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Sample records for 2d shallow water

  1. Conservation laws and LETKF with 2D Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuefei; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed to maintain physical conservation laws in the numerical weather prediction models. However, to achieve a reliable prediction, adequate initial conditions are also necessary, which are produced by a data assimilation algorithm. If an ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) is used for this purpose, it has been shown that it could yield unphysical analysis ensemble that for example violates principles of mass conservation and positivity preservation (e.g. Janjic et al 2014) . In this presentation, we discuss the selection of conservation criteria for the analysis step, and start with testing the conservation of mass, energy and enstrophy. The simple experiments deal with nonlinear shallow water equations and simulated observations that are assimilated with LETKF (Localized Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, Hunt et al. 2007). The model is discretized in a specific way to conserve mass, angular momentum, energy and enstrophy. The effects of the data assimilation on the conserved quantities (of mass, energy and enstrophy) depend on observation covarage, localization radius, observed variable and observation operator. Having in mind that Arakawa (1966) and Arakawa and Lamb (1977) showed that the conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy by momentum advection schemes in the case of nondivergent flow prevents systematic and unrealistic energy cascade towards high wave numbers, a cause of excessive numerical noise and possible eventual nonlinear instability, we test the effects on prediction depending on the type of errors in the initial condition. The performance with respect to nonlinear energy cascade is assessed as well.

  2. Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...

  3. On Classical Solutions to 2D Shallow Water Equations with Degenerate Viscosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yachun; Pan, Ronghua; Zhu, Shengguo

    2017-03-01

    2D shallow water equations have degenerate viscosities proportional to surface height, which vanishes in many physical considerations, say, when the initial total mass, or energy are finite. Such a degeneracy is a highly challenging obstacle for development of well-posedness theory, even local-in-time theory remains open for a long time. In this paper, we will address this open problem with some new perspectives, independent of the celebrated BD-entropy (Bresch et al in Commun Math Phys 238:211-223, 2003, Commun Part Differ Eqs 28:843-868, 2003, Analysis and Simulation of Fluid Dynamics, 2007). After exploring some interesting structures of most models of 2D shallow water equations, we introduced a proper notion of solution class, called regular solutions, and identified a class of initial data with finite total mass and energy, and established the local-in-time well-posedness of this class of smooth solutions. The theory is applicable to most relatively physical shallow water models, broader than those with BD-entropy structures. We remark that our theory is on the local strong solutions, while the BD entropy is an essential tool for the global weak solutions. Later, a Beale-Kato-Majda type blow-up criterion is also established. This paper is mainly based on our early preprint (Li et al. in 2D compressible Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate viscosities and far field vacuum, preprint. arXiv:1407.8471, 2014).

  4. On the assimilation of SWOT type data into 2D shallow-water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frédéric, Couderc; Denis, Dartus; Pierre-André, Garambois; Ronan, Madec; Jérôme, Monnier; Jean-Paul, Villa

    2013-04-01

    In river hydraulics, assimilation of water level measurements at gauging stations is well controlled, while assimilation of images is still delicate. In the present talk, we address the richness of satellite mapped information to constrain a 2D shallow-water model, but also related difficulties. 2D shallow models may be necessary for small scale modelling in particular for low-water and flood plain flows. Since in both cases, the dynamics of the wet-dry front is essential, one has to elaborate robust and accurate solvers. In this contribution we introduce robust second order, stable finite volume scheme [CoMaMoViDaLa]. Comparisons of real like tests cases with more classical solvers highlight the importance of an accurate flood plain modelling. A preliminary inverse study is presented in a flood plain flow case, [LaMo] [HoLaMoPu]. As a first step, a 0th order data processing model improves observation operator and produces more reliable water level derived from rough measurements [PuRa]. Then, both model and flow behaviours can be better understood thanks to variational sensitivities based on a gradient computation and adjoint equations. It can reveal several difficulties that a model designer has to tackle. Next, a 4D-Var data assimilation algorithm used with spatialized data leads to improved model calibration and potentially leads to identify river discharges. All the algorithms are implemented into DassFlow software (Fortran, MPI, adjoint) [Da]. All these results and experiments (accurate wet-dry front dynamics, sensitivities analysis, identification of discharges and calibration of model) are currently performed in view to use data from the future SWOT mission. [CoMaMoViDaLa] F. Couderc, R. Madec, J. Monnier, J.-P. Vila, D. Dartus, K. Larnier. "Sensitivity analysis and variational data assimilation for geophysical shallow water flows". Submitted. [Da] DassFlow - Data Assimilation for Free Surface Flows. Computational software http

  5. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  6. Inverse algorithms for 2D shallow water equations in presence of wet dry fronts: Application to flood plain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J.; Couderc, F.; Dartus, D.; Larnier, K.; Madec, R.; Vila, J.-P.

    2016-11-01

    The 2D shallow water equations adequately model some geophysical flows with wet-dry fronts (e.g. flood plain or tidal flows); nevertheless deriving accurate, robust and conservative numerical schemes for dynamic wet-dry fronts over complex topographies remains a challenge. Furthermore for these flows, data are generally complex, multi-scale and uncertain. Robust variational inverse algorithms, providing sensitivity maps and data assimilation processes may contribute to breakthrough shallow wet-dry front dynamics modelling. The present study aims at deriving an accurate, positive and stable finite volume scheme in presence of dynamic wet-dry fronts, and some corresponding inverse computational algorithms (variational approach). The schemes and algorithms are assessed on classical and original benchmarks plus a real flood plain test case (Lèze river, France). Original sensitivity maps with respect to the (friction, topography) pair are performed and discussed. The identification of inflow discharges (time series) or friction coefficients (spatially distributed parameters) demonstrate the algorithms efficiency.

  7. An Implicit 2-D Shallow Water Flow Model on Unstructured Quadtree Rectangular Mesh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Hanson, H.; Wamsley, T., and Zundel, A. K., 2006. Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model CMS- M2D : Version 3.0, Report 2: Sediment...Militello, A.; Reed, C.W.; Zundel, A.K. and Kraus, N.C., 2004. Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model M2D : Version 2.0, Report 1, Technical

  8. WASI-2D: A software tool for regionally optimized analysis of imaging spectrometer data from deep and shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gege, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An image processing software has been developed which allows quantitative analysis of multi- and hyperspectral data from oceanic, coastal and inland waters. It has been implemented into the Water Colour Simulator WASI, which is a tool for the simulation and analysis of optical properties and light field parameters of deep and shallow waters. The new module WASI-2D can import atmospherically corrected images from airborne sensors and satellite instruments in various data formats and units like remote sensing reflectance or radiance. It can be easily adapted by the user to different sensors and to optical properties of the studied area. Data analysis is done by inverse modelling using established analytical models. The bio-optical model of the water column accounts for gelbstoff (coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM), detritus, and mixtures of up to 6 phytoplankton classes and 2 spectrally different types of suspended matter. The reflectance of the sea floor is treated as sum of up to 6 substrate types. An analytic model of downwelling irradiance allows wavelength dependent modelling of sun glint and sky glint at the water surface. The provided database covers the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm in 1 nm intervals. It can be exchanged easily to represent the optical properties of water constituents, bottom types and the atmosphere of the studied area.

  9. A marching in space and time (MAST) solver of the shallow water equations. Part II: The 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Nasello, C.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2007-05-01

    A novel methodology for the solution of the 2D shallow water equations is proposed. The algorithm is based on a fractional step decomposition of the original system in (1) a convective prediction, (2) a convective correction, and (3) a diffusive correction step. The convective components are solved using a Marching in Space and Time (MAST) procedure, that solves a sequence of small ODEs systems, one for each computational cell, ordered according to the cell value of a scalar approximated potential. The scalar potential is sought after computing first the minimum of a functional via the solution of a large linear system and then refining locally the optimum search. Model results are compared with the experimental data of two laboratory tests and with the results of other simulations carried out for the same tests by different authors. A comparison with the analytical solution of the oblique jump test has been also considered. Numerical results of the proposed scheme are in good agreement with measured data, as well as with analytical and higher order approximation methods results. The growth of the CPU time versus the cell number is investigated successively refining the elements of an initially coarse mesh. The CPU specific time, per element and per time step, is found out to be almost constant and no evidence of Courant-Friedrichs-Levi (CFL) number limitation has been detected in all the numerical experiments.

  10. A Well-Balanced Central-Upwind Scheme for the 2D Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in approximating solutions of the two-dimensional shallow water equations with a bottom topography on triangular meshes. We show that there is a certain flexibility in choosing the numerical fluxes in the design of semi-discrete Godunov-type central schemes. We take advantage of this fact to generate a new second-order, central-upwind method for the two-dimensional shallow water equations that is well-balanced. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method as well as its balance properties in a variety of examples.

  11. Coupling between shallow water and solute flow equations: analysis and management of source terms in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, J.; Burguete, J.; Brufau, P.; García-Navarro, P.

    2005-09-01

    A two-dimensional model for the simulation of solute transport by convection and diffusion into shallow water flow over variable bottom is presented. It is based on a finite volume method over triangular unstructured grids. A first order upwind technique is applied to solve the flux terms in both the flow and solute equations and the bed slope source terms and a centred discretization is applied to the diffusion and friction terms. The convenience of considering the fully coupled system of equations is indicated and the methodology is well explained. Three options are suggested and compared in order to deal with the diffusion terms. Some comparisons are carried out in order to show the performance in terms of accuracy and computational effort of the different options.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of 2D steady-state shallow water flow. Application to free surface flow model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, Vincent; Cappelaere, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the analytical properties of the solutions of the sensitivity equations for steady-state, two-dimensional shallow water flow. These analytical properties are used to provide guidelines for model calibration and validation. The sensitivity of the water depth/level and that of the longitudinal unit discharge are shown to contain redundant information. Under subcritical conditions, the sensitivities of the flow variables are shown to obey an anisotropic elliptic equation. The main directions of the contour lines for water depth and the longitudinal unit discharge sensitivity are parallel and perpendicular to the flow, while they are diagonal to the flow for the transverse unit discharge sensitivity. Moreover, the sensitivity for all three variables extends farther in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction, the anisotropy ratio being a function of the sole Froude number. For supercritical flow, the sensitivity obeys an anisotropic hyperbolic equation. These findings are confirmed by application examples on idealized and real-world simulations. The sensitivities to the geometry, friction coefficient or model boundary conditions are shown to behave in different ways, thus providing different types of information for model calibration and validation.

  13. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  14. Shallow-Water Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  15. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies James F. Lynch MS #12...N00014-14-1-0040 http://acoustics.whoi.edu/sw06/ LONG TERM GOALS The long term goals of our shallow water acoustics work are to: 1) understand the...nature of low frequency (10-1500 Hz) acoustic propagation, scattering and noise in shallow water when strong oceanic variability is present in the

  16. A comprehensive explanation and exercise of the source terms in hyperbolic systems using Roe type solutions. Application to the 1D-2D shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, J.; Navas-Montilla, A.

    2016-12-01

    Powerful numerical methods have to consider the presence of source terms of different nature, that intensely compete among them and may lead to strong spatiotemporal variations in the flow. When applied to shallow flows, numerical preservation of quiescent equilibrium, also known as the well-balanced property, is still nowadays the keystone for the formulation of novel numerical schemes. But this condition turns completely insufficient when applied to problems of practical interest. Energy balanced methods (E-schemes) can overcome all type of situations in shallow flows, not only under arbitrary geometries, but also with independence of the rheological shear stress model selected. They must be able to handle correctly transient problems including modeling of starting and stopping flow conditions in debris flow and other flows with a non-Newtonian rheological behavior. The numerical solver presented here satisfies these properties and is based on an approximate solution defined in a previous work. Given the relevant capabilities of this weak solution, it is fully theoretically derived here for a general set of equations. This useful step allows providing for the first time an E-scheme, where the set of source terms is fully exercised under any flow condition involving high slopes and arbitrary shear stress. With the proposed solver, a Roe type first order scheme in time and space, positivity conditions are explored under a general framework and numerical simulations can be accurately performed recovering an appropriate selection of the time step, allowed by a detailed analysis of the approximate solver. The use of case-dependent threshold values is unnecessary and exact mass conservation is preserved.

  17. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow- Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...shallow water over mud sediments and of acoustic detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud. OBJECTIVES • Develop...including long-range conveyance of information; detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud; and improvement of shallow water

  18. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  19. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  20. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  1. Multigrid shallow water equations on an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffress, Stephen; Duben, Peter; Palmer, Tim

    2015-04-01

    A novel computing technology for multigrid shallow water equations is investigated. As power consumption begins to constrain traditional supercomputing advances, weather and climate simulators are exploring alternative technologies that achieve efficiency gains through massively parallel and low power architectures. In recent years FPGA implementations of reduced complexity atmospheric models have shown accelerated speeds and reduced power consumption compared to multi-core CPU integrations. We continue this line of research by designing an FPGA dataflow engine for a mulitgrid version of the 2D shallow water equations. The multigrid algorithm couples grids of variable resolution to improve accuracy. We show that a significant reduction of precision in the floating point representation of the fine grid variables allows greater parallelism and thus improved overall peformance while maintaining accurate integrations. Preliminary designs have been constructed by software emulation. Results of the hardware implementation will be presented at the conference.

  2. Shallow Water Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    two curves demonstrate that the porous structure in the relatively thin upper layer significantly influences loss in the water. The middle panel is...development (1) Accurate calculations for range-dependent elastic media and applications • Validation of a recent elastic PE method, designed for...isotropic poro-elastic sediments [5] demonstrates that PE methods are feasible for these environments, and also indicates the influence of anisotropy

  3. Shallow waters require platform innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Conventional platform designs generally apply to production facilities for relatively shallow-water oil and gas fields and consequently do not attract much attention in the offshore industry. But although new designs relate largely to deeper waters, specific requirements of a particular field in shallow water may well force designers to search for unconventional designs to meet a need for lower costs and rapid development. A central production facility is planned offshore at the drilling location AWG-1, approximately 3 km offshore and in a water depth of about six meters. The choice is governed by the optimum interfield pipeline configuration available at the AWG-1 location, taking into account the other locations required for adequate subsea well coverage. The platform is described.

  4. Shallow Water Reverberation and Low Frequency Seabed Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Analytical method of angular power spectrum, range and depth structure of the echo-to-reverberation ratio in shallow water Sound Field,” (Chinese) ACTA ... ACUSTICA , 5 (2), 86-99 (1980). 2. D.R. Jackson and M.D. Richardson, <High-frequency Seafloor Acoustics>, 616 pages, Springer, 2007. 3. J.X. Zhou, X.Z

  5. Stochastic Modelling of Shallow Water Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horritt, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics approaches to modelling shallow water flows in the environment is hindered by the uncertainty inherent to natural landforms, vegetation and processes. A stochastic approach to modelling is therefore required, but this has previously only been attempted through computationally intensive Monte Carlo methods. An efficient second order perturbation method is outlined in this presentation, whereby the governing equations are first discretised to form a non-linear system mapping model parameters to predictions. This system is then approximated using Taylor expansions to derive tractable expressions for the model prediction statistics. The approach is tested on a simple 1-D model of shallow water flow over uncertain topography, verified against ensembles of Monte Carlo simulations and approximate solutions derived by Fourier methods. Criteria for the applicability of increasing orders of Taylor expansions are derived as a function of flow depth and topographic variability. The results show that non-linear effects are important for even small topographic perturbations, and the second order perturbation method is required to derive model prediction statistics. This approximation holds well even as the flow depth tends towards the topographic roughness. The model predicted statistics are also well described by a Gaussian approximation, so only first and second moments need be calculated, even if these are significantly different to values predicted by a linear approximation. The implications for more sophisticated (2-D, advective etc.) models are discussed.

  6. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  7. A 2D well-balanced shallow flow model for unstructured grids with novel slope source term treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jingming; Liang, Qiuhua; Simons, Franz; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2013-02-01

    Within the framework of the Godunov-type cell-centered finite volume (CCFV) scheme, this paper proposes a 2D well-balanced shallow water model for unstructured grids. In this model, the face-based van Albada limiting scheme is employed in conjunction with a directional correction to reconstruct second order spatial values at the midpoint of the considered face. The Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored (HLLC) is applied to compute the fluxes of mass and momentum, while the splitting implicit method is utilized to solve the friction source terms. The novel aspects of the model include the new limited directional correction with which the new local extrema caused by the unlimited correction are prevented efficiently, the simplified non-negative water depth reconstruction used to get rid of numerical instabilities and in turn to preserve mass conservation at wet-dry interfaces and the novel slope source term treatment which suits complex unstructured grids well by transforming the slope source of a cell into fluxes at its faces. This model is able to preserve the C-property and mass conservation, to achieve good convergence to steady state, to capture discontinuous flows and to handle complex flows involving wetting and drying over uneven beds on unstructured grids with poor connectivity in an accurate, efficient and robust way. These capabilities are verified against analytical solutions, numerical results of alternative models and experimental and field data.

  8. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  9. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  10. Large eddy simulations for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow flows: A comparison between different subgrid scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Esam; Toorman, Erik; Lacor, Chris

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the performance of the horizontal large eddy simulation module, developed at the University of Leuven (HLES-KULeuven module) is assessed. A comparison between different subgrid scale models has been carried out. The study is concerned with the non-rotating and unstratified flows. The results of the simulation for an oscillatory backward facing (BFS) flow are presented in case of an expanding flume based on a one-length scale approach and a two-length scale approach. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models have been tested: Smagorinsky SGS model (Smagorinsky, J., (1963). General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. the basic experiments. Monthly Weather Review, 91(3), 99-164), Uittenbogaard SGS model (Uittenbogaard, R.E., and van Vossen, B., (2004). Subgrid-scale model for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow water. Shallow Flows. Jirka and Uijttewaal (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 90 5809 700 5) and a proposed two-length scale approach. The first two models are considered to be a one-length scale models. A simulation without a subgrid scale model for the horizontal mixing has also been conducted. In all simulations, a quadratic friction model parameterizes the dissipation produced by the 3D-subdepth scale turbulence. The two-length scale concept uses a newly mixing length formulation for the quasi-2D turbulence and doesn't depend on the filter width in contrast to the one-length scale approach, in which the mixing length is function of the filter width. The outputs of the HLES-KULeuven module have been compared with the experimental data taken from Stelling, G.S., and Wang, L.X., (1984). Experiments and computations on separating flow in an expanding flume. Dept. Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Report 2-84.). The two-length scale approach has been validated with experimental data from SERC Flood Channel Facility at HR Wallingford. In general, there is a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It has

  11. Thermal influence on the groundwater fluid dynamics of the shallow Santiago forearc basin: 2D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramusset, Anneli; Herrera, Paulo; Parada, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal processes that occur in aquifers is essential to assess local and regional low enthalpy geothermal resources. The relationship between heat convection and heat conduction has been widely studied in basins around the world at a regional scale. However, few studies have focused on smaller, shallower basins containing free aquifers hosted in unconsolidated fluvial-alluvial sediments, like Santiago Basin. We use numerical modeling to simulate the fluid dynamics of the Santiago basin groundwater system under different thermal conditions. Despite the current computational advances, modeling such a complex system with a full 3D approach is still numerically time demanding and unstable. Besides, the basin has irregular geometry and variable hydraulic and thermal features. Thus, we performed a 2D model comprising a thin water saturated slice of sediments beneath the central part of the city, where the basin morphology is well constrained. We simulate coupled groundwater and heat flow throughout this vertical slice and we compare results for different scenarios that comprise different hydraulic, thermal and geometric parameters. Results obtained with certain hydraulic conductivities show that instabilities appear giving rise to free thermal convection in the deepest parts of the basin. If the system is split into several hydrogeological units, the onset of these instabilities is inhibited. Consequently, we suggest that the stratigraphic complexities of a fluvial-alluvial deposit should be considered to better understanding the thermal-driven groundwater fluid dynamics.

  12. Shallow Water Fluctuations and Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    propagation, while spatial focusing achieves a high SNR at the intended receiver with a low probability of interception (LPI) elsewhere. The spatial... SNR versus the number of receiver elements M: (1) time reversal alone (TR) and (2) time reversal combined with channel equalization (TR+EQ). Earlier...shallow region of the Mediterranean Sea [6] for two specific reasons. First, the data exhibit a high input SNR across the array (e.g., 12-19 dB

  13. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    13-1-0026 entitled "Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics," Principal Investigator Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin. Sincerely, ;l1,J-Ju1𔃻 ~{hjM1...30/03/2016 01/01/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBERS Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics 5b, GRANT NUMBER N0001 4-13-1... Water Acoustics Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543

  14. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  15. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics Dr. Ying...model to predict acoustic fluctuations and derive sound pressure sensitivity kernels due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. The...numerical method to be utilized is a tangent linear solution to predict acoustic fluctuations due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. This

  16. 2D View Aggregation for Lymph Node Detection Using a Shallow Hierarchy of Linear Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Seff, Ari; Lu, Le; Cherry, Kevin M.; Roth, Holger; Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Hoffman, Joanne; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) can provide important information for cancer diagnosis, staging, and measuring treatment reactions, making automated detection a highly sought goal. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm representation of decomposing the LN detection problem into a set of 2D object detection subtasks on sampled CT slices, largely alleviating the curse of dimensionality issue. Our 2D detection can be effectively formulated as linear classification on a single image feature type of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), covering a moderate field-of-view of 45 by 45 voxels. We exploit both simple pooling and sparse linear fusion schemes to aggregate these 2D detection scores for the final 3D LN detection. In this manner, detection is more tractable and does not need to perform perfectly at instance level (as weak hypotheses) since our aggregation process will robustly harness collective information for LN detection. Two datasets (90 patients with 389 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs) are used for validation. Cross-validation demonstrates 78.0% sensitivity at 6 false positives/volume (FP/vol.) (86.1% at 10 FP/vol.) and 73.1% sensitivity at 6 FP/vol. (87.2% at 10 FP/vol.), for the mediastinal and abdominal datasets respectively. Our results compare favorably to previous state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25333161

  17. 2D view aggregation for lymph node detection using a shallow hierarchy of linear classifiers.

    PubMed

    Seff, Ari; Lu, Le; Cherry, Kevin M; Roth, Holger R; Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Hoffman, Joanne; Turkbey, Evrim B; Summers, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) can provide important information for cancer diagnosis, staging, and measuring treatment reactions, making automated detection a highly sought goal. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm representation of decomposing the LN detection problem into a set of 2D object detection subtasks on sampled CT slices, largely alleviating the curse of dimensionality issue. Our 2D detection can be effectively formulated as linear classification on a single image feature type of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), covering a moderate field-of-view of 45 by 45 voxels. We exploit both max-pooling and sparse linear fusion schemes to aggregate these 2D detection scores for the final 3D LN detection. In this manner, detection is more tractable and does not need to perform perfectly at instance level (as weak hypotheses) since our aggregation process will robustly harness collective information for LN detection. Two datasets (90 patients with 389 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs) are used for validation. Cross-validation demonstrates 78.0% sensitivity at 6 false positives/volume (FP/vol.) (86.1% at 10 FP/vol.) and 73.1% sensitivity at 6 FP/vol. (87.2% at 10 FP/vol.), for the mediastinal and abdominal datasets respectively. Our results compare favorably to previous state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Shallow Water Acoustic Experiment Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    KNORR as it towed a J-15-1 source that emitted four tonals in the 50-250 Hz band, and the deployment locations of two Combustive Sound Source (CSS) events...collected on Array 2 in the 50-250 Hz band. The geoacoustic parameter that is best defined is the sound speed ratio at the water sediment interface... pulse length of the simulated and measured time series agree is an independent confirmation that the attenuation values deduced in Ref. 1 are

  19. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  20. Groundwater Recharge in Sandy Shallow Water Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, F. H.; Shukla, S.

    2015-12-01

    In shallow table conditions, a disproportionate increase or decrease in water table in response to minor water input or drainage is observed. This increase happens because the capillary fringe of the shallow water table reaches up to or near the surface (Wieringermeer effect). Conventional methods of calculating recharge such as multiplying the actual specific yield with the water table fluctuations cannot be used for Wieringermeer effect situations. A method using water balance data and soil moisture at different depths in the lysimeters was developed to estimate recharge and upflux. The recharge results were used to develop the apparent specific yield (Sya), which could be used to calculate consequent recharge events from water table fluctuations data. The correlations between water table level changes and rainfall, seepage irrigation, drip irrigation, and drainage were analyzed. Correlations with rainfall, seepage irrigation, and drainage were satisfactory (R-square ranged from 0.46 to 0.97). Combining the water tables fluctuations relationships developed with Sya value will allow the prediction of recharge from rainfall and irrigation events without the need for soil moisture equipment.

  1. Polarization Lidar for Shallow Water Depth Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S.; Thayer, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nanometers is developed for applications of shallow water depth measurement. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system's laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than an order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, a Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a single photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator and a time to digital converter are used to target various water depths. Measurement of 1 centimeter water depths with an uncertainty of ±3 millimeters are demonstrated using the technique. Additionally, a dual detection channel version of the lidar system is in development, permitting simultaneous measurement of co- and cross-polarized signals scattered from the target water body. This novel approach enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement, supporting comprehensive hydrodynamic studies.

  2. A depth-averaged 2-D model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Wu, Weiming; Beck, Tanya M.

    2016-11-01

    A depth-averaged 2-D model has been developed to simulate unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in coastal waters. The current motion is computed by solving the phase-averaged 2-D shallow water flow equations reformulated in terms of total-flux velocity, accounting for the effects of wave radiation stresses and general diffusion or mixing induced by current, waves, and wave breaking. The cross-shore boundary conditions are specified by assuming fully developed longshore current and wave setup that are determined using the reduced 1-D momentum equations. A 2-D wave spectral transformation model is used to calculate the wave height, period, direction, and radiation stresses, and a surface wave roller model is adopted to consider the effects of surface roller on the nearshore currents. The nonequilibrium transport of nonuniform total-load sediment is simulated, considering sediment entrainment by current and waves, the lag of sediment transport relative to the flow, and the hiding and exposure effect of nonuniform bed material. The flow and sediment transport equations are solved using an implicit finite volume method on a variety of meshes including nonuniform rectangular, telescoping (quadtree) rectangular, and hybrid triangular/quadrilateral meshes. The flow and wave models are integrated through a carefully designed steering process. The model has been tested in three field cases, showing generally good performance.

  3. Three Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Waterborne Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    currents and provided analytical tools to describe the effects of these currents on the hydrodynamics of the water body. Stockstill et al. (1999...accurately simulated. In this technical note the authors expand the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water implementation presented by Stockstill et al

  4. Wave turbulence in shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark di Leoni, P.; Cobelli, P. J.; Mininni, P. D.

    2014-06-01

    We study wave turbulence in shallow water flows in numerical simulations using two different approximations: the shallow water model and the Boussinesq model with weak dispersion. The equations for both models were solved using periodic grids with up to 20482 points. In all simulations, the Froude number varies between 0.015 and 0.05, while the Reynolds number and level of dispersion are varied in a broader range to span different regimes. In all cases, most of the energy in the system remains in the waves, even after integrating the system for very long times. For shallow flows, nonlinear waves are nondispersive and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with ˜k-2 scaling. For deeper (Boussinesq) flows, the nonlinear dispersion relation as directly measured from the wave and frequency spectrum (calculated independently) shows signatures of dispersion, and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with predictions of weak turbulence theory, ˜k-4/3. In this latter case, the nonlinear dispersion relation differs from the linear one and has two branches, which we explain with a simple qualitative argument. Finally, we study probability density functions of the surface height and find that in all cases the distributions are asymmetric. The probability density function can be approximated by a skewed normal distribution as well as by a Tayfun distribution.

  5. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  6. Radar imaging of shallow water bathymetry: A case study in the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Zhong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on 2-dimensional (2-D) radar imaging of bathymetric features in the shallow water of the Yangtze Estuary using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and model simulations. A validated 2-D shallow water numerical model simulates the barotropic current velocity, and the simulated current fields together with the relevant parameters of radar observations are then invoked in the radar imaging model as the input. The results show that variations in the simulated image intensity are mainly dominated by distinct radar backscatter anomalies caused by wave-current interactions in the vicinity of rapidly changing underwater topographies. The comparison between the simulated and observed SAR images shows a reasonable agreement, demonstrating that our approach may be implemented to monitor changes in the shallow water bathymetry of the Yangtze Estuary in the future.

  7. An improved shallow water equation model for water animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Mingjing; Du, Anding; Xu, Han; Niu, Jianwei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new scheme for simulating water flows under shallow water assumption. The method is an extension of traditional shallow water equations. In contrast to traditional methods, we design a dynamic coordinate system for modeling in order to efficiently simulate water flows. Within this system, we derive our specialized shallow water equations directly from the Navier-Stockes equation. At the same time, we develop an implicit mechanism for solving the advection term and a vector projection operator for solving the external forces acting on water. We also present a two-way coupling method for simulating the interaction between water and rigid solid. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a more realistic and accurate water model compared with the traditional methods, especially when the solid surfaces are too steep. Also we demonstrate the efficiency of our method in several scenes, all run at least 50 frames per second on average which allows real-time simulation.

  8. Shallow water modeling of Antarctic Bottom Water crossing the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choboter, Paul F.; Swaters, Gordon E.

    2004-03-01

    The dynamics of abyssal equator-crossing flows are examined by studying simplified models of the flow in the equatorial region in the context of reduced-gravity shallow water theory. A simple "frictional geostrophic" model for one-layer cross-equatorial flow is described, in which geostrophy is replaced at the equator by frictional flow down the pressure gradient. This model is compared via numerical simulations to the one-layer reduced-gravity shallow water model for flow over realistic equatorial Atlantic Ocean bottom topography. It is argued that nonlinear advection is important at key locations where it permits the current to flow against a pressure gradient, a mechanism absent in the frictional geostrophic model and one of the reasons this model predicts less cross-equatorial flow than the shallow water model under similar conditions. Simulations of the shallow water model with an annually varying mass source reproduce the correct amplitude of observed time variability of cross-equatorial flow. The time evolution of volume transport across specific locations suggests that mass is stored in an equatorial basin, which can reduce the amplitude of time dependence of fluid actually proceeding into the Northern Hemisphere as compared to the amount entering the equatorial basin. Observed time series of temperature data at the equator are shown to be consistent with this hypothesis.

  9. Trace metal concentrations in shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelewski, L.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Armstrong, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metal clean sampling and analysis techniques were used to examine the temporal patterns or Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in shallow ground water, and the relationships between metal concentrations in ground water and in a hydrologically connected river. Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in ground water ranged from 0.07 to 4.6 ng L-1, 0.07 to 3.10 ??g L-1, and 0.17 to 2.18 ??g L-1, respectively. There was no apparent seasonal pattern in any of the metal concentrations. Filtrable Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the North Branch of the Milwaukee River ranged from below the detection limit to 2.65 ng Hg L-1, 0.51 to 4.30 ??g Cu L-1, and 0.34 to 2.33 ??g Zn L-1. Thus, metal concentrations in ground water were sufficiently high to account for a substantial fraction of the filtrable trace metal concentration in the river. Metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 8 to 86 ng Hg g-1, 10 to 39 ??g Cu g-1, and 15 to 84 ??g Zn g-1. Distribution coefficients, KD, in the aquifer were 7900, 22,000, and 23,000 L kg-1 for Hg, Cu, and Zn, respectively. These values were three to 40 times smaller than KD values observed in the Milwaukee River for suspended particulate matter.

  10. Arc instability in shallow water wet welding

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.H.; Graham, S.R.B.

    1993-12-31

    A series of wet welding trials, undertaken at Cranfield as part of a larger program, examined the relative stability of the process across a range of shallow water depths. The effect of welder skill, and the use of computer based data logging equipment, was also evaluated. By means of the data logging system, it was confirmed that welding carried out at a depth of 6 meters was markedly more stable than similar welds at 1.5 and 3 meters. Objective effects of welder skill were also noted, most markedly the ability of the skilled welder to operate at lower arc voltages and travel speeds. The use of the computer based data logging and analysis system was of great assistance in the program, and the use of similar equipment is highly recommended.

  11. Shallow Water Bathymetry using the REMUS 100 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Shallow Water Bathymetry using the REMUS 100 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Michael Bell Maritime...2014 AR-015-799 December 2013 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Shallow Water Bathymetry using the REMUS 100...record position, depth and altitude enabling measurement of bathymetry along the vehicle track. The Defence Science and Technology Organisation

  12. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-08-06

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  13. Fluctuations of Broadband Acoustic Signals in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Signals in Shallow Water Mohsen Badiey College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 Phone: (302) 831-3687 Fax...refraction, and scattering in shallow water and coastal regions in the presence of temporal and spatial ocean variability. OBJECTIVES The scientific...of water column and dynamic sea surface variability, as well as source/receiver motion on acoustic wave propagation for underwater acoustic

  14. Estimation of freak wave occurrence in shallow water regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In the last two decades, freak waves have become an important topic in engineering and science and are sometimes featured by a single and steep crest causing severe damage to offshore structures and vessels. An accurate estimation of maximum wave height and prediction of freak wave occurrence frequency is important for marine safety and ocean developments. According to several studies on freak waves, the deep-water third-order nonlinearity (quasi-resonant four-wave interactions) can lead to a significant enhancement of freak wave occurrence from normality. However, it is not clear the behavior of offshore generated freak waves shoaling to shallow water regions. In general, a numerical simulation based on Boussinesq model has been frequently and widely used to estimate wave transformation in shallow water regions and has high-level performance in the design of coast and harbor structures in Japan. However, it is difficult to describe the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions by the Boussinesq model because it can express only up to the second-order nonlinear interactions. There is a gap of governing equation between deep and shallow water regions from the extreme wave modeling point of view. It is necessary to investigate the aftereffects of generated freak waves by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions and their propagation to shallow water regions using the Boussinesq model. In this study, the model experiments in a wave tank and numerical simulations based on the Boussinesq model were conducted to estimate the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions. In the model experiments, the maximum wave height increases with an increase in kurtosis by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions. The dependence of kurtosis on freak wave occurrence weakens by the second-order nonlinear interactions associated with wave shoaling if dimensionless water depth kph becomes shallower than 1.363, which kp

  15. Indicators: Shallow Water Habitat/In-stream Fish Habitat

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Shallow water habitat, also referred to as in-stream fish habitat, refers to areas that fish and other aquatic organisms need for concealment, breeding and feeding. This includes large woody snags, boulders, rock ledges, and undercut banks.

  16. Modeling of Mid-Frequency Reverberation in Very Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    reverberation at mid frequencies for a wide variety of sea bed types. In particular, they are primary tools used in the Ocean Bottom Characterization...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Modeling of Mid -Frequency Reverberation in Very Shallow...research is to develop a mid -frequency shallow-water reverberation model relevant to specific conditions (1 – 10 kHz, ~20 m water depth, ~ 5 km range) of

  17. Shallow Water UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Record No. 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    to eat lunch and charge the battery – using the truck instead of the trickle charger . Downtime equipment 85 1425 1450 Surveying. Collecting data...sensor array designed by 3DGeophysics. Testing was conducted at ATC, Standardized Shallow Water UXO Technology Demonstration Site. A description of...available on the capabilities of shallow water detection systems when these criteria were developed. However, they were used in the design of the test

  18. Source rock potential of shallow-water evaporitic settings

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.K.

    1986-05-01

    In the major evaporitic environments on the world's surface today, most organic matter accumulates in shallow subaqueous to seasonally subaerially exposed, algal-mat sediments. Given the present depositional setting, this organic matter probably could not be preserved to form source rocks. However, if the authors place such evaporite deposition into a geologic context, source rocks could have formed in shallow-water settings in the past. Such settings were characterized by hydrologic conditions that allowed the retention of hypersaline, anoxic pore water to depths where the organic material was buried deep enough to generate hydrocarbons. When deep-basin, shallow-water, evaporite successions were laid down in basins such as the Mediterranean during the late Miocene, the Michigan basin during the Silurian, and in other large saline giants, conditions were right for source rocks to form within shallow-water and salt-flat evaporitic environments. The evaporites in these saline giants were deposited under conditions of relatively shallow water (< 50 m); the basin never appears to have dried out, but water levels changed quickly (approx. 10,000 years) from shallow to deep. Continual water saturation coupled with saline pore fluids prevented the inflow of fresh, oxidizing ground water into the basin center of shallow-water organic-rich evaporites. Immature hydrocarbons derived from such rocks today drip from the 5.5-m.y. old evaporites of Sicily in active salt and sulfur mines. Organic-rich sediments could also be preserved to generate hydrocarbons in rapidly subsiding rift basins. In such basins, rapid burial has prevented the entrance of fresher oxygenated waters and the associated degradation and destruction of the organic matter. The early continental rift stage generates the source rocks; the ephemeral streams, wadis, and dune fields become the reservoirs, and the subsequent evaporite stage seals the reservoir.

  19. Collaborative Investigations of Shallow Water Optics Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    particularly crusta- was partially offset by the higher contrast attenuation at ceans, cephalopods , and fish, use photophores to illuminate shallow...Ron Zaneveld for helpful discus- Herring, P. J. 1977. Luminescence in cephalopods and fish. Symp. Zoo!.Soc. Lond. 38: 127-159.sions. This work was...M., and C. F. E. Roper. 1991. Cephalopods observed from Young, R. E., and F. M. Mencher. 1980. Bioluminescence in mesope- submersibles in the western

  20. Flow separation of currents in shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Flow separation of currents in shallow coastal areas is investigated using a boundary layer model for two-dimensional (depth-averaged) tidal flow past an elliptic headland. If the shoaling region near the coast is narrow compared to the scale of the headland, bottom friction causes the flow to separate just downstream of the point where the pressure gradient switches from favoring to adverse. As long as the shoaling region at the coast is well resolved, the inclusion of eddy viscosity and a no-slip boundary condition have no effect on this result. An approximate analytic solution for the pressure gradient along the boundary is obtained by assuming the flow away from the immediate vicinity of the boundary is irrotational. On the basis of the pressure gradient obtained from the irrotational flow solution, flow separation is a strong function of the headland aspect ratio, an equivalent Reynolds number, and a Keulegan-Carpenter number.

  1. Shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT: Recent developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the shallow water table depth (wtd) is crucial in many studies including determination of optimum irrigation and drainage management systems for agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, i...

  2. Computing nonhydrostatic shallow-water flow over steep terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood and dambreak hazards are not limited to moderate terrain, yet most shallow-water models assume that flow occurs over gentle slopes. Shallow-water flow over rugged or steep terrain often generates significant nonhydrostatic pressures, violating the assumption of hydrostatic pressure made in most shallow-water codes. In this paper, we adapt a previously published nonhydrostatic granular flow model to simulate shallow-water flow, and we solve conservation equations using a finite volume approach and an Harten, Lax, Van Leer, and Einfeldt approximate Riemann solver that is modified for a sloping bed and transient wetting and drying conditions. To simulate bed friction, we use the law of the wall. We test the model by comparison with an analytical solution and with results of experiments in flumes that have steep (31??) or shallow (0.3??) slopes. The law of the wall provides an accurate prediction of the effect of bed roughness on mean flow velocity over two orders of magnitude of bed roughness. Our nonhydrostatic, law-of-the-wall flow simulation accurately reproduces flume measurements of front propagation speed, flow depth, and bed-shear stress for conditions of large bed roughness. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  3. A Review of the Prediction of Squat in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, A.

    Recent evidence has shown that the effect of a ship moving in shallow water and the resultant squat are not well understood. This paper reviews the general problem of a ship in shallow water and illustrates the corresponding resistance, trim and sinkage at both sub-critical and also at super-critical speeds.The paper then reviews the various methods of predicting the squat of a ship in shallow water in the sub-critical range, which is applicable to most ships. It is suggested that the simple rule-of-thumb methods are, at best, unreliable and the paper gives examples of empirical methods which have been tested against various sets of data and seem to give more representative answers. A summary of the notation used is given at the end of the paper.

  4. 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy: A sensitive test of polarizable water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In a recent paper, the experimental 2D-Raman-THz response of liquid water at ambient conditions has been presented [J. Savolainen, S. Ahmed, and P. Hamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20402 (2013)]. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the goal to reproduce the experimental results. To that end, the molecular response functions are calculated in a first step, and are then convoluted with the laser pulses in order to enable a direct comparison with the experimental results. The molecular dynamics simulation are performed with several different water models: TIP4P/2005, SWM4-NDP, and TL4P. As polarizability is essential to describe the 2D-Raman-THz response, the TIP4P/2005 water molecules are amended with either an isotropic or a anisotropic polarizability a posteriori after the molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, SWM4-NDP and TL4P are intrinsically polarizable, and hence the 2D-Raman-THz response can be calculated in a self-consistent way, using the same force field as during the molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the 2D-Raman-THz response depends extremely sensitively on details of the water model, and in particular on details of the description of polarizability. Despite the limited time resolution of the experiment, it could easily distinguish between various water models. Albeit not perfect, the overall best agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the TL4P water model.

  5. 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy: A sensitive test of polarizable water models

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Peter

    2014-11-14

    In a recent paper, the experimental 2D-Raman-THz response of liquid water at ambient conditions has been presented [J. Savolainen, S. Ahmed, and P. Hamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20402 (2013)]. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the goal to reproduce the experimental results. To that end, the molecular response functions are calculated in a first step, and are then convoluted with the laser pulses in order to enable a direct comparison with the experimental results. The molecular dynamics simulation are performed with several different water models: TIP4P/2005, SWM4-NDP, and TL4P. As polarizability is essential to describe the 2D-Raman-THz response, the TIP4P/2005 water molecules are amended with either an isotropic or a anisotropic polarizability a posteriori after the molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, SWM4-NDP and TL4P are intrinsically polarizable, and hence the 2D-Raman-THz response can be calculated in a self-consistent way, using the same force field as during the molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the 2D-Raman-THz response depends extremely sensitively on details of the water model, and in particular on details of the description of polarizability. Despite the limited time resolution of the experiment, it could easily distinguish between various water models. Albeit not perfect, the overall best agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the TL4P water model.

  6. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of longshore currents in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Choi, Wooyoung

    2003-11-01

    The linear instability of shear flows in shallow water has been extensively studied under the rigid-lid assumption and has been known to play an important role on the dynamics of longshore currents, after the work by Bowen & Holman (1989). Here both analytical and numerical studies on the linear instability of various longshore currents are carried out and special attentions are paid to the effect of free surface on unstable currents. The full shallow water equations are then solved numerically to further describe the evolution of unstable shear waves beyond the linear regime.

  7. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  8. Shallow Water Laser Bathymetry: Accomplishments and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    still exist worldwide, present a backlog of hundreds of ship-years to conventional acoustic surveying. Additionally, much of surveyed navigation...related to its maximum depth capability, weather -related phenomena, and bottom structure. Water clarity, in particular, limits the ability of the laser

  9. 2D water layer enclathrated between Mn(II)-Ni(CN){sub 4} coordination frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Ambarish; Bhowmick, Indrani; Sheldrick, William S.; Jana, Atish Dipankar; Ali, Mahammed

    2009-10-15

    A [Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-}based two-dimensional Mn(II) coordination polymer {l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[NiCN]{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}, in which the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D water layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters has been synthesized. The complex exhibits high thermal decomposition temperature and reversible water absorption, which were clearly demonstrated by thermal and PXRD studies on the parent and rehydrated complex after dehydration. - Abstract: A coordination polymer, {l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[NiCN]{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n}, showed that the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D ice layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters . Display Omitted

  10. Molecular Dynamics implementation of BN2D or 'Mercedes Benz' water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, Arturs; Bardik, Vitaliy; Pavlov, Evgen; Nerukh, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional 'Mercedes Benz' (MB) or BN2D water model (Naim, 1971) is implemented in Molecular Dynamics. It is known that the MB model can capture abnormal properties of real water (high heat capacity, minima of pressure and isothermal compressibility, negative thermal expansion coefficient) (Silverstein et al., 1998). In this work formulas for calculating the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties in microcanonical (NVE) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles for the model from Molecular Dynamics simulation are derived and verified against known Monte Carlo results. The convergence of the thermodynamic properties and the system's numerical stability are investigated. The results qualitatively reproduce the peculiarities of real water making the model a visually convenient tool that also requires less computational resources, thus allowing simulations of large (hydrodynamic scale) molecular systems. We provide the open source code written in C/C++ for the BN2D water model implementation using Molecular Dynamics.

  11. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  12. Onboard Prediction of Propagation Loss in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-16

    substrate roughn*p, (4) modal coupling, and (6) biologia scAtterers;,6. Grain asiz distribution Is not an adequate predctor of acoustical properties; heuce...INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 GENERAL COMMENTS ................................... 2 SEDIMENT SOUND SPEED AND DENSITY...for an onboard perfor- mance prediction capability in shallow water. There is a general requirement for an onboard performance prediction capability

  13. Fluctuations of Broadband Acoustic Signals in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fluctuations of Broadband Acoustic Signals in Shallow Water Mohsen Badiey College of Earth, Ocean...AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for

  14. Sediment Transport at Density Fronts in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sediment Transport at Density Fronts in Shallow Water...tidal inundation cycle as it travels across the intertidal zone, and - combine the observations and model results to (1) quantify sediment suspension...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document

  15. Interaction of water molecules with hexagonal 2D systems. A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Ángela; Rey, Rafael

    Over the years water sources have been contaminated with many chemical agents, becoming issues that affect health of the world population. The advances of the nanoscience and nanotechnology in the development new materials constitute an alternative for design molecular filters with great efficiencies and low cost for water treatment and purification. In the nanoscale, the process of filtration or separation of inorganic and organic pollutants from water requires to study interactions of these atoms or molecules with different nano-materials. Specifically, it is necessary to understand the role of these interactions in physical and chemical properties of the nano-materials. In this work, the main interest is to do a theoretical study of interaction between water molecules and 2D graphene-like systems, such as silicene (h-Si) or germanene (h-Ge). Using Density Functional Theory we calculate total energy curves as function of separation between of water molecules and 2D systems. Different spatial configurations of water molecules relative to 2D systems are considered. Structural relaxation effects and changes of electronic charge density also are reported. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  16. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (< 1 m depth) sediments. This resultant total flow of mixed land-recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  17. Wind wave prediction in shallow water: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaleri, L.; Rizzoli, P.M.

    1981-11-20

    A wind wave forecasting model is described, based upon the ray technique, which is specifically designed for shallow water areas. The model explicitly includes wave generation, refraction, and shoaling, while nonlinear dissipative processes (breaking and bottom fricton) are introduced through a suitable parametrization. The forecast is provided at a specified time and target position, in terms of a directional spectrum, from which the one-dimensional spectrum and the significant wave height are derived. The model has been used to hindcast storms both in shallow water (Northern Adriatic Sea) and in deep water conditions (Tyrrhenian Sea). The results have been compared with local measurements, and the rms error for the significant wave height is between 10 and 20%. A major problems has been found in the correct evaluation of the wind field.

  18. Formation and properties of a terpyridine-based 2D MOF on the surface of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koitz, Ralph; Hutter, Jürg; Iannuzzi, Marcella

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional networks inspired by graphene are of prime importance in nanoscience. We present a computational study of an infinite molecular sheet confined on a water surface to assess its properties and formation mechanism. Terpyridine-based ligand molecules are interlinked by Zn ions to form an extended 2D metal-organic framework. We show that the network is stable on the water surface, and that the substrate affects the dynamic properties of the sheet, exhibiting a confining effect and flattening the sheet by 30%. We use metadynamics to characterize the process of network formation and breaking and determine an intra-network binding energy of 143 kJ mol-1. Based on this mechanistic insight we propose that the 2D network strength can be tuned by varying the rigidity of the ligand through its chemical structure.

  19. Three-dimensional shallow water system: A relaxation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Infante Sedano, Julio Ángel; Kurganov, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    We study a three-dimensional shallow water system, which is obtained from the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations after Reynolds averaging and under the simplifying hydrostatic pressure assumption. Since the three-dimensional shallow water system is generically not hyperbolic, it cannot be numerically solved using hyperbolic shock capturing schemes. At the same time, existing simple finite-difference and finite-volume methods may fail in simulations of unsteady flows with sharp gradients, such as dam-break and flood flows. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel numerical method, which is based on a relaxation approach utilized to "hyperbolize" the three-dimensional shallow water system. The extended relaxation system is hyperbolic and we develop a second-order semi-discrete central-upwind scheme for it. The proposed numerical method can preserve "lake at rest" steady states and positivity of water depth over irregular bottom topography. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the developed numerical method is verified on five numerical experiments.

  20. On shallow water rogue wave formation in strongly inhomogeneous channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-05-01

    Rogue wave formation in shallow water is often governed by dispersive focusing and wave-bottom interaction. In this study we try to combine these mechanisms by considering dispersive nonreflecting wave propagation in shallow strongly inhomogeneous channels. Nonreflecting wave propagation provides extreme wave amplification and the transfer of wave energy over large distances, while dispersive effects allow formation of a short-lived wave of extreme height (rogue wave). We found several types of water channels, where this mechanism can be realized, including (i) channels with a monotonically decreasing cross-section (normal dispersion), (ii) an inland basin described by a half of elliptic paraboloid (abnormal dispersion) and (iii) an underwater hill described by a half of hyperbolic paraboloid (normal dispersion). Conditions for variations of local frequency in the wave train providing optimal focusing of the wave train are also found.

  1. GPU Accelerated Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the development, verification, and performance of a GPU accelerated discontinuous Galerkin method for the solutions of two dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations. The shallow water equations are hyperbolic partial differential equations and are widely used in the simulation of tsunami wave propagations. Our algorithms are tailored to take advantage of the single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture of graphic processing units. The time integration is accelerated by local time stepping based on a multi-rate Adams-Bashforth scheme. A total variational bounded limiter is adopted for nonlinear stability of the numerical scheme. This limiter is coupled with a mass and momentum conserving positivity preserving limiter for the special treatment of a dry or partially wet element in the triangulation. Accuracy, robustness and performance are demonstrated with the aid of test cases. We compare the performance of the kernels expressed in a portable threading language OCCA, when cross compiled with OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenMP at runtime.

  2. A semi-Lagrangian approach to the shallow water equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Mccormick, Stephen F.; Ruge, John; Sholl, David S.; Yavneh, Irad

    1993-01-01

    We present a formulation of the shallow water equations that emphasizes the conservation of potential vorticity. A locally conservative semi-Lagrangian time-stepping scheme is developed, which leads to a system of three coupled PDE's to be solved at each time level. We describe a smoothing analysis of these equations, on which an effective multigrid solver is constructed. Some results from applying this solver to the static version of these equations are presented.

  3. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  4. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  5. Mixing and shocks in geophysical shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Tivon

    In the first section, a reduced two-layer shallow water model for fluid mixing is described. The model is a nonlinear hyperbolic quasilinear system of partial differential equations, derived by taking the limit as the upper layer becomes infinitely deep. It resembles the shallow water equations, but with an active buoyancy. Fluid entrainment is supposed to occur from the upper layer to the lower. Several physically motivated closures are proposed, including a robust closure based on maximizing a mixing entropy (also defined and derived) at shocks. The structure of shock solutions is examined. The Riemann problem is solved by setting the shock speed to maximize the production of mixing entropy. Shock-resolving finite-volume numerical models are presented with and without topographic forcing. Explicit shock tracking is required for strong shocks. The constraint that turbulent energy production be positive is considered. The model has geophysical applications in studying the dynamics of dense sill overflows in the ocean. The second section discusses stationary shocks of the shallow water equations in a reentrant rotating channel with wind stress and topography. Asymptotic predictions for the shock location, strength, and associated energy dissipation are developed by taking the topographic perturbation to be small. The scaling arguments for the asymptotics are developed by demanding integrated energy and momentum balance, with the result that the free surface perturbation is of the order of the square root of the topographic perturbation. Shock formation requires that linear waves be nondispersive, which sets a solvability condition on the mean flow and which leads to a class of generalized Kelvin waves. Two-dimensional shock-resolving numerical simulations validate the asymptotic expressions and demonstrate the presence of stationary separated flow shocks in some cases. Geophysical applications are considered. Overview sections on shock-resolving numerical methods

  6. Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.

  7. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  8. Liquid Water in the Extremely Shallow Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, A.; Shivak, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of liquid water is one of the major constraints for the potential Martian biosphere. Although liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, it has been suggested that liquid films of water could be present in the Martian soil. Here we explored a possibility of the liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and low ("Martian") surface temperatures (approx.-50 C-0 C). We used a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber to demonstrate that even in the clean frozen soil with temperatures as low as -25C the amount of mobile water can reach several percents. We also showed that during brief periods of simulated daylight warming the shallow subsurface ice sublimates, the water vapor diffuses through porous surface layer of soil temporarily producing supersaturated conditions in the soil, which leads to the formation of additional liquid water. Our results suggest that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, Martian soil just several cm below the surface can be habitable.

  9. Experimental Verification of Range-Dependent Inversion: Shallow Water Experiment 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Experimental Verification of Range-Dependent Inversion: Shallow Water Experiment 2006 Subramaniam D. Rajan Scientific Solutions, Inc., 99...dependent shallow water environment. OBJECTIVES Modal dispersion data are input to inversion schemes that estimate sediment properties in a range...suitable data during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment to verify the feasibility of estimating the range dependent sediment properties from modal dispersion

  10. Acoustic Propagation Modeling in Shallow Water Using Ray Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Evan Kruse

    A ray method is developed for modeling acoustic propagation in low-frequency, shallow water ocean environments. The theoretical foundation is laid by studying the reflected and transmitted fields due to a point source in the presence of a plane, penetrable interface. Each field is expressed as a plane wave integral. The approach for solving the integral is based on the classical method of steepest descent, but the plane wave reflection and transmission coefficients are allowed to influence the location of the saddle points and their steepest descent paths. As a consequence, saddle points are, in general, complex, and complicated processes such as the reflected lateral wave field and the transmitted evanescent field are incorporated in the saddle point formulation. The saddle point criterion may be expressed in terms of eigenrays and their characteristics, providing physical insight into the paths and mechanisms of propagation. The method developed for solving the single interface problem is then applied to two simple models for shallow water ocean environments: the flat, isovelocity waveguide (the Pekeris model) and the sloping-bottom, isovelocity waveguide (the penetrable wedge). For the flat waveguide, near perfect agreement is found between the ray model and a model whose algorithm solves the wave equation numerically (the SAFARI fast field model). The ray method proves to be accurate even when the water depth is only half of the acoustic wavelength. For the sloping-bottom waveguide, ray model solutions to benchmark problems proposed by the Acoustical Society of America are compared to solutions from a model based on two-way coupled mode theory. For cases of upslope propagation in shallow-water penetrable wedges, agreement between the two independent models is excellent, both in the water and in the bottom. The ray method for the three-dimensional wedge problem is discussed, and the method is also extended to model directional sources by placing a point source

  11. Ecological succession of a Jurassic shallow-water ichthyosaur fall.

    PubMed

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J; Matts, Katie

    2014-09-10

    After the discovery of whale fall communities in modern oceans, it has been hypothesized that during the Mesozoic the carcasses of marine reptiles created similar habitats supporting long-lived and specialized animal communities. Here, we report a fully documented ichthyosaur fall community, from a Late Jurassic shelf setting, and reconstruct the ecological succession of its micro- and macrofauna. The early 'mobile-scavenger' and 'enrichment-opportunist' stages were not succeeded by a 'sulphophilic stage' characterized by chemosynthetic molluscs, but instead the bones were colonized by microbial mats that attracted echinoids and other mat-grazing invertebrates. Abundant cemented suspension feeders indicate a well-developed 'reef stage' with prolonged exposure and colonization of the bones prior to final burial, unlike in modern whale falls where organisms such as the ubiquitous bone-eating worm Osedax rapidly destroy the skeleton. Shallow-water ichthyosaur falls thus fulfilled similar ecological roles to shallow whale falls, and did not support specialized chemosynthetic communities.

  12. Photosymbiosis and the expansion of shallow-water corals

    PubMed Central

    Frankowiak, Katarzyna; Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Mazur, Maciej; Meibom, Anders; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Roughly 240 million years ago (Ma), scleractinian corals rapidly expanded and diversified across shallow marine environments. The main driver behind this evolution is uncertain, but the ecological success of modern reef-building corals is attributed to their nutritional symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae. We show that a suite of exceptionally preserved Late Triassic (ca. 212 Ma) coral skeletons from Antalya (Turkey) have microstructures, carbonate 13C/12C and 18O/16O, and intracrystalline skeletal organic matter 15N/14N all indicating symbiosis. This includes species with growth forms conventionally considered asymbiotic. The nitrogen isotopes further suggest that their Tethys Sea habitat was a nutrient-poor, low-productivity marine environment in which photosymbiosis would be highly advantageous. Thus, coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis was likely a key driver in the evolution and expansion of shallow-water scleractinians. PMID:27847868

  13. Optimizing water hyperpolarization and dissolution for sensitivity-enhanced 2D biomolecular NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Greg; Markhasin, Evgeny; Szekely, Or; Bretschneider, Christian; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    A recent study explored the use of hyperpolarized water, to enhance the sensitivity of nuclei in biomolecules thanks to rapid proton exchanges with labile amide backbone and sidechain groups. Further optimizations of this approach have now allowed us to achieve proton polarizations approaching 25% in the water transferred into the NMR spectrometer, effective water T1 times approaching 40 s, and a reduction in the dilution demanded for the cryogenic dissolution process. Further hardware developments have allowed us to perform these experiments, repeatedly and reliably, in 5 mm NMR tubes. All these ingredients - particularly the ⩾3000× 1H polarization enhancements over 11.7 T thermal counterparts, long T1 times and a compatibility with high-resolution biomolecular NMR setups - augur well for hyperpolarized 2D NMR studies of peptides, unfolded proteins and intrinsically disordered systems undergoing fast exchanges of their protons with the solvent. This hypothesis is here explored by detailing the provisions that lead to these significant improvements over previous reports, and demonstrating 1D coherence transfer experiments and 2D biomolecular HMQC acquisitions delivering NMR spectral enhancements of 100-500× over their optimized, thermally-polarized, counterparts.

  14. Assessing Tsunami Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of tsunami preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different tsunami scenarios, and visualize the propagation of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our model against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Shallow Waters. I. A Semianalytical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Zhongping; Carder, Kendall L.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Steward, Robert G.; Patch, Jennifer S.

    1998-09-01

    For analytical or semianalytical retrieval of shallow-water bathymetry and or optical properties of the water column from remote sensing, the contribution to the remotely sensed signal from the water column has to be separated from that of the bottom. The mathematical separation involves three diffuse attenuation coefficients: one for the downwelling irradiance ( K d ), one for the upwelling radiance of the water column ( K u C ), and one for the upwelling radiance from bottom reflection ( K u B ). Because of the differences in photon origination and path lengths, these three coefficients in general are not equal, although their equality has been assumed in many previous studies. By use of the Hydrolight radiative-transfer numerical model with a particle phase function typical of coastal waters, the remote-sensing reflectance above ( R rs ) and below ( r rs ) the surface is calculated for various combinations of optical properties, bottom albedos, bottom depths, and solar zenith angles. A semianalytical (SA) model for r rs of shallow waters is then developed, in which the diffuse attenuation coefficients are explicitly expressed as functions of in-water absorption ( a ) and backscattering ( b b ). For remote-sensing inversion, parameters connecting R rs and r rs are also derived. It is found that r rs values determined by the SA model agree well with the exact values computed by Hydrolight ( 3% error), even for Hydrolight r rs values calculated with different particle phase functions. The Hydrolight calculations included b b a values as high as 1.5 to simulate high-turbidity situations that are occasionally found in coastal regions.

  16. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  17. Optimization of unconfined shallow aquifer water storage for irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    A physically based simulation model was developed to optimize pumping from shallow unconfined aquifers for irrigation. The model uses evapotranspiration, rainfall, crop, soil, and aquifer properties to calculate runoff, recharge, rejected recharge, and water table depth. The model predicted water table elevations over the five-year period with reasonable accuracy using the data from a small watershed in northwest Bangladesh. Four optimized pumping regimes were developed for shallow deep tubewell irrigation of rice and wheat grown in the Rabi (dry) sea-Bon. The improved irrigation system management increased groundwater recharge, thereby decreasing rejected recharge. Under improved management, pumping of groundwater was distributed over three crop: growing seasons, increasing total crop production as the cropping intensity increased. The net benefits for crop production from the improved management with the rice-based cropping pattern were 15 percent and 27 percent more with shallow and deep tubewells, respectively, than with the existing irrigation management. The average yearly rejection of rainfall recharge decreased from 590 mm under rain fed cropping to 440 mm for the existing irrigation management when irrigation was applied only in the Rabi season. When irrigation was applied in all three crop seasons under an improved irrigation management system, the rejection of recharge was only 160 mm. Thus it was possible to minimize the rejection of recharge by optimizing pumping and thereby to significantly increase the available irrigation water supply. Minimizing the rejected recharge reduced the surface runoff that contributes to the flooding that occurs most years in Bangladesh. By irrigating less than 100 percent of the area with tubewells, it was possible to avoid the overdraft of groundwater. The model can be used for other areas where soil, aquifer, crop, and weather data are available.

  18. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  19. Modulational Instability and Rogue Waves in Shallow Water Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimshaw, R.; Chow, K. W.; Chan, H. N.

    It is now well known that the focussing nonlinear Schrödinger equation allows plane waves to be modulationally unstable, and at the same time supports breather solutions which are often invoked as models for rogue waves. This suggests a direct connection between modulation instability and the existence of rogue waves. In this chapter we review this connection for a suite of long wave models, such as the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the extended Korteweg-de Vries (Gardner) equation, often used to describe surface and internal waves in shallow water, a Boussinesq equation and, also a coupled set of Korteweg-de Vries equations.

  20. New Analytical Solution for Nonlinear Shallow Water-Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Baran; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2017-03-01

    We solve the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations over a linearly sloping beach as an initial-boundary value problem under general initial conditions, i.e., an initial wave profile with and without initial velocity. The methodology presented here is extremely simple and allows a solution in terms of eigenfunction expansion, avoiding integral transform techniques, which sometimes result in singular integrals. We estimate parameters, such as the temporal variations of the shoreline position and the depth-averaged velocity, compare with existing solutions, and observe perfect agreement with substantially less computational effort.

  1. Jupiter's Great Red Spot as a shallow water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager cloud-top velocity data for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is used to derive the bottom topography up to a constant that depends on the unknown radius of deformation. The bottom topography is inferred from the Bernoulli streamfunction, kinetic energy per unit mass, and absolute vorticity values derived from the velocity data. The results are used to calculate potential vorticity versus latitude far from the vortex. It is found that the deep atmosphere is in differential motion and that the far-field potential vorticity gradient changes sign at several latitudes. Numerical experiments are conducted to study the time-dependent behavior of the shallow water analog of Jupiter's analog.

  2. Cartesian Methods for the Shallow Water Equations on a Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.

    2000-02-14

    The shallow water equations in a spherical geometry are solved using a 3-dimensional Cartesian method. Spatial discretization of the 2-dimensional, horizontal differential operators is based on the Cartesian form of the spherical harmonics and an icosahedral (spherical) grid. Computational velocities are expressed in Cartesian coordinates so that a problem with a singularity at the pole is avoided. Solution of auxiliary elliptic equations is also not necessary. A comparison is made between the standard form of the Cartesian equations and a rotational form using a standard set of test problems. Error measures and conservation properties of the method are reported for the test problems.

  3. Edge-based finite element method for shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. L. B.; Galeão, A. C.; Landau, L.

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes an edge-based implementation of the generalized residual minimum (GMRES) solver for the fully coupled solution of non-linear systems arising from finite element discretization of shallow water equations (SWEs). The gain in terms of memory, floating point operations and indirect addressing is quantified for semi-discrete and space-time analyses. Stabilized formulations, including Petrov-Galerkin models and discontinuity-capturing operators, are also discussed for both types of discretization. Results illustrating the quality of the stabilized solutions and the advantages of using the edge-based approach are presented at the end of the paper. Copyright

  4. Traveling surface waves of moderate amplitude in shallow water

    PubMed Central

    Gasull, Armengol; Geyer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We study traveling wave solutions of an equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude arising as a shallow water approximation of the Euler equations for inviscid, incompressible and homogeneous fluids. We obtain solitary waves of elevation and depression, including a family of solitary waves with compact support, where the amplitude may increase or decrease with respect to the wave speed. Our approach is based on techniques from dynamical systems and relies on a reformulation of the evolution equation as an autonomous Hamiltonian system which facilitates an explicit expression for bounded orbits in the phase plane to establish existence of the corresponding periodic and solitary traveling wave solutions. PMID:24895474

  5. Adaptivity in space and time for shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi Cecchi, M.; Marcuzzi, F.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive algorithms for time and space discretizations are added to an existing solution method previously applied to the Venice Lagoon Tidal Circulation problem. An analysis of the interactions between space and time discretizations adaptation algorithms is presented. In particular, it turns out that both error estimations in space and time must be present for maintaining the adaptation efficiency. Several advantages, for adaptivity and for time decoupling of the equations, offered by the operator-splitting adopted for shallow water equations solution are presented. Copyright

  6. Shallow water imaging sonar system for environmental surveying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The scope of this research is to develop a shallow water sonar system designed to detect and map the location of objects such as hazardous wastes or discarded ordnance in coastal waters. The system will use high frequency wide-bandwidth imaging sonar, mounted on a moving platform towed behind a boat, to detect and identify objects on the sea bottom. Resolved images can be obtained even if the targets are buried in an overlayer of silt. The specific technical objective of this research was to develop and test a prototype system that is capable of (1) scan at high speeds (up to 10m/s), even in shallow water (depth to ten meters), without motion blurring or loss of resolution; (2) produce images of the bottom structure that are detailed enough for unambiguous detection of objects as small as 15cm, even if they are buried up to 30cm deep in silt or sand. The critical technology involved uses an linear FM (LFM) or similar complex waveform, which has a high bandwidth for good range resolution, with a long pulse length for similar Dopper resolution. The lone duration signal deposits more energy on target than a narrower pulse, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-clutter ratio. This in turn allows the use of cheap, lightweight, low power, piezoelectric transducers at the 30--500 kHz range.

  7. Surface Towed CSEM Systems for Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J.; Constable, S.; Kannberg, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a low-power, surface towed electric dipole-dipole system suitable for mapping seafloor geology in shallow water and deployable from small boats. The transmitter is capable of up to 50 amps output using 12 VDC from a 110/240 VAC power supply, and can generate an arbitrary GPS stabilized ternary waveform. Transmitter antennas are typically 50 to 100 m long. Receivers are built around the standard Scripps seafloor electrode, amplifier, and logging systems but housed in floating PVC cases and equipped with GPS timing and positioning, pitch/roll/heading sensors, and accelerometers. Receiver dipoles are 1.5 m long rigid booms held 1 m below the surface. As with the Scripps deep-towed Vulcan system, rigid antennas are used to avoid noise associated with flexible antennas moving across Earth's magnetic field. The tow cable is a simple floating rope up to 1000 m long. Water depth and conductivity are sampled continuously in order to provide constraints for apparent resistivity calculations and inversion, and moored seafloor recorders can be used to extend transmitter/receiver offsets. The entire system can be air freighted and transported in one utility vehicle. We will present results from a study to map permafrost in shallow water off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.

  8. 2D-photochemical modeling of Saturn’s stratosphere: hydrocarbon and water distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Vincent; Cavalié, Thibault; Hersant, Franck; Dobrijevic, Michel; Greathouse, Thomas; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Hartogh, Paul; Cassidy, Timothy; Spiga, Aymeric; Guerlet, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody

    2014-11-01

    Saturn’s axial tilt of 27° produces seasons in a similar way as on Earth. The seasonal forcing over Saturn’s 30 years period influences the production/loss of the major atmospheric absorbers and coolants through photochemistry, and influences therefore Saturn’s stratospheric temperatures. We have developed a 2D time-dependent photochemical model of Saturn’s atmosphere [Hue et al., in prep.], coupled to a radiative-climate model [Greathouse et al., 2008] to study seasonal effects on its atmospheric composition. Cassini spacecraft has revealed that the distribution of hydrocarbons in Saturn’s stratosphere [Guerlet et al., 2009] differs from pure photochemical predictions, i.e. without meridional transport [Moses et al., 2005]. Differences between the observed distribution of hydrocarbons and 2D-photochemical predictions are likely to be an indicator of dynamical forcing.Disentangling the origin of water in the stratosphere of this planet has been a long-term issue. Due to Saturn’s cold tropopause trap, which acts as a transport barrier, the water vapor observed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) [Feuchtgruber et al., 1997] has an external origin. Three external sources have been identified: (i) permanent flux from interplanetary dust particles, (ii) local sources form planetary environments (rings, satellites), (iii) large cometary impacts, similar to Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter. Previous observations of Saturn with Herschel’s Hsso program [Hartogh et al., 2009] led to the detection of a water torus around Saturn [Hartogh et al., 2011], fed by Enceladus’ geysers. A substantial fraction of this torus is predicted to be a local source of water for Saturn’s and its satellites, as it will spread in this system [Cassidy et al., 2010]. Using the new 2D-photochemical model, we test here the validity of Enceladus’ torus as the source of Saturn’s stratospheric water.References : Hue et al., in prep. Greathouse et al., 2008. AGU Fall Meeting

  9. High-rate multiuser communications in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Song, H C; Kim, J S; Hodgkiss, W S; Kuperman, W A; Stevenson, M

    2010-11-01

    Passive multiuser communications in shallow water previously was demonstrated in the 3-4 kHz band using a time reversal approach. This paper extends those experimental results in three respects. First, a larger bandwidth at higher frequency (11-19 kHz) is employed allowing for the use of various symbol rates (or bandwidths). Second, two different shaping pulses are examined: a raised cosine filter and LFM (linear frequency modulation) chirp. Third, the adaptive time reversal approach with spatial nulling is applied to suppress the crosstalk among users. It is shown that the use of a larger bandwidth is beneficial along with the time reversal receiver which can handle significant intersymbol interference with minimal computational complexity. In addition, adding each user degrades the performance by about 4 dB for the benefit of linear increase in data rate. It is demonstrated that an aggregate data rate of 60 kbits/s can be achieved with a 7.5 kHz bandwidth (a spectral efficiency of 8 bits/s Hz) by three users distributed over 4.2-m depth at a 2.2 km range in shallow water using 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation).

  10. For seismic profiling in very shallow water, a novel receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkin, P.G. ); Davis, A. )

    1993-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the geology of the nearshore and coastal zone. Working in the coastal zone, groups involved in civil engineering projects, pipeline and cable installations, marine transportation and navigation, recreational and harbor developments, and coastal defenses and environmental bodies demand better and more informative data. Although detailed site-specific information from borehole drilling, sample testing, or in-situ geotechnical measurements may be required, it is common practice and invariably cost effective to undertake a reconnaissance geophysical survey program first -- identifying borehole locations, providing geological and bathymetric information, and providing information on sediment distribution and the dynamics of the depositional regime. Used extensively by the offshore industry for many years, seismic reflection profiling is the preferred geophysical technique for high resolution structural-stratigraphic investigation of the seafloor. However, seismic data collection in very shallow water has posed many problems technically, operationally, and logistically. Recently, there have been significant developments in marine geophysical survey procedures -- a novel technique for seismic profiling in shallow water that can extend to depths of 2 meters or less has been developed.

  11. Global dynamical behaviors in a physical shallow water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchakoutio Nguetcho, Aurélien Serge; Li, Jibin; Bilbault, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    The theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems is used to investigate the behavior of travelling wave solutions in an entire family of shallow water wave equations. This family is obtained by a perturbative asymptotic expansion for unidirectional shallow water waves. According to the parameters of the system, this family can lead to different sets of known equations such as Camassa-Holm, Korteweg-de Vries, Degasperis and Procesi and several other dispersive equations of the third order. Looking for possible travelling wave solutions, we show that different phase orbits in some regions of parametric planes are similar to those obtained with the model of the pressure waves studied by Li and Chen. Many other exact explicit travelling waves solutions are derived as well, some of them being in perfect agreement with solutions obtained in previous works by researchers using different methods. When parameters are varied, the conditions under which the above solutions appear are also shown. The dynamics of singular nonlinear travelling system is completely determined for each of the above mentioned equations. Moreover, we define sufficient conditions leading to the existence of propagating wave solutions and demonstrate how and why travelling waves lose their smoothness and develop into solutions with compact support or breaking waves.

  12. Momentum balance in the shallow water equations on bottom discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiani, A.; Caleffi, V.

    2017-02-01

    This work investigates the topical problem of balancing the shallow water equations over bottom steps of different heights. The current approaches in the literature are essentially based on mathematical analysis of the hyperbolic system of balance equations and take into account the relevant progresses in treating the non-conservative form of the governing system in the framework of path-conservative schemes. An important problem under debate is the correct position of the momentum balance closure when the bottom elevation is discontinuous. Cases of technical interest are systematically analysed, consisting of backward-facing steps and forward-facing steps, tackled supercritical and subcritical flows; critical (sonic) conditions are also analysed and discussed. The fundamental concept governing the problem and supported by the present computations is that the energy-conserving approach is the only approach that is consistent with the classical shallow water equations formulated with geometrical source terms and that the momentum balance is properly closed if a proper choice of a conventional depth on the bottom step is performed. The depth on the step is shown to be included between the depths just upstream and just downstream of the step. It is also shown that current choices (as given in the literature) of the depth on (or in front of) the step can lead to unphysical configurations, similar to some energy-increasing solutions.

  13. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  14. Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.R.; O'Brien, T.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

  15. Above-Water Radiometry in Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-François; Brown, James W.

    2004-07-01

    Above- and in-water radiometric data were collected from two coastal platforms: a small boat and an oceanographic tower. The above-water data were processed with and without a correction for bidirectional effects (Q02 and S95, respectively). An intercomparison of water-leaving radiances over a wide range of environmental conditions showed (a) total uncertainties across the blue-green domain were to within 4%, (b) a convergence of the Q02 method with the in-water method (average Q02 intercomparisons were to within 4%), and (c) chlorophyll a concentrations derived from Q02 reflectances and the OC4V4 (Ocean Color 4 Version 4) algorithm agreed with independent high-performance liquid-chromatography determinations to within approximately 32%.

  16. Blue-winged teals swim in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of blue-winged teals glide through the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. A non-hydrostatic pressure distribution solver for the nonlinear shallow water equations over irregular topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, Costanza; Lo Re, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    We extend a recently proposed 2D depth-integrated Finite Volume solver for the nonlinear shallow water equations with non-hydrostatic pressure distribution. The proposed model is aimed at simulating both nonlinear and dispersive shallow water processes. We split the total pressure into its hydrostatic and dynamic components and solve a hydrostatic problem and a non-hydrostatic problem sequentially, in the framework of a fractional time step procedure. The dispersive properties are achieved by incorporating the non-hydrostatic pressure component in the governing equations. The governing equations are the depth-integrated continuity equation and the depth-integrated momentum equations along the x, y and z directions. Unlike the previous non-hydrostatic shallow water solver, in the z momentum equation, we retain both the vertical local and convective acceleration terms. In the former solver, we keep only the local vertical acceleration term. In this paper, we investigate the effects of these convective terms and the possible improvements of the computed solution when these terms are not neglected in the governing equations, especially in strongly nonlinear processes. The presence of the convective terms in the vertical momentum equation leads to a numerical solution procedure, which is quite different from the one of the previous solver, in both the hydrostatic and dynamic steps. We discretize the spatial domain using unstructured triangular meshes satisfying the Generalized Delaunay property. The numerical solver is shock capturing and easily addresses wetting/drying problems, without any additional equation to solve at wet/dry interfaces. We present several numerical applications for challenging flooding processes encountered in practical aspects over irregular topography, including a new set of experiments carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the University of Palermo.

  18. The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: a shallow-water perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The Toarcian ocean anoxic event (T-OAE, ca. 183 Ma) corresponds to a major perturbation of the carbon cycle as reflected by a marked decrease (2 to 7 per mil) in carbon-isotope ratios of various carbonate and organic matter phases. Severe environmental perturbations and biotic turnovers are accompanying the unfolding of the T-OAE, which is thought to be initiated by the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. Most of the studies dedicated to the T-OAE were however undertaken in mud-rich, deep-water setting, leaving vast uncertainties about its shallow-water expression and accompanying sea-level fluctuations. Here we present an extensive sedimentological dataset of the shallow-water record of the T-OAE within the Central High Atlas Basin of Morocco. The combination of ammonite and brachiopod biostratigraphy, together with carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy (on both carbonate and organic matter) allows a precise location of the T-OAE in the studied shallow-water sections. Thanks to well-exposed and thick successions, relative sea-level variations were reconstructed on a high-resolution scale, highlighting several important facts. Firstly, the T-OAE interval is preceded by a 50 meters-deep incised valley, observed within the uppermost Polymorphum ammonite zone. Similar observations have been reported from Euro-boreal basins and, together with published evidences of coeval occurrence of relatively cool seawater temperature and low atmospheric pCO2, we postulate that this forced regression is driven by glacio-eustasy. This points at the occurrence of a "cold snap" event just prior to the onset of the T-OAE. Secondly, the inception of the T-OAE is marked by the demise of the Lithiotid-dominated neritic carbonate factory, replaced by siliciclastic-dominated sedimentation during the T-OAE negative carbon isotope shift. Thirdly, an important progradation of oo-biodetritic shoal occurs during the negative carbon isotope plateau, underlying that the renewal of

  19. Simulation of arrested salt wedges with a multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestininzi, P.; Montessori, A.; La Rocca, M.; Sciortino, G.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to accurately and efficiently model the intrusion of salt wedges into river beds is crucial to assay its interaction with human activities and the natural environment. We present a 2D multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann (SWLB) model able to predict the salt wedge intrusion in river estuaries. The formulation usually employed for the simulation of gravity currents is here equipped with proper boundary conditions to handle both the downstream seaside outlet and the upstream river inlet. Firstly, the model is validated against highly accurate semi-analytical solutions of the steady state 1D two-layer Shallow Water model. Secondly, the model is applied to a more complex, fully 3D geometry, to assess its capability to handle realistic cases. The simple formulation proposed for the shear interlayer stress is proven to be consistent with the general 3D viscous solution. In addition to the accuracy, the model inherits the efficiency of the Lattice Boltzmann approach to fluid dynamics problems.

  20. A shallow water model for magnetohydrodynamic flows with turbulent Hartmann layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothérat, Alban; Schweitzer, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    We establish a shallow water model for flows of electrically conducting fluids in homogeneous static magnetic fields that are confined between two parallel planes where turbulent Hartmann layers are present. This is achieved by modelling the wall shear stress in these layers using Prandtl's mixing length model, as did by Alboussière and Lingwood [Phys. Fluids 12(6), 1535 (2000)]. The idea for this new model arose from the failure of previous shallow water models that assumed a laminar Hartmann layer to recover the correct amount of dissipation found in some regimes of the MATUR experiment. This experiment, conducted by Messadek and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 456, 137 (2002)], consisted of a thin layer of mercury electrically driven in differential rotation in a transverse magnetic field. Numerical simulations of our new model in the configuration of this experiment allowed us to recover experimental values of both the global angular momentum and the local velocity up to a few percent when the Hartmann layer was in a sufficiently well developed turbulent state. We thus provide an evidence that the unexplained level of dissipation observed in MATUR in these specific regimes was caused by turbulence in the Hartmann layers. A parametric analysis of the flow, made possible by the simplicity of our model, also revealed that turbulent friction in the Hartmann layer prevented quasi-2D turbulence from becoming more intense and limited the size of the large scales.

  1. Calculations of Asteroid Impacts into Deep and Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, Galen; Weaver, Robert; Gittings, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Contrary to received opinion, ocean impacts of small (<500 m) asteroids do not produce tsunamis that lead to world-wide devastation. In fact the most dangerous features of ocean impacts, just as for land impacts, are the atmospheric effects. We present illustrative hydrodynamic calculations of impacts into both deep and shallow seas, and draw conclusions from a parameter study in which the size of the impactor and the depth of the sea are varied independently. For vertical impacts at 20 km/s, craters in the seafloor are produced when the water depth is less than about 5-7 times the asteroid diameter. Both the depth and the diameter of the transient crater scale with the asteroid diameter, so the volume of water excavated scales with the asteroid volume. About a third of the crater volume is vaporised, because the kinetic energy per unit mass of the asteroid is much larger than the latent heat of vaporisation of water. The vaporised water carries away a considerable fraction of the impact energy in an explosively expanding blast wave which is responsible for devastating local effects and may affect worldwide climate. Of the remaining energy, a substantial portion is used in the crown splash and the rebound jet that forms as the transient crater collapses. The collapse and rebound cycle leads to a propagating wave with a wavelength considerably shorter than classical tsunamis, being only about twice the diameter of the transient crater. Propagation of this wave is hindered somewhat because its amplitude is so large that it breaks in deep water and is strongly affected by the blast wave's perturbation of the atmosphere. Even if propagation were perfect, however, the volume of water delivered per metre of shoreline is less than was delivered by the Boxing Day 2004 tsunami for any impactor smaller than 500 m diameter in an ocean of 5 km depth or less. Near-field effects are dangerous for impactors of diameter 200 m or greater; hurricane-force winds can extend tens of

  2. Polar Vortices in Shallow Water Simulations of Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Emanuel, Kerry

    2014-11-01

    Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune each exhibit unique polar atmospheric behavior. Assuming these flows are due to shallow dynamics, we explore the parameter space potentially responsible for the difference between each planet's polar features. The best observations have come from the Cassini misson to Saturn. Among many discoveries, a massive, warm and cyclonic vortex has been observed on each pole. The South Polar Vortex (SPV), specifically, has the highest measured temperatures on Saturn, a double eyewall, deep eye and a rapid cyclonic jet with the second highest windspeeds observed on the planet. Numerous small, vortical, and potentially convective systems are embedded within the large-scale flow of the SPV. Given these observations, we explore one potential mechanism of polar vortex maintenance: up-scale, poleward vorticity flux due to vortical hot towers (VHTs). Large GCMs cannot yet resolve local deep convection in the weather layer. Using a reduced gravity shallow water model on a polar beta plane, we represent convective towers with mass-flux driven vortex pairs and allow them to move freely. We show that there exist multiple regimes of polar flow, and that small and/or quickly rotating planets with sufficient total energy favor a polar cyclone in our simulations.

  3. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  4. Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first

  5. Expansion shock waves in regularized shallow-water theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.; Shearer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We identify a new type of shock wave by constructing a stationary expansion shock solution of a class of regularized shallow-water equations that include the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and Boussinesq equations. An expansion shock exhibits divergent characteristics, thereby contravening the classical Lax entropy condition. The persistence of the expansion shock in initial value problems is analysed and justified using matched asymptotic expansions and numerical simulations. The expansion shock's existence is traced to the presence of a non-local dispersive term in the governing equation. We establish the algebraic decay of the shock as it is gradually eroded by a simple wave on either side. More generally, we observe a robustness of the expansion shock in the presence of weak dissipation and in simulations of asymmetric initial conditions where a train of solitary waves is shed from one side of the shock.

  6. Reverberation clutter induced by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Henyey, Frank S; Tang, Dajun

    2013-10-01

    Clutter is related to false alarms for active sonar. It is demonstrated that, in shallow water, target-like clutter in reverberation signals can be caused by nonlinear internal waves. A nonlinear internal wave is modeled using measured stratification on the New Jersey shelf. Reverberation in the presence of the internal wave is modeled numerically. Calculations show that acoustic energy propagating near a sound speed minimum is deflected as a high intensity, higher angle beam into the bottom, where it is backscattered along the reciprocal path. The interaction of sound with the internal wave is isolated in space, hence resulting in a target-like clutter, which is found to be greater than 10 dB above the mean reverberation level.

  7. Modeling of SAR signatures of shallow water ocean topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kozma, A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.

  8. An investigation of dispersion characteristics in shallow coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingying; Zhang, Hong; Spencer, David; Dunn, Ryan J. K.; Lemckert, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamic dispersion has a significant impact on the mass transport of sediments and contaminants within coastal waters. In this study apparent horizontal dispersion in a tidally-dominated shallow estuary was investigated using field observations and a numerical model. A cluster of four Lagrangian drifters was released in two shallow regions inside Moreton Bay, Australia: between two small islands and in an open water area. During a 16-h tracking period, the drifters generally showed similar behaviour, initially moving with the dominant current and remaining together before spreading apart at the change of tide. Two dispersion regimes were identified, a slow dispersion during the earlier stage and a rapid dispersion during the latter stage of deployment. Such change in regime typically occurred during the succeeding ebb or flow tides, which may be attributable to residual eddies breaking down during reversal of tidal direction. In addition, a power function of the squared separation distance over the apparent dispersion coefficient produced an R2 exceeding 0.7, indicating a significant relationship between them. By applying a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the trajectories of artificial particles spreading in the bay were simulated, which allowed the calculation of dispersion coefficients throughout the entire bay. The study results demonstrate that the tidal effects on dispersion were dependent on the effect of tidal excursion and residual current. The tide was found to be the most dominant driver of dispersion in the bay when unobstructed by land; however, bathymetric and shoreline characteristics were also significant localised drivers of dispersion between the two islands as a result of island wake.

  9. 2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN− solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN− molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN− and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T 1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN− is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm−1 vs. 14.9 cm−1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

  10. Numerical simulation of 2D buoyant jets in ice-covered and temperature-stratified water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruochuan

    A two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulation model is applied to the problem of a submerged warm water discharge into a stratified lake or reservoir with an ice cover. Numerical simulations and analyses are conducted to gain insight into large-scale convective recirculation and flow processes in a cold waterbody induced by a buoyant jet. Jet behaviors under various discharge temperatures are captured by directly modeling flow and thermal fields. Flow structures and processes are described by the simulated spatial and temporal distributions of velocity and temperature in various regions: deflection, recirculation, attachment, and impingement. Some peculiar hydrothermal and dynamic features, e.g. reversal of buoyancy due to the dilution of a warm jet by entraining cold ambient water, are identified and examined. Simulation results show that buoyancy is the most important factor controlling jet behavior and mixing processes. The inflow boundary is treated as a liquid wall from which the jet is offset. Similarity and difference in effects of boundaries perpendicular and parallel to flow, and of buoyancy on jet attachment and impingement, are discussed. Symmetric flow configuration is used to de-emphasize the Coanda effect caused by offset.

  11. Photocurable oil/water interfaces as a universal platform for 2-D self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Benkoski, Jason J; Jones, Ronald L; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir

    2007-03-27

    We present a novel platform, dubbed fossilized liquid assembly, for the creation of 2-D assemblies from nanoscale building blocks. The system consists of an oil/water interface in which the oil phase can be flash-cured upon UV exposure. The photopolymerizable material, 1,12-dodecanediol dimethacrylate, solidifies in as little as 1 s when exposed to UV light. The rapid cross-linking allows one to obtain a "snapshot" of the assembly process for particles that segregate to the oil/water interface. Among the particles investigated were nonpolar 0.39 microm poly(methyl methacrylate) latex spheres, nonpolar 10 microm polystyrene latex spheres, highly polarizable 5 nm Au nanocrystals, dipolar 10 nm CdTe quantum dots, and magnetic 25 nm magnetite nanoparticles. The aggregates formed by this process were typically either globular or fractal in appearance. By comparing with simulation, we can perform quantitative image analysis on the resulting micrographs to define a rigorous set of standards for distinguishing among the main classes of aggregation: flocculation, equilibrium phase separation, and true self-assembly.

  12. Spatial Variability of Seafloor and Shallow Sub-surface Acoustic Properties, Shallow Water Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orange, D.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Orange, A.; Henning, A.; Broillete, D.; Martin, P.; Brouillete, T.; Shiffer, R.; Willias, J.; Henderson, D.; Jewell, M.; McGuire, M.; Willias, S.; Tapia, J.; Spear, C.; Monsalve, B.

    2007-12-01

    In June 2007 we carried out the first of two ONR field programs aboard the R/V 'Pelican' designed to evaluate variations in seafloor and shallow sub-surface acoustic properties at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The follow-up field program is scheduled for January, 2008, and will use the same boat and same systems to survey the same sites to determine whether there are any seasonal variations in the datasets as well spatial variability between the sites. Data acquisition includes multibeam bathymetry, multibeam backscatter, side scan sonar, and sub-bottom profiling. In addition to temporal (seasonal) and spatial variations, we are examining the differences in acoustic signature of the seafloor at different frequencies. The three areas of interest in this two-year program are: (1) off the coast of Louisiana, west of Atchafalaya Bay, at the site of the ONR multi-year research program 'Mechanism of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves' (MURI), (2) off Panama city, Florida in an area of known sub-surface features and (3) off Louisiana's Southwest Pass in an area of where mudflows triggered by Hurricanes Ivan and Katrina destroyed or damaged platforms and pipelines (West Delta). Water depths in the areas of interest range from 3.5 to 96 m. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates spatial differences between and within the sites. Within individual sites there are differences in the data as a function of the frequencies used to map the seafloor. Off Southwest Pass we find differences in mudflow character associated with a known dredge site suggesting a possible anthropogenic component to mudflow sourcing and level of activity.

  13. Syndepositional shallow-water precipitation of glauconitic minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafetz, H. S.; Reid, A.

    2000-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that glauconitic minerals predominantly form in water depths of mid-shelf to upper slope in modern oceans. These areas tend to have slow sedimentation rates, another commonly cited requisite for glauconitic mineral precipitation. Cambro-Ordovician strata from the southwestern US are rich in glauconitic minerals. Stratigraphic, sedimentological, and petrographic constraints indicate that the glauconitic minerals are autochthonous. In marked contrast to the modern environments of deposition, these Cambro-Ordovician strata formed under very shallow-water to tidal-flat conditions. The trough cross-stratified deposits of the most glauconitic mineral-rich accumulations (glaucarenites) indicate a high energy environment and probably a normal to high rate of sedimentation. The presence of fibroradiated rims of glauconitic minerals on glauconitic mineral pellets, echinoderm fragments, and quartz grains demonstrates that the Cambro-Ordovician glauconitic minerals precipitated on or in close proximity to the sea floor and prior to calcite precipitation. Consequently, glauconitic minerals must have formed under markedly different conditions in the lower Paleozoic than they do today. Thus, the occurrence of glauconitic minerals in the rock record cannot be used a priori as an environmental indicator of either mid-shelf and deeper water and/or a slow rate of sedimentation.

  14. A new Shallow Water Cabled OBS System off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Horst; Pearcey, Chris; Mangano, Giorgio; Guralp, Cansun; Pearce, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    During the summer and fall of 2013 we installed a turnkey cabled network of four combination broadband velocity/acceleration ocean bottom sensors (OBS) on the sea floor near Point Buchon in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central California. We implemented a novel network design by daisy-chaining the instruments to one single multistranded cable. The signals of each station are digitized in-situ and then transmitted via dedicated optical fiber links inside the cable to a shore station. From there they are fed in real time via a cell phone modem into several seismic networks in California. The goal of this dense network is to monitor the microseismicity of two offshore faults running parallel to the strike of the San Andreas Fault. However, because the network is installed in rather shallow water near the coast, the action of waves and swell at the sea surface affect the sensor registrations much stronger as compared to the typical deep water installation of OBS equipment. We will report about the challenges of installing and maintaining the network and present some initial results.

  15. On the parameters of absorbing layers for shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modave, Axel; Deleersnijder, Éric; Delhez, Éric J. M.

    2010-02-01

    Absorbing/sponge layers used as boundary conditions for ocean/marine models are examined in the context of the shallow water equations with the aim to minimize the reflection of outgoing waves at the boundary of the computational domain. The optimization of the absorption coefficient is not an issue in continuous models, for the reflection coefficient of outgoing waves can then be made as small as we please by increasing the absorption coefficient. The optimization of the parameters of absorbing layers is therefore a purely discrete problem. A balance must be found between the efficient damping of outgoing waves and the limited spatial resolution with which the resulting spatial gradients must be described. Using a one-dimensional model as a test case, the performances of various spatial distributions of the absorption coefficient are compared. Two shifted hyperbolic distributions of the absorption coefficient are derived from theoretical considerations for a pure propagative and a pure advective problems. These distribution show good performances. Their free parameter has a well-defined interpretation and can therefore be determined on a physical basis. The properties of the two shifted hyperbolas are illustrated using the classical two-dimensional problems of the collapse of a Gaussian-shaped mound of water and of its advection by a mean current. The good behavior of the resulting boundary scheme remains when a full non-linear dynamics is taken into account.

  16. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  17. 2D-Ising critical behavior in mixtures of water and 3-methylpyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Sadakane, Koichiro; Iguchi, Kazuya; Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of an antagonistic salt on the phase behavior and nanoscale structure of a mixture of D{sub 2}O and 3-methylpyridine was investigated by visual inspection and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The addition of the antagonistic salt, namely sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh{sub 4}), induces the shrinking of the two-phase region in contrast to the case in which a normal (hydrophilic) salt is added. Below the phase separation point, the SANS profiles cannot be described by the Ornstein-Zernike function owing to the existence of a long-range periodic structure. With increasing salt concentration, the critical exponents change from the values of 3D-Ising and approach those of 2D-Ising. These results suggest that the concentration fluctuation of the mixture of solvents is limited to a quasi two-dimensional space by the periodic structure induced by the adding the salt. The same behaviors were also observed in mixtures composed of water, 3-methylpyridine, and ionic surfactant.

  18. Differential expression of BnSRK2D gene in two Brassica napus cultivars under water deficit stress

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtari, Bahlanes; Razi, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant unique serine/threonine kinases which play a key role in cellular signaling in response to abiotic stresses. The three SnRK2 members including SRK2D, SRK2I and SRK2E are known to phosphorylate major abscisic acid (ABA) responsive transcription factors, ABF2 and ABF4, involved in an ABA-dependent stress signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This study aimed to clone and sequence an ortholog of the Arabidopsis SRK2D gene from Brassica napus, designated as BnSRK2D. An 833bp cDNA fragment of BnSRK2D, which shared high amino acid sequence identity with its Arabidopsis counterpart, was obtained suggesting a possible conserved function for these genes. The expression pattern of BnSRK2D and its potential target gene B. napus ABF2 (BnABF2) were then analyzed in the two cultivars with contrasting reaction to water deficit stress. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that BnSRK2D and BnABF2 were water-deficit stress responsive genes with similar expression profiles. The accumulation of the BnSRK2D and BnABF2 transcripts in the two cultivars was linked with their level of drought tolerance, as the drought tolerant cultivar had significantly higher expression levels of both genes under normal and water deficit stress conditions. These findings suggest that BnSRK2D and BnABF2 genes may be involved in conferring drought tolerance in B. napus. PMID:27843988

  19. Shallow water processes govern system-wide phytoplankton bloom dynamics: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Lucas, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of the phytoplankton dynamics in South San Francisco Bay, California, USA have hypothesized that bivalve filter-feeders are responsible for the limited phytoplankton blooms in the system. This study was designed to examine the effects of benthic grazing and light attenuation on this shallow, turbid, and nutrient replete system. We found that grazing by shallow water bivalves was important in determining phytoplankton bloom occurrence throughout the system and that above a shallow water bivalve grazing threshold, phytoplankton biomass did not exceed bloom levels. Wind speed, used as a proxy for light attenuation in the shallow water, was similarly important in determining bloom development in the shallow water. Environmental conditions and benthic grazing in the deep water channel had a less discernible effect on system-wide phytoplankton blooms although persistent water column stratification did increase bloom magnitude. The shallow water bivalves, believed to be preyed upon by birds and fish that migrate through the system in fall and winter, disappear each year prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. Because growth of the phytoplankton depends so strongly on shallow water processes, any change in the shallow-water benthic filter-feeders or their predators has great potential to change the phytoplankton bloom dynamics in this system. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solving the shallow water equations on the Cray X-MP/48 and the connection machine 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarztrauber, Paul N.; Sato, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    The shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates and 2-D are solved on the Connection Machine 2 (CM-2) using both the spectral and finite difference methods. A description of these implementations is presented together with a brief discussion of the CM-2 as it relates to these specific computations. The finite difference code was written both in C* and *LISP and the spectral code was written in *LISP. The performance of the codes is compared with a FORTRAN version that was optimized for the Cray X-MP/48.

  1. Determining ice water content from 2D crystal images in convective cloud systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Delphine; Coutris, Pierre; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    Cloud microphysical in-situ instrumentation measures bulk parameters like total water content (TWC) and/or derives particle size distributions (PSD) (utilizing optical spectrometers and optical array probes (OAP)). The goal of this work is to introduce a comprehensive methodology to compute TWC from OAP measurements, based on the dataset collected during recent HAIC (High Altitude Ice Crystals)/HIWC (High Ice Water Content) field campaigns. Indeed, the HAIC/HIWC field campaigns in Darwin (2014) and Cayenne (2015) provide a unique opportunity to explore the complex relationship between cloud particle mass and size in ice crystal environments. Numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were sampled with the French Falcon 20 research aircraft at different temperature levels from -10°C up to 50°C. The aircraft instrumentation included an IKP-2 (isokinetic probe) to get reliable measurements of TWC and the optical array probes 2D-S and PIP recording images over the entire ice crystal size range. Based on the known principle relating crystal mass and size with a power law (m=α•Dβ), Fontaine et al. (2014) performed extended 3D crystal simulations and thereby demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the value of the exponent β from OAP data, by analyzing the surface-size relationship for the 2D images as a function of time. Leroy et al. (2015) proposed an extended version of this method that produces estimates of β from the analysis of both the surface-size and perimeter-size relationships. Knowing the value of β, α then is deduced from the simultaneous IKP-2 TWC measurements for the entire HAIC/HIWC dataset. The statistical analysis of α and β values for the HAIC/HIWC dataset firstly shows that α is closely linked to β and that this link changes with temperature. From these trends, a generalized parameterization for α is proposed. Finally, the comparison with the initial IKP-2 measurements demonstrates that the method is able to predict TWC values

  2. Nitrate removal in shallow, open-water treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Justin T; Jones, Zackary L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Sedlak, David L

    2014-10-07

    The diffuse biomat formed on the bottom of shallow, open-water unit process wetland cells contains suboxic zones that provide conditions conducive to NO3(-) removal via microbial denitrification, as well as anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). To assess these processes, nitrogen cycling was evaluated over a 3-year period in a pilot-scale wetland cell receiving nitrified municipal wastewater effluent. NO3(-) removal varied seasonally, with approximately two-thirds of the NO3(-) entering the cell removed on an annual basis. Microcosm studies indicated that NO3(-) removal was mainly attributable to denitrification within the diffuse biomat (i.e., 80 ± 20%), with accretion of assimilated nitrogen accounting for less than 3% of the NO3(-) removed. The importance of denitrification to NO3(-) removal was supported by the presence of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) within the biomat. While modest when compared to the presence of denitrifying genes, a higher abundance of the anammox-specific gene hydrazine synthase (hzs) at the biomat bottom than at the biomat surface, the simultaneous presence of NH4(+) and NO3(-) within the biomat, and NH4(+) removal coupled to NO2(-) and NO3(-) removal in microcosm studies, suggested that anammox may have been responsible for some NO3(-) removal, following reduction of NO3(-) to NO2(-) within the biomat. The annual temperature-corrected areal first-order NO3(-) removal rate (k20 = 59.4 ± 6.2 m yr(-1)) was higher than values reported for more than 75% of vegetated wetlands that treated water in which NO3(-) was the primary nitrogen species (e.g., nitrified secondary wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff). The inclusion of open-water cells, originally designed for the removal of trace organic contaminants and pathogens, in unit-process wetlands may enhance NO3(-) removal as compared to existing vegetated wetland systems.

  3. An Expendable Source for Measuring Shallow Water Acoustic Propagation and Geo-Acoustic Bottom Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. An Expendable Source for Measuring Shallow Water Acoustic ...Propagation and Geo- Acoustic Bottom Properties Harry A DeFerrari RSMAS – University of Miami 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami FL. 33149...broadband source is being developed that transmits high gain m-sequence to clandestinly measure pulse response of shallow water acoustic propagation

  4. Synthesis of nanovoid Bi(2)WO(6) 2D ordered arrays as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwu; Bahnemann, Detlef

    2013-02-01

    Herein we report a facile and economic method to prepare nanovoid Bi(2)WO(6) 2D ordered arrays employing a simple self-assembly procedure. The electrochemical properties and performance of the 2D nanoarray as a photoanode for water splitting are investigated and compared with a conventional photoanode of similar thickness. The 2D array photoanode shows a much higher photocurrent density and photon-to-H(2) conversion efficiency even with a small content of the Bi(2)WO(6) material. The enhancement is further studied and explained on the basis of the superiority of light scattering and photogenerated hole diffusion within the 2D array structure. This work provides a facile method to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion systems by minimizing the charge-carrier diffusion length and reducing the light reflection, as well as reducing the amount of the semiconductor material (often costly and/or rare) present in the photoanode.

  5. Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.; Sakashita, S.; Okubo, S.; Yamane, K.

    2006-12-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data was collected to evaluate the feasibility of the methods and instrumentation. The shallow water environment is challenging because of high water currents and wave motion effects contaminating the data. We demonstrate the performance test of the new type of instrument, and the field experiment that was carried out in the Monterey Bay of California, USA, in 2003 and 2004. In this paper we describe the instrumentation developed, shows some examples from field trial and finally provide some inversion results using collected and simulated data. The system consists of EM transmitter deployed on the beach in combination with a series of offshore based multicomponent receivers. Field data collected near Monterey California revealed some of the challenges associated with this type of system. Collected data showed the influence of wave and cultural noise as well. In site of these difficulties we were able to accumulate a sufficient quantity of good quality records to interpret results. We show 2-D inversion results which image the "Navy Fault zone" which strikes NW-SE offshore Monterey bay in water depths of 10 to 40m.

  6. New beach ridge type: severely limited fetch, very shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.; Demirpolat, S.

    1988-09-01

    The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.

  7. Sound scattering in shallow water in presence of internal solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsnelson, Boris G.; Pereselkov, Serguey A.; Petnikov, Valery G.

    2002-05-01

    Sound scattering by localized inhomogeneity (object) in a shallow-water waveguide is studied. Influence of internal solitons (IS) traveling in the sea, on the scattered field is considered. The problem is analyzed within the framework of theory of the sound scattering in the waveguide developed by the authors, where the scattering matrix is expressed through modal decomposition including the scattering amplitude of the object in free space. The peculiarity of the given work is the taking into account of additional modes conversion due to IS. The waveguide and IS are modeled on the basis of experimental data (sound-speed profile, bottom relief, IS parameters, etc.) collected in the Japan Sea. The inhomogeneity is selected in the form of soft spheroids with dimensions characteristic of gray whales (eschrichtius). Calculations of amplitude fluctuations of the low-frequency sound field at the receiving point are carried out for moving spheroid and different orientations of acoustic track with respect to direction of propagation of IS. It is shown that sound fluctuations have essentially different characteristics for longitudinal and transversal propagation of IS. [Work supported by RFBR, Grant No. 00-05-64752.

  8. Adaptive instant record signals applied to shallow water detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folégot, Thomas; de Rosny, Julien; Prada, Claire; Fink, Mathias

    2004-05-01

    Time reversal arrays are becoming common tools whether for detection, tomography or communication. These applications require the measurement of the response from the array to one or several receivers. The most natural way to record different impulse responses between several points is to generate pulses successively from each emitting point and directly record all the impulse responses on the recording points. However, this method is very time consuming and inefficient in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. Hence, in this work, we propose an original way of sending continuous signals simultaneously from all the sources, recording all the pressure fields on the receivers and processing them in order to extract the exact impulse responses by matched filter. To this end, the signals are adapted to the environment and, more specifically, to highly dispersive media. These adaptive instant records signals (AIRS) are used experimentally to detect targets using the time reversal operator decomposition method. The quality of the 15×15 transfer functions acquired simultaneously, and therefore, the detection capability is demonstrated in shallow water in the presence of bottom absorption and reverberation. Finally, the connection of AIRS with CDMA and FDMA that are two coding techniques used in telecommunication is shown.

  9. Multiport Diffuser as Line Source of Momentum in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph H.; Jirka, Gerhard H.

    1980-08-01

    Multiport diffusers are linear structures consisting of many closely spaced nozzles which inject a series of high-velocity jets into an ambient fluid. The discharge of heated water into the shallow coastal zone is considered herein as a typical practice for cooling water disposal from steam electric power generation. The flow and temperature fields, induced in the otherwise stagnant and homogeneous fluid layer, are analyzed by representing the diffuser as a line source of fluid momentum in a two-dimensional coordinate system, thus neglecting the initial momentum transfer zone in which the three-dimensional jets merge to produce a vertically fully mixed flow. A scaling argument which considers the effect of pressure deviations, turbulent bottom friction, and lateral turbulent diffusion shows that the flow field can be divided into the near field, of order of the diffuser length, and into the far field, at longer distances. The near field is characterized by a predominantly inviscid behavior and gives rise to a contracting slipstream motion, qualitatively similar to the slipstream produced by an airscrew. The shape of the slip streamline is found by mapping the complex potential of the flow into the log hodograph plane. The boundary conditions at the diffuser line are assumed to be a uniform normal velocity and a uniform longitudinal acceleration. The interior velocity and pressure distribution are determined through a finite difference solution using the known geometry of the slipstream. Results indicate a strong separation angle (60°) of the slipstream at the diffuser and a rapid approach to the asymptotic contraction value (½). An integral model is developed for the depth-averaged temperature and velocity in the far field of the `diffuser plume' (i.e., a localized current with elevated temperatures with weaker velocities and a uniform temperature outside). The model includes the effect of turbulent friction at the plume bottom, described by a quadratic friction

  10. Coordinating perception and action with an underwater robot in a shallow water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasso, R. P.

    1992-04-01

    It is usually difficult to use underwater robots for mapping, reconnaissance, and mine-clearing tasks in shallow water (10 to 80 foot depth) ocean environments. The shallow water environment is characterized by strong, intermittent wave surge which requires robot behaviors that are capable of riding out the surge and then repositioning the platform and re- acquiring the objects being sensed. The shallow water area is also characterized by water that is murky, making optical sensors useless for long range search, and which produces multiple paths for sonar returns, giving errant range readings. Teleoperation from a remote surface platform is not effective due to the rapid changes in the environment. A more promising approach would place reactive intelligence on-board the robot. This paper describes such an approach which uses high frequency acoustic and vision sensing and a situated reasoning software architecture to provide task-achieving capability to an underwater robot in a shallow water environment. The approach is demonstrated in the context of a shallow water marking task wherein a robot must locate and navigate to a moored object in shallow water depths, attach a buoyant marker, and then return to a destination location. The approach seeks to integrate selective perception with robust transit and hovering behaviors to overcome the natural problems associated with shallow water environments.

  11. A middle Devonian temperate water limestone-isotopes, stromatoporoids and shallow water facies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolosz, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Edgecliff Member of the Middle Devonian Onondaga Formation has long been of interest to exploration geologists because its pinnacle reefs and bioherms are potential natural gas reservoirs. Current evidence indicates that the Edgecliff was deposited in a shallow, temperate water environment suggesting that application of standard tropical carbonate models will be misleading. Three lines of evidence support the temperate water model for the Edgecliff. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses performed on 29 samples from the non-luminescent portions of 15 brachiopods with prismatic ultrastructure yield {delta}{sup 18}O values which are isotopically heavier than accepted values for Devonian sea-water, suggesting cool water conditions. The distribution of stromatoporoids (assumed warm water organisms) ranges from rare and small in the eastern part of New York State, to more common in Ontario, Canada. This trend in stromatoporoids appears to represent an increase in size and abundance as the distance from the paleo-equator decreases. Finally, previously unrecognized shallow water facies in the Edgecliff including thin, dolomitized and bioturbated carbonate muds, solitary rugosan biostromes and ridge-like fringing coral bioherms negate any possibility that the isotopic and paleobiologic data reflect deposition in deep, cooler waters as opposed to an overall temperate water environment.

  12. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shallow Water Dynamics in

  13. Sonobuoy-Based, 3-D Acoustic Characterization of Shallow-Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Shallow- Water Environments George V. Frisk Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Florida Atlantic University SeaTech Campus 101 North Beach...TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this research is to increase our understanding of shallow water acoustic propagation and its relationship to the...three-dimensionally varying seabed and water column environments. OBJECTIVES The scientific objectives of this research are: (1) to develop high

  14. Array Receivers and Sound Sources for Three Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustic Field Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-06

    Water Acoustic Field Experiments NOOO 14-15-1-2893 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ying Tsong-Lin 132893SP Se. TASK...testing. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS acoustics, shallow water , Arctic Ocean , 3-D acoustic propagation, shelfbreak 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: R b...Approved f or public release; distribution is unlimited. Array Receivers and Sound Sources for Three-Dimensional Shallow- Water Acoustic Field

  15. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  16. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This..., NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl...

  17. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This..., NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl...

  18. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This..., NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl...

  19. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This..., NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl...

  20. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf... for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of... gear in the GOA. The species and species groups that comprise the shallow-water species fishery...

  1. Airborne mapping of shallow water bathymetry in the optically complex waters of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtmäe, Ele; Kutser, Tiit

    2016-04-01

    Accurate determination of the water depth is important for marine spatial planning, producing maritime charts for navigation, seabed morphology studies, and carrying out different activities in the coastal waters. Bathymetric data are lacking foremost in the shallow water regions as those areas are often inaccessible to the hydrographic ships carrying out echo sounding measurements. Remote sensing technology can be used as an alternative for shallow water bathymetry mapping. Varieties of empirical methods have been proposed for bathymetry retrieval, where the relationship between remotely sensed radiance of the water body and the water depth at sampled locations was established empirically. Two most widely used depth derivation methods, the linear band model proposed by Lyzenga (1978, 1985, 2006), and the log-transformed band ratio model proposed by Stumpf et al. (2003), were applied to the different preprocessing level airborne Hyspex hyperspectral images from the optically complex Baltic Sea area and evaluated for accuracy. Results showed that the Lyzenga linear band model outperformed the Stumpf log-transformed band ratio model. The best results were achieved with the atmospherically corrected images. The application of glint correction did not improve, but even reduced the accuracy of bathymetric maps.

  2. A Modal Decomposition of the Rotating Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Francis; Waite, Michael; Greig, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans are complicated because of the vast range of length and time scales involved. Understanding how energy cascades from the large to small scales is an outstanding problem in the field and of great interest. In any attempt to do this it is always necessary to specify the physical structure of the basis functions. Perhaps the most popular choice are Fourier modes, which are desirable because they 1) can form a complete basis; 2) are well understood because of the richness of Fourier analysis; and 3) are a basis for high-order spectral methods. This is a convenient choice but numerous other possibilities exist, such as polynomials and wavelets. All of these choices are generic in that they do not arise from the underlying physics of the waves and can usually be applied to virtually any problem. The motivation for this work stems from the idea that a better choice for basis functions should be dictated by the model equations. One relatively simple model that has often been used to looked at energy transfers between different length and time scales is the Rotating Shallow Water model (RSW). It is restrictive in that it only describes homogeneous fluids, however, because it can contain both fast gravity and slow Rossby waves it is a useful paradigm to study energy transfers between waves with vastly different scales. The pioneering work of Leith (1980) investigated the decomposition of the RSW into its linear modes and subsequently others have built on this to understand the modal structure of stratified flows. In these works the emphasis has been on f-plane and therefore the slow component was a vortical mode that does not propagate. In his original paper Leith points out that it would be interesting to extend his methodology to a beta-plane and in this talk we present results from our preliminary work to do just that. This is done numerically using spectral methods to find the most accurate solutions possible for a given number

  3. Shallow water simulations of Saturn's giant storms at different latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow water simulations are used to present a unified study of three major storms on Saturn (nicknamed as Great White Spots, GWS) at different latitudes, polar (1960), equatorial (1990), and mid-latitude (2010) (Sánchez-Lavega, 2004; Sánchez-Lavega et al., 2011). In our model, the three GWS are initiated by introducing a Gaussian function pulse at the latitude of the observed phenomena with controlled horizontal size and amplitude. This function represents the convective source that has been observed to trigger the storm. A growing disturbance forms when the pulse reacts to ambient winds, expanding zonally along the latitude band of the considered domain. We then compare the modeled potential vorticity with the cloud field, adjusting the model parameters to visually get the closest aspect between simulations and observations. Simulations of the 2010 GWS (planetographic latitude ∼+40º, zonal velocity of the source ∼-30 m s-1) indicate that the Coriolis forces and the wind profile structure shape the disturbance generating, as observed, a long region to the east of the convective source with a high speed peripheral anticyclonic circulation, and a long-lived anticyclonic compact vortex accompanied by strong zonal advection on the southern part of the storm forming a turbulent region. Simulations of the equatorial 1990 GWS (planetographic latitude +12º-+5º, zonal velocity of the source 365-400 m s-1) show a different behavior because of the intense eastward jet, meridional shear at the equatorial region, and low latitude dynamics. A round shaped source forms as observed, with the rapid growth of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the north side of the source due to advection and to the strong meridional wind shear, whereas at the storm latitude the disturbance grows and propagates eastward. The storm nucleus is the manifestation of a Rossby wave, while the eastward propagating planetary-scale disturbance is a gravity-Rossby wave trapped around the equator

  4. Remote sensing retrieval of water constituents in shallow coastal waters with applications to the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Marani, M.; Albertson, J. D.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased direct and indirect anthropogenic pressure. Monitoring the environmental state and trends in such environment would benefit from the use of remote sensing techniques, which can access a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, most remote sensors are not suitable for monitoring shallow and optically-complex waters, because of their low spatial and spectral-resolution and of the uncertainties associated with the contribution of the bottom sediment to the observed remote sensing signal. We apply here a remote sensing-based approach to mapping suspended sediment and chlorophyll concentrations in the shallow Venice lagoon, which integrates hyperspectral remote sensing data, a simplified radiative transfer model, and in-situ water quality measurements. First, we calibrate and validate the key parameters of the model, such as bottom albedo and absorption/backscattering coefficients of sediment, by comparing remote sensing derived water constituent concentrations with in-situ data. We then determine the statistics of those parameters, and the associated estimation uncertainty, by applying a bootstrapping technique. Finally, the lagoon-wide distribution of water constituent concentrations, and of the estimation uncertainty, is derived by inverting the model. The estimates are consistent with measured concentrations and their known optical properties, particularly for the suspended sediment concentrations, while chlorophyll concentration estimates remain more uncertain. Our analyses show that remote sensing methods can provide reliable water constituent concentrations at the system scale and that uncertainties become overwhelming only in particularly shallow areas (water depths indicatively lower than 1 m in the present application). Importantly, the joint use of radiative transfer models, in situ observations, and statistical techniques allows the production of

  5. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  6. SWIM: A Semi-Analytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm for Optically Shallow Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean color remote sensing provides synoptic-scale, near-daily observations of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). Whilst contemporary ocean color algorithms are known to perform well in deep oceanic waters, they have difficulty operating in optically clear, shallow marine environments where light reflected from the seafloor contributes to the water-leaving radiance. The effect of benthic reflectance in optically shallow waters is known to adversely affect algorithms developed for optically deep waters [1, 2]. Whilst adapted versions of optically deep ocean color algorithms have been applied to optically shallow regions with reasonable success [3], there is presently no approach that directly corrects for bottom reflectance using existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic albedo.To address the issue of optically shallow waters, we have developed a semi-analytical ocean color inversion algorithm: the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM). SWIM uses existing bathymetry and a derived benthic albedo map to correct for bottom reflectance using the semi-analytical model of Lee et al [4]. The algorithm was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Groups L2GEN program and tested in optically shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. In-lieu of readily available in situ matchup data, we present a comparison between SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Property Algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA).

  7. Aragonite precipitation induced by anaerobic oxidation of methane in shallow-water seeps, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedling, Johanna; Kuhfuß, Hanna; Lott, Christian; Böttcher, Michael E.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Wegener, Gunter; Deusner, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Weber, Miriam

    2014-05-01

    In the shallow-water organic-poor silicate sands off the West coast of Elba, Italy, we found aragonite precipitates within a radius of 10 cm to methane seeps in 20 - 40 cm sediment depth. The shallow seep site was mapped by SCUBA diving and in an area of 100 m2 nine gas emission spots were observed. The gas emission, containing 73 Vol. % methane, was measured to be 0.72 L m-2 d-1. Findings of anaerobic methane oxidizing archea (ANME 1, 2, 2a, 2b) and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) as well as in vitro rate measurements of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with a maximum of 67 ± 7 nmol CH4 cm-3 d-1 led to the hypothesis that carbonate precipitation is coupled to these microbial processes. Porewater analysis showed elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (up to 15.5 mmol L-1) and hydrogen sulfide (up to 6.6 mmol L-1). The presence of bicarbonate and the ambient temperature (14 - 25 ° C) facilitate the precipitation of needle-shaped aragonite. Oxygen isotope compositions of the mineral are consistent with the ambient temperatures and may indicate a recent diagenetic formation of this mineral. Although precipitation should not be preserved in these sandy permeable sediments, influenced by seasonality, wave action, and fluid flow, we found up to 10-50 cm3 irregular pieces of cemented sand grains, very often encrusting dead seagrass rhizomes. Commonly known carbonate structures, especially from the deep sea, are chimneys, mounds, hardgrounds and nodules. These structures are well known from seep and vent sites, usually showing the same range of stable carbon isotope fractionation as the escaping methane. The permeable sediment at the Elba site possibly allows the gas to frequently change its pathway to the sediment surface and thus precipitation can occure at several spots and more irregular than in the reported sites. Preservation of precipitates, however, requires sufficient authigenic aragonite to be formed before fluid dynamics changed the

  8. Remote sensing of optically shallow, vertically inhomogeneous waters: A mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Ackleson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple-layer radiative transfer model of a vertically inhomogeneous, optically shallow water mass is briefly described. This model is directed toward use in remote sensing properties. Some preliminary results and qualitative predictions are presented.

  9. Ambient Noise in Shallow Water: A Survey of the Unclassified Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    hypothesis which would explain this observation is that the source of noise near the low 7. ..7.. ~~u-~m".. .- - p -~~* - %R -vi w - AlJ’ Wf % --’,Wkz...Shallow water ambient noise surprisingly flat (white) for high wind speed, in contrast to typical ambient noise spectra. p The difference is explained...taken * .. . . . . .. p .-... . . ..-.. :; ..- ..- ... ; .. ’...’~~. ... ".. .. ’.-.-...... . ..... - .... ...... ..... . .. . - 18 Shallow water ambient

  10. 3-D Sound Propagation and Acoustic Inversions in Shallow Water Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    method is used to study canonical environmental models of shelfbreak front systems and nonlinear internal wave ducts. The WHOI 3D Parabolic-Equation...localization methods with normal mode theory have been established for localizing low frequency, broadband signals in a shallow water environment. Gauss ...approach for low-frequency broadband sound source localization in a shallow-water ocean is established. Gauss -Markov inverse theory is used in both

  11. The 2-D Ion Chromatography Development and Application: Determination of Sulfate in Formation Water at Pre-Salt Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonietto, G. B.; Godoy, J. M.; Almeida, A. C.; Mendes, D.; Soluri, D.; Leite, R. S.; Chalom, M. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Formation water is the naturally-occurring water which is contained within the geological formation itself. The quantity and quality of the formation water can both be problematic. Over time, the water volume should decrease as the gas volumes increase. Formation water has been found to contain high levels of Cl, As, Fe, Ba, Mn, PAHs and may even contain naturally occurring radioactive materials. Chlorides in some cases have been found to be in excess of four-five times the level of concentrations found in the ocean. Within the management of well operation, there is sulfate between the analytes of greatest importance due to the potential for hydrogen sulphide formation and consequent corrosion of pipelines. As the concentration of sulfate in these waters can be less than n times that of chloride, a quantitative determination, using the technique of ion chromatography, constitutes an analytical challenge. This work aimed to develop and validate a method for the determination of sulphate ions in hyper-saline waters coming from the oil wells of the pre-salt, using 2D IC. In 2D IC the first column can be understood as a separating column, in which the species with retention times outside a preset range are discarded, while those belonging to this range are retained in a pre-concentrator column to further injecting a second column, the second dimension in which occurs the separation and quantification of the analytes of interest. As the chloride ions have a retention time lower than that of sulfate, a method was developed a for determining sulfate in very low range (mg L-1) by 2D IC, applicable to hypersaline waters, wherein the first dimension is used to the elimination of the matrix, ie, chloride ions, and the second dimension utilized in determining sulfate. For sulphate in a concentration range from 1.00 mg L-1 was obtained an accuracy of 1.0%. The accuracy of the method was tested by the standard addition method different samples of formation water in the pre

  12. Water quality in shallow alluvial aquifers, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Bails, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Shallow ground water in areas of increasing urban development within the Upper Colorado River Basin was sampled for inorganic and organic constituents to characterize water-quality conditions and to identify potential anthropogenic effects resulting from development. In 1997, 25 shallow monitoring wells were installed and sampled in five areas of urban development in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, and Summit Counties, Colorado. The results of this study indicate that the shallow ground water in the study area is suitable for most uses. Nonparametric statistical methods showed that constituents and parameters measured in the shallow wells were often significantly different between the five developing urban areas. Radon concentrations exceeded the proposed USEPA maximum contaminant level at all sites. The presence of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds indicate anthropogenic activities are affecting the shallow ground-water quality in the study area. Nitrate as N concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/L were observed in ground water recharged between the 1980s and 1990s. Low concentrations of methylene blue active substances were detected at a few sites. Total coliform bacteria were detected at ten sites; however, E. coli was not detected. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the effects of increasing urban development on the shallow ground-water quality in the study area.

  13. Sediment Transport at Density Fronts in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    from a high-resolution, 3-dimensional, finite-volume hydrodynamic model of the Skagit tidal flats to examine processes leading to the creation and...June 2009 on the Skagit Tidal flats in Puget Sound, coordinated with other researchers in the Tidal Flats DRI. Focused observations of the shallow...tidal bottom stresses (Stacey et al. 2001). These preliminary results were from conditions focused during the period of observations and in the region

  14. Simulations of Time Reversing Arrays in Shallow Ocean Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    shallow ocean. In particular, the influence of acoustic frequency, source array range, and propagation complexities in a dynamic mulitpath sound -channel on...environments [1], the current effort incorporates realistic oceanic sound propagation to a much greater degree through the use of modern computational tools...performance in a ocean sound channel is simulated with the wide-angle parabolic-equation code RAM (by Dr. Michael Collins of NRL). My students and I are

  15. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  16. Questions Student Ask: Why Is It Harder to Paddle a Canoe in Shallow Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Explains the effect that depth of water has on the speed of Olympic-style racing canoes and kayaks. Indicates that canoes are harder to paddle in shallow water because the skin friction drag increases appreciable when the water depth decreases. (DH)

  17. Modeling water flow and nitrate dynamics in a plastic mulch vegetable cultivation system using HYDRUS-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Vilim; Romić, Davor; Romić, Marija; Matijević, Lana; Mallmann, Fábio J. K.; Robinson, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Growing vegetables commercially requires intensive management and involves high irrigation demands and input of agrochemicals. Plastic mulch application in combination with drip irrigation is a common agricultural management technique practiced due to variety of benefits to the crop, mostly vegetable biomass production. However, the use of these techniques can result in various impacts on water and nutrient distribution in underlying soil and consequently affect nutrient leaching towards groundwater resources. The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of plastic mulch cover in combination with drip irrigation on water and nitrate dynamics in soil using HYDRUS-2D model. The field site was located in Croatian costal karst area on a Gleysol (WRB). The experiment was designed according to the split-plot design in three repetitions and was divided into plots with plastic mulch cover (MULCH) and control plots with bare soil (CONT). Each of these plots received applications of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer: 70, 140, and 210 kg per ha. All plots were equipped with drip irrigation and cropped with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bianca F1). Lysimeters were installed at 90 cm depth in all plots and were used for monitoring the water and nitrate outflow. HYDRUS-2D was used for modeling the water and nitrogen outflow in the MULCH and CONT plots, implementing the proper boundary conditions. HYDRUS-2D simulated results showed good fitting to the field site observed data in both cumulative water and nitrate outflow, with high level of agreement. Water flow simulations produced model efficiency of 0.84 for CONT and 0.56 for MULCH plots, while nitrate simulations showed model efficiency ranging from 0.67 to 0.83 and from 0.70 to 0.93, respectively. Additional simulations were performed with the absence of the lysimeter, revealing faster transport of nitrates below drip line in the CONT plots, mostly because of the increased surface area subjected to precipitation

  18. Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents in the Gulf of California: Natural Laboratories for Multidisciplinary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Price, R. E.; Kulongoski, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modern and fossil examples of shallow water submarine hydrothermal vents occur throughout the Gulf of California. These sites offer important information about the processes involved in the extensional tectonics that created the Gulf of California and continue to shape the region to this day. Due to their accessibility, shallow water marine hydrothermal vents are far easier to access and study than their deeper analogs, and these settings can provide natural laboratories to study biogeochemical processes. Certain biogeochemical and biomineralizing processes occurring at shallow vents are very similar to those observed around deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In some cases, authigenic carbonates form around shallow vents. However, the hydrothermal precipitates are generally composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, Mn-oxides, opal, calcite, pyrite and cinnabar, and their textural and morphological characteristics suggest microbial mediation for mineral deposition. Modern shallow-water hydrothermal vents also support complex biotic communities, characterized by the coexistence of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms. These shallow vents are highly productive and provide valuable resources to local fishermen. Extant shallow water hydrothermal activity has been studied in Bahía Concepción, San Felipe, Punta Estrella, El Coloradito, Puertecitos, and around the Islas Encantadas. Discrete streams of gas bubbles are often discharged along with hot liquids at shallow water vents. The vent liquids generally exhibit lower salinities than seawater, and their isotopic compositions indicate that they contain meteoric water mixed with seawater. The composition of the shallow vent gas is primarily made up of CO2, but may also be enriched in N2, H2S, CH4, and other higher hydrocarbons. The geochemistry of these gases can be informative in determining the sources and processes involved in their generation. In particular, 3He/4He ratios may provide valuable information about the origin of

  19. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-12-06

    Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity. Despite tremendous progress in the past few years, efficient solar steam generation and desalination can only be achieved for rather limited water quantity with the assistance of concentrators and thermal insulation, not feasible for large-scale applications. The fundamental paradox is that the conventional design of direct absorber-bulk water contact ensures efficient energy transfer and water supply but also has intrinsic thermal loss through bulk water. Here, enabled by a confined 2D water path, we report an efficient (80% under one-sun illumination) and effective (four orders salinity decrement) solar desalination device. More strikingly, because of minimized heat loss, high efficiency of solar desalination is independent of the water quantity and can be maintained without thermal insulation of the container. A foldable graphene oxide film, fabricated by a scalable process, serves as efficient solar absorbers (>94%), vapor channels, and thermal insulators. With unique structure designs fabricated by scalable processes and high and stable efficiency achieved under normal solar illumination independent of water quantity without any supporting systems, our device represents a concrete step for solar desalination to emerge as a complementary portable and personalized clean water solution.

  20. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2002-04-01

    The fault study continues to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation has been used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new GC laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review was held March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer. A request was made to extend the scope of the project to include the Willison Basin. A demonstration well has been suggested in Burke County, N. Dakota, following a review of 2D seismic and surface geochem. A 3D seismic survey is scheduled for the prospect.

  1. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-10-01

    One of the principal objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, microbial samples were collected from the Trusty Steed prospect area in Grand Traverse County, Michigan. The samples were analyzed using the Microbial Oil Surveying Technique (MOST) technique and revealed only a local (1-point) anomaly. A decision to resample over that point is pending, but drilling has been postponed for the time being. The main news this reporting period is that in the Bear Lake area, northwest Michigan, Federated Oil & Gas Properties' Charlich-Fauble 2-9HD horizontal lateral, has cumulative production of more than 72,000 barrels of oil and is still producing 50 to 75 bopd from a Silurian Niagaran reef reservoir eighteen months after the well was completed. Surface geochemical surveys conducted in the demonstration area were consistent with production results although the ultimate decision to drill was based on interpretation of conventional subsurface and 2D seismic data. The surface geochemical techniques employed were Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) and MOST. The geochemical results have been submitted to World Oil for publication. New geochemical surveys are planned for November in the Springdale quadrangle in Manistee County, Michigan. These surveys will concentrate on sampling over the trace of the proposed horizontal wells rather than a broad grid survey.

  2. Discrete hexamer water clusters and 2D water layer trapped in three luminescent Ag/tetramethylpyrazine/benzene-dicarboxylate hosts: 1D chain, 2D layer and 3D network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-03-01

    Three mix-ligand Ag(I) coordination compounds, namely, {[Ag10(tpyz) 5(L1) 5(H2 O)2].(H2 O)4}n (1, tpyz = 2,3,4,5-tetramethylpyrazine, H2 L1 = phthalic acid), [Ag4(tpyz) 2(L2) 2(H2 O)].(H2 O)5}n (2, H2 L2 = isophthalic acid) {[Ag2(tpyz) 2(L3) (H2 O)4].(H2 O)8}n (3, H2 L3 = terephthalic acid), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PXRD and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 exhibits a 2D layer which can be simplified as a (4,4) net. 2 is a 3D network which can be simplified as a (3,3)-connected 2-nodal net with a point symbol of {102.12}{102}. 3 consists of linear [Ag(tpyz) (H2 O)2]n chain. Of particular interest, discrete hexamer water clusters were observed in 1 and 2, while a 2D L10(6) water layer exists in 3. The results suggest that the benzene dicarboxylates play pivotal roles in the formation of the different host architectures as well as different water aggregations. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and emissive behaviors of these compounds were investigated.

  3. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-05-20

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.

  4. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores.

    PubMed

    Burris, Paul C; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-05-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. The simulated spectra indicates that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.

  5. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores

    DOE PAGES

    Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-05-20

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is usedmore » to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.« less

  6. Shallow Orographic Convection contribution to the water resources in Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godart, Angélique; Anquetin, Sandrine; Leblois, Etienne; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Molinié et al. (2010) analyzed extreme rainfall rates at different accumulation periods (hourly to daily time steps) over the French Mediterranean region. Up to 100-year return-values are obtained from the long-term hourly rain-gauge database of OHMCV. Results show very different patterns of rainfall statistics across accumulation time steps. For a daily time scale, the relief significantly influence the statistics, whereas for the hourly time step, no specific signature is observed. Moreover, the rainfall intermittency is found lower in the mountainous area than in the piedmont and plain areas. These results invite to understand how convection properties determine these space and time features of rain variability. Miniscloux et al. (2001) demonstrated that, during Mediterranean storms, shallow banded convection is persistently established over prevailing locations in mountainous areas like the Cévennes - Vivarais region in France. The intensity produced by these rain bands is moderate, around 10mm.h-1. Nevertheless, the resulting cumulated rainfall can be large when the bands are associated with a stationary flow that depends on the synoptic-scale steadiness. Bands are oriented parallel to the flow (Gysi, 1998; Anquetin et al., 2003) and they are associated with shallow convection: the vertical extension of the clouds does not exceed 6km as deduced from the vertical profiles of radar reflectivity. Numerical studies have already been carried out to bring to the fore spatial and temporal characteristics of such rain bands and to identify their necessary synoptic triggering ingredients. This paper points out the contribution of the precipitation associated to shallow convection to the rainfall regime of the Cévennes - Vivarais region. A specific weather class that purely corresponds to shallow convection is proposed by Godart et al., 2009a-b. The evaluation of its occurrence during the 1976 - 2006 period shows that the contribution of the shallow orographic

  7. Shallow Orographic Convection contribution to the water resources in Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetin, S.; Godart, A.; Leblois, E.; Creutin, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Molinié et al. (2009) analyzed extreme rainfall rates at different accumulation periods (hourly to daily time steps) over the French Mediterranean region. Up to 100-year return-values are obtained from the long-term hourly rain-gauge data base of OHMCV(*). Results show very different patterns of rainfall statistics across accumulation time steps. For a daily time scale, the relief significantly influence the statistics, whereas for the hourly time step, no specific signature is observed. Moreover, the rainfall intermittency is found lower in the mountainous area than in the piedmont and plain areas. These results invite to understand how convection properties determine these space and time features of rain variability. Miniscloux et al. (2001) demonstrated that, during Mediterranean storms, shallow banded convection is persistently established over prevailing locations in mountainous areas like the Cévennes - Vivarais region in France. The intensity produced by these rain bands is moderate, around 10mm.h-1. Nevertheless, the resulting cumulated rainfall can be large when the bands are associated with a stationary flow that depends on the synoptic-scale steadiness. Bands are oriented parallel to the flow (Gysi, 1998; Anquetin et al., 2003) and they are associated with shallow convection: the vertical extension of the clouds does not exceed 6km as deduced from the vertical profiles of radar reflectivity. Numerical studies have already been carried out to bring to the fore spatial and temporal characteristics of such rain bands and to identify their necessary synoptic triggering ingredients. This paper points out the contribution of the precipitation associated to shallow convection to the rainfall regime of the Cévennes - Vivarais region. A specific weather class that purely corresponds to shallow convection is proposed by Godart et al., 2009. The evaluation of its occurrence during the 1976 - 2006 period shows that for some locations, the contribution of the

  8. Micro-PIV measurements of multiphase flow of water and supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow of water and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in porous media is central to geological sequestration of CO2 into saline aquifers. However, our fundamental understanding of the coupled flow dynamics of CO2 and water in complex geologic media still remains limited, especially at the pore scale. Recently, studies have been carried out in 2D homogeneous models with the micro-PIV technique, yielding very interesting observations of pore-scale flow transport. The primary aim of this work is to leverage this experimental protocol to quantify the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels under reservoir-relevant conditions. The goal is to capture the dynamics of this multi-phase flow in a porous matrix that mimics the heterogeneity of natural rock. Fluorescent microscopy and the micro-PIV technique are employed to simultaneously measure the spatially-resolved instantaneous velocity field in the water and quantify the instantaneous spatial configuration of both phases. The results for heterogeneous micromodels will be presented and compared with those for homogeneous micromodels, yielding valuable insight into flow processes at the pore scale in natural rock.

  9. Ecological Turnover of Shallow Water Carbonate Producers Following the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern coral reef ecosystems are under threat from global climate change (and associated, synergistic stresses) and local environmental degradation. Therefore, it is important for ecologists to understand how ecosystems adapt and recover from climate change. The fossil record provides excellent case studies of similar events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Although Paleocene and Eocene shallow water carbonates have not received the same degree of attention as the deep-water record, the PETM provides an opportunity to study the role of alternative stable states in maintaining the health and diversity of shallow water carbonate environments. It is generally accepted that during the PETM there is a transition from reef systems to foraminiferal shoals as the dominant shallow water carbonate producers. In fact, previous work has documented this interval as one of the major metazoan reef collapses of the Phanerozoic. This study fills an important gap in the shallow-water PETM record by quantitatively measuring the changes in carbonate production and ecology of 15 localities as they shift from coral reefs to foraminiferal shoal. The quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis is accomplished by using data from the PaleoReefs database and a simple carbonate production calculation to estimate the productivity of the shallow water system. Ecological data are gathered through a literature review of the localities. The results of this study will enable a better understanding of how modern reefs may react to global climate and environmental change.

  10. New methods to estimate 2D water level distributions of dynamic rivers.

    PubMed

    Diem, Samuel; Renard, Philippe; Schirmer, Mario

    2013-01-01

    River restoration measures are becoming increasingly popular and are leading to dynamic river bed morphologies that in turn result in complex water level distributions in a river. Disconnected river branches, nonlinear longitudinal water level profiles and morphologically induced lateral water level gradients can evolve rapidly. The modeling of such river-groundwater systems is of high practical relevance in order to assess the impact of restoration measures on the exchange flux between a river and groundwater or on the residence times between a river and a pumping well. However, the model input includes a proper definition of the river boundary condition, which requires a detailed spatial and temporal river water level distribution. In this study, we present two new methods to estimate river water level distributions that are based directly on measured data. Comparing generated time series of water levels with those obtained by a hydraulic model as a reference, the new methods proved to offer an accurate and faster alternative with a simpler implementation.

  11. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  12. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L CR -1 5- 1 Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic...military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL CR-15-1 June 2015 Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3

  13. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  14. Variational data assimilation with a semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit global shallow-water equation model and its adjoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Navon, I. M.; Courtier, P.; Gauthier, P.

    1993-01-01

    An adjoint model is developed for variational data assimilation using the 2D semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit (SLSI) shallow-water equation global model of Bates et al. with special attention being paid to the linearization of the interpolation routines. It is demonstrated that with larger time steps the limit of the validity of the tangent linear model will be curtailed due to the interpolations, especially in regions where sharp gradients in the interpolated variables coupled with strong advective wind occur, a synoptic situation common in the high latitudes. This effect is particularly evident near the pole in the Northern Hemisphere during the winter season. Variational data assimilation experiments of 'identical twin' type with observations available only at the end of the assimilation period perform well with this adjoint model. It is confirmed that the computational efficiency of the semi-Lagrangian scheme is preserved during the minimization process, related to the variational data assimilation procedure.

  15. Extension of an explicit finite volume method to large time steps (CFL>1): application to shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, J.; García-Navarro, P.; Brufau, P.; Burguete, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the explicit first order upwind scheme is presented under a formalism that enables the extension of the methodology to large time steps. The number of cells in the stencil of the numerical scheme is related to the allowable size of the CFL number for numerical stability. It is shown how to increase both at the same time. The basic idea is proposed for a 1D scalar equation and extended to 1D and 2D non-linear systems with source terms. The importance of the kind of grid used is highlighted and the method is outlined for irregular grids. The good quality of the results is illustrated by means of several examples including shallow water flow test cases. The bed slope source terms are involved in the method through an upwind discretization.

  16. On Breaking Waves and Wave-Current Interaction in Shallow Water: a 2DH Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes Do Carmo, J. S.; Seabra-Santos, F. J.

    1996-03-01

    A two-dimensional (horizontal plane) coastal and estuarine region model, capable of predicting the combined effects of gravity surface shallow- water waves (shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection and breaking), and steady currents, is described and numerical results are compared with those obtained experimentally.Two series of observations within a wave flume and a combined wave-current facility were developed. In the first case, the wave was generated via a hinged paddle located within a deepened section at one end of the channel, as, in the second case, the wave propagating with or against the current was generated by a plunger-type wavemaker; the re-circulating current was introduced via one passing tank connected to a centrifugal pump.Several comparisons for a number of 1D situations and one 2D horizontal plane case are presented.

  17. Surface water and shallow groundwater interactions in semiarid agro-ecosystems of western USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water and groundwater interactions in agro-ecosystems of semiarid regions can translate into multiple hydrological benefits including aquifer recharge, temporary storage, and delayed return flow. Our ongoing research effort aimed to better understand surface water and shallow groundwater int...

  18. New shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT2005: recent modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proximity of the shallow water table depth (wtd) to the soil surface impacts agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, it is essential for hydrologic models to accurately simulate wtd. Recently, an...

  19. 2D Control Problem and TVD-Particle Method for Water Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louaked, M.; Saïdi, A.

    2011-11-01

    This work consists on the study of an optimal control problem relating to the water pollution. We analyze various questions: existence, uniqueness, control and the regularized formulation of the initial pointwise control problem. We propose also an implementation of an hybrid numerical scheme associated with an algorithm of descent.

  20. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  1. Denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Hwang, H.-H.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Beaumont, W.C.; Holm, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution of surface water by N is considered a major cause of hypoxia. Because Corn Belt watersheds have been identified as major sources of N in the Mississippi River basin, the fate and transport of N from midwestern agricultural watersheds have received considerable interest. The fate and transport of N in the shallow ground water of these watersheds still needs additional research. Our purpose was to estimate denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, Corn Belt watershed with fine-grained soils. Over a 3-yr period, N was monitored in the surface and ground water of an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. A significant amount of N was transported past the tile drains and into shallow ground water. The ground water nitrate was isotopically heavier than tile drain nitrate, which can be explained by denitrification in the subsurface. Denitrifying bacteria were found at depths to 10 m throughout the watershed. Laboratory and push-pull tests showed that a significant fraction of nitrate could be denitrified rapidly. We estimated that the N denitrified in shallow ground water was equivalent to 0.3 to 6.4% of the applied N or 9 to 27% of N exported via surface water. These estimates varied by water year and peaked in a year of normal precipitation after 2 yr of below average precipitation. Three years of monitoring data indicate that shallow ground water in watersheds with fine-grained soils may be a significant N sink compared with N exported via surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  2. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Donna L.; Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Bowe, Shane E.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2015-01-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds. PMID:26074657

  3. Water Cycle in the Atmosphere and Shallow Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    The global water cycle on Earth constitutes one of the most relevant components of the terrestrial ecosystem. While the vast majority of terrestrial water is stored in the world oceans, the perpetual cycle of water between ocean, atmosphere and land in all three phases is recognised as one basic feature that characterises the Earth, and is contrasted to the rest of the Solar System. On the other hand, Mars is devoid of a liquid hydrological cycle in the atmosphere and on the surface in the form of rainfall, rivers or oceans, which favour life on Earth's surface. However, a subtle water cycle does exist on present Mars and elucidating the details of the water cycle is crucial in understanding the global water inventory.

  4. Shallow Aquifer Connectivity and Early Season Water Supply of Seasonal Wetlands and Drainages Leading to Regional Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarten, N. F.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Valley, California are recognized being seasonally supplied by early season direct surface water runoff and later season snow melt runoff from their tributaries. In addition, early season water supply to these rivers is derived from precipitation (PPT) that has infiltrated into soils underlain by a near surface aquitard, typically at less than 2 m depth. These shallow perched groundwater systems contribute a potentially substantial amount of water from more than 500,000 hectares of landforms associated with geomorphic terraces underlain by these aquitards. Early season water input to seasonal and perennial drainages is regulated by the hydraulic conductivity of the (clay-) loamy soils and by surface and aquitard slope of the local catchments associated with these old alluvial landforms. Research on these landforms and shallow aquifers has identified a complex PPT and evapotranspiration (ET) sensitive system that includes shallow depressions that seasonally produce water table derived wetlands (“vernal pools”). These wetlands have been recognized for a very high level of plant and invertebrate species diversity including endangered species. In addition, these seasonal wetlands provide migratory feeding areas of birds. Our work on these seasonal perched systems shows that as much as 80 percent of the soil column above the aquitard is saturated, during average to high rainfall years, for up to 90 to 120 days. Where the water table of this perched system intercepts the land surface, vernal pools develop. The perched groundwater drains into seasonal surface drainages that ultimately supply the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. At the end of the rainy season, both the vernal pools and the perched aquifer rapidly and synchronously disappear. Once the soil is unsaturated, water flow is vertically upward due to ET. Variably saturated modeling of this system was conducted using HYDRUS 2D/3D. Climate inputs were from

  5. The influence of environmental variability on silicate exchange rates between sediment and water in a shallow-water coastal ecosystem, the Seto Inland Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Srithongouthai, Sarawut; Sonoyama, Yu-Ichi; Tada, Kuninao; Montani, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Silicate regeneration was determined in a shallow-water coastal ecosystem (Shido Bay, the Seto Inland Sea, Japan) during 1999-2000. The present study was carried out directly by core incubation and by determining gradients of dissolved silicate (DSi) in the pore water. Incubated fluxes ranged from 25.5 to 132.6 mgSim(-2)d(-1), and were 1.6-21.6 times greater than diffusive fluxes (5.4-43.3 mgSim(-2)d(-1)). The disparity between fluxes measured by core incubation and modeling pore water indicated that other physical, chemical or biological processes, in addition to diffusion of DSi from below, contribute to DSi fluxes measured during the incubation of undisturbed cores. A regression analysis revealed that water temperature and salinity explained 24% and 23%, respectively, of season to season variability in incubated fluxes. Microphytobenthos was responsible for 37% of the variability in measured rate of DSi fluxes, with greatly reducing DSi release rates due to their own DSi demand. Moreover, the inverse relationship between the DSi fluxes and biogenic silica (Bio-Si) concentrations in the surface sediment, suggested that about 41% of the variability in the DSi fluxes were explained by Bio-Si concentrations in the surface sediment. As a result, Shido Bay showed silicate regeneration of incubated cores to be a consequence of Bio-Si dissolution depending on microphytobenthos, temperature and salinity, while diffusive fluxes appeared to be limited by DSi in the pore water. An annual average of DSi flux (68.7+/-32.9 mgSim(-2)d(-1)) from the sediments to the water column corresponds to 38% of DSi, required for primary production by phytoplankton in Shido Bay.

  6. Study of liquid water by computer simulations. I. Static properties of a 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Keiji; Nosé, Shuichi; Kataoka, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tsunenobu

    1981-12-01

    A computer-simulation study of a water-like system is carried out by making use of a two-dimensional version of the Ben-Naim and Stillinger potential. The pair potential is set up such that at 0 K it yields a square net structure at low pressures and an interpretation of two square nets at high pressures. The liquid state is surveyed over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Various kinds of molecular distribution functions are derived to see how the hydrogen-bond network structure depends on temperature and density. The pressure and thermal equations of state are ''experimentally'' determined by a least square fitting to the pressures and energies calculated for about 200 different state points. The well-known anomalous behavior of liquid water is reproduced at least in a semiquantitative way. The singular properties of supercooled water also are reproduced and their origin is ascribed to the thermodynamical instability. New anomalies are predicted at high temperatures and pressures.

  7. Arsenic contamination of Ronphibun residents associated with uses of arsenic-contaminated shallow-well water other than drinking.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Shoko; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2007-10-01

    High levels of urinary arsenic have been reported among residents of an area of southern Thailand where many households have shallow wells heavily contaminated with arsenic. However, the finding that very few of the residents in this area have used contaminated shallow-well water for drinking or cooking in the last 10 years prompted this investigation. The aim was to identify the uses of shallow-well water by adult residents that were related to a positive association between shallow-well water and urinary arsenic levels. Information on shallow-well water use for all personal and domestic purposes was obtained and arsenic levels of household shallow-well water and urine (after refraining from seafood for 2 days) were measured. Urinary and shallow-well water arsenic levels were strongly positively associated among residents who regularly used shallow-well water for bathing (including washing face, hair, hands and feet) but not among residents regularly using arsenic-safe water for bathing or regularly using shallow-well water for other purposes, such as brushing teeth, domestic cleaning or washing food and utensils. The findings suggest that appreciable transdermal absorption of arsenic is possible and that successful abatement of human contamination with arsenic may require the provision of arsenic-safe water, not only for consumption but also for personal hygiene purposes.

  8. Lateral elasticity and X-ray diffraction of protein 2D crystals bound to lipid monolayers at the water surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenne, P. F.; Berge, B.; Renault, A.; Vénien-Bryan, C.; Courty, S.; Konovalov, O.; Legrand, J. F.; Brisson, A.; Balavoine, F.; Lal, J.; Gruebel, G.

    1998-03-01

    We present high resolution X-ray grazing incidence diffraction experiments and macroscopic lateral rigidity measurements performed on two-dimensional crystals of proteins bound to lipid monolayers at the water surface. For four different protein systems, Streptavidin bound to biotinylated lipids, an hystidin-tagged transcription factor HupR bound to Nickel lipids, Annexin-V bound to PS and Cholera toxin subunit-B bound to GM1 lipids, we record a non-zero shear elastic constant. For the three first systems, we observe narrow diffraction peaks and measure the Bragg rods intensities. In the case of Streptavidin we found two different possible structures, one of them exhibiting 19 Bragg rods, diffracting at about 10Åin the plane. After injecting glutaraldehyde (a protein linker) under the already formed 2D-crystals, the shear rigidity increases by a factor of two and additional diffraction peaks appear. This illustrates the correlation between the macroscopic shear elastic constant and the maximum in-plane wave vector transfer of the diffraction pattern, as expected in two dimensions. It also shows the interest of keeping the 2D-crystal in the water for subsequent action of various agents.

  9. Terasonic Excitations in 2D Gold Nanoparticle Arrays in a Water Matrix as Revealed by Atomistic Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; ...

    2016-08-19

    Here in this work we report on terahertz phononic excitations in 2D gold nanoparticle arrays in a water matrix through a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, we observe acoustic Dirac-like crossings in H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks which emerge due to an intraband phononic scattering. These crossings are the phononic fingerprints of ice-like arrangements of H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks at nanometer scale. We reveal how phononic excitations in metallic nanoparticles and the water matrix reciprocally impact on one another providing the mechanism for the THz phononics manipulation via structural engineering. In addition, we showmore » that by tuning the arrangement of 2D gold nanoparticle assemblies the Au phononic polarizations experience sub-terahertz hybridization (Kohn anomaly) due to surface electron-phonon relaxation processes. This opens the way for the sound control and manipulation in soft matter metamaterials at nanoscale.« less

  10. Terasonic Excitations in 2D Gold Nanoparticle Arrays in a Water Matrix as Revealed by Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; Cai, Yong Q.; Cunsolo, Alessandro

    2016-08-19

    Here in this work we report on terahertz phononic excitations in 2D gold nanoparticle arrays in a water matrix through a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, we observe acoustic Dirac-like crossings in H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks which emerge due to an intraband phononic scattering. These crossings are the phononic fingerprints of ice-like arrangements of H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks at nanometer scale. We reveal how phononic excitations in metallic nanoparticles and the water matrix reciprocally impact on one another providing the mechanism for the THz phononics manipulation via structural engineering. In addition, we show that by tuning the arrangement of 2D gold nanoparticle assemblies the Au phononic polarizations experience sub-terahertz hybridization (Kohn anomaly) due to surface electron-phonon relaxation processes. This opens the way for the sound control and manipulation in soft matter metamaterials at nanoscale.

  11. Three-dimensional mapping of evolving internal waves during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Wan, Lin; Song, Aijun

    2013-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of sound speed profiles and the sound speed profile's spatial and temporal variability resulting from internal waves (IWs) are indispensable to investigating significant acoustic field fluctuations in shallow water. A strategy to obtain a time-varying, three-dimensional (3D) IW temperature field is presented. It uses two types of simultaneous measurements: dense observations from a farm of thermistor strings and IW surface expressions from a ship-based radar. Using data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment, the temperature field, over multiple kilometers in range, was reconstructed and, fed to a 3D acoustic model to demonstrate IW impacts on acoustic propagation.

  12. Frequency dependence and intensity fluctuations due to shallow water internal waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F; Pereselkov, Serguey

    2007-08-01

    A theory and experimental results for sound propagation through an anisotropic shallow water environment are presented to examine the frequency dependence of the scintillation index in the presence of internal waves. The theory of horizontal rays and vertical modes is used to establish the azimutal and frequency behavior of the sound intensity fluctuations, specifically for shallow water broadband acoustic signals propagating through internal waves. This theory is then used to examine the frequency dependent, anisotropic acoustic field measured during the SWARM'95 experiment. The frequency dependent modal scintillation index is described for the frequency range of 30-200 Hz on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  13. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    SciTech Connect

    Zerroukat, M. Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics–physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain. - Highlights: • Novel shallow water equations which retains moist processes are derived from the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq equations. • The new shallow water set can be seen as a more general one, where the classical equations are a special case of these equations. • This moist shallow water system naturally allows a feedback mechanism from the moist physics increments to the momentum via buoyancy. • Like full models, temperature and moistures are advected as tracers that interact

  14. Combined effects of climate change and bank stabilization on shallow water habitats of chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; McClure, Michelle M; Sheer, Mindi B; Munn, Nancy L

    2013-12-01

    Significant challenges remain in the ability to estimate habitat change under the combined effects of natural variability, climate change, and human activity. We examined anticipated effects on shallow water over low-sloped beaches to these combined effects in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, an area highly altered by development. A proposal to stabilize some shoreline with large rocks (riprap) would alter shallow water areas, an important habitat for threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and would be subject to U.S. Endangered Species Act-mandated oversight. In the mainstem, subyearling Chinook salmon appear to preferentially occupy these areas, which fluctuate with river stages. We estimated effects with a geospatial model and projections of future river flows. Recent (1999-2009) median river stages during peak subyearling occupancy (April-June) maximized beach shallow water area in the lower mainstem. Upstream shallow water area was maximized at lower river stages than have occurred recently. Higher river stages in April-June, resulting from increased flows predicted for the 2080s, decreased beach shallow water area 17-32%. On the basis of projected 2080s flows, more than 15% of beach shallow water area was displaced by the riprap. Beach shallow water area lost to riprap represented up to 1.6% of the total from the mouth to 12.9 km upstream. Reductions in shallow water area could restrict salmon feeding, resting, and refuge from predators and potentially reduce opportunities for the expression of the full range of life-history strategies. Although climate change analyses provided useful information, detailed analyses are prohibitive at the project scale for the multitude of small projects reviewed annually. The benefits of our approach to resource managers include a wider geographic context for reviewing similar small projects in concert with climate change, an approach to analyze cumulative effects of similar actions, and estimation of the

  15. Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

    2010-01-01

    An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements.

  16. An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

  17. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Pollution from oil-field activities may affect the quality of water in some isolated wells and in some areas in the county. No historical records are available for determining any changes in pesticides, minor elements, or bacteria.

  18. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully... 679. NMFS prohibited directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the...

  19. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

  20. Shallow-water System Dynamics in Chesapeake Bay, with Physical-Biological Modeling Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, R.; Wang, P.; Linker, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. The total surface area is 9920 square kilometers of which 7540 square kilometers are shallower than 10 m. These shallow systems provide vital habitats and nursery grounds for numerous species of fish, shellfish, and wildlife. In the Chesapeake the shallow water systems have deteriorated in terms of healthy ecosystem levels and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Restoration of the shallow water systems requires an understanding of their dynamics including wave-current interactions, shoreline erosion, sediment suspension, biological and biogeochemical processes, sediment diagenesis, sediment-water exchange, and diel cycles of temperature, salinity, turbidity, alkalinity, chlorophyll, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen (DO). To this end, an extensive shallow water monitoring program has been implemented in the Chesapeake since 2003. The program includes bi-weekly cruises of nutrient sampling, a continuous monitoring network with electronic sensors collecting data at a 15 minute interval, and a unique data flow survey from moving boats that collect underway observations with a datum frequency of seconds. The data reveal large diel cycles, with chlorophyll varying between a few mg/l to hundreds of mg/l, DO between 0 to 20 mg/l (with saturation from 0 to 250%), turbidity between 0 to 1500 NTUs, and pH from 6.0 to 9.5, which demonstrate the highly dynamic nature in physical and biological process of the shallow water systems . In order to better understand the key mechanisms and processes of these shallow-water systems and to explore the monitoring data, we applied a coupled physical and water quality model to the Chester and Corsica tributaries. The physical model is the Unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) and the water quality model is the Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) which has 36 state variables such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, DO, nutrients, and various organic matter and sediment-water

  1. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  2. Modeling of High-Frequency Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    channel response. The influence of the ocean channel is analyzed parametrically, including sensitivity of the eigenray structure and impulse...response. The influence of the ocean channel is analyzed parametrically, including sensitivity of the eigenray structure and impulse response to water...1. Ray-Trace Plots..................................................................................12 2. Eigenray Plots

  3. Applications of isotopes to tracing sources of solutes and water in shallow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Carol; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    1995-01-01

    New awareness of the potential danger to water supplies posed by the use of agricultural chemicals has focused attention on the nature of groundwater recharge and the mobility of various solutes, especially nitrate and pesticides, in shallow systems. A better understanding of hydrologic flowpaths and solute sources is required to determine the potential impact of sources of contamination on water supplies, to develop management practices for preserving water quality, and to develop remediation plans for sites that are already contaminated. In many cases, environmental isotopes can be employed as 'surgical tools' for answering very specific questions about water and solute sources. Isotopic data can often provide more accurate information about the system than hydrologic measurements or complicated hydrologic models. This note focuses on practical and cost-effective examples of how naturally-occurring isotopes can be used to track water and solutes as they move through shallow systems.

  4. Dealing With Shallow-Water Flow in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermeier, R.

    2006-05-01

    Some of the Shell experience in dealing with the shallow-water flow problem in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) will be presented. The nature of the problem, including areal extent and over-pressuring mechanisms, will be discussed. Methods for sand prediction and shallow sediment and flow characterization will be reviewed. These include seismic techniques, the use of geo-technical wells, regional trends, and various MWD methods. Some examples of flow incidents with pertinent drilling issues, including well failures and abandonment, will be described. To address the shallow-water flow problem, Shell created a multi-disciplinary team of specialists in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, drilling, and civil engineering. The team developed several methodologies to deal with various aspects of the problem. These include regional trends and data bases, shallow seismic interpretation and sand prediction, well site and casing point selection, geo-technical well design and data interpretation, logging program design and interpretation, cementing design and fluids formulation, methods for remediation and mitigation of lost circulation, and so on. Shell's extensive Deepwater GOM drilling experience has lead to new understanding of the problem. Examples include delineation of trends in shallow water flow occurrence and severity, trends and departures in PP/FG, rock properties pertaining to seismic identification of sands, and so on. New knowledge has also been acquired through the use of geo-technical wells. One example is the observed rapid onset and growth of over-pressures below the mudline. Total trouble costs due to shallow water flow for all GOM operators almost certainly runs into the several hundred million dollars. Though the problem remains a concern, advances in our knowledge and understanding make it a problem that is manageable and not the "show stopper" once feared.

  5. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  6. Detection Performance of Horizontal Linear Hydrophone Arrays in Shallow Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-15

    computer time). On the other hand this property [Eq. 3] causes the covariance matrices to be Toeplitz matrices, which are completely descrihed by their...energy minimum by split-beam tecnnique is misleading for directions other than broadside. b. The unsymmetrical spread is a property of the linear...almost independent of the channel parameters ( soun ?-, peed profile, depth of water, source, receiver, frequency). b. As the matrix matched filter H

  7. Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing protocol development for submerged aquatic vegetation in shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Ghir, Teddy; Bassetti, Luce; Hall, Carlton; Reyeier, E.; Lowers, R.; Holloway-Adkins, K.; Virnstein, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an important indicator of freshwater and marine water quality in almost all shallow water aquatic environments. Throughout the world the diversity of submerged aquatic vegetation appears to be in decline, although sufficient historical data, of sufficient quantitative quality is lacking. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology, available from low altitude aircraft sensors, may provide a basis to improve upon existing photographic regional assessments and monitoring concerned with the aerial extent and coverage of SAV. In addition, modern low altitude remote sensing may also help in the development of environmental satellite requirements for future satellite payloads. This paper documents several important spectral reflectance signature features which may be useful in developing a protocol for remote sensing of SAV, and which is transferable to other shallow water aquatic habitats around the world. Specifically, we show that the shape or curvature of the spectral reflectance absorption feature centered near the chlorophyll absorption region of ~ 675 nm is strongly influenced not only by the relative backscatter region between 530-560 nm, but by a "submerged vegetation red edge" that appears in the 695 to 700 nm region in extremely high density vegetative areas in very shallow waters (= 0.5m depth). This "aquatic biomass red edge" is also observable in deeper waters where there is a shallow subsurface algal boom as demonstrated in this paper. Use of this submerged aquatic red edge feature will become an important component of SAV remote sensing in shallow aquatic habitats, as well as in phytoplankton-related water quality remote sensing applications of surface phytoplankton blooms.

  9. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    interacting acoustic signals in shallow water for 1-D. Henrik Schmidt’s OASES program, a direct descendent of the original SAFARI, has solved the 1...D problem for isotropic elastic bottoms. OASES is efficient, can accept Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  10. Temporal sound field fluctuations in the presence of internal solitary waves in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Boris G; Grigorev, Valery; Badiey, Mohsen; Lynch, James F

    2009-07-01

    Temporal variations of intensity fluctuations are presented from the SWARM95 experiment. It is hypothesized that specific features of these fluctuations can be explained by mode coupling due to the presence of an internal soliton moving approximately along the acoustic track. Estimates are presented in conjunction with theoretical consideration of the shallow water waveguide.

  11. Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

  12. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    JASA. This article documents the incorporation of seismic-like sources into the PE propagation model work important for ocean acoustic signals...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water...quantitative forward modeling in range dependent, bottom-interacting acoustic propagation including sediment anisotropy and anelasticty. OBJECTIVES

  13. On a Moving Mesh Method Applied to the Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felcman, J.; Kadrnka, L.

    2010-09-01

    The moving mesh method is applied to the numerical solution of the shallow water equations. The original numerical flux of the Vijayasundaram type is used in the finite volume method. The mesh adaptation procedure is described. The relevant numerical examples are presented.

  14. Applying the Delay-Curve Hough Transform To Shallow-Water Environments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    shallow-water environments. The GAMARAY model, an eigenray -based sound propagation model, was used to produce the sound field. Even though beyond some...short ranges the direct propagation path disappears and the dominant eigenrays are due to multipath, the correlation traces still maintain the shape of

  15. Impulse Loading Resulting fromShallow Buried Explosives in Water-Saturated Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    resembles under-water explosion. Keywords: detonation, shallow buried mine, blast loading, AUTODYN 1 INTRODUCTION Recent experience of the US military... AUTODYN , a general purpose transient non-linear dynamics explicit simulation software [9], a detailed comparison was made between the experimental...impulse pendulum with their computational counterparts obtained via detailed numerical modelling of the same physical problem using AUTODYN . The objective

  16. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. We hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<2m), nearshore portions ...

  17. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water...bottom-interacting acoustic propagation including sediment anisotropy and anelasticty. OBJECTIVES The specific objectives of this research...are to develop practical theoretical and software tools for employing a fully elastic version of two-way coupled modes for modeling seismo- acoustic

  18. Integrability Test and Travelling-Wave Solutions of Higher-Order Shallow- Water Type Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Molinero, María Celeste; Pickering, Andrew; Prada, Julia

    2010-04-01

    We apply the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale (WTC) Painlevé test to members of a sequence of higher-order shallow-water type equations. We obtain the result that the equations considered are non-integrable, although compatibility conditions at real resonances are satisfied. We also construct travelling-wave solutions for these and related equations.

  19. Transition Funding for the Shallow Water Integrated Mapping System (SWIMS) and Modular Microstructure Profiler (MMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Mapping System ( SWIMS ) and Modular Microstructure Profiler (MMP) Matthew H. Alford Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive, mail code...performance of operational and climate models, as well as for understanding local problems such as pollutant dispersal and biological productivity. SWIMS ...moored profiling instruments. OBJECTIVES • Transition the Shallow Water Integrated Mapping System ( SWIMS ) and Modular Microstructure Profiler

  20. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  1. Higher Order Corrections for Shallow-Water Solitary Waves: Elementary Derivation and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an elementary method to obtain the equations of the shallow-water solitary waves in different orders of approximation. The first two of these equations are solved to get the shapes and propagation velocities of the corresponding solitary waves. The first-order equation is shown to be equivalent to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,…

  2. Modeling of Acoustic Field Statistics for Deep and Shallow Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    eddies, internal tides, internal waves, and fine structure ( spice ) are needed, while in the shallow water case a models of the random linear internal...waves and spice are lacking. APPROACH The approach to this research is to rigorously test acoustic fluctuation models using Monte Carlo

  3. Response of the Rio Grande and shallow ground water in the Mesilla Bolson to irrigation, climate stress, and pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, J.; Ohlmacher, G.; Utz, D.; Kutianawala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez metropolitan area obtains its water from the Rio Grande and intermontane-basin aquifers. Shallow ground water in this region is in close communications with the surface water system. A major problem with both systems is salinity. Upstream usage of the water in the Rio Grande for irrigation and municipalities has led to concentration of soluble salts to the point where the surface water commonly exceeds drinking water standards. Shallow ground water is recharged by surface water (primarily irrigation canals and agricultural fields) and discharges to surface water (agricultural drains) and deeper ground water. The source of water entering the Rio Grande varies seasonally. During the irrigation season, water is released from reservoirs and mixes with the return flow from irrigation drains. During the non-irrigation season (winter), flow is from irrigation drains and river water quality is indicative of shallow ground water. The annual cycle can be ascertained from the inverse correlation between ion concentrations and discharge in the river. Water-quality data indicate that the salinity of shallow ground water increases each year during a drought. Water-management strategies in the region can affect water quality. Increasing the pumping rate of water-supply wells will cause shallow ground water to flow into the deeper aquifers and degrade the water quality. Lining the canals in the irrigation system to stop water leakage will lead to water quality degradation in shallow ground water and, eventually, deep ground water by removing a major source of high quality recharge that currently lowers the salinity of the shallow ground water.

  4. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    Despite great improvements in our knowledge on the effects of benthic grazers on seston concentrations in water columns, the effects of different hydrodynamic conditions on grazing rates has not been formulated. This makes it difficult to assess the system-wide effect of the benthic ecosystem on phytoplankton concentrations. Furthermore, it affects our ability to predict the potential success of a benthic species, such as the invasive clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. This paper presents the preliminary results of a control volume approach to elucidate the effect of different hydrodynamic conditions on the grazing rates of Corbicula fluminea.

  5. Variability of Acoustic Transmissions in a Shallow Water Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    the sea , the signals will be subject to changes due to the medium. By the medium we mean the water itself, its surface and bottom boundaries, and the...where, by definition, one is never far from the boundaries. The sea surface is almost always moving, causing doppler effects at all frequencies. The sub...SACLANTCEN SR-46 SEA RECEIVER TT T R FREQUENCY SURFACE FREQUENCY SEA JS ST~ TI BOTTOMI TME TM FIG. 1 EFFECTS OF FLUCTUATIONS IN THE MEDIUM ON SIGNALS 4

  6. The TMA Shallow-Water Spectrum Description and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Higgins (1952) has shown that 4 times the variance, or 4(E) 1/ 2 , pro - vides a close estimate of significant wave height in deep water. Thus a method...height If defined as the average of the highest 1/3 waves. H pro - s mo vides an estimate of the energy contained in the wave spectrum, while H pro -5... gmo = 0.0112 - (31) when the exponent of K in Equation 22 is taken as 1/2. A similar result is found if the deepwater fetch-limited equations for

  7. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, B.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub- classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l-1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l-1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ??g l-1) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells

  8. A method for measuring vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of soft, shallow-water sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Marin, P.E.; Black, B.K.; Lynch, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution measures of vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of shallow-water sediments are fundamental to understanding the processes that control elevation change and the mechanisms of progradation (e.g., development of mudflats and intertidal wetlands) in coastal systems. Yet, measurements of elevation by traditional survey methods often are of low accuracy because of the compressible nature of the substrates. Nor do they provide measures of vertical accretion or sediment compaction. This paper evaluates the use in shallow-water systems of an approach designed to measure these variables in vegetated wetlands. The approach employs simultaneous measures of elevation from temporary benchmarks using a sedimentation-erosion table (SET) and vertical accretion from marker horizons with sediment cores collected with a cryogenic coring apparatus. The measures are made with a level of resolution sufficient to distinguish between the influence of surface and subsurface processes on elevation, thus providing quantitative estimates of shallow subsidence. The SET-marker horizon approach was evaluated on a developing splay created by an artificial crevasse of a distributary in the Mississippi River delta. The approach provided high-resolution measures of vertical accretion (48.3 ' 2.0 cm.) and elevation (36.7 ' 1.6 cm) over a 4-year period, with the difference between the two indicating the amount of shallow subsidence. In addition, by laying new marker horizons in later years, the approach provided rates not only of shallow subsidence (3.9 ' 0.5 cm y-1) but also compaction of newly deposited seiments (2.1 ' 0.6 cm y-1) and compaction of underlying sediments (1.8 ' 2.0 cm y-1 ) over a two-year period. Hence, the SET-marker horizon approach has widespread applicability in both emergent wetland and shallow water environments for providing high resolution measures of the processes controlling elevation change.

  9. Nonlinear diffraction of waves by a submerged shelf in shallow water

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, R.C.; Becker, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The diffraction of water waves by submerged obstacles in shallow water generally requires the use of a nonlinear theory since both dispersive and nonlinear effects are important. In this work, wave diffraction is studied in a numerical wave-tank using the Green-Naghdi (G-N) equations. Cnoidal waves are generated numerically by a wave maker situated at one end of a 2-dimensional numerical wave tank. At the downwave end of the tank, an open-boundary condition is implemented to simulate a wave-absorbing beach and thus to reduce reflections. The G-N equations are solved in the time-domain by employing a finite-difference method. The numerical method is applied to diffraction of cnoidal waves by a submerged shelf, or a sand bar, of considerable height relative to water depth. The predicted results are compared with the available experimental data which indicate the importance of nonlinearity for the shallow-water conditions.

  10. Exploring a Multiresolution Modeling Approach within the Shallow-Water Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D.; Jacobsen, Doug; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili; Duda, Michael; Skamarock, William

    2011-11-01

    The ability to solve the global shallow-water equations with a conforming, variable-resolution mesh is evaluated using standard shallow-water test cases. While the long-term motivation for this study is the creation of a global climate modeling framework capable of resolving different spatial and temporal scales in different regions, the process begins with an analysis of the shallow-water system in order to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach developed herein. The multiresolution meshes are spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations where a single, user-supplied density function determines the region(s) of fine- and coarsemesh resolution. The shallow-water system is explored with a suite of meshes ranging from quasi-uniform resolution meshes, where the grid spacing is globally uniform, to highly variable resolution meshes, where the grid spacing varies by a factor of 16 between the fine and coarse regions. The potential vorticity is found to be conserved to within machine precision and the total available energy is conserved to within a time-truncation error. This result holds for the full suite of meshes, ranging from quasi-uniform resolution and highly variable resolution meshes. Based on shallow-water test cases 2 and 5, the primary conclusion of this study is that solution error is controlled primarily by the grid resolution in the coarsest part of the model domain. This conclusion is consistent with results obtained by others.When these variable-resolution meshes are used for the simulation of an unstable zonal jet, the core features of the growing instability are found to be largely unchanged as the variation in the mesh resolution increases. The main differences between the simulations occur outside the region of mesh refinement and these differences are attributed to the additional truncation error that accompanies increases in grid spacing. Overall, the results demonstrate support for this approach as a path toward

  11. Ocean Acoustic Propagation: Fluctuations and Coherence in Dynamically Active Shallow-Water Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    sponsored field programs. These were 1. The Littoral Environmental Acoustics Research portion of the ONR Shallow-Water 2006 experiment (SW06- LEAR ...cooled water on the shelf. In this particular frontal zone there can be a thin deep warm salty layer, capped by an inverted thermocline, on the near... deep thermocline (above the thin deep salty layer) both summer and winter. The South China Sea experiment area has multiple types of large nonlinear

  12. Observation and simulation of heterogeneous 2D water and solute flow processes in ditch beds for subsequent catchment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    , equivalent 1D simulation parameters were seeked for mimicking the 2D infiltration intensities and patterns. The results obtained are presented and discussed based on the consistency of the simulated hydrograms, chemograms and seasonal solute losses during a series of intense infiltration events representing a typical Mediterranean climatic sequence in autumn. Mottes C., Lesueur-Jannoyer M., Le Bail M., Malézieux E., 2014. Pesticide transfer models in crop and watershed systems: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev 34:229-250. Louchart, X., Voltz, M., Andrieux, P. and Moussa, R., 2001. Herbicide Transport to Surface Waters at Field and Watershed Scales in a Mediterranean Vineyard Area. J Environ Qual 30 (3): 982-991. Vaughan RE, Needelman BA, Kleinman PJA, Rabenhorst MC (2008) Morphology and Characterization of Ditch Soils at an Atlantic Coastal Plain Farm. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72:660. doi:10.2136/sssaj2006.0102 Simlnek, J., Šejna, M., van Genuchten, M.Th., 1998. The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Version 2.0, IGWMC-TPS-70. International Ground Water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 202 pp Toride, N., Leij, F.J., van Genuchten, M.T., 1999. The CXTFIT code for estimating transport parameters from laboratory or field tracer experiments. Version 2.1. US Salinity Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service US Department of Agriculture, Riverside, California, Research Report, vol. 137. Voltz M., et Albergel, J. 2002. OMERE : Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Environnement Rural et de l'Eau - Impact des actions anthropiques sur les transferts de masse dans les hydrosystémes méditerranéens ruraux. Proposition d'Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement

  13. 76 FR 39794 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Catcher/Processors in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors subject to sideboard limits established under... 2011 Pacific halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the...

  14. Shallow ground-water resources in the Grand Strand of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Lichtler, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The shallow aquifers that underlie the Grand Strand of South Carolina average approximately 60 to 400 ft thick and have variable productivity with some wells producing little water and others producing several hundred gal/min. These aquifers are separated from the underlying Black Creek aquifer by a 200 ft to 300 ft thick clay confining unit. The shallow aquifers are recharged by local rainfall and discharge primarily into the Atlantic Ocean, the Intracoastal Waterway, and other surface waters. In the North Myrtle Beach area a vertical difference in potentiometric levels of < 1 ft was observed within the shallow aquifers in 1983. However, the difference in potentiometric levels between the shallow aquifers and the Black Creek aquifer was probably from 25 ft to > 50 ft. The quality of groundwater is also variable. Calcium and bicarbonate are generally the predominant ions in solution as a result of the dissolution of calcite in the aquifer sediments. Concentrations of chloride may be high in the vicinity of the salty surface waters. Concentrations of iron range from 5 to 35,000 micrograms/L, but generally < 2,000 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Nutrients in Shallow Ground Waters Beneath Relatively Undeveloped Areas in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations in shallow (well depth of 30 meters or less) ground waters of relatively undeveloped areas were evaluated to determine background conditions relative to agricultural and urban land uses. Lands comprising 67 percent or greater forest or range, 10 percent or less agricultural land, and 10 percent or less urban land were used to represent relatively undeveloped areas. Data subsets from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program (81 wells) and retrospective studies (320 wells) yielded 75th percentile nitrate concentrations of 0.51 and 1.1 milligrams per liter, respectively, in shallow ground water beneath relatively undeveloped areas. The value of 1.1 milligrams per liter is a reasonable upper bound estimate of relative background concentration of nitrate in shallow ground waters in the United States and incorporates effects of nominal nitrogen load to susceptible aquifers. Relative background concentration of nitrate is variable and depends in part on land use, rock type, and climate. Median nitrate concentration was significantly greater in ground water beneath rangeland (1.20 milligrams per liter) than beneath forest land (0.06 milligram per liter). Median nitrate concentration in ground water beneath rangeland was 1.4-2.7 milligrams per liter in susceptible aquifers, which consist of coarse-textured deposits or fractured rock. Increased relative background concentration of nitrate in rangeland areas likely results from evaporative concentration of nominal nitrogen load associated with natural organic and inorganic sources in hydrogeologically susceptible settings.

  16. Review of factors affecting the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Deller, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term trends of waterfowl populations in Chesapeake Bay demonstrate the importance of shallow-water habitats for waterfowl species. Although recent increases in field feeding by geese and swans lessened the importance of shallow-water areas for these species, most duck species depend almost exclusively on shallow-water habitats. Many factors influenced the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats. Habitat degradation resulted in the decline in numbers of most duck species and a change in distribution of some species. Increased numbers of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in recent decades probably resulted from release programs conducted by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and private individuals. Studies of food habits since 1885 showed a decline in submerged-aquatic vegetation in the diet of some species, such as the canvasback (Aythya valisineria ), and an increase in the proportions of invertebrates in the diet. Diversity of food organisms for many waterfowl species has declined. Surveys of vegetation and invertebrates in the Chesapeake Bay generally reflect a degradation of shallow-water habitat. Human population increases in the Chesapeake Bay watershed directly and indirectly affected waterfowl distribution and abundance. The increase of exotic plant and invertebrate species in the bay, in most cases, benefited waterfowl populations. Increased contaminants have reduced the quality and quantity of habitat, although serious attempts to reverse this trend are underway. The use of shallow-water habitats by humans for fishing, hunting, boating, and other recreational and commercial uses reduced the use of shallow-water habitats by waterfowl. Humans can lessen the adverse influences on the valuable shallow-water habitats by restricting human population growth near these habitats and improving the water quality of the bay tributaries. Other affirmative actions that will improve these areas for waterfowl include greater

  17. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  18. Mid-frequency acoustic propagation in shallow water on the New Jersey shelf: mean intensity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dajun; Henyey, Frank S; Wang, Zhongkang; Williams, Kevin L; Rouseff, Daniel; Dahl, Peter H; Quijano, Jorge; Choi, Jee Woong

    2008-09-01

    Mid-frequency (1-10 kHz) sound propagation was measured at ranges 1-9 km in shallow water in order to investigate intensity statistics. Warm water near the bottom results in a sound speed minimum. Environmental measurements include sediment sound speed and water sound speed and density from a towed conductivity-temperature-depth chain. Ambient internal waves contribute to acoustic fluctuations. A simple model involving modes with random phases predicts the mean transmission loss to within a few dB. Quantitative ray theory fails due to near axial focusing. Fluctuations of the intensity field are dominated by water column variability.

  19. Surface water and shallow groundwater interactions in semiarid agro-ecosystems of the western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Carlos; Guldan, Steve; Fernald, Alexander; Tidwell, Vince; Elias, Emile; Gutierrez, Karina; Borman, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Surface water and groundwater interactions in agro-ecosystems of semiarid regions can translate into multiple hydrological benefits including aquifer recharge, temporary storage, and delayed return flow. Our ongoing research effort aimed to better understand surface water and shallow groundwater interactions and their contribution to aquifer recharge and stream flow is being conducted in five relatively narrow floodplains in the semiarid western United States. Over the last several years, we have monitored multiple hydrologic parameters in three flood-irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico. This year we are monitoring two sprinkler-irrigated floodplain valleys in semiarid landscapes of eastern Oregon. At all locations, we measure multiple hydrologic parameters including irrigation diversions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater fluctuations, and weather variables. Data collected are being used to quantify different water budget components such as deep percolation, waterway seepage, evapotranspiration, and aquifer recharge. Results from one of our study sites in New Mexico showed that on average, canal seepage was 12%, and deep percolation ranged from 9 to 32% out of total canal inflow during the irrigation season. Also, shallow aquifer recharge ranged from 1044 to 1350 mm yr-1 during a 3-year evaluation period. At a second study site, canal seepage was 59% and deep percolation averaged 30% of total water diverted. Timing and magnitude of surface water and shallow groundwater interactions is also being evaluated. Results show that replenishment of the shallow aquifer follows a seasonal pattern, driven primarily by canal seepage and irrigation percolation contributions. At one of our study sites, each year the water table reaches a peak of up to 0.8 m within three to five weeks after the onset of irrigation; this increase in water table levels is maintained throughout most of the irrigation season that ends in October. After the end of irrigation season, in the

  20. Simulation using HYDRUS-2D for Soil Water and Heat Transfer under Drip Irrigation with 95oC Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Noborio, K.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, soil disinfection with hot water has been popular since the use of methyl bromide was restricted in 2005. Decreasing the amount of hot water applied may make farmers reduce the operation cost. To determine the appropriate amount of hot water needed for soil disinfection, HYDRUS-2D was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted and soil water content and soil temperature were measured at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm deep when 95oC hot water was applied. Irrigation tubing equipped with drippers every 30 cm were laid at the soil surface, z=0 cm. An irrigation rate for each dripper was 0.83 cm min-1 between t=0 and 120 min, and thereafter it was zero. Temperature of irrigation water was 95oC. Total simulation time with HYDRUS-2D was 720 min for a homogeneous soil. A simulating domain was selected as x=60 cm and z=100 cm. A potential evaporation rate was assumed to be 0 cm min-1 because the soil surface was covered with a plastic sheet. The boundary condition at the bottom was free drainage and those of both sides were no-flux conditions. Hydraulic properties and bulk densities measured at each depth were used for simulation. It was assumed that there was no organic matter contained. Soil thermal properties were adopted from previous study and HYDRUS 2D. Simulated temperatures at 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm deep agreed well with those measured although simulated temperatures at 60, 80, and 100 cm deep were overly estimated. Estimates of volumetric water content at 5 cm deep agreed well with measured values. Simulated values at 10 to 100 cm deep were overly estimated by 0.1 to 0.3 (m3 m-3). The deeper the soil became, the more the simulated wetting front lagged behind the measured one. It was speculated that water viscosity estimated smaller at high temperature might attributed to the slower advances of wetting front simulated with HYDRUS 2-D.

  1. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    In terms of chemical quality, the water is suitable for potable supply and most other uses, but objectionable hardness in large areas and concen- trations of iron and manganese that exceed State drinking-water standards cause aesthetic problems that may require treatment of the water for some uses. Concentrations of major dissolved constitu- ents (calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate), hard- ness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids are highest where the bedrock component of the aquifer is dolo- mite and lowest where the shallow aquifer is almost entirely sand and gravel. Concentrations of other minor constituents (sodium, potassium, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride) are less closely related to common minerals that compose the aquifer system. Sulfate and fluoride concentrations exceed State drinking-water standards locally. Extreme variability in concentrations of iron and manganese are common locally. Iron and manganese concentra- tions exceed State drinking-water standards in water from one-third and one-quarter of the wells, respectively. Likely causes of nitrate-nitrogen con- centrations that exceed State drinking-water stan- dards include local contamination from plant fertilizers, animal wastes, waste water disposed of on land, and septic systems. Water quality in the shallow aquifer system has been affected by saline water from underlying aquifers, primarily along the eastern and western boundaries of the State where the thickness of Paleozoic rocks is greatest.

  2. Instabilities of Tropical Cyclones and their Nonlinear Saturation in Moist-Convective Rotating Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, N.; Zeitlin, V.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stability of tropical cyclones (TC) are mostly performed either in over-simplified (2D Euler, e.g. [1]), or in over-complexified "all-inclusive", e.g. [2], models. TC have very high Rossby numbers, so Lighthill radiation is operational and instabilities are radiative. Yet, the quantitative results for radiative instabilities of vortices are available only for simplified vortex profiles, e.g. [3]. TC evolve in the essentially moist and precipitating atmosphere, yet studies of precise dynamical role of moisture in developing instability are scarce [4]. We use the moist-convective Rotating Shallow Water model of [5], the simplest possible one which includes inertia-gravity gravity waves (IGW) and the effects of moisture and precipitation. Unstable modes are investigated by means of a linear stability analysis, then the nonlinear saturation is simulated in cases with precipitation off (dry), precipitation on but evaporation off (moist-precipitating), and precipitation and evaporation on (moist-precipitating-evaporating). Our main results are: Linear stability: Main instability: ageostrophic barotropic instability Unstable modes: mixed Rossby - inertia gravity waves. Dry saturation: Axisymmetrization of the TC Intensification of winds inside the radius of maximum wind Bursts in the IGW emission Moist-precipitating saturation: Amplification of the IGW emission with respect to the dry case Amplification of the wind intensification mechanism Moist-precipitating-evaporating saturation: Appearance of convectively-coupled IGWs Net intensification of wind (even at the radius of maximum wind) References: J.P. Kossin and W.H. Schubert, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2196, 2001. Y.C. Kwon and W.M. Frank, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 106, 2008. S. Le Dizes and P. Billant, Phys. Fluids, 21, 1, 2009. D.A. Schecter and M.T. Montgomery, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 314, 2007. F. Bouchut, J. Lambaerts, G. Lapeyre, and V. Zeitlin, Phys. Fluids, 21, 126601, 2009. Figure: Nondimensional vorticity (colors

  3. Shallow-water seismoacoustic noise generated by tropical storms Ernesto and Florence.

    PubMed

    Traer, James; Gerstoft, Peter; Bromirski, Peter D; Hodgkiss, William S; Brooks, Laura A

    2008-09-01

    Land-based seismic observations of double frequency (DF) microseisms generated during tropical storms Ernesto and Florence are dominated by signals in the 0.15-0.5 Hz band. In contrast, data from sea floor hydrophones in shallow water (70 m depth, 130 km off the New Jersey coast) show dominant signals in the ocean gravity-wave frequency band, 0.02-0.18 Hz, and low amplitudes from 0.18 to 0.3 Hz, suggesting significant opposing wave components necessary for DF microseism generation were negligible at the site. Florence produced large waves over deep water while Ernesto only generated waves in coastal regions, yet both storms produced similar spectra. This suggests near-coastal shallow water as the dominant region for observed microseism generation.

  4. Thermal regime of shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.; Macrae, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many shallow lakes and ponds of the Arctic/sub-Arctic contain thick, organic-rich sediments, which have the potential to release significant amounts of CO2 or CH4 to the atmosphere if sediment decomposition rates increase in response to warmer temperatures caused by global warming. This may be exacerbated by a deepening of the seasonal sediment thaw depth in small water bodies that are underlain by permafrost. An important step in linking climatic conditions to rates of organic matter decomposition and gas production from shallow water bodies is an improved understanding of the thermal properties of lake sediments and how sediment temperatures fluctuate in response to changing air temperatures. This knowledge is also important if the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic landscape units in cold regions changes under a warmer climate. One approach that has been used in terrestrial permafrost environments is the examination of how mean annual permafrost surface temperature deviates from mean annual 2-m screen height air temperature (MAAT). The offset between MAAT and the mean annual sediment surface temperature (MASST) has been found to be much larger in deep aquatic systems (greater than 10 m) than in terrestrial permafrost systems due to the presence of the water column that can efficiently transfer heat through mixing. However, the efficiency of heat transfer in shallow water bodies is expected to larger in summer (thawed) than in winter (frozen) conditions, when thermal energy must move by conduction alone. The present study examined the efficiency of sediment heat transfer in shallow water bodies (less than 3 m) during summer and winter periods. Air, sediment and water temperatures of three shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada were monitored (December 2009-August 2011). Arrays of thermistors and heat pulse probes were placed at 10 cm increments between 20 cm above the water/sediment interface and

  5. MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow FloridaKeys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retrievals of water quality parameters from satellite measurements over optically shallow waters have been problematic due to bottom contamination of the signals. As a result, large errors are associated with derived water column properties. These deficiencies greatly reduce the ...

  6. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Katie P.; Stanley, Jane W.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; McCulloh, Katherine A.; Woodruff, David R.; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S.; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. PMID:26546366

  7. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.

    PubMed

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  8. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

  9. Hybrid Approaches for Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics --- Coupling of FVCOM/CFD and FVCOM/Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Wu, X.; Cheng, W.; Skraatz, S.

    2010-12-01

    As a consequence of many emerging issues such as the catastrophic Gulf of Mexico oil spill and potential coastline flooding due to sea level rise, there is an urgent need to develop our capabilities to predict small-scale and really 3D phenomena. In order to meet the need, we propose hybrid approaches and domain decomposition to couple different models designed for different physics and scales. In this presentation, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and FVCOM are coupled to simulate small-scale flow problems in coastal settings. The former is used to capture local flows, and the latter is employed to compute the large-scale background currents. In addition, a 2D shallow water model is coupled with FVCOM. In this situation, the 2D model is utilized to predict coastline flows and FVCOM is applied to simulate the deep water currents. The hybrid approaches are realized using two-way coupling and Chimera overset grids. Two numerical examples, which correspond to the two types of coupling, will be discussed. The first example is a thermal discharge from a multiport diffuser at the seabed, each of the ports is 10 cm in diameters, into estuary with sizes in hundreds of kilometers (Fig. 1a and b). The second example is flooding into lands and urban areas. The results clearly illustrate the feasibility and potential of the proposed approaches in prediction of multi-physics/multi-scale coastal ocean flows. Difficulty and unresolved issues will be discussed also. Fig. 1a FVCOM mesh. The discharge is located at mouth of Hudson next to NYC Fig. 1b Simulated 3D thermal plume of the discharge

  10. Pressure gradient sensors for bearing determination in shallow water tracking ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Peter J.; Euerle, Steven E.; Menoche, Richard K.; Janiesch, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Underwater acoustic tracking has traditionally used only the arrival time of tracking pings to localize targets. This implies that the ping transmitted from a target must be received at a minimum of three separate nodes (receiver locations) in order to determine the position. For deep water ranges this was acceptable. In shallow water, where propagation ranges are limited, this requires a large number of nodes. This makes shallow water ranges very costly. An effort is underway to use pressure gradient hydrophones as receivers and measure the bearing of the ping arrival along with arrival time, thereby locating the target using only one tracking node. This allows for increased node spacing and greatly reduced cost. However, the accuracy required for training ranges is on the order of 1 degree. Further, the directional receiver must be housed so as to withstand impacts from fishing operations. Research including design, fabrication, and testing of conventional and unconventional pressure gradient hydrophones, the housing, and signal processing methods are discussed. Extensive testing has already been conducted using a 1″ diameter by 5″ long multimode hydrophone. A shallow water tracking test was conducted at the NUWC Lake Seneca test facility. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tracking using a single pressure gradient hydrophone with an accuracy of 50 yds out to 2 kyds. The effects of multiple paths and scattering are also discussed.

  11. Microbial diversity in shallow-water hydrothermal sediments of Kueishan Island, Taiwan as revealed by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cheung, Man Kit; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wong, Chong Kim

    2015-11-01

    Kueishan Island is a young volcanic island in the southernmost edge of the Okinawa Trough in the northeastern part of Taiwan. A cluster of hydrothermal vents is located off the southeastern tip of the Island at water depths between 10 and 80 m. This paper presents the results of the first study on the microbial communities in bottom sediments collected from the shallow-water hydrothermal vents of Kueishan Island. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the assemblages of bacteria, archaea, and small eukaryotes in sediment samples collected at various distances from the hydrothermal vents. Sediment from the vent area contained the highest diversity of archaea and the lowest diversity of bacteria and small eukaryotes. Epsilonproteobacteria were the most abundant group in the vent sediment, but their abundance decreased with increasing distance from the vent area. Most Epsilonproteobacteria belonged to the mesophilic chemolithoautotrophic genera Sulfurovum and Sulfurimonas. Recent reports on these two genera have come from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Conversely, the relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the bacterial community increased with increasing distance from the vent area. Our study revealed the contrasting effects of venting on the benthic bacterial and archaeal communities, and showed that the sediments of the shallow-waters hydrothermal vents were dominated by chemoautotrophic bacteria. The present work broadens our knowledge on microbial diversity in shallow-water hydrothermal vent habitats.

  12. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  13. Shallow water benthic imaging and substrate characterization using recreational-grade sidescan-sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, lightweight, inexpensive, vessel-mounted ‘recreational grade’ sonar systems have rapidly grown in popularity among aquatic scientists, for swath imaging of benthic substrates. To promote an ongoing ‘democratization’ of acoustical imaging of shallow water environments, methods to carry out geometric and radiometric correction and georectification of sonar echograms are presented, based on simplified models for sonar-target geometry and acoustic backscattering and attenuation in shallow water. Procedures are described for automated removal of the acoustic shadows, identification of bed-water interface for situations when the water is too turbid or turbulent for reliable depth echosounding, and for automated bed substrate classification based on singlebeam full-waveform analysis. These methods are encoded in an open-source and freely-available software package, which should further facilitate use of recreational-grade sidescan sonar, in a fully automated and objective manner. The sequential correction, mapping, and analysis steps are demonstrated using a data set from a shallow freshwater environment.

  14. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.

  15. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE

    DOE PAGES

    Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.

    2014-10-19

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within themore » Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.« less

  16. Explicit large time-step schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.; Zwas, G.

    1979-01-01

    Modifications to explicit finite difference schemes for solving the shallow water equations for meteorological applications by increasing the time step for the fast gravity waves are analyzed. Terms associated with the gravity waves in the shallow water equations are treated on a coarser grid than those associated with the slow Rossby waves, which contain much more of the available energy and must be treated with higher accuracy, enabling a several-fold increase in time step without degrading the accuracy of the solution. The method is presented in Cartesian and spherical coordinates for a rotating earth, using generalized leapfrog, frozen coefficient, and Fourier filtering finite difference schemes. Computational results verify the numerical stability of the approach.

  17. The structure of raylike arrivals in a shallow-water waveguide.

    PubMed

    Roux, Philippe; Cornuelle, Bruce D; Kuperman, W A; Hodgkiss, W S

    2008-12-01

    Acoustic remote sensing of the oceans requires a detailed understanding of the acoustic forward problem. The results of a shallow-water transmission experiment between a vertical array of sources and a vertical array of receivers are reported. The source array is used to provide additional degrees of freedom to isolate and track raylike arrivals by beamforming over both source and receiver arrays. The coordinated source-receiver array processing procedure is presented and its effectiveness in an example of tracking raylike arrivals in a fluctuating ocean environment is shown. Many of these arrivals can be tracked over an hour or more and show slowly varying amplitude and phase. The use of a double-beamforming algorithm lays the foundation for shallow-water acoustic remote sensing using travel time and source and receive angles of selected eigenrays.

  18. Initial value problem solution of nonlinear shallow water-wave equations.

    PubMed

    Kânoğlu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2006-10-06

    The initial value problem solution of the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations is developed under initial waveforms with and without velocity. We present a solution method based on a hodograph-type transformation to reduce the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations into a second-order linear partial differential equation and we solve its initial value problem. The proposed solution method overcomes earlier limitation of small waveheights when the initial velocity is nonzero, and the definition of the initial conditions in the physical and transform spaces is consistent. Our solution not only allows for evaluation of differences in predictions when specifying an exact initial velocity based on nonlinear theory and its linear approximation, which has been controversial in geophysical practice, but also helps clarify the differences in runup observed during the 2004 and 2005 Sumatran tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  19. Multiwavelet Discontinuous Galerkin Accelerated ELP Method for the Shallow Water Equations on the Cubed Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    White III, James B; Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; Drake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to increase the time-step size for an explicit discontinuous Galerkin numerical method. The attributes of this approach are demonstrated on standard tests for the shallow-water equations on the sphere. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin method, which has the benefit of being scalable, flexible, and conservative, provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes, which can remain stable for implicit-sized time steps, can help increase the time-step size for shallow water equations on the sphere.

  20. Iterative Receiver in Time-Frequency Domain for Shallow Water Acoustic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel, degrades the performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication systems. In this paper, we combine soft minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalization and the serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoding to develop an iterative receiver in time-frequency domain (TFD) for underwater acoustic point to point communications. Based on sound speed profile (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray (FER) tracing method (Bellhop), the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. The results suggest that the proposed iterative receiver can reduce the calculation complexity of the equalizer and obtain better performance using less receiving elements.

  1. The lantern shark's light switch: turning shallow water crypsis into midwater camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Julien M.; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature in the permanent darkness of the deep-sea. In fishes, light is emitted by organs containing either photogenic cells (intrinsic photophores), which are under direct nervous control, or symbiotic luminous bacteria (symbiotic photophores), whose light is controlled by secondary means such as mechanical occlusion or physiological suppression. The intrinsic photophores of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax were recently shown as an exception to this rule since they appear to be under hormonal control. Here, we show that hormones operate what amounts to a unique light switch, by acting on a chromatophore iris, which regulates light emission by pigment translocation. This result strongly suggests that this shark's luminescence control originates from the mechanism for physiological colour change found in shallow water sharks that also involves hormonally controlled chromatophores: the lantern shark would have turned the initial shallow water crypsis mechanism into a midwater luminous camouflage, more efficient in the deep-sea environment. PMID:20410033

  2. On the advantage of well-balanced schemes for moving-water equilibria of the shallow water equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang; Noelle, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This note aims at demonstrating the advantage of moving-water well-balanced schemes over still-water well-balanced schemes for the shallow water equations. We concentrate on numerical examples with solutions near a moving-water equilibrium. For such examples, still-water well-balanced methods are not capable of capturing the small perturbations of the moving-water equilibrium and may generate significant spurious oscillations, unless an extremely refined mesh is used. On the other hand, moving-water well-balanced methods perform well in these tests. The numerical examples in this note clearly demonstrate the importance of utilizing moving-water well-balanced methods for solutions near a moving-water equilibrium.

  3. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  4. An Implicit 2-D Depth-Averaged Finite-Volume Model of Flow and Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model CMS- M2D : Version 3.0, Report 2: Sediment transport and morphology change, Technical Report ERDC/CHL TR...dimensional depth-averaged circulation model M2D : Version 2.0, Report 1, Technical documentation and user’s guide. ERDC/CHL TR-04-2, Coastal and Hydraulics

  5. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Avila, Sérgio P; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  6. Geoacoustic Inversion and Source Localization in a Randomly Fluctuating Shallow Water Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    with a standard deviation of 570 m. 2.2 SVV06 experiment data analysis: Sei whale localization Comparatively little is known about sei whale ...large number of sei whale calls were unexpectedly collected during the SW06 experiment, which introduced the first evidence of sei whales in this...shallow water region. Using the normal mode approach developed in this project, we are able to track the remote locations of these whales up to tens of

  7. Strong and Weak Lagrange-Galerkin Spectral Element Methods for the Shallow Water Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Galerkin Spectral Element Methods for the Shallow Water Equations F . X. GIRALDO Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943, U.S.A...edged. 0898-1221/03/$ - see front matter © 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. PII: 80898-1221(02)00330-9 Typeset by ANfS-TEX 98 F . X...resulting operator is then discretized using the standard finite-element method. This is the approach used by Bercovier and Pironneau [4], Bermejo [5

  8. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    PubMed

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-03-03

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images.

  9. Fracturing and flow: Investigations on the formation of shallow water sills on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Kathleen L.; Patterson, G. Wes; Lowell, Robert P.; Germanovich, Leonid

    2016-08-01

    Double ridge tectonic features appear prominently and ubiquitously across the surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa. Previous studies have interpreted flanking fractures observed along some of the ridges as indicators of stress resulting from the ridge loading and flexing of the ice shell above a shallow water body. Here, we investigate a shallow water sill emplacement process at a time when the shell is cooling and thickening and explore the conditions that would make such a system feasible on timescales of ridge formation. Results show that fracture initiation and transport of ocean water to shallow depths can realistically occur, although horizontal fracturing and sill lifetimes prove challenging. Finite element models demonstrate that mechanical layering or a fractured shell do not provide enough stress change to promote horizontal fracturing, but tidal forcing does result in a small amount of turn. Assuming it is possible for a shallow sill to form, a sill would convect internally and conduct heat out quickly, resulting in a short lifetime in comparison to an estimated flexure timeframe of 100 kyr suggested required for double ridge formation. Consideration of heat transfer and residence in the overlying ice, however, extends the flexure timeframe and multiple sill intrusions or replenishment with warm ocean water could prolong the effective sill lifetime. Though challenges still remain for sill formation at Europa, these analyses constrain the potential mechanisms for emplacement and indicate sills can act as viable options for supplying the heat needed for surface flexure. Further analyses and future missions to Europa will help to increase our understanding of these enigmatic processes.

  10. Generalized energy and potential enstrophy conserving finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramopoulos, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The conditions under which finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations can conserve both total energy and potential enstrophy are considered. A method of deriving such schemes using operator formalism is developed. Several such schemes are derived for the A-, B- and C-grids. The derived schemes include second-order schemes and pseudo-fourth-order schemes. The simplest B-grid pseudo-fourth-order schemes are presented.

  11. Wave breaking and shock waves for a periodic shallow water equation.

    PubMed

    Escher, Joachim

    2007-09-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of a recently derived periodic shallow water equation. We discuss in detail the blow-up scenario of strong solutions and present several conditions on the initial profile, which ensure the occurrence of wave breaking. We also present a family of global weak solutions, which may be viewed as global periodic shock waves to the equation under discussion.

  12. Shallow Water Sediment Properties Derived from High-Frequency Shear and Interface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    FREQUENCY SHEAR ONR N00014-88-C-1238 AND INTERFACE WAVES 6. AUTHOR(S) JOHN EWING, JERRY A. CARTER, GEORGE H. SUTTON AND NOEL BARSTOW 7. PERFORMING...B4. PAGES 4739--4762. APRIL 10. 1992 Shallow Water Sediment Properties Derived From High-Frequency Shear and Interface Waves JOHN EWING Woods Hole...calculating thickness. The amplitude falloff with range establishes a Q velocity gradients and penetration depths [ Nettleton . 19401 estimate of 40 in

  13. Acoustic Projectors for AUV and UUV Applications in Shallow Water Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    middle frequencies as those in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Most current AUV or UUV applications feature either tonpilz (piston) transducers ...100 kHz band by driving the 100 lcHz resonant transducer with an inversely shaped transformer. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the...future development trends in shallow water transducers for AUV and UUV missions. Keywords: piezocomposite, broadband, cymbals, transducer , projector

  14. Urban flood modeling using shallow water equations with depth-dependent anisotropic porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgen, Ilhan; Zhao, Jiaheng; Liang, Dongfang; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The shallow water model with anisotropic porosity conceptually takes into account the unresolved subgrid-scale features, e.g. microtopography or buildings. This enables computationally efficient simulations that can be run on coarser grids, whereas reasonable accuracy is maintained via the introduction of porosity. This article presents a novel numerical model for the depth-averaged equations with anisotropic porosity. The porosity is calculated using the probability mass function of the subgrid-scale features in each cell and updated in each time step. The model is tested in a one-dimensional theoretical benchmark before being evaluated against measurements and high-resolution predictions in three case studies: a dam-break over a triangular bottom sill, a dam-break through an idealized city and a rainfall-runoff event in an idealized urban catchment. The physical processes could be approximated relatively well with the anisotropic porosity shallow water model. The computational resolution influences the porosities calculated at the cell edges and therefore has a large influence on the quality of the solution. The computational time decreased significantly, on average three orders of magnitude, in comparison to the classical high-resolution shallow water model simulation.

  15. Exact solutions of one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations over even and sloping bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkunov, Yu. A.; Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Medvedev, S. B.; Minenkov, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    We establish an equivalence of two systems of equations of one-dimensional shallow water models describing the propagation of surface waves over even and sloping bottoms. For each of these systems, we obtain formulas for the general form of their nondegenerate solutions, which are expressible in terms of solutions of the Darboux equation. The invariant solutions of the Darboux equation that we find are simplest representatives of its essentially different exact solutions (those not related by invertible point transformations). They depend on 21 arbitrary real constants; after "proliferation" formulas derived by methods of group theory analysis are applied, they generate a 27-parameter family of essentially different exact solutions. Subsequently using the derived infinitesimal "proliferation" formulas for the solutions in this family generates a denumerable set of exact solutions, whose linear span constitutes an infinite-dimensional vector space of solutions of the Darboux equation. This vector space of solutions of the Darboux equation and the general formulas for nondegenerate solutions of systems of shallow water equations with even and sloping bottoms give an infinite set of their solutions. The "proliferation" formulas for these systems determine their additional nondegenerate solutions. We also find all degenerate solutions of these systems and thus construct a database of an infinite set of exact solutions of systems of equations of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model with even and sloping bottoms.

  16. Microbial response to limited nutrients in shallow water immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Jia, C; Huang, J; Kershaw, S; Luo, G; Farabegoli, E; Perri, M C; Chen, L; Bai, X; Xie, S

    2012-01-01

    Previous work indicates that a variety of microbes bloomed in the oceans after the end-Permian faunal mass extinction, but evidence is sporadically documented. Thus, the nature and geographic distribution of such microbes and their associations are unclear, addressed in this study using a series of biomarker groups. On the basis of microbial biomarker records of the 2-methylhopane index, evidence is presented for cyanobacterial blooms in both the western and eastern Tethys Sea and in both shallow and deep waters, after the mass extinction. The enhanced relative abundance of C(28) (expressed by the C(28) /C(29) ratio of) regular steranes suggests a bloom of prasinophyte algae occurred immediately after the end-Permian faunal extinction, comparable with those observed in some other mass extinctions in Phanerozoic. Significantly, cyanobacteria and prasinophyte algae show a synchronized onset of bloom in the shallow water Bulla section, north Italy, inferring for the first time their coupled response to the biotic crisis and the associated environmental conditions. However, in Meishan of Zhejiang Province in south China, the bloom declined earlier than in Bulla. The association of increased 2-methylhopane index with a negative shift in the nitrogen isotope composition infers a scenario of enhanced nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria immediately after the faunal mass extinction. N(2) fixation by cyanobacteria is here interpreted to have provided prasinophyte algae with ammonium in nutrient-limited shallow waters, and thus caused their associated blooms.

  17. Travel-time tomography in shallow water: experimental demonstration at an ultrasonic scale.

    PubMed

    Roux, Philippe; Iturbe, Ion; Nicolas, Barbara; Virieux, Jean; Mars, Jérôme I

    2011-09-01

    Acoustic tomography in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide is demonstrated at the laboratory scale between two source-receiver arrays. At a 1/1,000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. Two coplanar arrays record the transfer matrix in the time domain of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. A time-domain, double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays that projects the multi-reflected acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are characterized by their travel times and their launch and arrival angles. Travel-time differences are measured for each eigenray every 0.1 s when a thermal plume is generated at a given location in the waveguide. Travel-time tomography inversion is then performed using two forward models based either on ray theory or on the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel. The spatially resolved range and depth inversion data confirm the feasibility of acoustic tomography in shallow water. Comparisons are made between inversion results at 1 and 3 MHz with the inversion procedure using ray theory or the finite-frequency approach. The influence of surface fluctuations at the air-water interface is shown and discussed in the framework of shallow-water ocean tomography.

  18. Shallow-water wave lensing in coral reefs: a physical and biological case study.

    PubMed

    Veal, Cameron James; Carmi, Maya; Dishon, Gal; Sharon, Yoni; Michael, Kelvin; Tchernov, Dan; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Fine, Maoz

    2010-12-15

    Wave lensing produces the highest level of transient solar irradiances found in nature, ranging in intensity over several orders of magnitude in just a few tens of milliseconds. Shallow coral reefs can be exposed to wave lensing during light-wind, clear-sky conditions, which have been implicated as a secondary cause of mass coral bleaching through light stress. Management strategies to protect small areas of high-value reef from wave-lensed light stress were tested using seawater irrigation sprinklers to negate wave lensing by breaking up the water surface. A series of field and tank experiments investigated the physical and photophysiological response of the shallow-water species Stylophora pistillata and Favites abdita to wave lensing and sprinkler conditions. Results show that the sprinkler treatment only slightly reduces the total downwelling photosynthetically active and ultraviolet irradiance (∼5.0%), whereas it dramatically reduces, by 460%, the irradiance variability caused by wave lensing. Despite this large reduction in variability and modest reduction in downwelling irradiance, there was no detectable difference in photophysiological response of the corals between control and sprinkler treatments under two thermal regimes of ambient (27°C) and heated treatment (31°C). This study suggests that shallow-water coral species are not negatively affected by the strong flashes that occur under wave-lensing conditions.

  19. A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan

    2010-08-01

    The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Prokaryotes within a Shallow-Water Pockmark Field

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Fiorentino, Federica; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Vetriani, Costantino; Yücel, Mustafa; Taviani, Marco; Manini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are crater-like depression on the seafloor associated with hydrocarbon ascent through muddy sediments in continental shelves around the world. In this study, we examine the diversity and distribution of benthic microbial communities at shallow-water pockmarks adjacent to the Middle Adriatic Ridge. We integrate microbial diversity data with characterization of local hydrocarbons concentrations and sediment geochemistry. Our results suggest these pockmarks are enriched in sedimentary hydrocarbons, and host a microbial community dominated by Bacteria, even in deeper sediment layers. Pockmark sediments showed higher prokaryotic abundance and biomass than surrounding sediments, potentially due to the increased availability of organic matter and higher concentrations of hydrocarbons linked to pockmark activity. Prokaryotic diversity analyses showed that the microbial communities of these shallow-water pockmarks are unique, and comprised phylotypes associated with the cycling of sulfur and nitrate compounds, as well as numerous know hydrocarbon degraders. Altogether, this study suggests that shallow-water pockmark habitats enhance the diversity of the benthic prokaryotic biosphere by providing specialized environmental niches. PMID:27379070

  1. Airborne Laser Bathymetry for Documentation of Submerged Archaeological Sites in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doneus, M.; Miholjek, I.; Mandlburger, G.; Doneus, N.; Verhoeven, G.; Briese, Ch.; Pregesbauer, M.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of underwater topography is essential to the understanding of the organisation and distribution of archaeological sites along and in water bodies. Special attention has to be paid to intertidal and inshore zones where, due to sea-level rise, coastlines have changed and many former coastal sites are now submerged in shallow water. Mapping the detailed inshore topography is therefore important to reconstruct former coastlines, identify sunken archaeological structures and locate potential former harbour sites. However, until recently archaeology has lacked suitable methods to provide the required topographical data of shallow underwater bodies. Our research shows that airborne topo-bathymetric laser scanner systems are able to measure surfaces above and below the water table over large areas in high detail using very short and narrow green laser pulses, even revealing sunken archaeological structures in shallow water. Using an airborne laser scanner operating at a wavelength in the green visible spectrum (532 nm) two case study areas in different environmental settings (Kolone, Croatia, with clear sea water; Lake Keutschach, Austria, with turbid water) were scanned. In both cases, a digital model of the underwater topography with a planimetric resolution of a few decimeters was measured. While in the clear waters of Kolone penetration depth was up to 11 meters, turbid Lake Keutschach allowed only to document the upper 1.6 meters of its underwater topography. Our results demonstrate the potential of this technique to map submerged archaeological structures over large areas in high detail providing the possibility for systematic, large scale archaeological investigation of this environment.

  2. A first attempt to enhance the 2-D single-crystal growth of a protein at an air/water interface from hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazek, L.; Legrand, J.-F.; Davoust, L.

    2005-02-01

    An alternative technique to grow a 2-D crystal of protein at a functionalized air/water interface is proposed. The first part of this paper briefly reviews 2-D crystal growth at a fluid interface and deals with our first experiments on streptavidin whose 2-D (poly)crystallization ability is well known. In the experiments, the involved air/water interface is functionalized with a mixed lipidic monolayer made of DOPC and biotinylated lipids. The second part of the paper relates to an alternative strategy we propose in order to enhance the 2-D single-crystal growth of a protein at a liquid interface. The idea is to get benefit from an axisymmetric swirling flow driven in a water sub-phase confined within an annular channel. The swirl is expected to control the distribution of the proteins at the air/water interface and to promote the growth of a 2-D single crystal from the smallest to the largest radii (radial segregation). An analytical modelling based on a low Reynolds number asymptotic development demonstrates how two control parameters, the mean channel curvature and the Reynolds number of the shear flow, can be helpful in tuning the magnitude of the swirl and therefore the crystal growth.

  3. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  4. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene-Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-12-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene-Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene-Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene-late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale.

  5. Correlating Mediterranean shallow water deposits with global Oligocene–Miocene stratigraphy and oceanic events☆

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.; Brandano, Marco; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Shallow-marine sediment records have the strong potential to display sensitive environmental changes in sedimentary geometries and skeletal content. However, the time resolution of most neritic carbonate records is not high enough to be compared with climatic events as recorded in the deep-sea sediment archives. In order to resolve the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes during the Oligocene–Miocene transition in the Mediterranean shallow water carbonate systems with the best possible time resolution, we re-evaluated the Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), which acts as a reference for the correlation of Oligocene–Miocene shallow water deposits in the Mediterranean region. The 120-m-thick late Oligocene–late Miocene carbonate succession is composed of larger foraminiferal, bryozoan and corallinacean limestones interlayered with distinct planktonic foraminiferal carbonates representing a mostly outer neritic setting. Integrated multi-proxy and facies analyses indicate that CaCO3 and total organic carbon contents as well as gamma-ray display only local to regional processes on the carbonate platform and are not suited for stratigraphic correlation on a wider scale. In contrast, new biostratigraphic data correlate the Decontra stable carbon isotope record to the global deep-sea carbon isotope record. This links relative sea level fluctuations, which are reflected by facies and magnetic susceptibility changes, to third-order eustatic cycles. The new integrated bio-, chemo-, and sequence stratigraphic framework enables a more precise timing of environmental changes within the studied time interval and identifies Decontra as an important locality for correlating not only shallow and deep water sediments of the Mediterranean region but also on a global scale. PMID:25844021

  6. Shallow-water carbonate records of hyperthermals: do Pacific Ocean guyots hold the key? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.8 Ma) is associated with a rapid and large carbon cycle perturbation, transient warming and deep-sea acidification, and is the best-known example of a hyperthermal event. Although this event is widely known from pelagic, hemipelagic and continental records, the lack of in situ, shallow-water, carbonate-platform sections inhibits interpretations of whether the PETM had a significant effect on shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. Guyots in the Pacific Ocean are submerged seamounts that comprise a volcanic pedestal, topped with shallow-water carbonates (that accumulated at or close to sea-level) and a pelagic cap that formed after the platform ‘drowned’ (sunk below the photic zone). The isolated carbonate platforms on these guyots formed far from terrigenous input and runoff, both detrimental effects for calcifying organisms. The isolation and thickness of the carbonate platforms on guyots makes them ideal localities at which to investigate the response of shallow-water carbonate ecosystems to changes in surface ocean temperature and chemistry, free from the complications that can affect continental margin settings. Limalok Guyot (ODP Site 871) in the Pacific Ocean comprises a volcanic pedestal topped by a Paleogene carbonate platform that drowned in the middle Eocene. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of the platform carbonate sediments will be presented, in conjunction with existing biostratigraphy, to refine the stratigraphic framework of the carbonate platform. Although core recovery was poor, the major Late Paleocene-Middle Eocene stratigraphic trends in carbon-isotopes can be recognized, including a prominent ~3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), recording the onset of the PETM. The lithological and paleontological record of the PETM on Limalok Guyot shows no major evidence for a carbonate production crisis, suggesting that the effects of any changes in temperatures or surface ocean pH were relatively short

  7. Effect of urbanisation on the water balance of a catchment with shallow groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, O. V.; Barr, A. D.; Donn, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe impact of urbanisation on the water balance of a catchment dominated by surface water and groundwater interactions was investigated by using a process-based coupled surface water and groundwater model called MODHMS. The modelling estimated the likely changes in river discharge as a result of the land use change in the Southern River catchment in Western Australia. The catchment has both permeable soils and a shallow watertable. There was a significant increase in total annual discharge from the urbanised area where the runoff coefficient rose from 0.01 to more than 0.40. However in contrast with urban areas elsewhere these changes were mainly due to a shift in the subsurface water balance, including both groundwater and the unsaturated zone due to specifics of local hydrogeological conditions and adopted practice of storm runoff management. Due to the highly permeable soils, it is also common practice in the local building industry to direct runoff from roofs and roads into the soil and thereby the unconfined aquifer. Urbanisation results in particularly large changes in evapotranspiration from the soil profile and shallow watertable. The total subsurface evaporative flux reduced from 90% of infiltration (or 63-68% rainfall) to less than 29% (or 20% of rainfall) after urbanisation. Up to 83% (or 443 mm) of the pre-development evapotranspiration flux was from the shallow watertable. The requirement to control groundwater levels with drains in the shallow unconfined aquifer as well as the introduction of impervious surfaces caused a significant reduction of this component of evapotranspiration to less than 154 mm. These combined with an increase in infiltration rates, due to the direct infiltration of roof and road runoff, lead to higher groundwater recharge rates and subsequently groundwater discharge to the urban drainage network. The magnitude of urbanisation on catchment fluxes is most strongly influenced by urban density and the rate of local

  8. Preliminary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of EIIB Push Barge in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneš, Petr; Kollárik, Róbert

    2011-12-01

    This study presents preliminary CFD simulation of EIIb push barge in inland conditions using CFD software Ansys Fluent. The RANSE (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation) methods are used for the viscosity solution of turbulent flow around the ship hull. Different RANSE methods are used for the comparison of their results in ship resistance calculations, for selecting the appropriate and removing inappropriate methods. This study further familiarizes on the creation of geometrical model which considers exact water depth to vessel draft ratio in shallow water conditions, grid generation, setting mathematical model in Fluent and evaluation of the simulations results.

  9. The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow

  10. Hydraulic conductivity and water quality of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface geophysical logs were correlated with logs of drill cuttings to determine the permeability of selected zones of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Fla. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is estimated to range from 1 to 130 feet per day, based on lithology and physical properties. The yield of wells penetrating this aquifer ranges from 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Water samples were collected from different depths throughout the county and analyzed for chemical constituents. Stiff diagrams illustrate the changes in types of water by depth and area. Water of suitable quality is in the eastern parts of the county. In this area the aquifer is the thickest and most permeable. The concentration of chemical constituents in the water increase in a westerly direction. The water in the western parts of the county is unsuitable for most purposes. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  12. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  13. Ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer system at the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Directorate of the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia, is concerned about possible contamination of ground water at the Station. Ground water at the Station flows through a shallow system of layered aquifers and leaky confining units. The units of the shallow aquifer system are the Columbia aquifer, the Cornwallis Cave confining unit, the Cornwallis Cave aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer. The Eastover-Calvert confining unit separates the shallow aquifer system from deeper confined aquifers beneath the Station. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow of the shallow aquifer system in and around the Station. The model simulated ground-water flow from the peninsular drainage divide that runs across the Lackey Plain near the southern end of the Station north to King Creek and the York River and south to Skiffes Creek and the James River. The model was calibrated by minimizing the root mean square error between 4 7 measured and corresponding simulated water levels. The calibrated model was used to determine the ground-water budget and general directions of ground-water flow. A particle-tracking routine was used with the calibrated model to estimate groundwater flow paths, flow rates, and traveltimes from selected sites at the Station. Simulated ground-water flow velocities of the Station-area model were small beneath the interstream areas of the Lackey Plain and Croaker Flat, but increased outward toward the streams and rivers where the hydraulic gradients are larger. If contaminants from the land surface entered the water table at or near the interstream areas of the Station, where hydraulic gradients are smaller, they would migrate more slowly than if they entered closer to the streams or the shores of the rivers where gradients commonly are larger. The ground-water flow simulations indicate that some ground water leaks downward from

  14. High-order nite volume WENO schemes for the shallow water equations with dry states

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang

    2011-01-01

    The shallow water equations are used to model flows in rivers and coastal areas, and have wide applications in ocean, hydraulic engineering, and atmospheric modeling. These equations have still water steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are balanced by the source term. It is desirable to develop numerical methods which preserve exactly these steady state solutions. Another main difficulty usually arising from the simulation of dam breaks and flood waves flows is the appearance of dry areas where no water is present. If no special attention is paid, standard numerical methods may fail near dry/wet front and produce non-physical negative water height. A high-order accurate finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed in this paper to address these difficulties and to provide an efficient and robust method for solving the shallow water equations. A simple, easy-to-implement positivity-preserving limiter is introduced. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are provided to verify the positivity-preserving property, well-balanced property, high-order accuracy, and good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.

  15. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Tracers of Stream Exchanges With Shallow Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M. H.; Su, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/groundwater exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, CA, during a 10-hour surface-water sodium bromide injection. Three cross-sections comprised of 6 shallow (1 m) piezometers were installed at the upper, middle, and lower sections of a 17 km long study reach to monitor temperatures and bromide concentrations in the shallow ground water beneath the stream. The heat and ground-water transport simulation model, VS2DH, and a closely related solute and ground-water transport simulation model, VS2DT, were matched up for comparison of simulated and observed temperatures and bromide concentrations in the streambed. Simulated sediment temperature were fitted to observed temperature results to yield apparent streambed hydraulic conductivities in each cross-section. Saturated hydraulic conductivities ranged from 1.39 x 10-5 m/s in the upper reach to 5.56 x 10-4 m/s in the lower reach. The temperature-based hydraulic conductivities were inserted into VS2DT to predict sediment bromide concentrations during the sodium bromide injection. The predicted bromide concentration curves in the sediments yielded an excellent match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters. This indicates that for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and water fluxes in near-stream environments.

  16. Plant pigment types, distributions, and influences on shallow water submerged aquatic vegetation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Development of robust protocols for use in mapping shallow water habitats using hyperspectral imagery requires knowledge of absorbing and scattering features present in the environment. These include, but are not limited to, water quality parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and species, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) species and densities, epiphytic growth on SAV, benthic microalgae and substrate reflectance characteristics. In the Indian River Lagoon, Fl. USA we conceptualize the system as having three possible basic layers, water column and SAV bed above the bottom. Each layer is occupied by plants with their associated light absorbing pigments that occur in varying proportions and concentrations. Phytoplankton communities are composed primarily of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. SAV beds, including flowering plants and green, red, and brown macro-algae exist along density gradients ranging in coverage from 0-100%. SAV beds may be monotypic, or more typically, mixtures of the several species that may or may not be covered in epiphytes. Shallow water benthic substrates are colonized by periphyton communities that include diatoms, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria. Inflection spectra created form ASIA hyperspectral data display a combination of features related to water and select plant pigment absorption peaks.

  17. Quality of shallow ground water in recently developed residential and commercial areas, Memphis vicinity, Tennessee, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four monitor wells screened in the shallow water-table aquifer and eight monitor wells screened in the upper part of the Memphis aquifer in the Memphis vicinity, Tennessee, were sampled as part of the Mississippi Embayment National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected during April and May 1997, and were analyzed for turbidity, water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, alkalinity, major ions, nutrients, 18 trace elements, 85 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radioisotopes, and stable isotopes. The Memphis study area consists of 76 square miles of residential-commercial areas ranging in age from 5 to 25 years. Atrazine was the only compound in this study detected at a concentration that exceeded a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard. Manganese, iron, and dissolved solids concentrations in water from some wells exceeded secondary standards. At least one pesticide was detected in water from 24 of 32 wells. The most frequently detected pesticides in water from the monitor wells were atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor. At least one VOC was detected in water from 31 of 32 wells. The most frequently detected VOCs in water from the wells were carbon disulfide, chloroform, m- and pxylenes, tetrachloroethene, and toluene. Water from 17 wells was a sodium bicarbonate type water; water from 12 wells was a calciummagnesium bicarbonate type water; water from 2 wells was a sodium chloride type water; water from 1 well was a sodium mixed anion type water. Based on both tritium and chlorofluorocarbon data, the average age of water from the monitor wells in the Memphis study area was estimated to range from 10 to more than 43 years old. Occurrence of VOCs increased with increasing urban land use.

  18. Microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas in Mzuzu City in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msilimba, Golden; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    In Malawi, shallow wells constitute the most important water sources for domestic purposes. However, increasing human population coupled with poor sanitation and infrastructure is undermining the quality of shallow well water. An assessment of microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas of Zolozolo, Ching’ambo and Chiputula in Mzuzu City, Northern Malawi, has been carried out. The study aimed at characterising domestic water sources, identifying possible sources of water contamination and determining levels of microbial and chemical contamination. Arc-view GIS was used to map the water sources. A questionnaire survey was carried out to elicit information on characteristics of drinking water sources. Water samples were collected from quasi-randomly selected shallow wells and analysed for microbial and chemical parameters using standard methods. HCA, performed using R-programme, was used to group sampled sites according to their bio-physicochemical characteristics. Compliance of the water with MBS/WHO water quality guidelines was determined. The WQI was computed to turn multifaceted data obtained from laboratory analyses into simple information that is comprehensible and useable by the public to assess overall quality of water at a specific water points. The GW-chart was used to show hydrogeochemical water types from each sampled site. Microbial analysis revealed that water from 96.3% of shallow wells recorded faecal coliforms ranging from 129 to 920 cfu per 100 ml which were significantly higher than the Malawi Standards and WHO thresholds. In general, shallow well water is of low mineralisation (EC range 80-500 μS cm-1), with hydrogeochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. The shallow well water registered a WQI range of 50.16-66.04%, with a medium WQ rating. This suggested that the water obtained from the shallow wells is unsuitable for direct human consumption. It was observed that 100% of the

  19. An unstructured grid, three-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, V.; Walters, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference model based on the three-dimensional shallow water equations is modified to use unstructured grids. There are obvious advantages in using unstructured grids in problems with a complicated geometry. In this development, the concept of unstructured orthogonal grids is introduced and applied to this model. The governing differential equations are discretized by means of a semi-implicit algorithm that is robust, stable and very efficient. The resulting model is relatively simple, conserves mass, can fit complicated boundaries and yet is sufficiently flexible to permit local mesh refinements in areas of interest. Moreover, the simulation of the flooding and drying is included in a natural and straightforward manner. These features are illustrated by a test case for studies of convergence rates and by examples of flooding on a river plain and flow in a shallow estuary. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An unstructured grid, three-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casulli, Vincenzo; Walters, Roy A.

    2000-02-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference model based on the three-dimensional shallow water equations is modified to use unstructured grids. There are obvious advantages in using unstructured grids in problems with a complicated geometry. In this development, the concept of unstructured orthogonal grids is introduced and applied to this model. The governing differential equations are discretized by means of a semi-implicit algorithm that is robust, stable and very efficient. The resulting model is relatively simple, conserves mass, can fit complicated boundaries and yet is sufficiently flexible to permit local mesh refinements in areas of interest. Moreover, the simulation of the flooding and drying is included in a natural and straightforward manner. These features are illustrated by a test case for studies of convergence rates and by examples of flooding on a river plain and flow in a shallow estuary. Copyright

  1. Factors controlling As and U in shallow ground water, southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Unusually high As and U concentrations (> 100 ??g/L) are widespread in shallow ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert. The high concentrations, which locally exceed 1000 ??g/L, are of concern from a human health standpoint because the shallow ground water is used for domestic supply. Possible affects on wildlife are also of concern because the ground water flows into shallow lakes and marshes within wildlife refuges. Arsenic and U concentrations in ground water of the southern Carson Desert appear to be affected by evaporative concentration, redox reactions, and adsorption. The relation of these elements with Cl suggest that most of the high concentrations can be attributed to evaporative concentration of Carson River water, the primary source of recharge. Some ground water contains higher As and U concentrations that cannot be explained by evaporative concentration alone. Oxidation-reduction reactions, involving metal oxides and sedimentary-organic matter, appear to contribute As, U, inorganic C, Fe and Mn to the ground water. Arsenic in Fe-oxide was confirmed by chemical extraction and is consistent with laboratory adsorption studies. Uranium in both sedimentary-organic C and Fe-oxide coatings has been confirmed by fission tracks and petrographic examination. Arsenic concentrations in the ground water and chemical extracts of aquifer sediments are broadly consistent with adsorption as a control on some dissolved As concentrations. An apparent loss of As from some ground water as evaporative concentration proceeds is consistent with adsorption as a control on As. However, evidence for adsorption should be viewed with caution, because the adsorption model used values for the adsorbent that have not been shown to be valid for the aquifer sediments throughout the southern Carson Desert. Hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Carson Desert are similar to other areas with high As and U concentrations in ground water, including the Salton Sea basin and

  2. Inverse modeling of soil water content to estimate the hydraulic properties of a shallow soil and the associated weathered bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourgeois, O.; Bouvier, C.; Brunet, P.; Ayral, P.-A.

    2016-10-01

    poorly weathered and that saturated area can be generated above this depth, as it was observed. The simulated water contents were generally close to the measured water contents, but the model failed sometimes to reproduce the saturation of the soil in the deeper layers, probably because of sub-surface flux at the soil/bedrock interface. In these cases, further investigation will have to be made by using a 2D-model.

  3. Removal of water from a shallow bath under laser pulse irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, L I; Gladush, G G; Glova, A F; Drobyazko, S V; Krasyukov, A G; Mainashev, V S; Rerikh, V L; Taran, M D

    2011-05-31

    An experimental investigation was made of water removal from a shallow bath under the action of a CO{sub 2}-laser radiation pulse focused to a spot of size substantially smaller than the bath length. We showed that the specific expenditure of energy is determined by the intensity of laser radiation at the water surface for different values of the focal spot area and pulse duration. The removal dynamics was studied by single-frame photography technique. It was determined that the water is removed layerwise only from the walls of the cavern, which expands in the horizontal direction upon cessation of the radiation pulse. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were made of the water removal, and a mechanism was proposed to explain the experimentally observed removal pattern. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  4. Analysis of high-frequency wind-driven ambient noise in shallow brackish water.

    PubMed

    Poikonen, Ari

    2011-04-01

    Ambient noise spectra in a shallow brackish water environment were found to be steeper than expected at frequencies above 10 kHz. The high-frequency behavior of the spectra was resolved by modeling dispersion and noise in bubbly water. Bubble size distributions fitted to the brackish water spectra exhibit a distinctive maximum in the radius range 0.1-0.3 mm, and a substantial drop in bubble density below a radius of 0.1 mm. The brackish water distributions were tied to an oceanic spectrum with a spectral slope of 5.7 dB/octave obtained with a -3 / 2 power law dependence of bubble size density on radius.

  5. 2D heterodyne-detected sum frequency generation study on the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of H{sub 2}O and HOD water at charged interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Ken-ichi; Singh, Prashant C.; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectroscopy is applied to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of water at positively charged aqueous interfaces, and 2D HD-VSFG spectra of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water interfaces in the whole hydrogen-bonded OH stretch region (3000 cm{sup −1} ≤ ω{sub pump} ≤ 3600 cm{sup −1}) are measured. 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/isotopically diluted water (HOD-D{sub 2}O) interface exhibits a diagonally elongated bleaching lobe immediately after excitation, which becomes round with a time constant of ∼0.3 ps due to spectral diffusion. In contrast, 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface at 0.0 ps clearly shows two diagonal peaks and their cross peaks in the bleaching region, corresponding to the double peaks observed at 3230 cm{sup −1} and 3420 cm{sup −1} in the steady-state HD-VSFG spectrum. Horizontal slices of the 2D spectrum show that the relative intensity of the two peaks of the bleaching at the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface gradually change with the change of the pump frequency. We simulate the pump-frequency dependence of the bleaching feature using a model that takes account of the Fermi resonance and inhomogeneity of the OH stretch vibration, and the simulated spectra reproduce the essential features of the 2D HD-VSFG spectra of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface. The present study demonstrates that heterodyne detection of the time-resolved VSFG is critically important for studying the ultrafast dynamics of water interfaces and for unveiling the underlying mechanism.

  6. A study of electric field components in shallow water and water half-space models in seabed logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Amir; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana; Nyamasvisva, Tadiwa Elisha; Rauf, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Seabed logging (SBL) is an electromagnetic (EM) method to detect hydrocarbon (HC) laid beneath the seafloor, which is a development of marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method. CSEM is a method to show resistivity log of geological layers, transmitting ultra-low frequency EM wave. In SBL a net of receivers, placed on the seafloor, detect reflected and refracted EM wave by layers with different resistivity. Contrast of electrical resistivity of layers impacts on amplitude and phase of the EM wave response. The most indispensable concern in SBL is to detect guided wave via high resistive layer under the seafloor that can be an HC reservoir. Guided wave by HC creates a remarkable difference in received signal when HC reservoir does not exist. While the major contribution of received EM wave in large offset, especially in shallow water environment, is airwave, which is refracted by sea surface due to extremely high resistivity of atmosphere, airwave can affect received guided wave, dramatically. Our objective for this work is to compare HC delineation of tangential and normal components of electric field in shallow water area, using finite element method simulation. Will be reported that, in shallow water environment, minor contribution of air wave in normal component of E field (Ey) versus its major contribution in the tangential component (Ex), causes a considerable contrast on HC delineation of Ey for deeply buried reservoirs (more than 3000 m), while Ex is unable to show different contrasts of received data for with and without HC media at the same condition.

  7. Modeling wind waves from deep to shallow waters in Lake Michigan using unstructured SWAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Miaohua; van der Westhuysen, André J.; Xia, Meng; Schwab, David J.; Chawla, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate wind-wave simulations are vital for evaluating the impact of waves on coastal dynamics, especially when wave observations are sparse. It has been demonstrated that structured-grid models have the ability to capture the wave dynamics of large-scale offshore domains, and the recent emergence of unstructured meshes provides an opportunity to better simulate shallow-water waves by resolving the complex geometry along islands and coastlines. For this study, wind waves in Lake Michigan were simulated using the unstructured-grid version of Simulating Waves Nearshore (un-SWAN) model with various types of wind forcing, and the model was calibrated using in situ wave observations. Sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the key factors that impact wave growth and dissipation processes. In particular, we considered (1) three wind field sources, (2) three formulations for wind input and whitecapping, (3) alternative formulations and coefficients for depth-induced breaking, and (4) various mesh types. We find that un-SWAN driven by Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) wind data reproduces significant wave heights reasonably well using previously proposed formulations for wind input, recalibrated whitecapping parameters, and alternative formulations for depth-induced breaking. The results indicate that using GEM wind field data as input captures large waves in the midlake most accurately, while using the Natural Neighbor Method wind field reproduces shallow-water waves more accurately. Wind input affects the simulated wave evolution across the whole lake, whereas whitecapping primarily affects wave dynamics in deep water. In shallow water, the process of depth-induced breaking is dominant and highly dependent upon breaker indices and mesh types.

  8. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  9. Response of phytoplankton to protective-restoration treatments enhancing water quality in a shallow urban lake.

    PubMed

    Zębek, Elżbieta; Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    Lake Jeziorak Mały is a shallow urban lake where storm water pretreatment separators and a fountain-based water aeration system were installed as protective-restoration measures to enhance water quality. We investigated the effect of these procedures on phytoplankton dynamics and physicochemical properties in the littoral and pelagial zones in 1996-2003, 2005, and 2013. A decrease in cyanobacteria proportion, abundance, and biomass has been noticed, and other phytoplankton groups increased after these procedures. Significantly elevated species diversity was recorded in the littoral zone with the exchange of cyanobacteria and diatom dominant species typically induced by alteration from hypertrophic to eutrophic status. For example, the polytrophic Limnothrix redekei was replaced by eutrophic Planktolyngbya brevicellularis. This stemmed from greater oxygenation, water visibility and diminished pH, conductivity, and orthophosphates. Our results showed that introducing these restoration measures influence on the long-term succession of phytoplankton and induced the change from a polytrophic to eutrophic state, and that such measures are vitally important in future considerations of shallow urban lake management.

  10. Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant vent fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the vent, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the vent fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of vent fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the vent crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with vents and inhabit the vent mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440

  11. Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant vent fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the vent, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the vent fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of vent fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the vent crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with vents and inhabit the vent mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments.

  12. Precipitation patterns and moisture fluxes in a sandy, tropical environment with a shallow water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the dominant mechanisms controlling recharge in shallow sandy soils in tropical climates has received relatively little attention. Given the expansion of coastal fill using marine sands and the growth of coastal populations throughout the tropics, there is a need to better understand the nature of water balances in these settings. We use time series of field observations at a coastal landfill in Singapore coupled with numerical modeling using the Richards' equation to examine the impact of precipitation patterns on soil moisture dynamics, including percolation past the root zone and recharge, in such an environment. A threshold in total precipitation event depth, much more so than peak precipitation intensity, is the strongest event control on recharge. However, shallow antecedent moisture, and therefore the timing between events along with the seasonal depth to water table, also play significant roles in determining recharge amounts. For example, at our field site, precipitation events of less than 3 mm per event yield little to no direct recharge, but for larger events, moisture content changes below the root zone are linearly correlated to the product of the average antecedent moisture content and the total event precipitation. Therefore, water resources planners need to consider identifying threshold precipitation volumes, along with the multiple time scales that capture variability in event antecedent conditions and storm frequency in assessing the role of recharge in coastal water balances in tropical settings.

  13. Quality of shallow ground water in areas of recent residential and commercial development, Wichita, Kansas, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Bruce, Breton W.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Milligan, Chad R.

    2002-01-01

    Water samples from 30 randomly distributed monitoring wells in areas of recent residential and commercial development (1960-96), Wichita, Kansas, were collected in 2000 as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The samples were analyzed for about 170 water-quality constituents that included chlorofluorocarbons, physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of water quality in recharge to shallow ground water underlying areas of recent residential and commercial development and to determine the relation of ground-water quality to overlying urban land use. Analyses of water from the 30 monitoring wells for chlorofluorocarbons were used to estimate apparent dates of recharge. Water from 18 wells with nondegraded and uncontaminated chlorofluorocarbon concentrations had calculated apparent recharge dates that ranged from 1979 to 1990 with an average date of 1986. Water from 14 monitoring wells (47 percent) exceeded the 500-milligrams-per-liter Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for dissolved solids in drinking water. The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels of 250 milligrams per liter for chloride and sulfate were exceeded in water from one well. The source of the largest concentrations of dissolved solids and associated ions, such as chloride and sulfate, in shallow ground water in the study area probably is highly mineralized water moving out of the Arkansas River into the adjacent, unconsolidated deposits and mixing with the dominant calcium bicarbonate water in the deposits. Concentrations of most nutrients in water from the sampled wells were small, with the exception of nitrate. Although water from the sampled wells did not have

  14. Water source partitioning among trees growing on shallow karst soils in a seasonally dry tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Estrada-Medina, Héctor; Allen, Michael F; Jiménez-Osornio, Juan José

    2007-05-01

    The sources of water used by woody vegetation growing on karst soils in seasonally dry tropical regions are little known. In northern Yucatan (Mexico), trees withstand 4-6 months of annual drought in spite of the small water storage capacity of the shallow karst soil. We hypothesized that adult evergreen trees in Yucatan tap the aquifer for a reliable supply of water during the prolonged dry season. The naturally occurring concentration gradients in oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in soil, bedrock, groundwater and plant stem water were used to determine the sources of water used by native evergreen and drought-deciduous tree species. While the trees studied grew over a permanent water table (9-20 m depth), pit excavation showed that roots were largely restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil/bedrock profile. At the peak of the dry season, the delta(18)O signatures of potential water sources for the vegetation ranged from 4.1 +/- 1.1 per thousand in topsoil to -4.3 +/- 0.1 per thousand in groundwater. The delta(18)O values of tree stem water ranged from -2.8 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Talisia olivaeformis to 0.8 +/- 1 per thousand in Ficus cotinifolia, demonstrating vertical partitioning of soil/bedrock water among tree species. Stem water delta(18)O values were significantly different from that of groundwater for all the tree species investigated. Stem water samples plotted to the right of the meteoric water line, indicating utilization of water sources subject to evaporative isotopic enrichment. Foliar delta(13)C in adult trees varied widely among species, ranging from -25.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Enterolobium cyclocarpum to -28.7 +/- 0.4 per thousand in T. olivaeformis. Contrary to initial expectations, data indicate that native trees growing on shallow karst soils in northern Yucatan use little or no groundwater and depend mostly on water stored within the upper 2-3 m of the soil/bedrock profile. Water storage in subsurface soil-filled cavities and in the

  15. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy.

    PubMed

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere.

  16. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: Risk assessment and proposed management strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hannak, Judith S.; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors’ socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers – the target group for further education and skill training – were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive ‘ecotourism zone’ while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  17. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of stable water isotopes in a large and shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Wen, Xuefa; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qitao; Xu, Jingzheng; Cao, Chang; Xu, Jiaping; Hu, Cheng; Shen, Jing; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of lake water provide additional information on hydrological, meteorological and paleoclimate processes. In this study, lake water isotopic compositions were measured for more than three years in Lake Taihu, a large and shallow lake in southern China, to investigate the isotopic spatial and seasonal variations. The results indicated that (1) the whole-lake mean δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the lake water varied seasonally from -48.4 ± 5.8 to -25.1 ± 3.2 ‰ and from -6.5 ± 0.9 to -3.5 ± 0.8 ‰, respectively, (2) the spatial pattern of the lake water isotopic compositions was controlled by the direction of water flow and not by local evaporation rate, and (3) using a one-site isotopic measurement to represent the whole-lake mean may result in unreasonable estimates of the isotopic composition of lake evaporation and the lake water residence time in poorly mixed lakes. The original data, documented here as an online supplement, provides a good reference for testing sensitivity of lake water budget to various isotopic sampling strategies. We propose that detailed spatial measurement of lake water isotopic compositions provides a good proxy for water movement and pollutant and alga transports, especially over big lakes.

  18. The role of event water, a rapid shallow flow component, and catchment size in summer stormflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, V.A.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Kendall, C.

    1999-01-01

    Seven nested headwater catchments (8 to 161 ha) were monitored during five summer rain events to evaluate storm runoff components and the effect of catchment size on water sources. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation showed that event-water contributions near the time of peakflow ranged from 49% to 62% in the 7 catchments during the highest intensity event. The proportion of event water in stormflow was greater than could be accounted for by direct precipitation onto saturated areas. DOC concentrations in stormflow were strongly correlated with stream 18O composition. Bivariate mixing diagrams indicated that the large event water contributions were likely derived from flow through the soil O-horizon. Results from two-tracer, three-component hydrograph separations showed that the throughfall and O-horizon soil-water components together could account for the estimated contributions of event water to stormflow. End-member mixing analysis confirmed these results. Estimated event-water contributions were inversely related to catchment size, but the relation was significant for only the event with greatest rainfall intensity. Our results suggest that perched, shallow subsurface flow provides a substantial contribution to summer stormflow in these small catchments, but the relative contribution of this component decreases with catchment size.Seven nested headwater catchments (8 to 161 ha) were monitored during five summer rain events to evaluate storm runoff components and the effect of catchment size on water sources. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation showed that event-water contributions near the time of peakflow ranged from 49% to 62% in the 7 catchments during the highest intensity event. The proportion of event water in stormflow was greater than could be accounted for by direct precipitation onto saturated areas. DOC concentrations in stormflow were strongly correlated with stream 18O composition. Bivariate mixing diagrams indicated that the

  19. Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.

    2008-12-01

    In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface

  20. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  1. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway - from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 ??g L-1, in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows

  2. Improving Multi-Objective Management of Water Quality Tipping Points: Revisiting the Classical Shallow Lake Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-objective extensions of the classical shallow lake problem are useful for exploring the conceptual and computational challenges that emerge when managing irreversible water quality tipping points. Building on this work, we explore a four objective version of the lake problem where a hypothetical town derives economic benefits from polluting a nearby lake, but at the risk of irreversibly tipping the lake into a permanently polluted state. The trophic state of the lake exhibits non-linear threshold dynamics; below some critical phosphorus (P) threshold it is healthy and oligotrophic, but above this threshold it is irreversibly eutrophic. The town must decide how much P to discharge each year, a decision complicated by uncertainty in the natural P inflow to the lake. The shallow lake problem provides a conceptually rich set of dynamics, low computational demands, and a high level of mathematical difficulty. These properties maximize its value for benchmarking the relative merits and limitations of emerging decision support frameworks, such as Direct Policy Search (DPS). Here, we explore the use of DPS as a formal means of developing robust environmental pollution control rules that effectively account for deeply uncertain system states and conflicting objectives. The DPS reformulation of the shallow lake problem shows promise in formalizing pollution control triggers and signposts, while dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the multi-objective pollution control problem. More broadly, the insights from the DPS variant of the shallow lake problem formulated in this study bridge emerging work related to socio-ecological systems management, tipping points, robust decision making, and robust control.

  3. Simulation of the evolution of root water foraging strategies in dry and shallow soils

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael; Poot, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The dynamic structural development of plants can be seen as a strategy for exploiting the limited resources available within their environment, and we would expect that evolution would lead to efficient strategies that reduce costs while maximizing resource acquisition. In particular, perennial species endemic to habitats with shallow soils in seasonally dry environments have been shown to have a specialized root system morphology that may enhance access to water resources in the underlying rock. This study aimed to explore these hypotheses by applying evolutionary algorithms to a functional–structural root growth model. Methods A simulation model of a plant's root system was developed, which represents the dynamics of water uptake and structural growth. The model is simple enough for evolutionary optimization to be computationally feasible, yet flexible enough to allow a range of structural development strategies to be explored. The model was combined with an evolutionary algorithm in order to investigate a case study habitat with a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, both spatially and temporally – the situation of perennial plants occurring on shallow soils in seasonally dry environments. Evolution was simulated under two contrasting fitness criteria: (1) the ability to find wet cracks in underlying rock, and (2) maximizing above-ground biomass. Key Results The novel approach successfully resulted in the evolution of more efficient structural development strategies for both fitness criteria. Different rooting strategies evolved when different criteria were applied, and each evolved strategy made ecological sense in terms of the corresponding fitness criterion. Evolution selected for root system morphologies which matched those of real species from corresponding habitats. Conclusions Specialized root morphology with deeper rather than shallower lateral branching enhances access to water resources in underlying rock. More

  4. Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Sarmiento, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    Underground storage organs (USOs) have been proposed as critical fallback foods for early hominins in savanna, but there has been little discussion as to which habitats would have been important sources of USOs. USOs consumed by hominins could have included both underwater and underground storage organs, i.e., from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Shallow aquatic habitats tend to offer high plant growth rates, high USO densities, and relatively continuous USO availability throughout the year. Baboons in the Okavango delta use aquatic USOs as a fallback food, and aquatic or semiaquatic USOs support high-density human populations in various parts of the world. As expected given fossilization requisites, the African early- to mid-Pleistocene shows an association of Homo and Paranthropus fossils with shallow-water and flooded habitats where high densities of plant-bearing USOs are likely to have occurred. Given that early hominins in the tropics lived in relatively dry habitats, while others occupied temperate latitudes, ripe, fleshy fruits of the type preferred by African apes would not normally have been available year round. We therefore suggest that water-associated USOs were likely to have been key fallback foods, and that dry-season access to aquatic habitats would have been an important predictor of hominin home range quality. This study differs from traditional savanna chimpanzee models of hominin origins by proposing that access to aquatic habitats was a necessary condition for adaptation to savanna habitats. It also raises the possibility that harvesting efficiency in shallow water promoted adaptations for habitual bipedality in early hominins.

  5. Heat and dissolved oxygen exchanges between the sediment and water column in a shallow salty lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) and heat exchanges across the water-sediment interface (WSI) of a shallow lagoon are controlled by processes occurring on both sides of the WSI, particularly volumetric source and sink on the sediment side and turbulent transport on the waterside. This article presents and analyzes measurements of DO (Js) and heat (Hg) fluxes across the WSI in the extremely shallow lagoon of Salar del Huasco (20.274°S, 68.883°W, 3800 m above sea level), where volumetric source of DO and heat exists in the sediment layer, related to benthic primary production and absorption of solar radiation, respectively. Microprofiles of temperature and DO were measured, and they were used for measuring Js and Hg, and volumetric source/sink terms in the sediments. This information was used to propose and validate the simple theoretical framework to predict both the magnitude and direction of Js and Hg. On the one hand, Js can be predicted with a simple algebraic expression, where the diffusional mass transfer coefficient defines the magnitude of Js while the direction is controlled by the balance between DO production and consumption in the sediments. On the other hand, solar radiation is absorbed in the upper sediments, and this heat diffuses toward the water column and the sediments. The heat flux toward the water column also induces unstable convection that promotes vertical transport across the WSI. The theoretical framework proposed here will help to understand DO and heat budgets of shallow aquatic systems in which solar radiation reaches the WSI.

  6. Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.

    1990-01-01

    To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

  7. Documentation of the Goddard Laboratory for atmospheres fourth-order two-layer shallow water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, L. L. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The theory and numerical treatment used in the 2-level GLA fourth-order shallow water model are described. This model was designed to emulate the horizontal finite differences used by the GLA Fourth-Order General Circulation Model (Kalnay et al., 1983) in addition to its grid structure, form of high-latitude and global filtering, and time-integration schemes. A user's guide is also provided instructing the user on how to create initial conditions, execute the model, and post-process the data history.

  8. Comparison of horizontal difference schemes for the shallow water equations on a sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gary L.; Takano, Kenji; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of horizontal difference schemes used in the hydrodynamics parts of General Circulation Models are compared by means of numerical experiments for the shallow water equations on a sphere. As expected, the phase lag of moving waves decreases as the order of accuracy of a scheme increases or as the grid resolution increases. Overall, Takano and Wurtele's partial fourth order energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme on the C grid is most accurate. It is clearly superior to the other schemes for the Rossby-Haurwitz wave number 6 initial conditions for coarse grid resolution.

  9. Using Hough harmonics to validate and assess nonlinear shallow-water models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.; Moraes Da Silva, Arlindo

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of a technique for locating programming errors in shallow-water codes, establishing the correctness of the code, and assessing the performance of the numerical model under various flow conditions is described. The right-hand side of the differential equations is modified in such a way that the exact solution of the nonlinear initial-value problem is known, so that the truncation errors of the numerical scheme can be studied in detail. The exact solution is prescribed to be any linear combination of Hough harmonics which propagate in time according to their natural frequencies.

  10. Symmetry analysis of a system of modified shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmari, Simon; Bihlo, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    We revise the symmetry analysis of a modified system of one-dimensional shallow-water equations (MSWE) recently considered by Raja Sekhar and Sharma [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2012;20:630-36]. Only a finite dimensional subalgebra of the maximal Lie invariance algebra of the MSWE, which in fact is infinite dimensional, was found in the aforementioned paper. The MSWE can be linearized using a hodograph transformation. An optimal list of inequivalent one-dimensional subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed and used for Lie reductions. Non-Lie solutions are found from solutions of the linearized MSWE.

  11. Unique laminar-flow stability limit based shallow-water theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1993-01-01

    Two approaches are generally taken in deriving the stability limit for the Froude member (Fs) for laminar sheet flow. The first approach used the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, while the second uses the cross-section-averaged equations of continuity and motion. Because both approaches are based on shallow-water theory, the values of Fs obtained from both approaches should be identical, yet in the literature they are not. This suggests that a defect exists in at least one of the two approaches. After examining the governing equations used in both approaches, one finds that the existing cross-section -averaged equation of motion is dependent on the frame of reference.

  12. Assessment of Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in Modified Dike Structures, Lower Missouri River, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E.

    2004-01-01

    This study documented the effects of wing-dike notching on the availabilit of shallow water habitat in the Lower Missouri River. Five wing dikes were surveyed in late May 2004 after they were notched in early May as part of shallow-water habitat (SWH) rehabilitation activities undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Surveys included high-resolution hydroacoustic depth, velocity, and substrate mapping. Relations of bottom elevations within the wing dike fields to index discharges and water-surface elevations indicate that little habitat meeting the SWH definition was created immediately following notching. This result is not unexpected, as significant geomorphic adjustment may require large flow events. Depth, velocity, and substrate measurements in the post-rehabilitation time period provide baseline data for monitoring ongoing changes. Differences in elevation and substrate were noted at all sites. Most dike fields showed substantial aggradation and replacement of mud substrate with sandier sediment, although the changes did not result in increased availability of SWH at the index discharge. It is not known how much of the elevation and substrate changes can be attributed directly to notching and how much would result from normal sediment transport variation.

  13. Modeling the effects of linear shallow-water internal waves on horizontal array coherence.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Lunkov, Andrey A

    2015-10-01

    The coherence length of a horizontal array is the maximum separation between two points where coherent processing gives useful gain when a distant source is at broadside. In shallow water, the coherence length is limited by the environmental variability caused by several relevant oceanographic processes. In the present study, a statistical model is developed that quantifies how one oceanographic process, linear internal waves, affects the coherence length. A key input to the ocean sub-model is the vertically integrated energy density of the internal wave field. The acoustic sub-model is based on the adiabatic normal mode approximation and so should be reasonable for frequencies under 1 kHz. Numerical calculations using environmental data from the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment (SW06) show how the coherence length of individual modes varies with consequent effects on array coherence. The coherence length is shown to be a strong function of where the source and array are positioned in the water column. For a bottom-mounted array above a moderately lossy seabed, the model predicts a coherence length that depends only weakly on range, an effect observed in field experiments.

  14. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  15. Unknown object localization and identification in shallow water environment at Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Balint; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Vajda, Ferenc; Vajta, Laszlo; Vogel, Miklos

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses a particular detection problem related to the largest freshwater lake of Central and Western Europe, namely the Lake Balaton. The bed-silt of this shallow water lake (its average depth is 3.3 meters) contains several type of objects: industrial debris, historical vestiges, and in particular, an unknown quantity of unexploded ordnance from the second World War. It is important to localize and classify these objects for precise risk assessment and eventual later removal (not addressed in the paper). The bed-silt of the lake can be characterized as a mud having a light and constantly changing structure. It follows that the shallow water is almost always mixed with the mud. This admixture is constantly maintained by winds and navigating boats, hence the underwater visibility is close to zero during the most part of the year, especially in the depth range close to the bottom. Since the climate makes it possible, the authors propose a special way to explore the bed-silt of the lake, namely the use an autonomous vehicle on the frozen lake. Note that the ice prevents the wind and navigating boats to generate water movement and thus the mud is sedimented. This autonomous vehicle is equipped with a GPS based onboard localization system, with multiple sensor and recording equipment, and with a radio link to its command post. More details about the nature of objects to be detected as well as about the architecture of the detection and localization system are presented in the paper.

  16. Exchange of nitrogen and phosphorus between a shallow lagoon and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayn, Melanie; Howarth, Robert W.; Ganju, Neil K.; Berg, Peter; Foreman, Kenneth H.; Giblin, Anne E.; McGlathery, Karen

    2014-01-01

    West Falmouth Harbor, a shallow lagoon on Cape Cod, has experienced a threefold increase in nitrogen load since the mid- to late 1990s due to input from a groundwater plume contaminated by a municipal wastewater treatment plant. We measured the exchange of nitrogen and phosphorus between the harbor and the coastal waters of Buzzards Bay over several years when the harbor was experiencing this elevated nitrogen load. During summer months, the harbor not only retained the entire watershed nitrogen load but also had a net import of nitrogen from Buzzards Bay. During the spring and fall, the harbor had a net export of nitrogen to Buzzards Bay. We did not measure the export in winter, but assuming the winter net export was less than 112 % of the load, the harbor exported less than half of the watershed nitrogen load on an annual basis. For phosphorus, the harbor had a net import from coastal waters in the spring and summer months and a net export in the fall. Despite the large increase in nitrogen load to the harbor, the summertime import of phosphorus from Buzzards Bay was sufficient to maintain nitrogen limitation of primary productivity during the summer. Our findings illustrate that shallow systems dominated by benthic producers have the potential to retain large terrestrial nitrogen loads when there is sufficient supply of phosphorus from exchange with coastal waters.

  17. A central-upwind scheme with artificial viscosity for shallow-water flows in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Duenas, Gerardo; Beljadid, Abdelaziz

    2016-10-01

    We develop a new high-resolution, non-oscillatory semi-discrete central-upwind scheme with artificial viscosity for shallow-water flows in channels with arbitrary geometry and variable topography. The artificial viscosity, proposed as an alternative to nonlinear limiters, allows us to use high-resolution reconstructions at a low computational cost. The scheme recognizes steady states at rest when a delicate balance between the source terms and flux gradients occurs. This balance in irregular geometries is more complex than that taking place in channels with vertical walls. A suitable technique is applied by properly taking into account the effects induced by the geometry. Incorporating the contributions of the artificial viscosity and an appropriate time step restriction, the scheme preserves the positivity of the water's depth. A description of the proposed scheme, its main properties as well as the proofs of well-balance and the positivity of the scheme are provided. Our numerical experiments confirm stability, well-balance, positivity-preserving properties and high resolution of the proposed method. Comparisons of numerical solutions obtained with the proposed scheme and experimental data are conducted, showing a good agreement. This scheme can be applied to shallow-water flows in channels with complex geometry and variable bed topography.

  18. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010–2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change. PMID:26510009

  19. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 48 hours. This action is...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the GOA under Sec. 679.21(d)(7)(i) on September 3, 2011...

  20. The impact of a shallow biobarrier on water recharge patterns in a semi-arid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Laundre, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This study attempted to measure the effect of a shallow biobarrier of gravel and cobble on water flow patterns during spring snow melt and recharge. The design consisted of 30 metal culverts 3 m in diameter and 1.6 m long, positioned on end. Test culverts contained 50-cm biobarrier of gravel or cobble and then an additional 50 cm of soil placed above the barrier layer. A neutron probe was used to measure soil moisture above and below the barrier. Measurements were made in the fall and again immediately after snow melt in the spring. During recharge, the biobarriers provided a capillary break which resulted in a pooling of water above the barrier layer. With sufficient snowmelt, the water can penetrate the break and possibly penetrate deeper than in the absence of the barrier layer.

  1. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future.

  2. Ground-water flow and saline water in the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.

    2003-01-01

    Population and tourism continues to grow in Virginia Beach, Virginia, but the supply of freshwater is limited. A pipeline from Lake Gaston supplies water for northern Virginia Beach, but ground water is widely used to water lawns in the north, and most southern areas of the city rely solely on ground water. Water from depths greater than 60 meters generally is too saline to drink. Concentrations of chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Virginia Beach, Department of Public Utilities, investigated the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds to determine the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential uses, and its susceptibility to contamination. Aquifers and confining units of the southern watersheds were delineated and chloride concentrations in the aquifers and confining units were contoured. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model of the shallow aquifer system reached steady state with regard to measured chloride concentrations after 31,550 years of freshwater recharge. Model simulations indicate that if freshwater is found in permeable sediments of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, such a well field could supply freshwater, possibly for decades, but eventually the water would become more saline. The rate of saline-water intrusion toward the well field would depend on the rate of pumping, aquifer properties, and on the proximity of the well field to saline water sources. The steady-state, ground-water-flow model also was used to simulate drawdowns around two hypothetical well fields and drawdowns around two hypothetical open-pit mines. The chloride concentrations simulated in the model did not approximate the measured concentrations for some wells, indicating sites where local hydrogeologic units or unit properties do not conform to the simple hydrogeology of the model. The Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown

  3. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  4. Shallow water sediment properties derived from high-frequency shear and interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, John; Carter, Jerry A.; Sutton, George H.; Barstow, Noel

    1992-04-01

    Low-frequency sound propagation in shallow water environments is not restricted to the water column but also involves the subbottom. Thus, as well as being important for geophysical description of the seabed, subbottom velocity/attenuation structure is essential input for predictive propagation models. To estimate this structure, bottom-mounted sources and receivers were used to make measurements of shear and compressional wave propagation in shallow water sediments of the continental shelf, usually where boreholes and high-resolution reflection profiles give substantial supporting geologic information about the subsurface. This colocation provides an opportunity to compare seismically determined estimates of physical properties of the seabed with the "ground truth" properties. Measurements were made in 1986 with source/detector offsets up to 200 m producing shear wave velocity versus depth profiles of the upper 30-50 m of the seabed (and P wave profiles to lesser depths). Measurements in 1988 were made with smaller source devices designed to emphasize higher frequencies and recorded by an array of 30 sensors spaced at 1-m intervals to improve spatial sampling and resolution of shallow structure. These investigations with shear waves have shown that significant lateral and vertical variations in the physical properties of the shallow seabed are common and are principally created by erosional and depositional processes associated with glacial cycles and sea level oscillations during the Quaternary. When the seabed structure is relatively uniform over the length of the profiles, the shear wave fields are well ordered, and the matching of the data with full waveform synthetics has been successful, producing velocity/attenuation models consistent with the subsurface lithology indicated by coring results. Both body waves and interface waves have been modeled for velocity/attenuation as a function of depth with the aid of synthetic seismograms and other analytical

  5. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  6. Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimation based on in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Crom, Izan; Saulnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-04-01

    The design of marine renewable energy devices and components is based, among others, on the assessment of the environmental extreme conditions (winds, currents, waves, and water level) that must be combined together in order to evaluate the maximal loads on a floating/fixed structure, and on the anchoring system over a determined return period. Measuring devices are generally deployed at sea over relatively short durations (a few months to a few years), typically when describing water free surface elevation, and extrapolation methods based on hindcast data (and therefore on wave simulation models) have to be used. How to combine, in a realistic way, the action of the different loads (winds and waves for instance) and which correlation of return periods should be used are highly topical issues. However, the assessment of the extreme condition itself remains a not-fully-solved, crucial, and sensitive task. Above all in shallow water, extreme wave height, Hmax, is the most significant contribution in the dimensioning process of EMR devices. As a case study, existing methodologies for deep water have been applied to SEMREV, the French marine energy test site. The interest of this study, especially at this location, goes beyond the simple application to SEMREV's WEC and floating wind turbines deployment as it could also be extended to the Banc de Guérande offshore wind farm that are planned close by. More generally to pipes and communication cables as it is a redundant problematic. The paper will first present the existing measurements (wave and wind on site), the prediction chain that has been developed via wave models, the extrapolation methods applied to hindcast data, and will try to formulate recommendations for improving this assessment in shallow water.

  7. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  8. The potential for lithoautotrophic life on Mars: application to shallow interfacial water environments.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Steven M; Priscu, John C; Grimm, Robert E; Bullock, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    We developed a numerical model to assess the lithoautotrophic habitability of Mars based on metabolic energy, nutrients, water availability, and temperature. Available metabolic energy and nutrient sources were based on a laboratory-produced Mars-analog inorganic chemistry. For this specific reference chemistry, the most efficient lithoautotrophic microorganisms would use Fe(2+) as a primary metabolic electron donor and NO(3)(-) or gaseous O(2) as a terminal electron acceptor. In a closed model system, biomass production was limited by the electron donor Fe(2+) and metabolically required P, and typically amounted to approximately 800 pg of dry biomass/ml ( approximately 8,500 cells/ml). Continued growth requires propagation of microbes to new fecund environments, delivery of fresh pore fluid, or continued reaction with the host material. Within the shallow cryosphere--where oxygen can be accessed by microbes and microbes can be accessed by exploration-lithoautotrophs can function within as little as three monolayers of interfacial water formed either by adsorption from the atmosphere or in regions of ice stability where temperatures are within some tens of degrees of the ice melting point. For the selected reference host material (shergottite analog) and associated inorganic fluid chemistry, complete local reaction of the host material potentially yields a time-integrated biomass of approximately 0.1 mg of dry biomass/g of host material ( approximately 10(9) cells/g). Biomass could also be sustained where solutes can be delivered by advection (cryosuction) or diffusion in interfacial water; however, both of these processes are relatively inefficient. Lithoautotrophs in near-surface thin films of water, therefore, would optimize their metabolism by deriving energy and nutrients locally. Although the selected chemistry and associated model output indicate that lithoautotrophic microbial biomass could accrue within shallow interfacial water on Mars, it is likely that

  9. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study.

  10. Evaluation of the Performance of HYDRUS-2D in Simulating Effects of Shading and Irrigation on Soil Water Content and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, A.; Simunek, J.; Parsons, L. R.; van Genuchten, T. M.; Wheaton, T. A.; Morgan, K. T.

    2001-12-01

    Citrus root systems are exposed to different thermal and hydrologic conditions as a result of tree canopy shading and undertree microirrigation. Because microsprinklers wet only part of the soil surface and are located under the tree, roots under the canopy usually receive more water than those outside the tree canopy. The combined effects of different soil temperature and water input on water redistribution under field conditions have not been fully studied in Florida sandy soils. The objective of this study was to investigate shading and irrigation effects on spatial distribution of water content and soil temperature at different soil depths. Real-time capacitance probe systems (EnviroSCAN, SENTEK, Ltd. South Australia) and thermocouples were used to monitor soil water content and temperature at depths of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 150 cm. Weather parameters were monitored simultaneously at the same location. HYDRUS-2D, a two dimensional computer package for simulating movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media, was used to simulate water flow and heat transport under such conditions. The predicted water contents and soil temperatures compared favorably with their corresponding observed parameters. Shading substantially influenced hydraulic and thermal regimes of the system as shown by both predicted and measured water content and soil temperature. In addition to its accuracy in simulating this system, HYDRUS-2D helped to improve the analysis of this research project.

  11. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): implications for the Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment-water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007-08 for nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were also collected for pore water nutrients and microphytobenthic chlorophyll a. Measurements of temperature, salinity and photosynthetic active radiation were also taken. The lagoon salinity is affected by occasional strong rainfall events. From comparison with previous work, a decrease in the nitrogen concentration in the water column can be observed, which may indicate an improvement of the water quality. Pore water nutrient concentrations were significantly larger than in the water column. Sediment-water exchanges are considered to be the most important processes in nutrient dynamics of the lagoon. Benthic microalgal biomass was also large compared with that of the phytoplankton. It represents about 99% of the total microalgal chlorophyll biomass of the system. The lagoon also contains (discontinuous) meadows of intertidal seagrass, but we did not study these. Due to the importance of sediments, the standard monitoring plans required by the Water Framework Directive may fail to track changes in the nutrient conditions and the microalgal responses to them.

  12. Seafloor bathymetry in deep and shallow water marine CSEM responses of Nigerian Niger Delta oil field: Effects and corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folorunso, Adetayo Femi; Li, Yuguo

    2015-12-01

    Topography distortions in bathymetrically acquired marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) responses are capable of misleading interpretation to the presence or absence of the target if not corrected for. For this reason, the effects and correction of bathymetry distortions on the deep and shallow seafloor mCSEM responses of the Niger Delta Oil province were examined in this paper. Marine CSEM response of the Niger Delta geological structure was modelled by using a 2.5D adaptive finite element forward modelling code. In both the deep water and shallow water cases, the bathymetry distortions in the electric field amplitude and phase were found to get smaller with increasing Tx-Rx offsets and contain short-wavelength components in the amplitude curves which persist at all Tx-Rx offsets. In the deep water, topographic effects on the reservoir signatures are not significant, but as water depth reduces, bathymetric distortions become more significant as a result of the airwave effects, masking the target signatures. The correction technique produces a good agreement between the flat-seafloor reservoir model and its equivalent bathymetric model in deep water at 0.25 Hz, while in shallow water, the corrected response only shows good agreement at shorter offsets but becomes complicated at longer offsets due to airwave effects. Transmission frequency was extended above and below 0.25 Hz in the frequency spectrum and the correction method applied. The bathymetry correction at higher frequency (1.75 Hz) is not effective in removing the topographic effects in either deep or shallow water. At 0.05 Hz for both seafloor scenarios, we obtained the best corrected amplitude profiles, removing completely the distortions from both topographic undulation and airwave effects in the shallow water model. Overall, the work shows that the correction technique is effective in reducing bathymetric effects in deep water at medium frequency and in both deep and shallow waters at a low

  13. Parallel iterative solution for h and p approximations of the shallow water equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barragy, E.J.; Walters, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A p finite element scheme and parallel iterative solver are introduced for a modified form of the shallow water equations. The governing equations are the three-dimensional shallow water equations. After a harmonic decomposition in time and rearrangement, the resulting equations are a complex Helmholz problem for surface elevation, and a complex momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. Both equations are nonlinear and the resulting system is solved using the Picard iteration combined with a preconditioned biconjugate gradient (PBCG) method for the linearized subproblems. A subdomain-based parallel preconditioner is developed which uses incomplete LU factorization with thresholding (ILUT) methods within subdomains, overlapping ILUT factorizations for subdomain boundaries and under-relaxed iteration for the resulting block system. The method builds on techniques successfully applied to linear elements by introducing ordering and condensation techniques to handle uniform p refinement. The combined methods show good performance for a range of p (element order), h (element size), and N (number of processors). Performance and scalability results are presented for a field scale problem where up to 512 processors are used. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shallow water processes govern system-wide phytoplankton bloom dynamics: A modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    A pseudo-two-dimensional numerical model of estuarine phytoplankton growth and consumption, vertical turbulent mixing, and idealized cross-estuary transport was developed and applied to South San Francisco Bay. This estuary has two bathymetrically distinct habitat types (deep channel, shallow shoal) and associated differences in local net rates of phytoplankton growth and consumption, as well as differences in the water column's tendency to stratify. Because many physical and biological time scales relevant to algal population dynamics decrease with decreasing depth, process rates can be especially fast in the shallow water. We used the model to explore the potential significance of hydrodynamic connectivity between a channel and shoal and whether lateral transport can allow physical or biological processes (e.g. stratification, benthic grazing, light attenuation) in one sub-region to control phytoplankton biomass and bloom development in the adjacent sub-region. Model results for South San Francisco Bay suggest that lateral transport from a productive shoal can result in phytoplankton biomass accumulation in an adjacent deep, unproductive channel. The model further suggests that turbidity and benthic grazing in the shoal can control the occurrence of a bloom system-wide; whereas, turbidity, benthic grazing, and vertical density stratification in the channel are likely to only control local bloom occurrence or modify system-wide bloom magnitude. Measurements from a related field program are generally consistent with model-derived conclusions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Analysis of spurious oscillation modes for the shallow water and Navier-Stokes equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Carey, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin and nature of spurious oscillation modes that appear in mixed finite element methods are examined. In particular, the shallow water equations are considered and a modal analysis for the one-dimensional problem is developed. From the resulting dispersion relations we find that the spurious modes in elevation are associated with zero frequency and large wave number (wavelengths of the order of the nodal spacing) and consequently are zero-velocity modes. The spurious modal behavior is the result of the finite spatial discretization. By means of an artificial compressibility and limiting argument we are able to resolve the similar problem for the Navier-Stokes equations. The relationship of this simpler analysis to alternative consistency arguments is explained. This modal approach provides an explanation of the phenomenon in question and permits us to deduce the cause of the very complex behavior of spurious modes observed in numerical experiments with the shallow water equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, this analysis is not limited to finite element formulations, but is also applicable to finite difference formulations. ?? 1983.

  16. Numerical simulations of dynamic coupling between shallow-water sloshing and horizontal vessel motion with baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemi Ardakani, H.; Turner, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The coupled motion between shallow water sloshing in a moving vessel with baffles and the vessel dynamics is considered. Here the vessel dynamics is restricted to horizontal motion such as in tuned liquid dampers. It was shown by (Turner et al 2013 Phys. Fluids 25 112102) that partitioning a moving vessel into n separate compartments leads to an interesting dynamical behaviour of the system. Also, under particular input parameter values an internal (n+1)-fold 1:\\cdots :1 resonance can be generated, where the frequency of the sloshing fluid in each compartment is equal, and equal to the frequency of the vessel itself. Here the form of the sloshing eigenmodes at this resonance are derived in the shallow-water limit. Using the Lagrangian formulation of the problem, an efficient numerical algorithm is implemented to solve the fully nonlinear system of equations based on the implicit midpoint rule. This algorithm is simple, fast and maintains the energy partition between the vessel and the fluid over long times. In this work numerical results are presented for dynamical vessel/sloshing motion attached to a nonlinear spring.

  17. A well-balanced numerical scheme for shallow water simulation on adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zhou, J. Z.; Bi, S.; Li, Q. Q.; Fan, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The efficiency of solving two-dimensional shallow-water equations (SWEs) is vital for simulation of large-scale flood inundation. For flood flows over real topography, local high-resolution method, which uses adaptable grids, is required in order to prevent the loss of accuracy of the flow pattern while saving computational cost. This paper introduces an adaptive grid model, which uses an adaptive criterion calculated on the basis of the water lever. The grid adaption is performed by manipulating subdivision levels of the computation grids. As the flow feature varies during the shallow wave propagation, the local grid density changes adaptively and the stored information of neighbor relationship updates correspondingly, achieving a balance between the model accuracy and running efficiency. In this work, a well-balanced (WB) scheme for solving SWEs is introduced. In reconstructions of Riemann state, the definition of the unique bottom elevation on grid interfaces is modified, and the numerical scheme is pre-balanced automatically. By the validation against two idealist test cases, the proposed model is applied to simulate flood inundation due to a dam-break of Zhanghe Reservoir, Hubei province, China. The results show that the presented model is robust and well-balanced, has nice computational efficiency and numerical stability, and thus has bright application prospects.

  18. Geoacoustic inversion with two source-receiver arrays in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Sukhovich, Alexey; Roux, Philippe; Wathelet, Marc

    2010-08-01

    A geoacoustic inversion scheme based on a double beamforming algorithm in shallow water is proposed and tested. Double beamforming allows identification of multi-reverberated eigenrays propagating between two vertical transducer arrays according to their emission and reception angles and arrival times. Analysis of eigenray intensities yields the bottom reflection coefficient as a function of angle of incidence. By fitting the experimental reflection coefficient with a theoretical prediction, values of the acoustic parameters of the waveguide bottom can be extracted. The procedure was initially tested in a small-scale tank experiment for a waveguide with a Plexiglas bottom. Inversion results for the speed of shear waves in Plexiglas are in good agreement with the table values. A similar analysis was applied to data collected during an at-sea experiment in shallow coastal waters of the Mediterranean. Bottom reflection coefficient was fitted with the theory in which bottom sediments are modeled as a multi-layered system. Retrieved bottom parameters are in quantitative agreement with those determined from a prior inversion scheme performed in the same area. The present study confirms the interest in processing source-receiver array data through the double beamforming algorithm, and indicates the potential for application of eigenray intensity analysis to geoacoustic inversion problems.

  19. Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Shallow Ground-Water of Suffolk County, New York, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benotti, Mark J.; Fisher, Shawn; Terracciano, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Seventy (70) water samples were collected from 61 wells in the upper glacial and Magothy aquifers (9 wells were sampled twice) during 2002-05 and analyzed for 24 pharmaceuticals. Wells were selected for their proximity to known wastewater-treatment facilities that discharge to the shallow upper glacial aquifer. Pharmaceuticals were detected in 28 of the 70 samples, 19 of which contained one compound, and 9 of which contained two or more compounds. Concentrations of detected compounds were extremely low; most ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 microgram per liter (part per billion). The two most commonly detected compounds were carbamazepine (an antiepileptic drug) and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic). Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in Suffolk County ground-water is less prevalent than in susceptible streams of the United States that were tested in 1998-2000, but the similarity of median concentrations of the detected compounds of the two data sets indicates that current wastewater practices can serve to introduce pharmaceuticals to this shallow aquifer.

  20. Fast and parallel spectral transform algorithms for global shallow water models. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jakob, R.

    1993-01-01

    The dissertation examines spectral transform algorithms for the solution of the shallow water equations on the sphere and studies their implementation and performance on shared memory vector multiprocessors. Beginning with the standard spectral transform algorithm in vorticity divergence form and its implementation in the Fortran based parallel programming language Force, two modifications are researched. First, the transforms and matrices associated with the meridional derivatives of the associated Legendre functions are replaced by corresponding operations with the spherical harmonic coefficients. Second, based on the fast Fourier transform and the fast multipole method, a lower complexity algorithm is derived that uses fast transformations between Legendre and interior Fourier nodes, fast surface spherical truncation and a fast spherical Helmholz solver. Because the global shallow water equations are similar to the horizontal dynamical component of general circulation models, the results can be applied to spectral transform numerical weather prediction and climate models. In general, the derived algorithms may speed up the solution of time dependent partial differential equations in spherical geometry.

  1. Spectral transform methods for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Swarztrauber, P.N.

    1996-04-01

    The accuracy of computed solutions to several formulations of the shallow-water equations is compared. The shallow-water equations can be written in a number of different forms that are obtained by (a) combining terms into differential expressions; (b) raising the order of the differential equations, for example, the vorticity-divergence formulation, and (c) transforming both independent and dependent variables. Although the exact solutions to the formulations are identical, the properties of the computed solutions vary depending on the formulation and the method of solution. Nine methods are examined, all of which provide satisfactory accuracy for a steady-state test case. The exact solution corresponds to a steady zonal wind that is tilted relative to the computational spherical coordinate system. The resulting wind passes over the North Pole, providing a test of the `pole problem.` Computational details are presented as well as the accuracy of a 5-day computation in both 32- and 64-bit arithmetic. Stability and accuracy are shown to depend on the polar smoothing induced by resynthesis, which is also the accepted method for eliminating nonlinear aliasing. Eight of the nine methods mimic the exact solution by computing a numerical steady-state solution. 19 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Initial phenomenon of roll wave of shallow water on inclined channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, M.

    2015-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Intermittent surges of debris flows are observed in mountain regions. This type of flow is considered to be characterized by developing roll waves (surges) due to flow instabilities and by a weak sediment concentrations. For a understanding of initial phenomenon and fluctuation of the flow depth, wave equations and understanding characteristics of the solutions are needed. It is presented a wave equation and some solutions of roll waves based on shallow water momentum equation. These results show an improved understanding of the phenomena and wave equation of developing roll wave. 2. WAVE EQUATION AND SOME SOLUTIONS Considering momentam equation of shallow water on inclined channel and using reductive perturbation method, a wave equation which is a kind of KdV-Burgers equation was obtained. For on long wave velocity, some analitical solutions and numerical solutions ware obtained. Relationships of wave equation, it's solutions and phenomenon are discussed. 3. CONCLUSION A wave of minute disturbance on long wave velocity is governed by Burgers equation. For not fixed boundary condition and initial wave condition of not multiple wave number, an initial wave is deformed to a wave which wave number is one. The wave is caused a phase and the phenomena is shifted from Burgers equation to KdV-Burgers equation which has the characteristic of the solitary wave.

  3. Modelling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open-source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. Testing the results against analytical solutions and the proprietary avalanche model RAMMS, we found a very good agreement. As the GERRIS flow solver is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool for assisting regional-scale natural hazard studies.

  4. Tools to Perform Local Dense 3D Reconstruction of Shallow Water Seabed ‡

    PubMed Central

    Avanthey, Loïca; Beaudoin, Laurent; Gademer, Antoine; Roux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Tasks such as distinguishing or identifying individual objects of interest require the production of dense local clouds at the scale of these individual objects of interest. Due to the physical and dynamic properties of an underwater environment, the usual dense matching algorithms must be rethought in order to be adaptive. These properties also imply that the scene must be observed at close range. Classic robotized acquisition systems are oversized for local studies in shallow water while the systematic acquisition of data is not guaranteed with divers. We address these two major issues through a multidisciplinary approach. To efficiently acquire on-demand stereoscopic pairs using simple logistics in small areas of shallow water, we devised an agile light-weight dedicated system which is easy to reproduce. To densely match two views in a reliable way, we devised a reconstruction algorithm that automatically accounts for the dynamics, variability and light absorption of the underwater environment. Field experiments in the Mediterranean Sea were used to assess the results. PMID:27196913

  5. Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casulli, Vincenzo; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of three-dimensional shallow water flows is presented and discussed. The governing equations are the primitive three-dimensional turbulent mean flow equations where the pressure distribution in the vertical has been assumed to be hydrostatic. In the method of solution a minimal degree of implicitness has been adopted in such a fashion that the resulting algorithm is stable and gives a maximal computational efficiency at a minimal computational cost. At each time step the numerical method requires the solution of one large linear system which can be formally decomposed into a set of small three-diagonal systems coupled with one five-diagonal system. All these linear systems are symmetric and positive definite. Thus the existence and uniquencess of the numerical solution are assured. When only one vertical layer is specified, this method reduces as a special case to a semi-implicit scheme for solving the corresponding two-dimensional shallow water equations. The resulting two- and three-dimensional algorithm has been shown to be fast, accurate and mass-conservative and can also be applied to simulate flooding and drying of tidal mud-flats in conjunction with three-dimensional flows. Furthermore, the resulting algorithm is fully vectorizable for an efficient implementation on modern vector computers.

  6. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  7. Tools to Perform Local Dense 3D Reconstruction of Shallow Water Seabed.

    PubMed

    Avanthey, Loïca; Beaudoin, Laurent; Gademer, Antoine; Roux, Michel

    2016-05-17

    Tasks such as distinguishing or identifying individual objects of interest require the production of dense local clouds at the scale of these individual objects of interest. Due to the physical and dynamic properties of an underwater environment, the usual dense matching algorithms must be rethought in order to be adaptive. These properties also imply that the scene must be observed at close range. Classic robotized acquisition systems are oversized for local studies in shallow water while the systematic acquisition of data is not guaranteed with divers. We address these two major issues through a multidisciplinary approach. To efficiently acquire on-demand stereoscopic pairs using simple logistics in small areas of shallow water, we devised an agile light-weight dedicated system which is easy to reproduce. To densely match two views in a reliable way, we devised a reconstruction algorithm that automatically accounts for the dynamics, variability and light absorption of the underwater environment. Field experiments in the Mediterranean Sea were used to assess the results.

  8. Modeling of the Water Surface Variation Driven By Local Winds at an Shallow Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yun, S. L.; Oh, H. C.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional ocean circulation model was applied to a shallow estuary, Mobile Bay, to study local wind setup and setdown. Tides started from the northern Gulf of Mexico propagates up to the Mobile River system which is located in the north of the Mobile Bay. However, the tides started in the south of Mobile Bay were distorted when travelling upstream while affected by river discharge and local winds. The water surface elevation was less/over predicted responding north/south winds, respectively, when winds only at the Dauphin Island station (DPI) were used. However, the model predicted water surface elevation better when using two local winds from DPI and Mobile Downtown Airport (MDA). Wind speeds were greatly reduced (~ 88 %) in about 43 km distance between DPI and MDA, and the canopy effects may be the reason for this. For this reason, the local winds are greatly responsible for local surface elevation setup and setdown especially at the shallow estuary like Mobile Bay.

  9. A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.L.; Hack, J.J.; Jakob, R.; Swarztrauber, P.N. ); Drake, J.B. )

    1991-08-01

    A suite of seven test cases is proposed for the evaluation of numerical methods intended for the solution of the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. The shallow water equations exhibit the major difficulties associated with the horizontal dynamical aspects of atmospheric modeling on the spherical earth. These cases are designed for use in the evaluation of numerical methods proposed for climate modeling and to identify the potential trade-offs which must always be made in numerical modeling. Before a proposed scheme is applied to a full baroclinic atmospheric model it must perform well on these problems in comparison with other currently accepted numerical methods. The cases are presented in order of complexity. They consist of advection across the poles, steady state geostrophically balanced flow of both global and local scales, forced nonlinear advection of an isolated low, zonal flow impinging on an isolated mountain, Rossby-Haurwitz waves and observed atmospheric states. One of the cases is also identified as a computer performance/algorithm efficiency benchmark for assessing the performance of algorithms adapted to massively parallel computers. 31 refs.

  10. The emergence of zonal jets in forced rotating shallow water turbulence: A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espa, S.; Di Nitto, G.; Cenedese, A.

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of a sequence of alternating intense and elongated eastward-westward bands i.e. zonal jets in the atmosphere of the giant planets and in Earth's oceans have been widely investigated. Nevertheless jets formation and role as material barriers remain still unclear. Jets are generated in a quasi-2D turbulent flow due to the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter (the so-called β-effect) which modifies the inverse cascade process channeling energy towards zonal modes. In previous experiments we have investigated the impact of the variation of the rotation rate, of the domain geometry and of the initial spectra on jets organization in a decaying regime. In this work we investigate the formation of jets in a continuously forced flow, we characterize the observed regime and also we attempt to verify the existence of an universal regime corresponding to the so-called zonostrophic turbulence. The experimental set-up consists of a rotating tank where turbulence is generated by electromagnetically forcing a shallow layer of an electrolyte solution, and the variation of the Coriolis parameter has been simulated by the parabolic profile assumed by the free surface of the fluid under rotation. Flow measurements have been performed using image analysis.

  11. A Vorticity-Divergence Global Semi-Lagrangian Spectral Model for the Shallow Water Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, JB

    2001-11-30

    The shallow water equations modeling flow on a sphere are useful for the development and testing of numerical algorithms for atmospheric climate and weather models. A new formulation of the shallow water equations is derived which exhibits an advective form for the vorticity and divergence. This form is particularly well suited for numerical computations using a semi-Lagrangian spectral discretization. A set of test problems, standard for the shallow water equations on a sphere, are solved and results compared with an Eulerian spectral model. The semi-Lagrangian transport method was introduced into atmospheric modeling by Robert, Henderson, and Turnbull. A formulation based on a three time level integration scheme in conjunction with a finite difference spatial discretization was studied by Ritchie. Two time level grid point schemes were derived by Bates et al. Staniforth and Cote survey developments of the application of semi-Lagrangian transport (SLT) methods for shallow water models and for numerical weather prediction. The spectral (or spherical harmonic transform) method when combined with a SLT method is particularly effective because it allows for long time steps avoiding the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction of Eulerian methods, while retaining accurate (spectral) treatment of the spatial derivatives. A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian formulation with spectral spatial discretization is very effective because the Helmholz problem arising from the semi-implicit time integration can be solved cheaply in the course of the spherical harmonic transform. The combination of spectral, semi-Lagrangian transport with a semi-implicit time integration schemes was first proposed by Ritchie. A advective formulation using vorticity and divergence was introduced by Williamson and Olson. They introduce the vorticity and divergence after the application of the semi-Lagrangian discretization. The semi-Lagrangian formulation of Williamson and Olson and Bates et al. has

  12. Observation of dispersive shock waves developing from initial depressions in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, S.; Klein, M.; Clauss, G. F.; Onorato, M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate surface gravity waves in a shallow water tank, in the limit of long wavelengths. We report the observation of non-stationary dispersive shock waves rapidly expanding over a 90 m flume. They are excited by means of a wave maker that allows us to launch a controlled smooth (single well) depression with respect to the unperturbed surface of the still water, a case that contains no solitons. The dynamics of the shock waves are observed at different levels of nonlinearity equivalent to a different relative smallness of the dispersive effect. The observed undulatory behavior is found to be in good agreement with the dynamics described in terms of a Korteweg-de Vries equation with evolution in space, though in the most nonlinear cases the description turns out to be improved over the quasi linear trailing edge of the shock by modeling the evolution in terms of the integro-differential (nonlocal) Whitham equation.

  13. Sloshing-induced slamming in screen-equipped rectangular tanks in shallow-water conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhi-Jun; Faltinsen, Odd Magnus; Lugni, Claudio; Yue, Qian-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Sloshing-induced slamming in a rectangular tank with centralized slat-screens with high solidity ratios was experimentally studied under nearly two-dimensional shallow-water conditions with large-amplitude harmonic lateral excitation. The main objective was to identify the solidity ratio that provides an optimal suppressing function on the free-surface elevation and slamming pressure on the vertical tank walls with a frequency domain containing the three lowest natural sloshing frequencies in a clean tank with a water depth-to-tank length ratio of h/l = 0.125 and a high forced sway amplitude. The experiments show that the optimal solidity ratio among four considered slat-screens is approximately 0.6-0.7 for the applied filling level and excitation amplitude in the examined forced frequency range. The results have potential applications in areas such as swash bulkhead design and liquefied-cargo tank design in ship and offshore engineering.

  14. Thermal adaptations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent and shallow-water shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Felix; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nélia C.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-08-01

    The hydrothermal vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata is commonly exposed to acute thermal gradients and rapid fluctuations in water temperature. The shallow-water shrimp Palaemonetes varians experiences less acute but similar magnitude fluctuations in its thermal regime. Acute respiratory response to temperature shock, and temperature preference was assessed for both species. Oxygen consumption rates were assessed across the natural temperature range reported for M. fortunata. Rates increased with temperature for both species. P. varians had a significantly higher rate of oxygen consumption than M. fortunata at all temperatures except 4 °C. The rate of increase in oxygen consumption with increasing temperature was also significantly greater for P. varians. M. fortunata selected a significantly higher temperature than P. varians. Mirocaris fortunata maintains its metabolism at a more stable rate, which is likely an adaptation to acute changes in temperatures occurring at hydrothermal vents.

  15. Susceptibility of ground water to surface and shallow sources of contamination, Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, the relative susceptibility of ground water in Orange County, North Carolina,to contamination from surface and shallow sources was evaluated. A geographic information system was used to build three county-wide layers--soil permeability, land use/land cover, and land-surface slope. The harmonic mean permeability of soil layers was used to estimate a location's capacity to transmit water through the soil. Values for each of these three factors were categorized and ranked from 1 to 10 according to relative potential for contamination. Each factor was weighted to reflect its relative potential contribution to ground-water contamination, then the factors were combined to create a relative susceptibility index. The relative susceptibility index was categorized to reflect lowest, low, moderate, high, and highest potential for ground-water contamination. The relative susceptibility index for about 12 percent of the area in Orange County was categorized as high or highest. The high and highest range areas have highly permeable soils, land cover or land-use activities that have a high contamination potential, and low to moderate slopes. Most of the county is within the moderate category of relative susceptibility to ground-water contamination. About 21 percent of the county is ranked as low or lowest relative susceptibility to ground-water contamination.

  16. Chemistry of calcium carbonate-rich shallow water sediments in the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.W.; Zullig, J.J.; Bernstein, L.D.; Millero, F.J.; Milne, P.; Mucci, A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1985-02-01

    The geochemistry of calcium carbonate-rich sediments from a variety of environments throughout the Bahamas was investigated with particular emphasis on the factors that control the pore water chemistry. Most sediments are supersaturated with respect to aragonite, the most abundant carbonate component. Experimental studies indicate that the observed in situ calcium carbonate ion activity products can often be produced as reversible metastable equilibria between the sediments and seawater. This is interpreted as being the result of interactions between the solutions and the minor high Mg-calcite component present in these sediments. Although the overlying waters are more supersaturated than the pore waters, carbonate dissolution, not precipitation, dominates in these sediments as a result of organic matter oxidation and the resulting increase in P/sub CO/sub 2//. The carbonate sediments of the Bahamas are remarkable for their purity, with the exception of special environments such as mangrove swamps and tidal flats with algal mats. Organic matter and heavy metal content is extremely low. Only minor sulfate reduction is occurring in most sediments. Phosphate is undetectable in all pore waters, probably as a result of adsorption on carbonate mineral surfaces. Other dissolved pore water components such as ammonia and DOC are much lower than typically found in shallow water fine-grained terrigeneous sediments.

  17. Shallow ground-water quality in the Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, S.M.; Montgomery, D.L.; Ayotte, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from 29 wells across the Boston metropolitan area indicate that shallow ground water in recently urbanized settings often contains trace amounts of nutrients, fuel, and industrial-based organic compounds. Most of the samples that contained detectable amounts of organic compounds also had elevated levels of iron and total dissolved solids. Nitrate was detected in 83 percent of the samples, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate was exceeded in just one sample. Low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 76 percent of the samples, with as many as 13 different VOCs detected in a single sample. The concentration of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in one sample was 267 micrograms per liter, which exceeds the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection drinking-water guideline of 70 micrograms per liter. Chloroform and MTBE were the two most frequently detected VOCs. MTBE was detected at the same frequency in ground water in the Boston metropolitan area as in other urban areas of New England. Chloroform is detected at higher frequency in old, densely populated areas in New England than in more recently developed, less densely populated areas. Pesticide detections were few, but only at trace concentrations, and none of the concentrations exceeded any drinking-water standard.

  18. Hydrology and water chemistry of shallow aquifers along the upper Clark Fork, western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow ground-water resources in western Montana have been developed primarily in Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary deposits, although bedrock supplies water to wells locally. Well-yield and trans- missivity values were largest (medians of 40 gallons per minute and 970 feet squared per day, respec- tively) in alluvium and smallest (medians of 15 gallons per minute and 130 feet squared per day, respectively) in bedrock. Chemical composition of ground water was dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate derived from dissolution of carbonate minerals. Other water types may be the result of ion exchange (increased sodium) and mixing of geothermal water or leachate from mine wastes (increased sulfate). Although concen- trations of arsenic were relatively small (maximum of 20 micrograms per liter), they were somewhat larger in alluvium within 300 feet of the Clark Fork. Elevated concentrations of cadmium (maximum of 6 micrograms per liter) were measured in water from one well downgradient from tailings ponds. Although mining and smelting activities have resulted in widespread distribution of contami- nants in the Clark Fork valley, this study indicates that ground water contains elevated concentrations of trace elements only locally. Streamflow data indicate significant ground-water inflow to the Clark Fork in two reaches. Between Racetrack and Garrison, irrigation-return flow probably augments naturally occurring ground-water discharge. Between Jens and Cramer Creek, geo- thermal water from bedrock flows through alluvium to the river. In the Clark Fork, the maximum arsenic concentration was 8.1 micrograms per liter; copper and manganese concentrations were largest at Warm Springs (maximums of 14 and 350 micrograms per liter, respectively) and decreased downstream.

  19. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a “small plain, big front” character. PMID

  20. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  1. Toxicological assessment of aquatic ecosystems: application to watercraft contaminants in shallow water environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Kemmish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Recreational boating and personal watercraft use have the potential to adversely impact shallow water systems through contaminant release and physical disturbance of bottom sediments. These nearshore areas are often already degraded by surface runoff, municipal and industrial effluents, and other anthropogenic activities. For proper management, information is needed on the level of contamination and environmental quality of these systems. A number of field and laboratory procedures can be used to provide this much needed information. Contaminants, such as metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, entering aquatic environments generally attach to particulate matter that eventually settles and becomes incorporated into the bottom sediments. Because bottom sediments serve as a sink and as a source for contaminants, environmental assessments generally focus on this matrix. While contaminant residues in sediments and sediment pore waters can reflect environmental quality, characteristics of sediment (redox potential, sediment/pore-water chemistry, acid volatile sulfides, percent organic matter, and sediment particle size) influence their bioavailability and make interpretation of environmental significance difficult. Comparisons of contaminant concentrations in pore water (interstitial water) and sediment with water quality criteria and sediment quality guidelines, respectively, can provide insight into potential biological effects. Laboratory bioaccumulation studies and residue concentrations in resident or caged biota also yield information on potential biological impacts. The usefulness of these measurements may increase as data are developed relating in-situ concentrations, tissue residue levels, and biological responses. Exposure of test organisms in situ or to field-collected sediment and pore water are additional procedures that can be used to assess the biological effects of contaminants. A battery of tests using multi

  2. Bottom Roughness and Bathymetry Estimation of 1-D Shallow Water Equations Model Using Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and

  3. Estimation of shallow ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, B.P.; Piggott, A.R.; Sheets, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first known integrated study of long-term average ground-water recharge to shallow aquifers (generally less than 100 feet deep) in the United States and Canada for the Great Lakes, upper St. Lawrence, and Ottawa River Basins. The approach used was consistent throughout the study area and allows direct comparison of recharge rates in disparate parts of the study area. Estimates of recharge are based on base-flow estimates for streams throughout the Great Lakes Basin and the assumption that base flow in a given stream is equal to the amount of shallow ground-water recharge to the surrounding watershed, minus losses to evapotranspiration. Base-flow estimates were developed throughout the study area using a single model based on an empirical relation between measured base-flow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations and the surficial-geologic materials, which consist of bedrock, coarse-textured deposits, fine-textured deposits, till, and organic matter, in the surrounding surface-water watershed. Model calibration was performed using base-flow index (BFI) estimates for 959 stations in the U.S. and Canada using a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow record determined using the hydrograph-separation software program PART. Results are presented for watersheds represented by 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC, U.S.) and tertiary (Canada) watersheds. Recharge values were lowest (1.6-4.0 inches/year) in the eastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan; southwest of Green Bay, Wisconsin; in northwestern Ohio; and immediately south of the St. Lawrence River northeast of Lake Ontario. Recharge values were highest (12-16.8 inches/year) in snow shadow areas east and southeast of each Great Lake. Further studies of deep aquifer recharge and the temporal variability of recharge would be needed to gain a more complete understanding of ground-water recharge in the Great Lakes Basin.

  4. A new approach to macroalgal bloom control in eutrophic, shallow-water, coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Mauro; Salvaterra, Giulia; Gennaro, Paola; Mercatali, Isabel; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore; Sorce, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, an experiment was conducted in a shallow eutrophic lagoon with poor water exchange to determine the consequences of harvesting algae on the algal mat itself, which was traversed and repeatedly disturbed by large harvester boats. Four areas with high macroalgal density, measuring half a hectare each, were selected. Two were subjected to frequent disturbance of the algal mat and sediment (12 two-hour operations over a 38-day period) and the other two were left undisturbed as control. The following variables were determined: 1) water column physical chemistry and nutrients; 2) redox potential, nutrients and organic load in sediments; 3) C, N and P content of algal thalli; 4) macroalgal biomass. In 2013, a further experiment was conducted on a larger scale. Biomass was estimated in a high-density mat measuring 235 ha, where macroalgae were harvested and stirred up by four harvesting boats, and in two high-density mats measuring 150 and 120 ha, left undisturbed as control (9.15, 9.92 and 3.68 kg/m(2), respectively). In the first experiment, no significant changes were observed in the water column. In sediment the main variation was a significant reduction in labile organic matter in the disturbed areas and a significant increase mainly in refractory organic matter in the undisturbed areas. Biomass showed a significant drastic reduction in disturbed areas and substantial stability in undisturbed areas. In the large-scale experiment, the biomass of the disturbed mat declined by about 63%, only 6.5% of which was due to harvesting. On the other hand, the undisturbed mat with higher density underwent a natural decline in biomass of about 23% and the other increased by about 50%. These results demonstrate that disturbance of high-density mat in shallow water by boats can cause decay of the mat.

  5. Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes δ18O, δ2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 μgL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 μgL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination

  6. Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Urban Residential and Light Commercial Areas in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, 2001 through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Robert B.; Tollett, Roland W.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001-02, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 shallow wells in urban residential and light commercial areas in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, for a land-use study in the Acadian-Pontchartrain Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The wells were installed in the Chicot aquifer system, the primary source of water for irrigation and public-water supplies in southwestern Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to describe the quality of water from the 28 shallow wells and to relate that water quality to natural factors and to human activities. Ground-water samples were analyzed for general ground-water properties and about 240 water-quality contituents, including dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), radon, chlorofluorocarbons, selected stable isotopes, pesticides, pesticide degradation products, and volatile organic compounds (VOC's).

  7. Effects of water-sediment interaction and irrigation practices on iodine enrichment in shallow groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2016-12-01

    High iodine concentrations in groundwater have caused serious health problems to the local residents in the Datong basin, northern China. To determine the impact of water-sediment interaction and irrigation practices on iodine mobilization in aquifers, isotope (2H, 18O and 87Sr/86Sr) and hydrogeochemical studies were conducted. The results show that groundwater iodine concentrations vary from 14.4 to 2180 μg/L, and high iodine groundwater (>150 μg/L) mainly occurs in the central area of the Datong basin. Sediment iodine content is between <0.01 and 1.81 mg/kg, and the co-occurrence of high iodine and high DOC/TOC concentrations of groundwater and sediment samples in the deeper aquifer indicates that the sediment enriched in iodine and organic matter acts as the main source of groundwater iodine. The 87Sr/86Sr values and groundwater chemistry suggest that aluminosilicate hydrolysis is the dominant process controlling hydrochemical evolution along groundwater flowpath, and the degradation of TOC/iodine-rich sediment mediated by microbes potentially triggers the iodine release from the sediment into groundwater in the discharge area. The vertical stratification of groundwater 18O and 2H isotope reflects the occurrence of a vertical mixing process driven by periodic surface irrigation. The vertical mixing could change the redox potential of shallow groundwater from sub-reducing to oxidizing condition, thereby affecting the iodine mobilization in shallow groundwater. It is postulated that the extra introduction of organic matter and O2/NO3/SO4 could accelerate the microbial activity due to the supplement of high ranking electron acceptors and promote the iodine release from the sediment into shallow groundwater.

  8. Redox processes in pore water of anoxic sediments with shallow gas.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Pérez, A M; de Blas, E; García-Gil, S

    2015-12-15

    The Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has a high organic matter content and high rates of sedimentation. The microbial degradation of this organic matter has led to shallow gas accumulations of methane, currently distributed all along the ría. These peculiar characteristics favor the development of anoxic conditions that can determine the dynamics of iron and manganese. In order to study the role played by iron and manganese in the processes that take place in anoxic sediments with shallow gas, four gravity cores were retrieved in anoxic sediments of the Ría de Vigo in November 2012. Methane was present in two of them, below 90cm in the inner zone and below 200cm, in the outer zone. Pore water was collected and analyzed for vertical profiles of pH, sulfide, sulfate, iron and manganese concentrations. Sulfate concentrations decreased with depth but never reached the minimum detection limit. High sulfide concentrations were measured in all cores. The highest sulfide concentrations were found in the inner zone with methane and the lowest were in the outer zone without methane. Concentrations of iron and manganese reached maximum values in the upper layers of the sediment, decreasing with depth, except in the outer zone without gas, where iron and manganese concentration increased strongly toward the bottom of the sediment. In areas with shallow gas iron reduction, sulfate reduction and methane production processes coexist, showing that the traditional redox cascade is highly simplified and suggesting that iron may be involved in a cryptic sulfur cycle and in the oxidation of methane.

  9. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2011-11-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  10. Evaluation of 2D resistivity imaging technique for delineating subsurface seepage of hydrocarbon-contaminated water southeast of Karbala city, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Menshed, Firas H; Thabit, Jassim M

    2017-01-10

    2D imaging technique was applied in (8) transects near a pit of contaminated water near contaminated well southeast of Karbala city, Iraq. Each transect was 30 m long with 1 m electrode spacing. Data acquisition was fulfilled by using Wenner electrode array. The resistivity of water-contaminated zone is found less than 3Ω.m and the top dry zone recorded relatively high resistivity (more than 170Ω.m). It is found that the greatest amount of seepage was found moving towards northeast direction coincided with groundwater movement direction, whereas there was no movement towards northwest and southeast directions and restricted on the closest areas to the pit location. The outcomes suggested that the 2D imaging technique is a successful and powerful tool in separating contaminated zone from clear one and in detecting underground seepage depth and moving direction.

  11. Water Optical Properties and Water Color Remote Sensing in Optically Deep and Shallow Waters of Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Hongyan

    In this study, Lake Taihu in Jiangsu Province of China, a typical large freshwater lake, is selected as the study area. Based on the field spectral measurements and laboratory analyses performed in October 2008, water optical properties and water color/quality remote sensing retrieval models in Lake Taihu were investigated. It was recognized that water quality varied a lot in different areas. Waters in Lake Taihu were classified as optically deep waters (ODWs) and optically shallow waters (OSWs). ODWs are the waters where the water depth is more than three times the measured Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), otherwise they are OSWs. Cyanobacteria blooms happen frequently in ODWs and the water is eutrophicated heavily. Whereas water is very clear with rare cyanobacteria blooms but many aquatic plants in OSWs. Focused on the two types of water areas respectively, the inherent optical properties (lOPs), apparent optical properties (lOPs) and reflectance spectra were analyzed, as well as their relationships to water quality parameters. Local optical parameters f and Q, which play significant roles in water quality parameters retrieval models, were also determined. Measured remote sensing reflectance data were used to establish two-band and three-band models for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration estimation, results showed both models were suitable in ODWs. However, aquatic plants in OSWs had great influence on spectra, resulting in the inapplicability of the established models at these sites. Absorption and backscattering coefficients were used to remove those influences and simulate new set of remote sensing reflectance based on radiative transfer theory, which were proved reliable to establish Chl-a retrieval algorithms. Three-band model established by simulated spectra showed more satisfactory performance in whole ODWs, and performance of two-band model in OSWs was also enhanced much. Several models were established to estimate total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations

  12. Susceptibility of ground water to surface and shallow sources of contamination in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Hara, Charles G.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water, because of its extensive use in agriculture, industry, and public-water supply, is one of Mississippi's most important natural resources.  Ground water is the source for about 80 percent of the total freshwater used by the State's population (Solley and others, 1993).  About 2,600 Mgal/d of freshwater is withdrawn from aquifers in Mississippi (D.E. Burt, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey, oral commun., 1995).  Wells capable of yielding 200 gal/min of water with quality suitable for most uses can be developed nearly anywhere in the State (Bednar, 1988).  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, and the Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of Plant Industry, conducted an investigation to evaluate the susceptibility of ground water to contamination from surgace and shallow sources in Mississippi.  A geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop and analyze statewide spatial data layers that contain geologic, hydrologic, physiographic, and cultural information.

  13. Positivity-preserving high order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Zhang, Xiangxiong; Shu, Chi-wang

    2010-01-01

    Shallow water equations with a non-flat bottom topography have been widely used to model flows in rivers and coastal areas. An important difficulty arising in these simulations is the appearance of dry areas where no water is present, as standard numerical methods may fail in the presence of these areas. These equations also have still water steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are nonzero but exactly balanced by the source term. In this paper we propose a high order discontinuous Galerkin method which can maintain the still water steady state exactly, and at the same time can preserve the non-negativity of the water height without loss of mass conservation. A simple positivity-preserving limiter, valid under suitable CFL condition, will be introduced in one dimension and then extended to two dimensions with rectangular meshes. Numerical tests are performed to verify the positivity-preserving property, well-balanced property, high order accuracy, and good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.

  14. Energy distribution in shallow water ship wakes from a spectral analysis of the wave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplier, Clément; Rousseaux, Germain; Calluaud, Damien; David, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the effects of finite water depth on the waves generated by a ship in a towing tank. The wakes of two hull forms representative of maritime and river ships are measured for both deep water and shallow water configurations and for several Froude numbers. The free surface deformations are measured with an optical stereo-correlation measurement method to access a full and detailed reconstruction of the wave fields. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed wakes allows us to perform a spectral analysis of the waves generated by the ships and to decompose them into a near-field hydrodynamic response and a far-field undulatory component. First, the spectral analysis method is presented and the effects of finite water depth on a theoretical point of view are studied. The analysis of subcritical, trans-critical, and supercritical ship wakes in both real space and spectral space highlights the effects of the finite water depth, of the ship speed, and of the hull shape on the energy distribution in the ship wakes through these different regimes.

  15. The dynamics of cooling water discharge in a shallow, non-tidal embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, Richard; Bolding, Karsten; Hetland, Robert D.; Schernewski, Gerald; Siegel, Herbert; Burchard, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of cooling water spreading in a non-tidal embayment is subject of a modelling-based study of Greifswald Bay, a shallow embayment at the south-western coast of the Baltic Sea. Potential cooling water spreading due to a possible power plant at Greifswald Bay is evaluated as differences between a realistic hind-cast simulation and a similar simulation but including the cooling water pumping. The model results are confirmed with satellite imagery of the embayment during operation of a nuclear power plant in the 1980s. The effect of cooling water pumping on the residual circulation, additional stratification and the heating of near-bed waters in the herring spawning areas is evaluated from the simulation. The model results for an idealised embayment and the realistic scenario, as well as the satellite images, show a clear dependence of the plume spreading on the wind direction. Although the surface plume affects a large area of the embayment, the results show a localised impact on residual circulation, bulk stratification and heating of the waterbody.

  16. Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sarah C; Harter, Thomas; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-03-01

    Animal waste products from concentrated animal feeding operations are a significant source of antibiotics to the environment. Monensin, an ionophore antibiotic commonly used to increase feed efficiency in livestock, is known to have varied toxicological effects on nontarget species. The current study builds on prior studies evaluating the impact of dairy management on groundwater quality by examining the transport of monensin in an agricultural field with coarse-textured soils during irrigation with lagoon wastewater. The dairy is located in California's San Joaquin Valley, where groundwater can be encountered <5 m below the surface. Groundwater samples were collected from a network of monitoring wells installed throughout the dairy and adjacent to irrigated fields before and after an irrigation event, which allowed for measurement of monensin potentially reaching the shallow groundwater as a direct result of irrigation with lagoon water. Monensin was extracted from water samples via hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction and quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irrigation water was found to contain up to 1.6 μg L monensin, but monensin was only detected in monitoring wells surrounding the waste storage lagoon. Water chemistry changes in the wells bordering the irrigated field suggest that up to 7% of irrigation water reached groundwater within days of irrigation. The study suggests that contamination of groundwater with monensin can occur primarily by compromised waste storage systems and that rapid transport of monensin to groundwater is not likely to occur from a single irrigation event.

  17. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi

    2015-08-05

    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  18. A Parallel Icosahedral, Higher Order Discontinuous Galerkin, Global Shallow Water Model: Global Ocean Tides and Aquaplanet Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehipour, H.; Stuhne, G.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The development of models of the ocean tides with higher resolution near the coastlines and courser mesh offshore, has been required due to the significant impacts of coastline configuration and bathymetry (associated with sea level rise) on the amplitude and phase of tidal constituents, not only under present conditions but also in the deep past [Griffiths and Peltier GRL 2008, Griffiths and Peltier AMS 2009, Hill et al. JGR 2011]. A global tidal model with enhanced resolution at the poles has been developed by Griffiths and Peltier [2008, 2009], which, although capable of highly resolving polar ocean tides , is based upon a standard structured Arakawa C grid and hence is not capable of resolving coastlines locally. Furthermore the use of a nested modelling approach, although it may enable local spatial refinement [Hill et al. 2011], nevertheless suffers from its inherent dependence on the availability of a global tidal model with necessarily low spatial resolution to provide the open boundary conditions required for the local high resolution model. On the other hand, an unstructured triangulation of the global domain provides a standalone framework that may be employed to study highly resolved regions without relying on secondary models. The first step in the development of the structure we are employing was described in Stuhne and Peltier [Ocean Modeling, 2009]. In further extending this modelling structure we are employing a new discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of the governing equations in order to provide very high order of accuracy while also ensuring that momentum transport is locally conserved [Giraldo et al. JCP 2002]. After validating the 2D shallow water model with several test suites appropriate to aquaplanets [Williamson et al. JCP 1992, Galewsky et al. Tellus 2004, Nair and Lauritzen JCP 2010], the governing equations are extended to include the influence of internal tide drag in the deep ocean as well as the drag in shallow marginal seas

  19. Ancient Martian Deltas: Evidence for Shallow and Deep Standing Bodies of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jew, C. L.; Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Piliouras, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient deltas on Mars are indicative of a geologic history composed of complex fluvio-deltaic deposits. We focus on two morphologically different deltas preserved on Mars, one located in the Jezero crater and the other in the Shalbatana Valles canyon. The Jezero delta, formed during the Noachian age, is a large fluvial delta with strong channelization and a rigid shoreline resembling a terrestrial delta. In contrast, the Shalbatana Delta is a smaller scaled more briefly lived delta system, developed during the Hesperian, that is characterized by its smooth and simple planform. Evidence from previous studies on these Martian deltas such as the base level, mechanism to build sediment cohesion, estimated discharge, and time of formation offer support to ultimately discover why one delta drastically differs from the other. Based upon the observations from these two locations, we investigate through our physical experiments the conditions required to create these prograding deltas. We use carbonate precipitation in our experiments as a mechanism to increase bank stability, an alternative for any chemically driven precipitated deposits that potentially improve cohesion as vegetation does for terrestrial deltas. We found that there are differences in floodplain thickness, channelization, shoreline rugosity, and delta shape in the carbonate verse non-carbonate runs. Additionally, we conducted runs for isolating the influence that shallow and deep standing bodies of water have on prograding deltas. The experimental results suggested that the highly channelized delta (e.g., Jezero delta) rapidly prograded into a shallow body of water, covering a broader surface area and is dependent on a cohesive force for channel organization. On the contrary, Gilbert-type delta (e.g., Shalbatana delta) was best replicated when prograding into a deep standing body of water. Investigation using the experimental carbonate deltas suggests that cohesion results in better channelization (more

  20. Natural water-purification system observed in a shallow coastal lagoon: Matsukawa-ura, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohata, Kunio; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Hagiwara, Tomiji

    2003-01-01

    Field surveys and in situ experiments were conducted in the shallow Matsukawa-ura in summer to evaluate the biological efficiencies of shallow-water areas for preserving coastal ecosystems. In Matsukawa-ura (5.8 km(2)), the suspension-feeding bivalves Ruditapes philippinarum and Crassostrea gigas were the dominant animals--their total biomasses (wet weight) were estimated to be 3.4 x 10(6) and 2.3 x 10(6) kg, respectively. Ulva sp. and Zostera marina were the dominant macrophyte species during the summer, with standing crops estimated to be 0.29 x 10(6) and 0.20 x 10(6) kg, respectively. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) uptake rates for Ulva sp. and Z. marina were determined by in situ experiments. An ecological model calculated on the basis of the observed dataset showed that, in comparison with tidal exchange, a significant amount of particulate organic matter was removed by bivalve filtration and a considerable quantity of DIN was removed by macrophyte species.

  1. Ecological values of shallow-water habitats: Implications for the restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, C.B.; Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Little, A.J.; Lucas, L.V.; Thompson, J.K.; Burau, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A presumed value of shallow-habitat enhanced pelagic productivity derives from the principle that in nutrient-rich aquatic systems phytoplankton growth rate is controlled by light availability, which varies inversely with habitat depth. We measured a set of biological indicators across the gradient of habitat depth within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California) to test the hypothesis that plankton biomass, production, and pelagic energy flow also vary systematically with habitat depth. Results showed that phytoplankton biomass and production were only weakly related to phytoplankton growth rates whereas other processes (transport, consumption) were important controls. Distribution of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea was patchy, and heavily colonized habitats all supported low phytoplankton biomass and production and functioned as food sinks. Surplus primary production in shallow, uncolonized habitats provided potential subsidies to neighboring recipient habitats. Zooplankton in deeper habitats, where grazing exceeded phytoplankton production, were likely supported by significant fluxes of phytoplankton biomass from connected donor habitats. Our results provide three important lessons for ecosystem science: (a) in the absence of process measurements, derived indices provide valuable information to improve our mechanistic understanding of ecosystem function and to benefit adaptive management strategies; (b) the benefits of some ecosystem functions are displaced by water movements, so the value of individual habitat types can only be revealed through a regional perspective that includes connectedness among habitats; and (c) invasive species can act as overriding controls of habitat function, adding to the uncertainty of management outcomes. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  4. Subsidence and water intrusion for shallow longwall mine planning in the Illinois coal basin: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A coal property in southern Illinois is being studied as a shallow longwall coal mine at depths averaging 250 ft and as shallow as 180 ft. The shallowness results in a super-critical panel width (depth much less than width) with 850-ft panels. The fractures associated with full-extraction coal mining wall likely reach the surface and act as pathways for water migration. The shallow subsidence phenomena result in a more gentle lowering of overlying strata in large blocks with ``tearing`` at the margins of the panels developing continuous potential water pathways. Strain zone predictions indicate fracturing of strata from the mining horizon to the surface. Bed separations caused by subsidence in the strata and below a sandstone aquifer could result in ponding of waters that could be suddenly released into the mine at rates several times the normal steady-state inflow. Timing mining under streams for dry seasons will also minimize water intrusion potentials. Silting-up of pathways and resettlement of strata will eventually reduce water flows in an area. Recognizing areas of mining with panel edges intersecting water sources and pathways can allow pre-planning for water handling.

  5. Toward the Application of the Implicit Particle Filter to Real Data in a Shallow Water Model of the Nearshore Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the success of the implicit particle filter in twin experiments with a shallow water model of the nearshore environment, the planned next step is application to the intensive Sandy Duck data set, gathered at Duck, NC. Adaptation of the present system to the Sandy Duck data set will require construction and evaluation of error models for both the model and the data, as well as significant modification of the system to allow for the properties of the data set. Successful implementation of the particle filter promises to shed light on the details of the capabilities and limitations of shallow water models of the nearshore ocean relative to more detailed models. Since the shallow water model admits distinct dynamical regimes, reliable parameter estimation will be important. Previous work by other groups give cause for optimism. In this talk I will describe my progress toward implementation of the new system, including problems solved, pitfalls remaining and preliminary results

  6. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  7. Evolution of bubble size distribution from gas blowout in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Loney, Norman; Geng, Xiaolong

    2016-03-01

    Gas is often emanated from the sea bed during a subsea oil and gas blowout. The size of a gas bubble changes due to gas dissolution in the ambient water and expansion as a result of a decrease in water pressure during the rise. It is important to understand the fate and transport of gas bubbles for the purpose of environmental and safety concerns. In this paper, we used the numerical model, VDROP-J to simulate gas formation in jet/plume upon release, and dissolution and expansion while bubble rising during a relatively shallow subsea gas blowout. The model predictions were an excellent match to the experimental data. Then a gas dissolution and expansion module was included in the VDROP-J model to predict the fate and transport of methane bubbles rising due to a blowout through a 0.10 m vertical orifice. The numerical results indicated that gas bubbles would increase the mixing energy in released jets, especially at small distances and large distances from the orifice. This means that models that predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) should account for this additional mixing energy. It was also found that only bubbles of certain sizes would reach the water surfaces; small bubbles dissolve fast in the water column, while the size of the large bubbles decreases. This resulted in a BSD that was bimodal near the orifice, and then became unimodal.

  8. An improved profiling method for the measurement of hyperspectral diffuse attenuation coefficents in shallow turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li; Tao, Bangyi; Shi, Liangliang; Zhu, Qiankun

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of hyperspectral diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd(λ)) in shallow turbid waters cannot be successfully achieved by the original Satlantic profiling system, because of less data available in the near-surface waters due to the rapid decrease of light intensity. In this paper, an improved profiling system and processing method are proposed. Firstly, a convenient buoyancy device is designed and mounted on the Satlantic Profiler II to allow the profiler to loiter close to the sea surface, thereby significantly improving the vertical sampling resolution to 1cm/s in near-surface waters, particularly in the depth between 0 and 1 meter. In addition, customized processing software CProSoft is developed to subjectively select the depths for various wavelengths that meet their different requirement for regression analysis. Comparison with original system results shows that our novel method can significantly improve the accuracy of Kd(λ) measurements especially in the short blue and red spectral range, and can even effectively derive near-surface Kd values in the extremely turbid waters with attenuation coefficients greater than 30 m-1, which dramatically enlarge the Kd(λ) measuring range

  9. Residence times in shallow waters help explain regional differences in Wadden Sea eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Callies, Ulrich; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.

    2016-11-01

    Regional variations in eutrophication levels of tidal basins in the Wadden Sea can be caused by external factors, like organic matter import, and internal factors like the morphology and hydrodynamics of the receiving tidal basin. For instance, benthic nutrients from remineralized organic matter may be more concentrated in shallow basins or diluted in basins with high exchange rates. In addition, the location of a monitoring station may determine which basin-specific water masses are actually observed. In the present paper a hydrodynamic intertidal imprint (IMP) is estimated for ten stations in various tidal basins of the Wadden Sea. The fraction of time water masses spent in intertidal areas prior to observation is calculated by linking the Lagrangian transport module PELETS to already existing hourly reconstructions of currents between 1959 and 2003. Irrespective of water depth, additional calculations of mean residence times (MRT) in the Wadden Sea indicate whether, in the case of low IMP values, water masses originate from coastal areas or tidal channels. Results show distinct regional differences, with highest values in the eastern part of the Dutch sector of the southern Wadden Sea (IMP=77%, MRT=99%) and lowest values in the German/Danish sector of the northern Wadden Sea (IMP=1.1%, MRT=21%). The IMP correlates positively with observed nutrient levels (R2=0.83). Evidently, this residence time-based intertidal signal is pivotal in explaining regional variations in eutrophication levels revealed by long-term comparative data from different monitoring stations.

  10. Residence times in shallow waters help explain regional differences in Wadden Sea eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Callies, Ulrich; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.

    2017-04-01

    Regional variations in eutrophication levels of tidal basins in the Wadden Sea can be caused by external factors, like organic matter import, and internal factors like the morphology and hydrodynamics of the receiving tidal basin. For instance, benthic nutrients from remineralized organic matter may be more concentrated in shallow basins or diluted in basins with high exchange rates. In addition, the location of a monitoring station may determine which basin-specific water masses are actually observed. In the present paper a hydrodynamic intertidal imprint (IMP) is estimated for ten stations in various tidal basins of the Wadden Sea. The fraction of time water masses spent in intertidal areas prior to observation is calculated by linking the Lagrangian transport module PELETS to already existing hourly reconstructions of currents between 1959 and 2003. Irrespective of water depth, additional calculations of mean residence times (MRT) in the Wadden Sea indicate whether, in the case of low IMP values, water masses originate from coastal areas or tidal channels. Results show distinct regional differences, with highest values in the eastern part of the Dutch sector of the southern Wadden Sea (IMP=77%, MRT=99%) and lowest values in the German/Danish sector of the northern Wadden Sea (IMP=1.1%, MRT=21%). The IMP correlates positively with observed nutrient levels (R2=0.83). Evidently, this residence time-based intertidal signal is pivotal in explaining regional variations in eutrophication levels revealed by long-term comparative data from different monitoring stations.

  11. Accelerating Time Integration for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Using GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, R.; Evans, K. J.; Salinger, A.

    2015-06-01

    The push towards larger and larger computational platforms has made it possible for climate simulations to resolve climate dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This direction in climate simulation has created a strong need to develop scalable time-stepping methods capable of accelerating throughput on high performance computing. This work details the recent advances in the implementation of implicit time stepping on a spectral element cube-sphere grid using graphical processing units (GPU) based machines. We demonstrate how solvers in the Trilinos project are interfaced with ACME and GPU kernels can significantly increase computational speed of the residual calculations in the implicit time stepping method for the shallow water equations on the sphere. We show the optimization gains and data structure reorganization that facilitates the performance improvements.

  12. Shallow-water acoustic tomography from angle measurements instead of travel-time measurements.

    PubMed

    Aulanier, Florian; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme I; Roux, Philippe; Brossier, Romain

    2013-10-01

    For shallow-water waveguides and mid-frequency broadband acoustic signals, ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) is based on the multi-path aspect of wave propagation. Using arrays in emission and reception and advanced array processing, every acoustic arrival can be isolated and matched to an eigenray that is defined not only by its travel time but also by its launch and reception angles. Classically, OAT uses travel-time variations to retrieve sound-speed perturbations; this assumes very accurate source-to-receiver clock synchronization. This letter uses numerical simulations to demonstrate that launch-and-reception-angle tomography gives similar results to travel-time tomography without the same requirement for high-precision synchronization.

  13. A Kalman filter for a two-dimensional shallow-water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, D. F.; Cohn, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional Kalman filter is described for data assimilation for making weather forecasts. The filter is regarded as superior to the optimal interpolation method because the filter determines the forecast error covariance matrix exactly instead of using an approximation. A generalized time step is defined which includes expressions for one time step of the forecast model, the error covariance matrix, the gain matrix, and the evolution of the covariance matrix. Subsequent time steps are achieved by quantifying the forecast variables or employing a linear extrapolation from a current variable set, assuming the forecast dynamics are linear. Calculations for the evolution of the error covariance matrix are banded, i.e., are performed only with the elements significantly different from zero. Experimental results are provided from an application of the filter to a shallow-water simulation covering a 6000 x 6000 km grid.

  14. Solving Two-Mode Shallow Water Equations Using Finite Volume Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and study numerical methods for the two-mode shallow water equations recently proposed in [S. STECHMANN, A. MAJDA, and B. KHOUIDER, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dynamics, 22 (2008), pp. 407-432]. Designing a reliable numerical method for this system is a challenging task due to its conditional hyperbolicity and the presence of nonconservative terms. We present several numerical approaches — two operator splitting methods (based on either Roe-type upwind or central-upwind scheme), a central-upwind scheme and a path-conservative central-upwind scheme — and test their performance in a number of numerical experiments. The obtained results demonstrate that a careful numerical treatment of nonconservative terms is crucial for designing a robust and highly accurate numerical method. This is a joint work with M. J. Castro Díaz, A. Chertock and A. Kurganov.

  15. Semi-Lagrangian integration of a grid-point shallow water model on the sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, A.; Bates, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a semi-Lagrangian technique for integrating the equations of motion on the global domain. The technique uses an auxiliary spherical coordinate system at each near-polar gridpoint of the latitude-longitude grid; the auxiliary system is obtained by a rotation such that the new equator passes through the gridpoint in question and the new coordinate directions coincide with those of the original system at that point. The technique was applied to the shallow water equations, incorporating a semiimplicit treatment of the adjustment terms on a C-grid, with two-time levels. A five day integration was successfully carried out for a situation involving strong cross-polar flow. No filtering or diffusion was required to maintain stability over a five day period.

  16. Multiquadric and Compactly Supported Radial Basis Functions for Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhuri, Y.; Taik, A.; Naji, A.

    2009-04-01

    Meshfree methods have gained much attention in recent years, not only in the mathematics but also in the engineering community. The computer and numerical methods are powerful tools of analysing wide rang of engineering and industrial application. For long time researchers recognised problems when using a mesh-based method. Developing the meshless methods overcome these problems. In the present paper, we present the application of both the global and the compactly supported radial basis functions (CSRBFs) for solving a system of shallow water hydrodynamic model for marine environments. As the technique is based on the collocation formulation and does not require the generation of a grid and any integral evaluation, the technique is considered as purely meshless method. The Computational efficiency and accuracy of both used functions are verified by comparing the analytic and observed solution.

  17. Accelerating Time Integration for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Using GPUs

    DOE PAGES

    Archibald, R.; Evans, K. J.; Salinger, A.

    2015-06-01

    The push towards larger and larger computational platforms has made it possible for climate simulations to resolve climate dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This direction in climate simulation has created a strong need to develop scalable time-stepping methods capable of accelerating throughput on high performance computing. This work details the recent advances in the implementation of implicit time stepping on a spectral element cube-sphere grid using graphical processing units (GPU) based machines. We demonstrate how solvers in the Trilinos project are interfaced with ACME and GPU kernels can significantly increase computational speed of the residual calculations in themore » implicit time stepping method for the shallow water equations on the sphere. We show the optimization gains and data structure reorganization that facilitates the performance improvements.« less

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the benthic shallow-water octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodinae).

    PubMed

    Guzik, Michelle T; Norman, Mark D; Crozier, Ross H

    2005-10-01

    Octopus has been regarded as a "catch all" genus, yet its monophyly is questionable and has been untested. We inferred a broad-scale phylogeny of the benthic shallow-water octopuses (subfamily Octopodinae) using amino acid sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes: Cytochrome oxidase subunit III and Cytochrome b apoenzyme, and the nuclear DNA gene Elongation Factor-1alpha. Sequence data were obtained from 26 Octopus species and from four related genera. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were implemented to estimate the phylogeny, and non-parametric bootstrapping was used to verify confidence for Bayesian topologies. Phylogenetic relationships between closely related species were generally well resolved, and groups delineated, but the genes did not resolve deep divergences well. The phylogenies indicated strongly that Octopus is not monophyletic, but several monophyletic groups were identified within the genus. It is therefore clear that octopodid systematics requires major revision.

  19. A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

  20. Lagrangian-Eulerian dynamics of breaking shallow water waves through tracer tracking of fluid elements.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Yu; Chang, Mei-Chu; I, Lin

    2013-02-01

    We experimentally investigate the Lagrangian-Eulerian dynamics of fluid motion and wave-form evolution for a breaking shallow water wave approaching a slope by tracking tracer motions. It is found that, before breaking, the surface element can climb over the crest and exhibits cyclic oscillation with small forward drift. The increasing asymmetric tangential compression (accumulation) and rarefaction (depletion) in the crest front and the crest are the keys for the crest front steepening with the increasing particle cyclic excursion and forward Stoke drift. Eventually, the surface layer cannot climb over the crest with the vertical front. It curls up and forms an overhanging plunging jet leading the crest, while the lower flow still can reach the crest rear. This process leads to wave breaking with the rapid drop of crest height and the transition from slow divergence to rapid divergence of the adjacent fluid trajectories.

  1. Observations of the R reflector and sediment interface reflection at the Shallow Water '06 Central Site.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jee Woong; Dahl, Peter H; Goff, John A

    2008-09-01

    Acoustic bottom-interacting measurements from the Shallow Water '06 experiment experiment (frequency range 1-20 kHz) are presented. These are co-located with coring and stratigraphic studies showing a thin (approximately 20 cm) higher sound speed layer overlaying a thicker (approximately 20 m) lower sound speed layer ending at a high-impedance reflector (R reflector). Reflections from the R reflector and analysis of the bottom reflection coefficient magnitude for the upper two sediment layers confirm both these features. Geoacoustic parameters are estimated, dispersion effects addressed, and forward modeling using the parabolic wave equation undertaken. The reflection coefficient measurements suggest a nonlinear attenuation law for the thin layer of sandy sediments.

  2. Method of moving frames to solve the shallow water equations on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, S.; Eskilsson, C.

    2017-03-01

    A novel numerical scheme is proposed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces. Based on the method of moving frames (MMF) in which the geometry is represented by orthonormal vectors, the proposed scheme not only has the fewest dimensionality both in space and time, but also does not require either of metric tensors, composite meshes, or the ambient space. The MMF-SWE formulation is numerically discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin method of arbitrary polynomial order p in space and an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in time. The numerical model is validated against six standard tests on the sphere and the optimal order of convergence of p + 1 is numerically demonstrated. The MMF-SWE scheme is also demonstrated for its efficiency and stability on the general rotating surfaces such as ellipsoid, irregular, and non-convex surfaces.

  3. On the solutions of a model equation for shallow water waves of moderate amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Yongsheng; Mu, Chunlai

    This paper is concerned with the Cauchy problem of a model equation for shallow water waves of moderate amplitude, which was proposed by A. Constantin and D. Lannes [The hydrodynamical relevance of the Camassa-Holmand Degasperis-Procesi equations, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 192 (2009) 165-186]. First, the local well-posedness of the model equation is obtained in Besov spaces Bp,rs, p,r∈[1,∞], s>max{3/2,1+1/p} (which generalize the Sobolev spaces Hs) by using Littlewood-Paley decomposition and transport equation theory. Second, the local well-posedness in critical case (with s=3/2, p=2, r=1) is considered. Moreover, with analytic initial data, we show that its solutions are analytic in both variables, globally in space and locally in time. Finally, persistence properties on strong solutions are also investigated.

  4. Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less

  5. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  6. Nonhydrostatic correction for shallow water equations with quadratic vertical pressure distribution: A Boussinesq-type equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Anja; Behrens, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    In tsunami modeling, two different systems of dispersive long wave equations are common: The nonhydrostatic pressure correction for the shallow water equations derived out of the depth-integrated 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, and the category of Boussinesq-type equations obtained by an expansion in the nondimensional parameters for nonlinearity and dispersion in the Euler equations. The first system uses as an assumption a linear vertical interpolation of the nonhydrostatic pressure, whereas the second system's derivation includes an quadratic vertical interpolation for the nonhydrostatic pressure. In this case the analytical dispersion relations do not coincide. We show that the nonhydrostatic correction with a quadratic vertical interpolation yields an equation set equivalent to the Serre equations, which are 1D Boussinesq-type equations for the case of a horizontal bottom. Now, both systems yield the same analytical dispersion relation according up to the first order with the reference dispersion relation of the linear wave theory. The adjusted model is also compared to other Boussinesq-type equations. The numerical model with the nonhydrostatic correction for the shallow water equations uses Leapfrog timestepping stabilized with the Asselin filter and the P1-PNC1 finite element space discretization. The numerical dispersion relations are computed and compared by employing a testcase of a standing wave in a closed basin. All numerical values match their theoretical expectations. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. We acknowledge the support given by Geir K. Petersen from the University of Oslo.

  7. High-order finite-volume methods for the shallow-water equations on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Paul A.; Jablonowski, Christiane; van Leer, Bram

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a third-order and fourth-order finite-volume method for solving the shallow-water equations on a non-orthogonal equiangular cubed-sphere grid. Such a grid is built upon an inflated cube placed inside a sphere and provides an almost uniform grid point distribution. The numerical schemes are based on a high-order variant of the Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) pioneered by van Leer. In each cell the reconstructed left and right states are either obtained via a dimension-split piecewise-parabolic method or a piecewise-cubic reconstruction. The reconstructed states then serve as input to an approximate Riemann solver that determines the numerical fluxes at two Gaussian quadrature points along the cell boundary. The use of multiple quadrature points renders the resulting flux high-order. Three types of approximate Riemann solvers are compared, including the widely used solver of Rusanov, the solver of Roe and the new AUSM +-up solver of Liou that has been designed for low-Mach number flows. Spatial discretizations are paired with either a third-order or fourth-order total-variation-diminishing Runge-Kutta timestepping scheme to match the order of the spatial discretization. The numerical schemes are evaluated with several standard shallow-water test cases that emphasize accuracy and conservation properties. These tests show that the AUSM +-up flux provides the best overall accuracy, followed closely by the Roe solver. The Rusanov flux, with its simplicity, provides significantly larger errors by comparison. A brief discussion on extending the method to arbitrary order-of-accuracy is included.

  8. Competing turbulent cascades and eddy-wave interactions in shallow water equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichman, Peter B.

    2017-03-01

    In recent work, Renaud, Venaille, and Bouchet (RVB) [Renaud et al., J. Stat. Phys. 163, 784 (2016), 10.1007/s10955-016-1496-x] revisit the equilibrium statistical mechanics theory of the shallow water equations, within a microcanonical approach, focusing on a more careful treatment of the energy partition between inertial gravity wave and eddy motions in the equilibrium state and deriving joint probability distributions for the corresponding dynamical degrees of freedom. The authors derive a Liouville theorem that determines the underlying phase space statistical measure, but then, through some physical arguments, actually compute the equilibrium statistics using a measure that violates this theorem, choosing equal volume vs equal area fluid parcels. Here, using a more convenient, but essentially equivalent, grand canonical approach, the full statistical theory consistent with the Liouville theorem is derived. The results reveal several significant differences from the previous results (1) The microscale wave motions lead to a strongly fluctuating thermodynamics, including long-range correlations, in contrast to the mean-field-like behavior found by RVB. The final effective model is equivalent to that of an elastic membrane with a nonlinear wave-renormalized surface tension. (2) Even when a mean-field approximation is made, a rather more complex joint probability distribution is revealed. Alternative physical arguments fully support the consistency of the results. Of course, the true fluid final steady state relies on dissipative processes not included in the shallow water equations, such as wave breaking and viscous effects, but it is argued that the current theory provides a more mathematically consistent starting point for future work aimed at assessing their impacts.

  9. An adaptive multiblock high-order finite-volume method for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere

    DOE PAGES

    McCorquodale, Peter; Ullrich, Paul; Johansen, Hans; ...

    2015-09-04

    We present a high-order finite-volume approach for solving the shallow-water equations on the sphere, using multiblock grids on the cubed-sphere. This approach combines a Runge--Kutta time discretization with a fourth-order accurate spatial discretization, and includes adaptive mesh refinement and refinement in time. Results of tests show fourth-order convergence for the shallow-water equations as well as for advection in a highly deformational flow. Hierarchical adaptive mesh refinement allows solution error to be achieved that is comparable to that obtained with uniform resolution of the most refined level of the hierarchy, but with many fewer operations.

  10. Shallow water analogue of the standing accretion shock instability: experimental demonstration and a two-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Foglizzo, Thierry; Masset, Frédéric; Guilet, Jérôme; Durand, Gilles

    2012-02-03

    Despite the sphericity of the collapsing stellar core, the birth conditions of neutron stars can be highly nonspherical due to a hydrodynamical instability of the shocked accretion flow. Here we report the first laboratory experiment of a shallow water analogue, based on the physics of hydraulic jumps. Both the experiment and its shallow water modeling demonstrate a robust linear instability and nonlinear properties of symmetry breaking, in a system which is one million times smaller and about one hundred times slower than its astrophysical analogue.

  11. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Wang, Jun; Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V.; Zanni, Martin; DeGrado, William F.; Gai, Feng; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2014-06-01

    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs.

  12. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Gai, Feng E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Hochstrasser, Robin M.; Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F.; Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V.; Zanni, Martin

    2014-06-21

    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs.

  13. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05) in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  14. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  15. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  16. A well-balanced scheme for the shallow-water equations with topography or Manning friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel-Dansac, Victor; Berthon, Christophe; Clain, Stéphane; Foucher, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    We consider the shallow-water equations with Manning friction or topography, as well as a combination of both these source terms. The main purpose of this work concerns the derivation of a non-negativity preserving and well-balanced scheme that approximates solutions of the system and preserves the associated steady states, including the moving ones. In addition, the scheme has to deal with vanishing water heights and transitions between wet and dry areas. To address such issues, a particular attention is paid to the study of the steady states related to the friction source term. Then, a Godunov-type scheme is obtained by using a relevant average of the source terms in order to enforce the required well-balance property. An implicit treatment of both topography and friction source terms is also exhibited to improve the scheme while dealing with vanishing water heights. A second-order well-balanced MUSCL extension is designed, as well as an extension for the two-dimensional case. Numerical experiments are performed in order to highlight the properties of the scheme.

  17. Shallow sea-floor reflectance and water depth derived by unmixing multispectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwirth, P.N.; Lee, T.J.; Burne, R.V. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    A major problem for mapping shallow water zones by the analysis of remotely sensed data is that contrast effects due to water depth obscure and distort the special nature of the substrate. This paper outlines a new method which unmixes the exponential influence of depth in each pixel by employing a mathematical constraint. This leaves a multispectral residual which represents relative substrate reflectance. Input to the process are the raw multispectral data and water attenuation coefficients derived by the co-analysis of known bathymetry and remotely sensed data. Outputs are substrate-reflectance images corresponding to the input bands and a greyscale depth image. The method has been applied in the analysis of Landsat TM data at Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Algorithm derived substrate reflectance images for Landsat TM bands 1, 2, and 3 combined in color represent the optimum enhancement for mapping or classifying substrate types. As a result, this color image successfully delineated features, which were obscured in the raw data, such as the distributions of sea-grasses, microbial mats, and sandy area. 19 refs.

  18. Active formation of 'chaos terrain' over shallow subsurface water on Europa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B E; Blankenship, D D; Patterson, G W; Schenk, P M

    2011-11-16

    Europa, the innermost icy satellite of Jupiter, has a tortured young surface and sustains a liquid water ocean below an ice shell of highly debated thickness. Quasi-circular areas of ice disruption called chaos terrains are unique to Europa, and both their formation and the ice-shell thickness depend on Europa's thermal state. No model so far has been able to explain why features such as Conamara Chaos stand above surrounding terrain and contain matrix domes. Melt-through of a thin (few-kilometre) shell is thermodynamically improbable and cannot raise the ice. The buoyancy of material rising as either plumes of warm, pure ice called diapirs or convective cells in a thick (>10 kilometres) shell is insufficient to produce the observed chaos heights, and no single plume can create matrix domes. Here we report an analysis of archival data from Europa, guided by processes observed within Earth's subglacial volcanoes and ice shelves. The data suggest that chaos terrains form above liquid water lenses perched within the ice shell as shallow as 3 kilometres. Our results suggest that ice-water interactions and freeze-out give rise to the diverse morphologies and topography of chaos terrains. The sunken topography of Thera Macula indicates that Europa is actively resurfacing over a lens comparable in volume to the Great Lakes in North America.

  19. Shallow ground water in the Powder River Bbasin, northeastern Wyoming: Description of selected publications, 1950-91, and indications for further study. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Wilson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the conclusions and contributions to knowledge of shallow ground water in publications resulting from previous ground-water investigations in the Powder River Basin and describes indications for further study. For the report, shallow ground water is defined as water in geologic formations overlying the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale and equivalents. The 76 publications described were produced from 1950-91 by the U.S. Geological Survey, other government agencies, and academic and private organizations, including mining companies and engineering consultants. Only those parts of the publications that are relevant to thee quantity or quality of shallow ground water in the Powder River Basin are described. Mine plans for coal and uranium mines (many of which contain detailed, local hydrologic information) and publications containing pertinent geologic information, but no hydrologic information, are not included.

  20. Shallow water submarine hydrothermal activity - A case study in the assessment of ocean acidification and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yoshida, K.; Hagiwara, T.; Nagao, K.; Kusakabe, M.; Wang, B.; Chen, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Most natural Shallow Water submarine Hydrothermal activates (SWH) along coastlines are related to hydrothermal eruptions involving heating of groundwater with the volcanic gas. These SWHs supply nutrients such as phosphorus and micro nutrients like iron to the euphotic zone, contributing to the overall natural fertility and primary productivity of coastal waters. However, SWHs also have a negative effect, dispersing toxic materials such as mercury and arsenic, and affecting the acidification of the surrounding waters. In this study, we evaluate the impact of "iron supply" and "ocean acidification" on the primary production in a coastal marine environment, at a SWH area discovered off Gueshandao Island, northeast Taiwan. In the past three years, expeditions were conducted and observations made around this SWH site. Divers, small boats and a research vessel (R/V OR1, Ocean University National Taiwan) were used to survey successively larger areas around the site. Some of the results obtained are as follows. Hydrothermal vents are located in a hilly terrain rich with hot spring water with gas erupting intermittently. There are two types of vents, roughly divided by color, yellow hot spring water with higher temperature >110 degC ejected from sulfur chimneys of various sizes, and colorless water with lower temperature ~80 degC ejected directly from the crevices of the andesitic bedrock. Natural sulfur solidifying in the mouth of a small chimney was captured by a video camera, and explosions were also observed at intervals of a few minutes. Sediment, sand and particles of sulfur were deposited on the sides to a radius of about 50 m condensing around the chimney. The bottom type changes from sand/particles to outcrop/rock away from the vents. Moreover, gas samples were collected from the vents; the ratios of gas concentrations (N2/Ar) and isotopic composition of noble gas (3He/4He) suggest that these volcanic gases are mantle-derived. Hydrothermal fluid with high p

  1. Shallow Water Euxinia and Density Stratification of the Cenomanian/Turonian Western Interior Seaway in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, M.; Pope, M. C.; Tice, M. M.; Gardner, R.; Donovan, A. D.; Staerker, S.; Lyon, T.; Maulana, I.; Pramudito, A.; Xu, G.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Group was deposited at the south and east side of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS). These sediments contain evidence of anoxia and shallow-water deposition (between storm-wave and fair weather wave-base) in the proximal deposits at Lozier Canyon and Antonio Creek (LC/AC). Shallow-water (above storm wave-base) depositional conditions are mostly based on the suite of primary sedimentary structures that includes: hummocky cross-stratification (HCS), swaley cross-stratification (SCS), symmetric ripples, gutter casts and shell lags. These occur in outcrop and support the interpretation that LC/AC is the most proximal location relative to other study locations. At Hot Springs in Brewster County, Texas, sedimentary structures are limited to shell lags, a few symmetric ripples and low-angle laminations. This is consistent with the distal expression of storm deposits. The primary sedimentary structures from the core from the subsurface in McMullen County, south Texas, are limited to those of low-energy currents, scouring, and reworking, which could indicate it is in the distally steepened portion of the carbonate ramp on which Eagle Ford Groups are deposited. Pelagic foraminifera are the most microfossil and benthic foraminifera only occur in the Upper Eagle Formation at LC/AC. Molybdenum was also used as a proxy for occurrence and persistence of a sulfer-reducing zone. The geochemical data from the subsurface core suggests persistence of anoxia throughout its depositional history. At LC/AC, molybdenum is elevated (up to 5-6 times average shale value) and bioturbation in these zones is limited to the surfaces of symmetric ripples, suggesting that oxygenation events were brief and occurred only immediately after storm events. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the HCS, SCS, and symmetric ripples were caused by storms and temporarily mixed the ocean in a normally stratified water column. At LC/AC, the water column became persistently oxic from the

  2. Anthropogenic constituents in shallow ground water in the Upper Illinois River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for anthropogenic effects on ground water is becoming of increasing concern as land throughout the Nation becomes more urbanized. The possible contamination of water resources by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides (including transformation products), and nitrate, from current urban land use and past agricultural land use, is of particular concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, water samples for analysis of VOCs, pesticides, and nitrate were collected from 43 wells in shallow (175 feet deep or less) ground water in glacial deposits overlying a major bedrock aquifer in recently urbanized areas in the Chicago, Ill. and Milwaukee, Wis. metropolitan counties.Constituents were reported using two reporting levels. For the laboratory reporting level, the risk of a false positive or false negative detection is less than or equal to 1 percent. For the information-rich method level, estimated concentrations are identified positively and are qualified to be present on the basis of quality-control criteria, but have a higher risk of false positive detections.VOCs were detected in 32 percent (12 of 38) of the well samples with 15 detections of 7 VOCs, based on laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 (estimated) to 4.6 micrograms per liter (?g/L), with a median concentration of 0.13 ?g/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and trichloromethane (chloroform) were the most common with detections in 10 percent (4 of 38) of the well samples. Using information-rich method reporting levels, VOCs were detected in 74 percent of the wells with 37 detections of 15 VOCs. Chloroform was most common with detections in 24 percent (9 of 38) of the well samples.Pesticides were detected in 62 percent (26 of 42) of the well samples with 83 detections of 20 pesticides, based on laboratory reporting levels for the respective constituent. Concentrations ranged from 0.003 (estimated) to 3.6 (estimated) ?g

  3. Nitrate movement in shallow ground water from swine-lagoon-effluent spray fields managed under current application regulations.

    PubMed

    Israel, Daniel W; Showers, William J; Fountain, Matthew; Fountain, John

    2005-01-01

    Rapid increases in the swine (Sus scrofa domestica) population in the 1990s and associated potential for nitrate N pollution of surface waters led the state of North Carolina to adopt stringent waste management regulations in 1993. Our objectives were to characterize (i) nitrate N movement from waste application fields (WAFs) in shallow ground water, and (ii) soil, hydrologic, and biological factors influencing the amount of nitrate N in the adjacent stream. A ground water monitoring study was conducted for 36 mo on a swine farm managed under new regulations. Water table contours and lack of vertical gradients indicated horizontal flow over most of the site. Nitrate N concentrations in water from shallow wells in WAFs averaged 30 +/- 19 mg L(-1) and delta15N ratios for nitrate N were between +20 and +25 per mil. Nitrate N concentration decreased from field-edge to streamside wells by 22 to 99%. Measurement of delta18O and delta15N enrichment of nitrate in ground water throughout the WAF-riparian system indicated that denitrification has not caused significant 15N enrichment of nitrate. Over a 24-mo period, delta15N ratios for nitrate N in the stream approached delta15N ratios for nitrate N in ground water beneath WAFs indicating delivery of some waste-derived nitrate N to the stream in shallow ground water. Nitrate N concentrations in the stream were relatively low, averaging 1 mg L(-1). Dilution of high nitrate N water in shallow horizontal flow paths with low nitrate N water from deeper horizontal flow paths at or near the stream, some denitrification as ground water discharges through the stream bottom, and some denitrification in riparian zone contributed to this low nitrate N concentration.

  4. A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

  5. Landscape-Level Variation in Disease Susceptibility Related to Shallow-Water Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Breitburg, Denise L.; Hondorp, Darryl; Audemard, Corinne; Carnegie, Ryan B.; Burrell, Rebecca B.; Trice, Mark; Clark, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Diel-cycling hypoxia is widespread in shallow portions of estuaries and lagoons, especially in systems with high nutrient loads resulting from human activities. Far less is known about the effects of this form of hypoxia than deeper-water seasonal or persistent low dissolved oxygen. We examined field patterns of diel-cycling hypoxia and used field and laboratory experiments to test its effects on acquisition and progression of Perkinsus marinus infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, as well as on oyster growth and filtration. P. marinus infections cause the disease known as Dermo, have been responsible for declines in oyster populations, and have limited success of oyster restoration efforts. The severity of diel-cycling hypoxia varied among shallow monitored sites in Chesapeake Bay, and average daily minimum dissolved oxygen was positively correlated with average daily minimum pH. In both field and laboratory experiments, diel-cycling hypoxia increased acquisition and progression of infections, with stronger results found for younger (1-year-old) than older (2-3-year-old) oysters, and more pronounced effects on both infections and growth found in the field than in the laboratory. Filtration by oysters was reduced during brief periods of exposure to severe hypoxia. This should have reduced exposure to waterborne P. marinus, and contributed to the negative relationship found between hypoxia frequency and oyster growth. Negative effects of hypoxia on the host immune response is, therefore, the likely mechanism leading to elevated infections in oysters exposed to hypoxia relative to control treatments. Because there is considerable spatial variation in the frequency and severity of hypoxia, diel-cycling hypoxia may contribute to landscape-level spatial variation in disease dynamics within and among estuarine systems. PMID:25671595

  6. Effect of ocean currents on the performance of a time-reversing array in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G; Dowling, David R

    2003-12-01

    Active acoustic time reversal may be accomplished by recording sounds with an array of transducers--a time-reversing array (TRA) or time-reversal mirror (TRM)--and then replaying the recorded and time-reversed sounds from the same array to produce back-propagating waves that converge at the location(s) of the remote sound source(s). Future active sonar and underwater communication systems suitable for use in unknown shallow ocean waters may be developed from the automatic spatial and temporal focusing properties of TRAs. However, ocean currents affect time reversal because they alter acoustic reciprocity in the environment. This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation into how ocean currents influence TRA retrofocusing in shallow ocean environments for various array orientations. The case of TRA retrofocusing in a three-dimensional range-independent sound channel with a steady horizontal ocean current is covered here, based on a normal-mode propagation model valid for low Mach number currents. The main finding is that in the presence of ocean currents (typically <1 m/s), a TRA performs well (the associated retrofocus amplitude decay is less than 1 dB) except that a retrofocus shift (up to a few wavelengths at 500 Hz at a range of 2.5 km) may occur due to the differing interaction between the ocean current profile and each acoustic normal mode. In addition, TRA performance is predicted to depend on the array orientation relative to the ocean current direction, especially for horizontal arrays.

  7. Evidence for debris flow gully formation initiated by shallow subsurface water on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanza, N.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Okubo, C.H.; Newsom, Horton E.; Wiens, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The morphologies of some martian gullies appear similar to terrestrial features associated with debris flow initiation, erosion, and deposition. On Earth, debris flows are often triggered by shallow subsurface throughflow of liquid water in slope-mantling colluvium. This flow causes increased levels of pore pressure and thus decreased shear strength, which can lead to slide failure of slope materials and subsequent debris flow. The threshold for pore pressure-induced failure creates a distinct relationship between the contributing area supplying the subsurface flow and the slope gradient. To provide initial tests of a similar debris flow initiation hypothesis for martian gullies, measurements of the contributing areas and slope gradients were made at the channel heads of martian gullies seen in three HiRISE stereo pairs. These gullies exhibit morphologies suggestive of debris flows such as leveed channels and lobate debris fans, and have well-defined channel heads and limited evidence for multiple flows. Our results show an area-slope relationship for these martian gullies that is consistent with that observed for terrestrial gullies formed by debris flow, supporting the hypothesis that these gullies formed as the result of saturation of near-surface regolith by a liquid. This model favors a source of liquid that is broadly distributed within the source area and shallow; we suggest that such liquid could be generated by melting of broadly distributed icy materials such as snow or permafrost. This interpretation is strengthened by observations of polygonal and mantled terrain in the study areas, which are both suggestive of near-surface ice. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence

  9. Section 1. Simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two-dimensions: SWIFT2D user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two (horizontal-space) dimensions is documented. The model solves vertically integrated forms of the equations of mass and momentum conservation and solute transport equations for heat, salt, and constituent fluxes. An equation of state for salt balance directly couples solution of the hydrodynamic and transport equations to account for the horizontal density gradient effects of salt concentrations on flow. The model can be used to simulate the hydrodynamics, transport, and water quality of well-mixed bodies of water, such as estuaries, coastal seas, harbors, lakes, rivers, and inland waterways. The finite-difference model can be applied to geographical areas bounded by any combination of closed land or open water boundaries. The simulation program accounts for sources of internal discharges (such as tributary rivers or hydraulic outfalls), tidal flats, islands, dams, and movable flow barriers or sluices. Water-quality computations can treat reactive and (or) conservative constituents simultaneously. Input requirements include bathymetric and topographic data defining land-surface elevations, time-varying water level or flow conditions at open boundaries, and hydraulic coefficients. Optional input includes the geometry of hydraulic barriers and constituent concentrations at open boundaries. Time-dependent water level, flow, and constituent-concentration data are required for model calibration and verification. Model output consists of printed reports and digital files of numerical results in forms suitable for postprocessing by graphical software programs and (or) scientific visualization packages. The model is compatible with most mainframe, workstation, mini- and micro-computer operating systems and FORTRAN compilers. This report defines the mathematical formulation and computational features of the model, explains the solution technique and related model constraints, describes the

  10. Shallow water mud-mounds of the Early Devonian Buchan Group, East Gippsland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosolini, A.-M. P.; Wallace, M. W.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Devonian Rocky Camp Member of the Murrindal Limestone, Buchan Group of southeastern Australia consists of a series of carbonate mud-mounds and smaller lagoonal bioherms. The Rocky Camp mound is the best exposed of the mud-mounds and has many characteristics in common with Waulsortian (Carboniferous) mounds. Detailed paleoecological and sedimentological studies indicate that the mound initially accumulated in the photic zone, in contrast to most of the previously recorded mud-mounds. Five facies are present in the mud-mound: a Dasycladacean Wackestone Facies at the base of the mound represents a moderate energy, shallow water bank environment within the photic zone. A Crinioidal Wackestone Facies was deposited in a laterally equivalent foreslope setting. A Poriferan-Crinoidal Mudstone Facies developed in a quiet, deeper water, lee-side mound setting associated with a minor relative sea-level rise. A Stromatoporoid-Coralline Packstone Facies in the upper part of the mound deposited in a high-energy, fair-weather wave base, mound-front environment. The crest of the mound is represented by a Crinoidal-Receptaculitid Packstone Facies indicative of a moderate-energy mound-top environment in the photic zone, sheltered by the mound-front stromatoporoid-coral communities. A mound flank facies is present on the southern side of the mound and this consists of high-energy crinoidal grainstones. Mud-mound deposition was terminated by a transgression that deposited dark gray, fossil-poor marl of the overlying Taravale Formation. The Rocky Camp mound appears to have originated in shallow water photic zone conditions and grew into a high-energy environment, with the mound being eventually colonized by corals and stromatoporoids. The indications of a high-energy environment during later mound growth (growth form of colonial metazoans and grainstones of the flanking facies) suggest that the micrite in the mound was autochthonous and implies the presence of an energy

  11. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment.

  12. Vertical amplitude phase structure of a low-frequency acoustic field in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. N.; Lebedev, O. V.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    We obtain in integral and analytic form the relations for calculating the amplitude and phase characteristics of an interference structure of orthogonal projections of the oscillation velocity vector in shallow water. For different frequencies and receiver depths, we numerically study the source depth dependences of the effective phase velocities of an equivalent plane wave, the orthogonal projections of the sound pressure phase gradient, and the projections of the oscillation velocity vector. We establish that at low frequencies in zones of interference maxima, independently of source depth, weakly varying effective phase velocity values are observed, which exceed the sound velocity in water by 5-12%. We show that the angles of arrival of the equivalent plane wave and the oscillation velocity vector in the general case differ; however, they virtually coincide in the zone of the interference maximum of the sound pressure under the condition that the horizontal projections of the oscillation velocity appreciably exceed the value of the vertical projection. We give recommendations on using the sound field characteristics in zones with maximum values for solving rangefinding and signal-detection problems.

  13. Results of an experiment using AUVs for shallow-water mine reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Samuel M.; An, Edgar; Christensen, Reed; Kloske, John; Snowden, Scott; Kronen, David; Marquis, Larry

    1999-07-01

    As part of the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center in Ft. Lauderdale Florida, a shallow water range with mines has been set up for a series of MCM experiments using the FAU AUVs. The first experiment was conducted December of 1998. The planned objective was to quantify the performance of the Ocean Explorer AUV for mine reconnaissance tasks such as rapid environmental assessment, remote search, remote classification and remote identification of mine like objects both moored in the water column and laying on the sea floor. The primary sensors used for this test were high frequency side scan and ambient light video. In addition, a forward look sonar and a laser line scanner were fielded. A CTD and DVL/ADCP provide environmental data. The AUV first conducted a wide area side scan survey and environmental assessment. The AUV then returned and its data uploaded. Human operators post processed the side scan and manually detected and classified targets. The AUV was then programmed to revisit the targets and perform close in multiple sensor sweeps with side scan and video of each target. Manual post processing and analysis of this data proved sufficient information for more accurate classification and even identification of targets. This paper will present preliminary results of this experiment with likely implications to VSW MCM operations.

  14. A new multichannel spatial diversity technique for long-range acoustic communications in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe J.; Bernault, Emmanuel P.

    2002-11-01

    A new multichannel spatial diversity technique has been developed for underwater acoustic communications in very shallow waters. This technique combines a novel synchronization method with maximum-likelihood symbol estimation. It was tested with a multichannel Mills-Cross receiver using various numbers of elements. The FAU general purpose acoustic modem source transmitted messages using four types of frequency-hopped multiple-frequency-chirp-keying (FH-MFSK) modulation: 4 hops at 221 coded bits per second (cps), 2 hops at 442 cps, or no hopping at 1172 cps. These types of modulation allowed for robust data transmission in adverse environment. The modem operated between 16 and 32 kHz at 192-dB source level, at ranges from 1 to 5 km in 40 ft of water. Using only four channels of the Mills-Cross receiver array, messages coded at 1172 cps were received with a frame error rate (FER) of 0% at a range of 3 km. In the same four-channel configuration, messages coded at 221 cps were received with no frame error at 5 km. The experimental results matched the performance predictions from the Crepeaus model. This reliable and computation-efficient method can be implemented on new generations of embedded acoustic modems, such as the four-channel FAU acoustic modem, and can provide significant improvements in communication performance.

  15. Multiple tracers of shallow ground-water flow and recharge in hilly loess

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.; Keller, C.K.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    Vertical profiles of tritium and nitrate pore-water concentrations were determined to {approximately}8 m depth across two loess hillslopes. Mean recharge fluxes, estimated from chloride mass balance, are 5--10 times larger at the mid- and toe-slope positions than at the top-slope; the magnitudes of the values compare reasonably with results from other methods. The tritium and nitrate profiles exhibit multiple peaks which indicate that piston flow is not the sole flow process in this system. Results of a simple 1-D mixing model suggest that infiltration-exfiltration cycles in zones of plant root activity explain the shallow tritium peaks. Deeper peaks result from preferential vertical and/or lateral flow. The importance of these dispersive processes is underlined by great dilution of observed tritium concentrations, relative to expected concentrations assuming piston flow. In this setting, chloride is useful as a recharge estimator while tritium and nitrate serve as tracers of landscape-scale water movement.

  16. Water Table Dynamics and Biogeochemical Cycling in a Shallow, Variably-Saturated Floodplain.

    PubMed

    Yabusaki, Steven B; Wilkins, Michael J; Fang, Yilin; Williams, Kenneth H; Arora, Bhavna; Bargar, John; Beller, Harry R; Bouskill, Nicholas J; Brodie, Eoin L; Christensen, John N; Conrad, Mark E; Danczak, Robert E; King, Eric; Soltanian, Mohamad R; Spycher, Nicolas F; Steefel, Carl I; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Versteeg, Roelof; Waichler, Scott R; Wainwright, Haruko M

    2017-03-07

    Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, based on published and newly generated data, is used to better understand the interplay of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology controlling the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, sulfur, and uranium in a shallow floodplain. In this system, aerobic respiration generally maintains anoxic groundwater below an oxic vadose zone until seasonal snowmelt-driven water table peaking transports dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate from the vadose zone into the alluvial aquifer. The response to this perturbation is localized due to distinct physico-biogeochemical environments and relatively long time scales for transport through the floodplain aquifer and vadose zone. Naturally reduced zones (NRZs) containing sediments higher in organic matter, iron sulfides, and non-crystalline U(IV) rapidly consume DO and nitrate to maintain anoxic conditions, yielding Fe(II) from FeS oxidative dissolution, nitrite from denitrification, and U(VI) from nitrite-promoted U(IV) oxidation. Redox cycling is a key factor for sustaining the observed aquifer behaviors despite continuous oxygen influx and the annual hydrologically induced oxidation event. Depth-dependent activity of fermenters, aerobes, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, and chemolithoautotrophs (e.g., oxidizing Fe(II), S compounds, and ammonium) is linked to the presence of DO, which has higher concentrations near the water table.

  17. Bioavailable metals and cellular effects in the digestive gland of marine limpets living close to shallow water hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luís; Amaral, André; Medeiros, Vera; Martins, Gustavo M; Wallenstein, Francisco F M M; Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2008-04-01

    The pressure exerted by shallow water hydrothermal vents on edible gastropods and their cellular responses triggered by these stresses are almost unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of metals in the Macaronesian endemic limpet Patella candei gomesii living close to shallow water hydrothermal vents, and the structural differences in their digestive gland as well as the levels of apoptosis in that organ. Limpets were sampled in four sites, two with the presence of hydrothermalism and the other two without it. Whole body concentrations of several metals (Ca, Cd, Cs, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn) were obtained, morphometry analysis of the digestive gland and TUNEL test for apoptosis were also performed. Results revealed that the presence of shallow water hydrothermal vents is a source of chronic metal stress to limpets, imposing modifications in the morphometry and cell composition of the digestive gland of those limpets that may constitute cell and tissue adaptations to the environment they live in. This study sets up new baseline data for further research on the influence of shallow water hydrothermal vents over communities living in these habitats.

  18. On the existence of local strong solutions to chemotaxis-shallow water system with large data and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jiahang; Chen, Li; Duan, Ben; Luo, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, motivated by the chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system arising from mathematical biology [43], a modified shallow water type chemotactic model is derived. For large initial data allowing vacuum, the local existence of strong solutions together with the blow-up criterion is established.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  20. A high-resolution finite volume model for shallow water flow on uneven bathymetry using quadrilateral meshes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume model for quadrilateral grids is presented. The solution methodology of the depth-averaged shallow water equations is based upon a Godunov-type upwind finite volume formulation, whereby the inviscid fluxes of the system of equations are obtained using the...

  1. Observations of newborn blue sharks Prionace glauca in shallow inshore waters of the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bañón, R; Maño, T; Mucientes, G

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous presence of numerous blue shark Prionace glauca neonates and juveniles in shallow inshore waters of Galicia, north-west Spain, during the summers of 2014 and 2015 is reported. Changes in oceanographic conditions, high recruitment events or changes in the pupping area are discussed as possible causes of this unusual behaviour.

  2. Contrasting cesium dynamics in neighboring deep and shallow warm-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Pinder, John E; Hinton, T G; Whicker, F W

    2010-09-01

    To measure the long term retention and seasonal dynamics of an initial 4 kg addition of (133)Cs into an 11.4-ha, 157,000 m(3) reservoir (Pond 4, near Aiken, South Carolina, USA), the concentrations and inventories of (133)Cs in the water column were measured at periodical intervals for 522 days following the 1 August, 1999 release. After rapid declines in concentrations and inventories during the first 90 days, the (133)Cs concentrations in the water column declined at an average proportional rate of 0.004 d(-1). However, there were periods of less rapid and more rapid rates of declines, and these were correlated with periods of increasing and decreasing K concentrations in the water column. The decline rates were less and the K concentrations greater in the winter than in the summer. In the deeper, neighboring monomictic reservoirs of Par Pond and Pond B, a yearly cycle of increasing and decreasing (137)Cs concentrations in the water column is driven by anoxic remobilization of Cs from the sediments into a persistent summer hypolimnion. In Pond 4, whose mean depth of 1.6 m is too shallow to support a persistent anoxic hypolimnion, the pattern of yearly dynamics for K and Cs appear to be related to the accumulation and release of these elements from the extensive, seasonal macrophyte communities. The contrasting results between Pond 4 and Pond B suggest that a full appreciation of the relative importance of 1) anoxic remobilization and 2) accumulation and release by macrophytes in these systems remains to be established.

  3. Quality of shallow ground water in alluvial aquifers of the Williamette Basin, Oregon, 1993-95. National water-quality assessment program. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The purposes of this report are to describe the quality of shallow ground water in alluvial aquifers of the Willamette Basin and to identify relationships between shallow ground-water quality and various natural and anthropogenic factors. Several natural and anthropogenic factors (soil characteristics, cumulative thickness of clay above open interval of well, surficial geology, and land use) were evaluated because of the potential for these factors to either control or be related to contaminant occurrence and spatial distribution. Spatial distributions of nitrite plus nitrate, phosphorous, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trace elements (primarily arsenic, a trace element of local concern), and radon were evaluated for 1993-95. Ancillary chemical data--nitrite, chloride, tritium (H-3), and dissolved-oxygen (DO) concentrations--also are presented.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the shallow ground-water flow system associated with Connetquot Brook, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, Keith R.; Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    Streamflow on Long Island is derived principally from shallow ground water that flows above the deeper regional flow system. The movement of shallow ground water was studied during 1975-82 at Connetquot Brook, an undisturbed stream in Connetquot River State Park, in south-central Long Island, New York. The investigation encompassed (1) field studies of streamflow, ground-water levels, and age of water as indicated by tritium and dissolved-oxygen concentrations and (2) numerical simulation of the shallow flow system to evaluate the hydraulic factors that govern the direction of shallow ground-water flow near and beneath the stream. Analysis of water-level data indicates that ground water flows essentially horizontally throughout the drainage basin except near and beneath the stream, where it moves vertically upward toward the stream discharge boundary. Water levels in wells driven directly into the streambed and into the streambank at three sites were 1 to 2 feet higher than stream stage in the first 5 feet of penetration. Increases in head, which were detected to depths of 30 feet beneath the streambed, indicate upward movement of water above that depth. Hydraulic conductivity of the streambed sediments was calculated from head gradients in the streambed and from measured stream seepage; values were between 11 and 15 feet per day. Water samples from selected wells were analyzed for dissolved-oxygen and tritium concentrations to determine the relative age of the water in an attempt to locate the bottom boundary of the shallow flow system. Dissolved oxygen showed no pattern, but tritium concentrations about 1,000 feet from the stream were lower than those near the stream. The tritium concentrations indicate that the lower flow boundary was between 45 and 100 feet below the water table. A two-dimensional cross-sectional flow model of the shallow flow system was developed. The near-stream model response compared well with field data when the streambed discharge

  5. Community structure of age-0 fishes in paired mainstem and created shallow-water habitats in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starks, T. A.; Long, James M.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic alterations to aquatic ecosystems have greatly reduced and homogenized riverine habitat, especially those used by larval and juvenile fishes. Creation of shallow-water habitats is used as a restoration technique in respons