberger, H; Sharp, G C; Winey, B; Kametriser, G; Sedlmayer, F; Deutschmann, H
2012-07-01
Image-guided alignment procedures in radiotherapy aim at minimizing discrepancies between the planned and the real patient setup. For that purpose, we developed a 2D/3D approach which rigidly registers a computed tomography (CT) with two x-rays by maximizing the agreement in pixel intensity between the x-rays and the corresponding reconstructed radiographs from the CT. Moreover, the algorithm selects regions of interest (masks) in the x-rays based on 3D segmentations from the pre-planning stage. For validation, orthogonal x-ray pairs from different viewing directions of 80 pelvic cone-beam CT (CBCT) raw data sets were used. The 2D/3D results were compared to corresponding standard 3D/3D CBCT-to-CT alignments. Outcome over 8400 2D/3D experiments showed that parametric errors in root mean square were <0.18° (rotations) and <0.73 mm (translations), respectively, using rank correlation as intensity metric. This corresponds to a mean target registration error, related to the voxels of the lesser pelvis, of <2 mm in 94.1% of the cases. From the results we conclude that 2D/3D registration based on sequentially acquired orthogonal x-rays of the pelvis is a viable alternative to CBCT-based approaches if rigid alignment on bony anatomy is sufficient, no volumetric intra-interventional data set is required and the expected error range fits the individual treatment prescription. PMID:22705709
Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method
Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao
2016-01-01
This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures. PMID:27513661
Numerical Simulation of Dry Granular Flow Impacting a Rigid Wall Using the Discrete Element Method.
Wu, Fengyuan; Fan, Yunyun; Liang, Li; Wang, Chao
2016-01-01
This paper presents a clump model based on Discrete Element Method. The clump model was more close to the real particle than a spherical particle. Numerical simulations of several tests of dry granular flow impacting a rigid wall flowing in an inclined chute have been achieved. Five clump models with different sphericity have been used in the simulations. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results of normal force on the rigid wall, a clump model with better sphericity was selected to complete the following numerical simulation analysis and discussion. The calculation results of normal force showed good agreement with the experimental results, which verify the effectiveness of the clump model. Then, total normal force and bending moment of the rigid wall and motion process of the granular flow were further analyzed. Finally, comparison analysis of the numerical simulations using the clump model with different grain composition was obtained. By observing normal force on the rigid wall and distribution of particle size at the front of the rigid wall at the final state, the effect of grain composition on the force of the rigid wall has been revealed. It mainly showed that, with the increase of the particle size, the peak force at the retaining wall also increase. The result can provide a basis for the research of relevant disaster and the design of protective structures. PMID:27513661
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varnai, T.
2012-01-01
Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.
Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.
Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z
2016-03-01
Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse. PMID:26988702
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950
Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua
2015-11-01
Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).
Parallel map analysis on 2-D grids
Berry, M.; Comiskey, J.; Minser, K.
1993-12-31
In landscape ecology, computer modeling is used to assess habitat fragmentation and its ecological iMPLications. Specifically, maps (2-D grids) of habitat clusters must be analyzed to determine number, sizes and geometry of clusters. Models prior to this study relied upon sequential Fortran-77 programs which limited the sizes of maps and densities of clusters which could be analyzed. In this paper, we present more efficient computer models which can exploit recursion or parallelism. Significant improvements over the original Fortran-77 programs have been achieved using both recursive and nonrecursive C implementations on a variety of workstations such as the Sun Sparc 2, IBM RS/6000-350, and HP 9000-750. Parallel implementations on a 4096-processor MasPar MP-1 and a 32-processor CM-5 are also studied. Preliminary experiments suggest that speed improvements for the parallel model on the MasPar MP-1 (written in MPL) and on the CM-5 (written in C using CMMD) can be as much as 39 and 34 times faster, respectively, than the most efficient sequential C program on a Sun Sparc 2 for a 512 map. An important goal in this research effort is to produce a scalable map analysis algorithm for the identification and characterization of clusters for relatively large maps on massively-parallel computers.
2D Turbulence with Complicated Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roullet, G.; McWilliams, J. C.
2014-12-01
We examine the consequences of lateral viscous boundary layers on the 2D turbulence that arises in domains with complicated boundaries (headlands, bays etc). The study is carried out numerically with LES. The numerics are carefully designed to ensure all global conservation laws, proper boundary conditions and a minimal range of dissipation scales. The turbulence dramatically differs from the classical bi-periodic case. Boundary layer separations lead to creation of many small vortices and act as a continuing energy source exciting the inverse cascade of energy throughout the domain. The detachments are very intermittent in time. In free decay, the final state depends on the effective numerical resolution: laminar with a single dominant vortex for low Re and turbulent with many vortices for large enough Re. After very long time, the turbulent end-state exhibits a striking tendency for the emergence of shielded vortices which then interact almost elastically. In the forced case, the boundary layers allow the turbulence to reach a statistical steady state without any artificial hypo-viscosity or other large-scale dissipation. Implications are discussed for the oceanic mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
2-D wavelet with position controlled resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Andrzej; Puzio, Leszek
2005-09-01
Wavelet transformation localizes all irregularities in the scene. It is most effective in the case when intensities in the scene have no sharp details. It is the case often present in a medical imaging. To identify the shape one has to extract it from the scene as typical irregularity. When the scene does not contain sharp changes then common differential filters are not efficient tool for a shape extraction. The new 2-D wavelet for such task has been proposed. Described wavelet transform is axially symmetric and has varied scale in dependence on the distance from the centre of the wavelet symmetry. The analytical form of the wavelet has been presented as well as its application for details extraction in the scene. Most important feature of the wavelet transform is that it gives a multi-scale transformation, and if zoom is on the wavelet selectivity varies proportionally to the zoom step. As a result, the extracted shape does not change during zoom operation. What is more the wavelet selectivity can be fit to the local intensity gradient properly to obtain best extraction of the irregularities.
Getino, J.; Miguel, D.; Escapa, A.
2010-05-15
This paper is the first part of an investigation where we will present an analytical general theory of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth at the second order, which considers the effects of the interaction of the rotation of the Earth with itself, also named as the spin-spin coupling. Here, and as a necessary step in the development of that theory, we derive complete, explicit, analytical formulae of the rigid Earth rotation that account for the second-order rotation-rotation interaction. These expressions are not provided in this form by any current rigid Earth model. Working within the Hamiltonian framework established by Kinoshita, we study the second-order effects arising from the interaction of the main term in the Earth geopotential expansion with itself, and with the complementary term arising when referring the rotational motion to the moving ecliptic. To this aim, we apply a canonical perturbation method to solve analytically the canonical equations at the second order, determining the expressions that provide the nutation-precession, the polar motion, and the length of day. In the case of the motion of the equatorial plane, nutation-precession, we compare our general approach with the particular study for this motion developed by Souchay et al., showing the existence of new terms whose numerical values are within the truncation level of 0.1 {mu}as adopted by those authors. These terms emerge as a consequence of not assuming in this work the same restrictive simplifications taken by Souchay et al. The importance of these additional contributions is that, as the analytical formulae show, they depend on the Earth model considered, in such a way that the fluid core resonance could amplify them significatively when extending this theory to the non-rigid Earth models.
Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities.
Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan
2004-12-17
We evaluate thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/ square root Hz (0.01 Hz/ square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results. PMID:15697887
Physical pendulum—a simple experiment can give comprehensive information about a rigid body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kladivová, Mária; Mucha, L'ubomír
2014-03-01
A simple experiment with a physical pendulum examining some aspects of rigid body motion is presented in this paper. The experiment consists of measuring the period of oscillation of a rod with non-homogeneous mass distribution used as a physical pendulum, dependent upon the position of the pivot axis. The obtained dependence provides sufficient information to calculate the position of the centre of mass, moment of inertia of the rigid body and local gravitational acceleration. This experiment is intended for secondary school and undergraduate students.
Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya
2014-06-01
This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.
What carries heat in novel 2D semiconductors?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
When materials are scaled down to the microscopic scale, or when dimensionality is reduced, thermal transport exhibits new intriguing behaviors that are not present in conventional bulk crystals. While phonons are typically considered to be the excitations responsible for carrying heat through a crystal, as dimensionality is reduced, the motion of phonons driven by a temperature perturbation becomes correlated, and collective excitations of many phonons arise. This leads to a wealth of complex phenomena, such as very high thermal conductivity (the highest known conductivities are indeed found in 2D materials), or wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound, hitherto found only in a few exotic materials at cryogenic temperatures, routinely present at room temperature. In this contribution, we show that heat transport in crystals can be described exactly with the kinetic theory of a gas of collective phonon excitations, termed relaxons. In this way, it is possible to recover a microscopic interpretation based on mean free paths and relaxation times without any simplification of the linearised phonon Boltzmann equation.
Control of the rigid body and dynamics with symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lum, Kai-Yew
This dissertation explores various problems in the control of the rigid body and related dynamical systems with symmetry, utilizing various modeling approaches and control techniques. We first derive a control law that asymptotically stabilizes an unbalanced top to the sleeping motion. We rewrite the classical Euler-Poisson equations by projecting the phase space onto IRsp5. The control law is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory with zero dynamics and partial stability. Lyapunov techniques are used in the analysis. Next, the control of rotor imbalance with magnetic bearings is considered in the adaptive virtual autobalancing and adaptive autocentering approaches. We derive single-plane and two-plane balancing control algorithms that provide asymptotic estimates of the rotor imbalance, and that guarantee consistent performance under varying spin rate. These algorithms are based on emulation of the mechanical autobalancer. We discuss the theory based on linear analysis, and simulation and experimental results. We go on to investigate symmetry properties associated with mechanical control systems and certain nonlinear control systems. First, we generalize the classical Serret-Andoyer transformation for the free rigid body to left-invariant, hyperregular Hamiltonian systems on Tsp*SO(3), employing the notion of symplectic (Marsden-Weinstein) reduction. We then apply this result to the controlled rigid body, and show that for Hamiltonian controls that preserve the rigid body structure, the generalized Serret-Andoyer transformation yields a two dimensional representation of the closed-loop motion in canonical form. Applications to the stability analysis of relative equilibria and numerical integration are also discussed. Finally, we apply the concept of reduction to certain regulation problems on smooth manifolds. Following the works of Van der Schaft (1981) and Grizzle and Marcus (1985), we show that an output feedback regulation problem possessing certain
SinoCor: motion correction in SPECT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Debasis; Eiland, Daniel; Abdallah, Mahmoud; Bouthcko, Rostyslav; Gullberg, Grant T.; Schechtmann, Norberto
2012-02-01
Motion is a serious artifact in Cardiac nuclear imaging because the scanning operation takes a long time. Since reconstruction algorithms assume consistent or stationary data the quality of resulting image is affected by motion, sometimes significantly. Even after adoption of the gold standard MoCo(R) algorithm from Cedars-Sinai by most vendors, heart motion remains a significant challenge. Also, any serious study in quantitative analysis necessitates correction for motion artifacts. It is generally recognized that human eye is a very sensitive tool for detecting motion. However, two reasons prevent such manual correction: (1) it is costly in terms of specialist's time, and (2) no such tool for manual correction is available currently. Previously, at SPIE-MIC'11, we presented a simple tool (SinoCor) that allows sinograms to be corrected manually or automatically. SinoCor performs correction of sinograms containing inter-frame patient or respiratory motions using rigid-body dynamics. The software is capable of detecting the patient motion and estimating the body-motion vector using scanning geometry parameters. SinoCor applies appropriate geometrical correction to all the frames subsequent to the frame when the movement has occurred in a manual or automated mode. For respiratory motion, it is capable of automatically smoothing small oscillatory (frame-wise local) movements. Lower order image moments are used to represent a frame and the required rigid body movement compensation is computed accordingly. Our current focus is on enhancement of SinoCor with the capability to automatically detect and compensate for intra-frame motion that causes motion blur on the respective frame. Intra-frame movements are expected in both patient and respiratory motions. For a controlled study we also have developed a motion simulator. A stable version of SinoCor is available under license from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balchunas, Andrew; Cabanas, Rafael; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir
Previous work has shown that monodisperse rod-like colloidal particles, such as a filamentous bacteriophage, self assemble into a 2D monolayer smectic in the presence of a non-adsorbing depleting polymer. These structures have the same functional form of bending rigidity and lateral compressibility as conventional lipid bi-layers, so we name the monolayer smectic a colloidal membrane. We have developed a microfluidic device such that the osmotic pressure acting on a colloidal membrane may be controlled via a full in situ buffer exchange. Rod density within individual colloidal membranes was measured as a function of osmotic pressure and a first order phase transition, from 2D fluid to 2D solid, was observed. kon and koff rates of rod to membrane binding were measured by lowering the osmotic pressure until membrane evaporation occurred.
Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Degertekin, Muzaffer
2013-10-15
Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for patient data; and
Quantifying “the aperture problem” for judgments of motion direction in natural scenes
Kane, David; Bex, Peter; Dakin, Steven
2013-01-01
The response of motion-selective neurons in primary visual cortex is ambiguous with respect to the two-dimensional (2D) velocity of spatially extensive objects. To investigate how local neural activity is integrated in the computation of global motion, we asked observers to judge the direction of a rigidly translating natural scene viewed through 16 apertures. We report a novel relative oblique effect: local contour orientations parallel or orthogonal to the direction of motion yield more precise and less biased estimates of direction than other orientations. This effect varies inversely with the local orientation variance of the natural scenes. Analysis of contour orientations across aperture pairings extends previous research on plaids and indicates that observers are biased toward the faster moving contour for Type I pairings. Finally, we show that observers’ bias and precision as a function of the orientation statistics of natural scenes can be accounted for by an interaction between naturally arising anisotropies in natural scenes and a template model of MT that is optimally tuned for isotropic stimuli. PMID:21454854
On the Rigidity in Bending of a Sandwich with Thick CFRP Facings and Thin Soft Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprino, G.; Iaccarino, P.; Langella, A.; Lamboglia, A.
2009-06-01
Flexure tests in three-point bending were performed in the elastic domain on sandwich specimens whose facings were made of T800H/3900-2 laminates, and the core by a soft rubbery layer. The contribution of the shear and flexural deformations to the overall deflection was varied by varying the slenderness ratio. The rigidities yielded by the load-displacement curve were corrected for the indentation occurring at the points of load introduction, using an experimentally determined calibration curve. Due to the thinness of the sandwich, indentation negligibly affected the precision of the results, with the apparent rigidities differing from the actual ones by less than 2%. By an analytical formula previously developed for sandwich structures, a prediction of the rigidities in flexure was attempted, adopting elastic constants available in the literature. The correlation with the data points was poor, with the theoretical results largely overestimating the actual rigidities. However, the reliability of the closed-form formula was supported by finite element analysis, carried out modelling the facings by 2D plate elements, and the core by 3D brick elements. Through the formula, the core shear modulus was individuated as responsible of the discrepancies observed. Assuming a suitable value for this parameter, both the analytic solution and the finite element models were able to match with accuracy the rigidities measured.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
On 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence of nondegeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yusen; Liao, Bo; Ding, Kequan
2005-08-01
Some two-dimensional (2D) graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, Randić, and Liao et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a nondegeneracy 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence, which is different from Randić's novel 2D representation and Liao's 2D representation. We also present the nondegeneracy forms corresponding to the representations of Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Network Rigidity Calculations of Cold Denaturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Gregory; Jacobs, Donald
2004-03-01
Network rigidity is used to model polypeptide chains in solution that undergo a helix to coil transition. Cooperative interactions from hydrogen bonding and hydration are modeled using topological constraints. This novel methodology is used to properly account for the energetic and non-additive entropic contributions to the free energy. The network rigidity model parameters are compared to Lifson-Roig model parameters. Nucleation and propagation parameters are eliminated. Instead, nucleation is a consequence of network rigidity, which is modeled explicitly. An advantage of network rigidity is that parameters are transferable to proteins, unlike the nucleation and propagation parameters of previous helix-coil theories. Results of a transfer matrix method are presented, showing the thermodynamic conditions where a polypeptide chain in an alpha-helix state is subject to hot and cold denaturing. Calculated helix content is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements on two different polypeptides of different length and solvent concentrations.
2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.
2000-05-01
During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.
Motion parallax links visual motion areas and scene regions.
Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas
2016-01-15
When we move, the retinal velocities of objects in our surrounding differ according to their relative distances and give rise to a powerful three-dimensional visual cue referred to as motion parallax. Motion parallax allows us to infer our surrounding's 3D structure as well as self-motion based on 2D retinal information. However, the neural substrates mediating the link between visual motion and scene processing are largely unexplored. We used fMRI in human observers to study motion parallax by means of an ecologically relevant yet highly controlled stimulus that mimicked the observer's lateral motion past a depth-layered scene. We found parallax selective responses in parietal regions IPS3 and IPS4, and in a region lateral to scene selective occipital place area (OPA). The traditionally defined scene responsive regions OPA, the para-hippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) did not respond to parallax. During parallax processing, the occipital parallax selective region entertained highly specific functional connectivity with IPS3 and with scene selective PPA. These results establish a network linking dorsal motion and ventral scene processing regions specifically during parallax processing, which may underlie the brain's ability to derive 3D scene information from motion parallax. PMID:26515906
Visual storytelling in 2D and stereoscopic 3D video: effect of blur on visual attention
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent
2013-03-01
Visual attention is an inherent mechanism that plays an important role in the human visual perception. As our visual system has limited capacity and cannot efficiently process the information from the entire visual field, we focus our attention on specific areas of interest in the image for detailed analysis of these areas. In the context of media entertainment, the viewers' visual attention deployment is also influenced by the art of visual storytelling. To this date, visual editing and composition of scenes in stereoscopic 3D content creation still mostly follows those used in 2D. In particular, out-of-focus blur is often used in 2D motion pictures and photography to drive the viewer's attention towards a sharp area of the image. In this paper, we study specifically the impact of defocused foreground objects on visual attention deployment in stereoscopic 3D content. For that purpose, we conducted a subjective experiment using an eyetracker. Our results bring more insights on the deployment of visual attention in stereoscopic 3D content viewing, and provide further understanding on visual attention behavior differences between 2D and 3D. Our results show that a traditional 2D scene compositing approach such as the use of foreground blur does not necessarily produce the same effect on visual attention deployment in 2D and 3D. Implications for stereoscopic content creation and visual fatigue are discussed.
A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1998-12-14
We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.
Realizable Closure for the Orientation Tetrad for Rigid Rod Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yochan; Kini, Hemant; Petty, Charles; Mandal, Dilip; Benard, Andre
2003-11-01
The prediction of low-order statistical properties of suspensions and liquid crystalline polymers is often based on a moment equation for the orientation dyad that requires a closure model for the orientation tetrad. A new closure has been developed that retains the six-fold symmetry and projection properties of the exact orientation tetrad. (Petty et al., 1999; Nguyen et al., 2001; Kini et al., 2003). This presentation will summarize recent results obtained by applying the new microstructure theory to a class of rigid rod suspensions subjected to homogeneous shear. In the absence of deformation, the theory predicts the existence of multiple steady states for the microstructure as a consequence of a balance between Brownian motion and an excluded volume potential in orientation space. In the presence of homogeneous shear, the orientation director for relatively concentrated suspensions shows periodic behavior relative to the flow direction. For low strain rates, the orientation director executes a tumbling periodic motion. As the strain rate increases, a wagging periodic motion occurs and, at very high strain rates, a steady alignment of the orientation director relative to the flow direction is predicted.
Active elastic dimers: cells moving on rigid tracks.
Lopez, J H; Das, Moumita; Schwarz, J M
2014-09-01
Experiments suggest that the migration of some cells in the three-dimensional extracellular matrix bears strong resemblance to one-dimensional cell migration. Motivated by this observation, we construct and study a minimal one-dimensional model cell made of two beads and an active spring moving along a rigid track. The active spring models the stress fibers with their myosin-driven contractility and α-actinin-driven extendability, while the friction coefficients of the two beads describe the catch and slip-bond behaviors of the integrins in focal adhesions. In the absence of active noise, net motion arises from an interplay between active contractility (and passive extendability) of the stress fibers and an asymmetry between the front and back of the cell due to catch-bond behavior of integrins at the front of the cell and slip-bond behavior of integrins at the back. We obtain reasonable cell speeds with independently estimated parameters. We also study the effects of hysteresis in the active spring, due to catch-bond behavior and the dynamics of cross linking, and the addition of active noise on the motion of the cell. Our model highlights the role of α-actinin in three-dimensional cell motility and does not require Arp2/3 actin filament nucleation for net motion. PMID:25314473
Active elastic dimers: Cells moving on rigid tracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, J. H.; Das, Moumita; Schwarz, J. M.
2014-09-01
Experiments suggest that the migration of some cells in the three-dimensional extracellular matrix bears strong resemblance to one-dimensional cell migration. Motivated by this observation, we construct and study a minimal one-dimensional model cell made of two beads and an active spring moving along a rigid track. The active spring models the stress fibers with their myosin-driven contractility and α-actinin-driven extendability, while the friction coefficients of the two beads describe the catch and slip-bond behaviors of the integrins in focal adhesions. In the absence of active noise, net motion arises from an interplay between active contractility (and passive extendability) of the stress fibers and an asymmetry between the front and back of the cell due to catch-bond behavior of integrins at the front of the cell and slip-bond behavior of integrins at the back. We obtain reasonable cell speeds with independently estimated parameters. We also study the effects of hysteresis in the active spring, due to catch-bond behavior and the dynamics of cross linking, and the addition of active noise on the motion of the cell. Our model highlights the role of α-actinin in three-dimensional cell motility and does not require Arp2/3 actin filament nucleation for net motion.
3-D object recognition using 2-D views.
Li, Wenjing; Bebis, George; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G
2008-11-01
We consider the problem of recognizing 3-D objects from 2-D images using geometric models and assuming different viewing angles and positions. Our goal is to recognize and localize instances of specific objects (i.e., model-based) in a scene. This is in contrast to category-based object recognition methods where the goal is to search for instances of objects that belong to a certain visual category (e.g., faces or cars). The key contribution of our work is improving 3-D object recognition by integrating Algebraic Functions of Views (AFoVs), a powerful framework for predicting the geometric appearance of an object due to viewpoint changes, with indexing and learning. During training, we compute the space of views that groups of object features can produce under the assumption of 3-D linear transformations, by combining a small number of reference views that contain the object features using AFoVs. Unrealistic views (e.g., due to the assumption of 3-D linear transformations) are eliminated by imposing a pair of rigidity constraints based on knowledge of the transformation between the reference views of the object. To represent the space of views that an object can produce compactly while allowing efficient hypothesis generation during recognition, we propose combining indexing with learning in two stages. In the first stage, we sample the space of views of an object sparsely and represent information about the samples using indexing. In the second stage, we build probabilistic models of shape appearance by sampling the space of views of the object densely and learning the manifold formed by the samples. Learning employs the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and takes place in a "universal," lower-dimensional, space computed through Random Projection (RP). During recognition, we extract groups of point features from the scene and we use indexing to retrieve the most feasible model groups that might have produced them (i.e., hypothesis generation). The likelihood
Measurements of laboratory turbulence with the 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael
2013-11-01
A newly developed anemometer, the 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer, was used to measure the two-dimensional wind speed vector in laboratory-generated turbulence. The anemometer provides a temporal and spatial resolution comparable or even higher to those of commercial hot-wires and thus is an excellent alternative for high-resolution measurements. The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer uses a previously unseen measurement technique in the range of anemometers. The principle is adopted from atomic force microscopes (AFM). A tiny micro-structured cantilever is brought into the airflow, where it experiences a drag force due to the moving fluid. The resulting deflection is measured using the laser pointer principle. Unlike the measuring principle of hot-wires this technique can be applied in challenging environments such as in liquids or very close to walls. Our comparing measurements with the 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer and an x-wire were carried out in the wake of rigid bodies and grids. The results show a great agreement with regards to the increment statistics on various scales, power spectra and turbulence intensity, thus proving the new anemometer.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in an adolescent with CYP2D6 deficiency.
Butwicka, Agnieszka; Krystyna, Szymańska; Retka, Włodzimierz; Wolańczyk, Tomasz
2014-12-01
We describe a patient with dystonia and psychotic symptoms treated with standard doses of antipsychotics, who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). A 16-year-old male with a history of misuse of dextromethorphan and pseudoephedrine for recreational purpose presented with dystonia and a psychotic episode. Following continuous treatment with olanzapine (10 mg/day), repeated injections of levomepromazine (37.5 mg/day), and a single injection of haloperidol (2.5 mg), the patient developed NMS. Muscular rigidity, fever (up to 41 °C), hypotension (100/70 mmHg), tachycardia (120 beats per minute), tachypnea (26 breaths per minute), elevated leukocyte count (up to 16.6 × 10(3)/μL), and elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) (up to 15,255 U/L) were observed. A diagnosis of NMS was made according to the DSM-IV TR criteria. Genotyping revealed that he was homozygous for a non-functional CYP2D6*4 allele. The case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring in identification and differentiation of drug-induced effects in psychiatric disorder to prevent NMS and its complications. In addition, genotyping of CYP2D6 might be considered in patients with symptoms suggestive of drug toxicity who are treated with neuroleptics metabolized via the CYP2D6 pathway, as carriage of one or more non-functional alleles may increase the risk for adverse reactions, such as NMS. PMID:24253372
Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Joseph G.
In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in
Metrology of Non-Rigid Objects
Blaedel, K L; Smith, D W; Claudet, A A; Kasper, E P; Patterson, S R
2002-01-01
Dimensional characterization of non-rigid parts presents many challenges. For example, when a non-rigid part is mounted in an inspection apparatus the effects of fixturing constraints cause significant deformation of the part. If the part is not used in normal service with the same load conditions as during inspection, the dimensional characteristics in service will deviate from the reported values during inspection. Further, the solution of designing specialized fixturing to duplicate ''as-installed'' conditions does not fully resolve the problem because each inspection requires its own methodology. The goal of this project is to formulate the research problem and propose a method of assessing the dimensional characteristics of non-rigid parts. The measured dimension of a rigid component is traceable at some level of confidence to a single source (NIST in the USA). Hence the measurement of one component of an assembly can be related to the measurement of another component of that assembly. There is no generalized analog to this pedigreed process for dimensionally characterizing non-rigid bodies. For example, a measurement made on a sheet-metal automobile fender is heavily influenced by how it is held during the measurement making it difficult to determine how well that fender will assemble to the rest of the (non-rigid) car body. This problem is often overcome for specific manufacturing problems by constructing rigid fixtures that over-constrain the non-rigid parts to be assembled and then performing the dimensional measurement of the contour of each component to check whether each meets specification. Note that such inspection measurements will yield only an approximation to the assembled shape, which is a function of both the geometry and the compliance of the component parts of the assembly. As a result, non-rigid components are more difficult to specify and inspect and therefore are more difficult to purchase from outside vendors compared to rigid components
Metrology of Non-Rigid Objects
Blaedel, K; Swift, D; Claudet, A; Kasper, E; Patterson, S
2002-01-01
Dimensional characterization of non-rigid parts presents many challenges. For example, when a non-rigid part is mounted in an inspection apparatus the effects of fixturing constraints are significant. If the part is not used in normal service with the same load conditions as during inspection, the dimensional characteristics will deviate from reported values. Further, the solution of designing specialized fixturing to duplicate ''as-installed'' conditions does not fully resolve the problem because each inspection requires its own methodology. The goal of this project is to formulate the research problem and propose a method of assessing the dimensional characteristics of non-rigid parts. The measured dimension of a rigid component is traceable at some level of confidence to a single source (NIST in the USA). Hence the measurement of one component of an assembly can be related to the measurement of another component of that assembly. There is no generalized analog to this pedigreed process for dimensionally characterizing non-rigid bodies. For example, a measurement made on a sheet-metal automobile fender is heavily influenced by how it is held during the measurement making it difficult to determine how well that fender will assemble to the rest of the (non-rigid) car body. This problem is often overcome for specific manufacturing problems by constructing rigid fixtures that over-constrain the non-rigid parts to be assembled and then performing the dimensional measurement of the contour of each component to check whether each meets specification. Note that such inspection measurements will yield only an approximation to the assembled shape, which is a function of both the geometry and the compliance of the component parts of the assembly. As a result, non-rigid components are more difficult to specify and inspect and therefore are more difficult to purchase from outside vendors compared to rigid components. The problems are compounded as the requirements come to
Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi
2016-05-01
We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit. PMID:27027800
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleischer, G. E.; Likins, P. W.
1975-01-01
Three computer subroutines designed to solve the vector-dyadic differential equations of rotational motion for systems that may be idealized as a collection of hinge-connected rigid bodies assembled in a tree topology, with an optional flexible appendage attached to each body are reported. Deformations of the appendages are mathematically represented by modal coordinates and are assumed small. Within these constraints, the subroutines provide equation solutions for (1) the most general case of unrestricted hinge rotations, with appendage base bodies nominally rotating at a constant speed, (2) the case of unrestricted hinge rotations between rigid bodies, with the restriction that those rigid bodies carrying appendages are nominally nonspinning, and (3) the case of small hinge rotations and nominally nonrotating appendages. Sample problems and their solutions are presented to illustrate the utility of the computer programs.
A New Approach to Rigid Body Minimization with Application to Molecular Docking*
Mirzaei, Hanieh; Kozakov, Dima; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz
2013-01-01
Our work is motivated by energy minimization in the space of rigid affine transformations of macromolecules, an essential step in computational protein-protein docking. We introduce a novel representation of rigid body motion that leads to a natural formulation of the energy minimization problem as an optimization on the SO(3)×R3 manifold, rather than the commonly used SE(3). The new representation avoids the complications associated with optimization on the SE(3) manifold and provides additional flexibilities for optimization not available in that formulation. The approach is applicable to general rigid body minimization problems. Our computational results for a local optimization algorithm developed based on the new approach show that it is about an order of magnitude faster than a state of art local minimization algorithms for computational protein-protein docking. PMID:24763338
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping
Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea
2016-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.
Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea
2015-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer
Patient comfort during flexible and rigid cystourethroscopy
Zdrojowy, Romuald; Wojciechowska, Joanna; Kościelska, Katarzyna; Dembowski, Janusz; Matuszewski, Michał; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Małkiewicz, Bartosz; Kołodziej, Anna
2016-01-01
Introduction Cystourethroscopy (CS) is an endoscopic method used to visualize the urethra and the bladder. Aim In this study, we prospectively evaluated pain in men undergoing cyclic cystoscopic assessment with rigid and flexible instruments after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB). Material and methods One hundred and twenty male patients who were under surveillance after a TURB procedure due to urothelial cell carcinoma and who had undergone at least one rigid cystourethroscopy in the past were enrolled in the trial. Patients were prospectively randomized to age-matched groups for flexible (group F) or rigid (group R) CS. Patient's comfort was evaluated on an 11-grade scale, ranging from 0 (free from pain) to 10 points (unbearable pain). Results The patients described the pain during the previous rigid CS as ranging from 4 to 10 (mean: 6.8) in group F and from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.8) in group R. Group R patients described the pain during the current rigid CS as ranging from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.7). No mean change in the grade was observed between the two pain descriptions (no change 11 patients, weaker pain 25 patients, stronger pain 24 patients, gamma 0.51, p < 0.0001). Group F described the pain as 1 to 5 (mean: 2.1). In the case of flexible CS the pain experience was greatly lowered compared to the previous rigid CS. All flexible CS patients reported lowered pain (by 1 to 9 grades). Patients’ age did not influence the comfort of the flexible CS or the change in pain level. Conclusions Flexible CS is better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy by male patients regardless of patients’ age. PMID:27458489
Rigidity Dependence of Cosmic Ray Modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar
2012-07-01
The various observed harmonics of the cosmic ray variation may be understood on a unified basis if the free space cosmic ray anisotropy is non-sinusoidal in form. The major objective of this paper is to study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-1990 for Deep River, Goose Bay and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for Deep River having low cutoff rigidity as compared to Tokyo neutron monitor having high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases in 1987 at Deep River and in 1986 at Tokyo during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction at both the stations having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station i.e. Deep River as compared to the high cut off rigidity station i.e. Tokyo on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The solar wind velocity significantly remains in the range 350 to 425 km/s i.e. being nearly average on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of low and high cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics.
Using "Rebar" to Stabilize Rigid Chest Wall Reconstruction.
Robinson, Lary A; Grubbs, Deanna M
2016-04-01
After major chest wall resection, reconstruction of the bony defect with a rigid prosthesis is mandatory to protect the underlying thoracic organs, and to prevent flail chest physiology. Although many methods have been described for chest wall reconstruction, a commonly used technique employs a composite Marlex (polypropylene) mesh with methyl-methacrylate cement sandwiched between two layers of mesh (MMS), which is tailored to the defect size and shape. In building construction, steel "rebar" is used to strengthen and reinforce masonry structures. To avoid the initial residual motion of the rigid prosthesis used to reconstruct very large defects, particularly the sternum, we devised a simple technique of adding one or more Steinmann steel pins as "rebar" to strengthen and immediately stabilize the prosthesis to the surrounding ribs and sternum. For the very large defects, particularly over the heart and great vessels, titanium mesh may also be readily added into the sandwich construction for increased strength and to prevent late prosthetic fractures. Short- and long-term results of this inexpensive modification of the MMS reconstruction technique are excellent. This modified MMS tailor-made prosthesis is only one-third the cost of the recently popular prosthetic titanium systems, takes much less operative time to create and implant, and avoids the well-described complications of late titanium bar fracture and erosion/infection as well as loosening of screws and/or titanium bars. PMID:25602843
Characterizing the movement of a falling rigid rod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Tejedor, José A.; Monsoriu, Juan A.
2015-09-01
In this paper we present a simple experimental set-up to study the fall of a rigid rod, which can freely rotate around an articulated joint at the lowest point. The experimental set-up permits preparation of a laboratory session for physics or engineering students. The analysis of the data is oriented at several degrees of difficulty, in such a way that the same experimental set-up can be used with students on different courses. The experimental data obtained with an electro-optical sensor are fitted to the theoretical equation of motion, obtaining a very good agreement between experiment and theory. In addition, direct measurement of the parameters involved in the equations was carried out, showing a very good agreement with the calculated parameters.
Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.
2008-06-01
For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).
Modeling the polar motion of Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coyette, Alexis; Van Hoolst, Tim; Baland, Rose-Marie; Tokano, Tetsuya
2016-02-01
The angular momentum of the atmosphere and of the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan have a large equatorial component that can excite polar motion, a variable orientation of the rotation axis of Titan with respect to its surface. We here use the angular momentum obtained from a General Circulation Model of the atmosphere of Titan and from an Ocean Circulation Model for Titan's polar lakes to model the polar motion of Titan as a function of the interior structure. Besides the gravitational torque exerted by Saturn on Titan's aspherical mass distribution, the rotational model also includes torques arising due to the presence of an ocean under a thin ice shell as well as the influence of the elasticity of the different layers. The Chandler wobble period of a solid and rigid Titan without its atmosphere is about 279 years. The period of the Chandler wobble is mainly influenced by the atmosphere of Titan (-166 years) and the presence of an internal global ocean (+135 to 295 years depending on the internal model) and to a lesser extent by the elastic deformations (+3.7 years). The forced polar motion of a solid and rigid Titan is elliptical with an amplitude of about 50 m and a main period equal to the orbital period of Saturn. It is mainly forced by the atmosphere of Titan while the lakes of Titan are at the origin of a displacement of the mean polar motion, or polar offset. The subsurface ocean can largely increase the polar motion amplitude due to resonant amplification with a wobble free mode of Titan. The amplitudes as well as the main periods of the polar motion depend on whether and which forcing period is close to the period of a free mode. For a thick ice shell, the polar motion mainly has an annual period and an amplitude of about 1 km. For thinner ice shells, the polar motion amplitude can reach several tens of km and shorter periods become dominant. We demonstrate that for thick ice shells, the ice shell rigidity weakly influences the amplitude of the polar motion
Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.
Hollowell, Andrew E.
2010-08-01
As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.
Crystal structure prediction of rigid molecules.
Elking, Dennis M; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Nichols, Anthony
2016-08-01
A non-polarizable force field based on atomic multipoles fit to reproduce experimental crystal properties and ab initio gas-phase dimers is described. The Ewald method is used to calculate both long-range electrostatic and 1/r(6) dispersion energies of crystals. The dispersion energy of a crystal calculated by a cutoff method is shown to converge slowly to the exact Ewald result. A method for constraining space-group symmetry during unit-cell optimization is derived. Results for locally optimizing 4427 unit cells including volume, cell parameters, unit-cell r.m.s.d. and CPU timings are given for both flexible and rigid molecule optimization. An algorithm for randomly generating rigid molecule crystals is described. Using the correct experimentally determined space group, the average and maximum number of random crystals needed to find the correct experimental structure is given for 2440 rigid single component crystals. The force field energy rank of the correct experimental structure is presented for the same set of 2440 rigid single component crystals assuming the correct space group. A complete crystal prediction is performed for two rigid molecules by searching over the 32 most probable space groups. PMID:27484371
Generic Rigidity Percolation in Two Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorpe, M. F.; Jacobs, D. J.; Day, A. R.
1996-03-01
We study rigidity percolation for random central-force networks, using the Pebble Game(D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. Letts. 75), 4051 (1995) algorithm on the bond and site diluted generic triangular lattice. Here, each site location is randomly displaced from the perfect lattice, removing any special symmetries. The total number of floppy modes are counted exactly, and exhibit a cusp singularity in the second derivative of the number of floppy modes, at the transition from a rigid to a floppy structure. The critical thresholds for bond and site dilution are found to be 0.6602 ± 0.0003 and 0.6976 ± 0.0003 respectively. We find that the generic rigidity percolation transition is second order, but in a different universality class than connectivity percolation, with the exponents; α = -0.48 ± 0.05 , β = 0.175 ± 0.02 and ν = 1.21 ± 0.06 . The fractal dimension of the spanning rigid clusters and the spanning stressed regions at the critical threshold are found to be df = 1.86 ± 0.02 and d_BB = 1.80 ± 0.03 respectively. Some elastic properties of the rigid backbone will be discussed.
Rigidity loss in disordered network materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Hagh, Varda F.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; van Hecke, Martin
Weakly jammed sphere packings show a very peculiar elasticity, with a ratio of compression modulus to shear modulus that diverges as the number of contacts approaches the minimum required for rigidity. Creating artificial isotropic network materials with this property is a challenge: so far, the least elaborate way to generate them is to actually simulate weakly compressed repulsive spheres. The next steps in designing such networks hinge upon a solid understanding of what properties of the sphere-packing derived network are essential for its elasticity. We elucidate the topological aspects of this question by comparing the rigidity transition in these networks to that in other random spring network models, including the common bond-diluted triangular net and a self-stress-free variant of that. We use the pebble game algorithm for identifying rigid clusters in mechanical networks to demonstrate that the marginally rigid state in sphere packings is perfectly isostatic everywhere, and the addition or removal of a single bond creates a globally stressed or globally floppy network, respectively. By contrast, the other classes of random network random networks show a more localized response to addition and removal of bonds, and, correspondingly, a more gradual rigidity transition.
Generic rigidity percolation in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.
1996-04-01
We study rigidity percolation for random central-force networks on the bondand site-diluted generic triangular lattice. Here, each site location is randomly displaced from the perfect lattice, removing any special symmetries. Using the pebble game algorithm, the total number of floppy modes are counted exactly, and exhibit a cusp singularity in the second derivative at the transition from a rigid to a floppy structure. The critical thresholds for bond and site dilution are found to be 0.66020+/-0.0003 and 0.69755+/-0.0003, respectively. The network is decomposed into unique rigid clusters, and we apply the usual percolation scaling theory. From finite size scaling, we find that the generic rigidity percolation transition is second order, but in a different universality class from connectivity percolation, with the exponents α=-0.48+/-0.05, β=0.175+/-0.02, and ν=1.21+/-0.06. The fractal dimension of the spanning rigid clusters and the spanning stressed regions at the critical threshold are found to be df=1.86+/-0.02 and dBB=1.80+/-0.03, respectively.
Sengupta, Dilip; Bucklen, Brandon; Ingalhalikar, Aditya; Muzumdar, Aditya; Khalil, Saif
2013-01-01
Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper. PMID:23691332
Differential CYP 2D6 Metabolism Alters Primaquine Pharmacokinetics
Potter, Brittney M. J.; Xie, Lisa H.; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T.; Bandara Herath, H. M. T.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.
2015-01-01
Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity. PMID:25645856
21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...
21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...
21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...
21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in...
49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...
49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...
49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...
49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types...
2D to 3D to 2D Dimensionality Crossovers in Thin BSCCO Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gary A.
2003-03-01
With increasing temperature the superfluid fraction in very thin BSCCO films undergoes a series of dimensionality crossovers. At low temperatures the strong anisotropy causes the thermal excitations to be 2D pancake-antipancake pairs in uncoupled layers. At higher temperatures where the c-axis correlation length becomes larger than a layer there is a crossover to 3D vortex loops. These are initially elliptical, but as the 3D Tc is approached they become more circular as the anisotropy scales away, as modeled by Shenoy and Chattopadhyay [1]. Close to Tc when the correlation length becomes comparable to the film thickness there is a further crossover to a 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, with a drop of the superfluid fraction to zero at T_KT which can be of the order of 1 K below T_c. Good agreement with this model is found for experiments on thin BSCCO 2212 films [2]. 1. S. R. Shenoy and B. Chattopadhyay, Phys. Rev. B 51, 9129 (1995). 2. K. Osborn et al., cond-mat/0204417.
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn
2000-07-01
An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.
2D exchange 31P NMR spectroscopy of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.
Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A
1995-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) exchange 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to study the slow overall motion of the rod-shaped viruses M13 and tobacco mosaic virus in concentrated gels. Even for short mixing times, observed diagonal spectra differ remarkably from projection spectra and one-dimensional spectra. Our model readily explains this to be a consequence of the T2e anisotropy caused by slow overall rotation of the viruses about their length axis. 2D exchange spectra recorded for 30% (w/w) tobacco mosaic virus with mixing times < 1 s do not show any off-diagonal broadening, indicating that its overall motion occurs in the sub-Hz frequency range. In contrast, the exchange spectra obtained for 30% M13 show significant off-diagonal intensity for mixing times of 0.01 s and higher. A log-gaussian distribution around 25 Hz of overall diffusion coefficients mainly spread between 1 and 10(3) Hz faithfully reproduces the 2D exchange spectra of 30% M13 recorded at various mixing times in a consistent way. A small but notable change in diagonal spectra at increasing mixing time is not well accounted for by our model and is probably caused by 31P spin diffusion. PMID:7756532
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca
2014-01-01
Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjects in vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pal, Saikat; Beaupré, Gary S.
2014-06-15
Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjectsin vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Marcello
2008-08-01
New exact analytic solutions are introduced for the rotational motion of a rigid body having two equal principal moments of inertia and subjected to an external torque which is constant in magnitude. In particular, the solutions are obtained for the following cases: (1) Torque parallel to the symmetry axis and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (2) Torque perpendicular to the symmetry axis and such that the torque is rotating at a constant rate about the symmetry axis, and arbitrary initial angular velocity; (3) Torque and initial angular velocity perpendicular to the symmetry axis, with the torque being fixed with the body. In addition to the solutions for these three forced cases, an original solution is introduced for the case of torque-free motion, which is simpler than the classical solution as regards its derivation and uses the rotation matrix in order to describe the body orientation. This paper builds upon the recently discovered exact solution for the motion of a rigid body with a spherical ellipsoid of inertia. In particular, by following Hestenes’ theory, the rotational motion of an axially symmetric rigid body is seen at any instant in time as the combination of the motion of a “virtual” spherical body with respect to the inertial frame and the motion of the axially symmetric body with respect to this “virtual” body. The kinematic solutions are presented in terms of the rotation matrix. The newly found exact analytic solutions are valid for any motion time length and rotation amplitude. The present paper adds further elements to the small set of special cases for which an exact solution of the rotational motion of a rigid body exists.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Trung Dac; Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.
2011-11-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) methods compute the trajectory of a system of point particles in response to a potential function by numerically integrating Newton's equations of motion. Extending these basic methods with rigid body constraints enables composite particles with complex shapes such as anisotropic nanoparticles, grains, molecules, and rigid proteins to be modeled. Rigid body constraints are added to the GPU-accelerated MD package, HOOMD-blue, version 0.10.0. The software can now simulate systems of particles, rigid bodies, or mixed systems in microcanonical (NVE), canonical (NVT), and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles. It can also apply the FIRE energy minimization technique to these systems. In this paper, we detail the massively parallel scheme that implements these algorithms and discuss how our design is tuned for the maximum possible performance. Two different case studies are included to demonstrate the performance attained, patchy spheres and tethered nanorods. In typical cases, HOOMD-blue on a single GTX 480 executes 2.5-3.6 times faster than LAMMPS executing the same simulation on any number of CPU cores in parallel. Simulations with rigid bodies may now be run with larger systems and for longer time scales on a single workstation than was previously even possible on large clusters.
NONUNIFORM FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR RIGID-BODY AND MULTI-DIMENSIONAL ROTATIONAL CORRELATIONS
BAJAJ, CHANDRAJIT; BAUER, BENEDIKT; BETTADAPURA, RADHAKRISHNA; VOLLRATH, ANTJE
2013-01-01
The task of evaluating correlations is central to computational structural biology. The rigid-body correlation problem seeks the rigid-body transformation (R, t), R ∈ SO(3), t ∈ ℝ3 that maximizes the correlation between a pair of input scalar-valued functions representing molecular structures. Exhaustive solutions to the rigid-body correlation problem take advantage of the fast Fourier transform to achieve a speedup either with respect to the sought translation or rotation. We present PFcorr, a new exhaustive solution, based on the non-equispaced SO(3) Fourier transform, to the rigid-body correlation problem; unlike previous solutions, ours achieves a combination of translational and rotational speedups without requiring equispaced grids. PFcorr can be straightforwardly applied to a variety of problems in protein structure prediction and refinement that involve correlations under rigid-body motions of the protein. Additionally, we show how it applies, along with an appropriate flexibility model, to analogs of the above problems in which the flexibility of the protein is relevant. PMID:24379643
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolenkiewicz, R.
1973-01-01
Tracking of the Beacon Explorer-C satellite by a precision laser system was used to measure the polar motion and solid earth tide. The tidal perturbation of satellite latitude is plotted as variation in maximum latitude in seconds of arc on earth's surface as a function of the date, and polar motion is shown by plotting the variation in latitude of the laser in seconds of arc along the earth's surface as a function of date
Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocić, Saša
2016-05-01
We prove that C^r -smooth (r > 2 ) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not C^1+ɛ -rigid, for any ɛ > 0 . This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically C^1 -rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that C^r -smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically C^r-1-κ -rigid, for any κ > 0.
Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocić, Saša
2016-06-01
We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.
A discrete momentum-conserving explicit algorithm for rigid body dynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.
1993-01-01
A discrete momentum-conserving explicit time integration is presented. The accurate feature and simplicity of the present algorithm are realized by a mid-point implicit formula for integrating the Euler parameters and a second-order discrete momentum-conserving form of the central difference algorithm, respectively. The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated by example problems which exhibit large overall rigid motions under holonomic constraints.
The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in rigid body dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabov, P. E.
2014-07-01
The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in the problem of motion of a rigid body in a fluid is investigated using the method of Boolean functions, which was developed by Kharlamov for algebraically separated systems. The bifurcation diagram of the moment map is found and the Fomenko invariant, which classifies the systems up to rough Liouville equivalence, is specified. Bibliography: 15 titles.
The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in rigid body dynamics
Ryabov, P. E.
2014-07-31
The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in the problem of motion of a rigid body in a fluid is investigated using the method of Boolean functions, which was developed by Kharlamov for algebraically separated systems. The bifurcation diagram of the moment map is found and the Fomenko invariant, which classifies the systems up to rough Liouville equivalence, is specified. Bibliography: 15 titles. (paper)
Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motion in 2D Models of Subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2014-12-01
Subduction zones exhibit a wide range of behavior, from slab stagnation at 660 km to direct penetration into the lower mantle. Due to uncertainties in the tectonic history of individual subduction zones, such as trench velocities, potential mechanisms for controlling slab behavior in the transition zone are explored using numerical models. Numerical simulations have utilized a range of assumptions to improve computational efficiency, such as ignoring latent heat, ignoring compositional effects or fixing the trench location: the net effect of these assumptions resulting modeled dynamics remains unclear. Additionally the eight major, composition-dependent, phase transitions for pyrolite, harzburgite and eclogite may be an important influence on subducting slab dynamics due to the additional forces that are dependent on depth and compositional layering within the slab (e.g., Ricard et al., 2005). With the goal of developing more complete, self-consistent, and less idealized simulations, we test the importance of various factors on slab behavior: the presence of shear, adiabatic and latent heating, compositional layering, composition-dependent phase transitions and explicit plate speeds versus dynamically evolving plate and trench velocities. Preliminary results indicate that individual components have a relatively minor effect, but produce large changes when combined together. The extent of slab folding and stagnation is overestimated by only modeling the 410 and 660 km phase transitions. Dynamic models with all seven composition-dependent phase transitions are very sensitive to the plate strength and weak zone viscosity, causing large changes in plate speed and slab detachment. Changes to the overriding plate buoyance and strength investigate the origin and influence of trench movement on slab deformation. These feedbacks and parameter-sensitive behavior indicate that the wide range of observed slab behavior may result from subtle differences in plate and plate boundary properties. Ricard, Y., E. Mattern, and J. Matas, Synthetic tomographic images of slabs from mineral physics, in Earth's Deep Mantle: Structure, Composition, and Evolution, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 160, American Geophysical Union, 2005.
Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics
Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan
2015-01-01
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069
Brownian motion of helical flagella.
Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N
1979-07-01
We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages
Wu, Jong-Shyong; Lin, Foung-Tang; Shaw, Huei-Jou
2014-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to present an approach for replacing the effects of each rigid disk mounted on the spin shaft by a lumped mass together with a frequency-dependent equivalent mass moment of inertia so that the whirling motion of a rotating shaft-disk system is similar to the transverse free vibration of a stationary beam and the technique for the free vibration analysis of a stationary beam with multiple concentrated elements can be used to determine the forward and backward whirling speeds, along with mode shapes of a distributed-mass shaft carrying arbitrary rigid disks. Numerical results reveal that the characteristics of whirling motions are significantly dependent on the slopes of the associated natural mode shapes at the positions where the rigid disks are located. Furthermore, the results obtained from the presented analytical method and those obtained from existing literature or the finite element method (FEM) are in good agreement. PMID:24891729
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
McBride, Corey L.; Yarberry, Victor; Jorgensen, Craig
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats, are also provided in the library.
Gated cardiac NMR imaging and 2D echocardiography in the detection of intracardial neoplasm
Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Salcedo, E.E.; Feiglin, D.H.; Underwood, D.A.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Meaney, T.F.
1985-05-01
Noninvasive 2D echocardiography has replaced contrast angiography as the procedure of choice in the diagnosis of intracardiac neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intracardiac neoplasm can be detected as well by gated cardiac NMR. Four patients with known intracardiac neoplasm previously diagnosed by 2D echocardiography had gated cardiac NMR imaging using a superconductive 0.6 Tesla magnet. All patients were performed using a Tl weighted spin echo pulse sequence with a TE of 30 msec and TR of one R-R interval. Two-dimensional planar single or multiple slice techniques were used. In one patient, imaging at different times along the R-R interval were performed for cine display. The results of the present study show detection of the intracardiac neoplasm in all four cases by gated cardiac NMR imaging and the results were comparable to 2D echocardiography. The former imaging technique showed superior spatial resolution. Despite its early stage of development, gated cardiac NMR imaging appears at least equal to 2D echocardiography in the detection of intracardiac neoplasm. The availability of multislice coupled with multiframe acquisition techniques now being developed will provide a cinematic display that will be more effective in the display of the tumor in motion within the cardiac chamber involved and facilitate visualization of the relationship of the tumor to adjacent cardiac structures.
AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode
Toomey, Aoife
2005-01-06
This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments
Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van
1999-10-01
About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan
2014-03-01
In this work, we investigate nonrigid motion compensation in simultaneously acquired (side-by-side) B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences of the carotid artery. These images are acquired to study the presence of intraplaque neovascularization (IPN), which is a marker of plaque vulnerability. IPN quantification is visualized by performing the maximum intensity projection (MIP) on the CEUS image sequence over time. As carotid images contain considerable motion, accurate global nonrigid motion compensation (GNMC) is required prior to the MIP. Moreover, we demonstrate that an improved lumen and plaque differentiation can be obtained by averaging the motion compensated BMUS images over time. We propose to use a previously published 2D+t nonrigid registration method, which is based on minimization of pixel intensity variance over time, using a spatially and temporally smooth B-spline deformation model. The validation compares displacements of plaque points with manual trackings by 3 experts in 11 carotids. The average (+/- standard deviation) root mean square error (RMSE) was 99+/-74μm for longitudinal and 47+/-18μm for radial displacements. These results were comparable with the interobserver variability, and with results of a local rigid registration technique based on speckle tracking, which estimates motion in a single point, whereas our approach applies motion compensation to the entire image. In conclusion, we evaluated that the GNMC technique produces reliable results. Since this technique tracks global deformations, it can aid in the quantification of IPN and the delineation of lumen and plaque contours.
A statistical approach to estimate the 3D size distribution of spheres from 2D size distributions
Kong, M.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; James, C.; Basu, A.
2005-01-01
Size distribution of rigidly embedded spheres in a groundmass is usually determined from measurements of the radii of the two-dimensional (2D) circular cross sections of the spheres in random flat planes of a sample, such as in thin sections or polished slabs. Several methods have been devised to find a simple factor to convert the mean of such 2D size distributions to the actual 3D mean size of the spheres without a consensus. We derive an entirely theoretical solution based on well-established probability laws and not constrained by limitations of absolute size, which indicates that the ratio of the means of measured 2D and estimated 3D grain size distribution should be r/4 (=.785). Actual 2D size distribution of the radii of submicron sized, pure Fe0 globules in lunar agglutinitic glass, determined from backscattered electron images, is tested to fit the gamma size distribution model better than the log-normal model. Numerical analysis of 2D size distributions of Fe0 globules in 9 lunar soils shows that the average mean of 2D/3D ratio is 0.84, which is very close to the theoretical value. These results converge with the ratio 0.8 that Hughes (1978) determined for millimeter-sized chondrules from empirical measurements. We recommend that a factor of 1.273 (reciprocal of 0.785) be used to convert the determined 2D mean size (radius or diameter) of a population of spheres to estimate their actual 3D size. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.
Multiple triangulation analysis: application to determine the velocity of 2-D structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Zhang, X. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Cao, J. B.
2006-11-01
In order to avoid the ambiguity of the application of the Triangulation Method (multi-spacecraft timing method) to two-dimensional structures, another version of this method, the Multiple Triangulation Analysis (MTA) is used, to calculate the velocities of these structures based on 4-point measurements. We describe the principle of MTA and apply this approach to a real event observed by the Cluster constellation on 2 October 2003. The resulting velocity of the 2-D structure agrees with the ones obtained by some other methods fairly well. So we believe that MTA is a reliable version of the Triangulation Method for 2-D structures, and thus provides us a new way to describe their motion.
2D crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide and their iontronic functionalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y. J.; Yoshida, M.; Suzuki, R.; Iwasa, Y.
2015-12-01
2D crystals based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a unique platform of novel physical properties and functionalities, including photoluminescence, laser, valleytronics, spintronics, piezoelectric devices, field effect transistors (FETs), and superconductivity. Among them, FET devices are extremely useful because of voltage-tunable carrier density and Fermi energy. In particular, high density charge accumulation in electric double layer transistor (EDLT), which is a FET device driven by ionic motions, is playing key roles for expanding the functionalities of TMD based 2D crystals. Here, we report several device concepts which were realized by introducing EDLTs in TMDs, taking the advantage of their extremely unique band structures and phase transition phenomena realized simply by thinning to the monolayer level. We address two kinds of TMDs based on group VI and group V transition metals, which basically yield semiconductors and metals, respectively. For each system, we first introduce peculiar characteristics of TMDs achieved by thinning the crystals, followed by the related FET functionalities.