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Sample records for 2d thermal analysis

  1. Theoretical analysis of the 2D thermal cloaking problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. V.; Spivak, Yu E.; Yashchenko, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    Coefficient inverse problems for the model of heat scattering with variable coefficients arising when developing technologies of design of thermal cloaking devices are considered. By the optimization method, these problems are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and azimuthal conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium, filling the thermal cloak, play the role of control. The model of heat scattering acts as a functional restriction. A unique solvability of direct heat scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and efficient numerical algorithm of solving thermal cloaking problems is proposed.

  2. HEAT.PRO - THERMAL IMBALANCE FORCE SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS USING PDE2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.

    1994-01-01

    HEAT.PRO calculates the thermal imbalance force resulting from satellite surface heating. The heated body of a satellite re-radiates energy at a rate that is proportional to its temperature, losing the energy in the form of photons. By conservation of momentum, this momentum flux out of the body creates a reaction force against the radiation surface, and the net thermal force can be observed as a small perturbation that affects long term orbital behavior of the satellite. HEAT.PRO calculates this thermal imbalance force and then determines its effects on satellite orbits, especially where the Earth's shadowing of an orbiting satellite causes periodic changes in the spacecraft's thermal environment. HEAT.PRO implements a finite element method routine called PDE2D which incorporates material properties to determine the solar panel surface temperatures. The nodal temperatures are computed at specified time steps and are used to determine the magnitude and direction of the thermal force on the spacecraft. These calculations are based on the solar panel orientation and satellite's position with respect to the earth and sun. It is necessary to have accurate, current knowledge of surface emissivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and material density. These parameters, which may change due to degradation of materials in the environment of space, influence the nodal temperatures that are computed and thus the thermal force calculations. HEAT.PRO was written in FORTRAN 77 for Cray series computers running UNICOS. The source code contains directives for and is used as input to the required partial differential equation solver, PDE2D. HEAT.PRO is available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in UNIX tar format (standard distribution medium) or a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation in Macintosh Microsoft Word format is included on the distribution tape. HEAT.PRO was developed in 1991. Cray and UNICOS are

  3. 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR LEU Conversion using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Bodey, Isaac T; Lowe, Kirk T; Arimilli, Rao V

    2010-09-01

    The research documented herein was funded by a research contract between the Research Reactors Division (RRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering Department (MABE). The research was governed by a statement of work (SOW) which clearly defines nine specific tasks. This report is outlined to follow and document the results of each of these nine specific tasks. The primary goal of this phase of the research is to demonstrate, through verification and validation methods, that COMSOL is a viable simulation tool for thermal-hydraulic modeling of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core. A secondary goal of this two-dimensional phase of the research is to establish methodology and data base libraries that are also needed in the full three-dimensional COMSOL simulation to follow. COMSOL version 3.5a was used for all of the models presented throughout this report.

  4. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  5. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  6. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-07

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  7. Performance analysis of junctionless double gate VeSFET considering the effects of thermal variation - An explicit 2D analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Tarun; Khanna, Gargi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore junctionless double gate vertical slit field effect transistor (JLDG VeSFET) with reduced short channel effects and to develop an analytical threshold voltage model for the device considering the impact of thermal variations for the very first time. The model has been derived by solving 2D Poisson's equation and the effects of variation in temperature on various electrical parameters of the device such as Rout, drain current, mobility, subthreshold slope and DIBL has been studied and described in the paper. The model provides a deep physical insight of the device behavior and is also very helpful in contributing to the design space exploration for JLDG VeSFET. The proposed model is verified with simulative analysis at different radii of the device and it has been observed that there is a good agreement between the analytical model and simulation results.

  8. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    Quasi two-dimensional (2D) materials obtained by the "graphene-like" exfoliation attracted tremendous attention. Such materials revealed unique electronic, thermal and optical properties, which can be potentially used in electronics, thermal management and energy conversion. This dissertation research addresses two separate but synergetic problems: (i) preparation and optical characterization of quasi-2D films of the bismuth-telluride (Bi 2Te3) family of materials, which demonstrate both thermoelectric and topological insulator properties; and (ii) investigation of thermal properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG). The first part of dissertation reports properties of the exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3 and Sb 2Te3. Both non-resonant and resonant Raman scattering spectra have been investigated. It was found that the crystal symmetry breaking in few-quintuple films results in appearance of A1u-symmetry Raman peaks, which are not active in the bulk crystals. The scattering spectra measured under the 633-nm wavelength excitation reveals a number of resonant features, which could be used for analysis of the electronic and phonon processes in these materials. The obtained results help to understand the physical mechanisms of Raman scattering in the few-quintuple-thick films and can be used for nanometrology of topological insulator films on various substrates. The second part of the dissertation is dedicated to investigation of properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and FLG. It was found that the optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer graphene---produced by the high-yield inexpensive liquid-phase-exfoliation technique---can lead to an extremely strong enhancement of the cross-plane thermal conductivity K of the composite. The "laser flash" measurements revealed a record-high enhancement of K by 2300 % in the graphene-based polymer at the filler loading fraction f =10 vol. %. It was

  9. Local Topological Order Inhibits Thermal Stability in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Poulin, David

    2013-03-01

    We study the robustness of quantum information stored in the degenerate ground space of a local, frustration-free Hamiltonian with commuting terms on a 2D spin lattice. On one hand, a macroscopic energy barrier separating the distinct ground states under local transformations would protect the information from thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, local topological order would shield the ground space from static perturbations. Here we demonstrate that local topological order implies a constant energy barrier, thus inhibiting thermal stability.

  10. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  11. Electrically insulating thermal nano-oils using 2D fillers.

    PubMed

    Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Gao, Guanhui; Rohde, Matthew; Tsentalovich, Dmitri A; Pasquali, Matteo; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-02-28

    Different nanoscale fillers have been used to create composite fluids for applications such as thermal management. The ever increasing thermal loads in applications now require advanced operational fluids, for example, high thermal conductivity dielectric oils in transformers. These oils require excellent filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, but also electrical insulation. Such thermal oils that conform to this thermal/electrical requirement, and yet remain in highly suspended stable state, have not yet been synthesized. We report here the synthesis and characterization of stable high thermal conductivity Newtonian nanofluids using exfoliated layers of hexagonal boron nitride in oil without compromising its electrically insulating property. Two-dimensional nanosheets of hexagonal boron nitride are liquid exfoliated in isopropyl alcohol and redispersed in mineral oil, used as standard transformer oil, forming stable nanosuspensions with high shelf life. A high electrical resistivity, even higher than that of the base oil, is maintained for the nano-oil containing small weight fraction of the filler (0.01 wt %), whereas the thermal conductivity was enhanced. The low dissipation factor and high pour point for this nano-oil suggests several applications in thermal management.

  12. How to characterize thermal transport capability of 2D materials fairly? - Sheet thermal conductance and the choice of thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xufei; Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Pang, Yunsong; Roy, Ajit K.; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-02-01

    Thermal transport capability of monolayer 2D materials has been under constant spotlight. However, different definitions of thickness in literature have led to ambiguity towards predicting thermal conductivity values and thus in understanding the heat transfer capability of different monolayer 2D materials. We argue that the same thickness should be used and a 'sheet thermal conductance' should be defined as an intensive 2D material property when characterizing the heat transfer capability of 2D materials. When converting literature thermal conductivity values of monolayer materials to this new property, some new features that were not displayed when using different thicknesses show up.

  13. A large 2D PSD for thermal neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.; Watt, G.; Boldeman, J.W.; Smith, G.C.

    1996-12-31

    A 2D PSD based on a MWPC has been constructed for a small angle neutron scattering instrument. The active area of the detector was 640 x 640 mm{sup 2}. To meet the specifications for neutron detection efficiency and spatial resolution, and to minimize parallax, the gas mixture was 190 kPa {sup 3}He plus 100 kPa CF{sub 4} and the active volume had a thickness of 30 mm. The design maximum neutron count-rate of the detector was 10{sup 5} events per second. The (calculated) neutron detection efficiency was 60% for 2{angstrom} neutrons and the (measured) neutron energy resolution on the anode grid was typically 20% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active area was determined using the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) was thereby defined by the wire geometry. A 16 channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator module has been developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1 V/fC, noise linewidth of 0.4 fC (fwhm) and channel-to-channel cross-talk of less than 5%. The Proportional Counter Operating System (PCOS III) (LeCroy Corp USA) was used for event encoding. The ECL signals produced by the 16 channel modules were latched in PCOS III by a trigger pulse from the anode and the fast encoders produce a position and width for each event. The information was transferred to a UNIX workstation for accumulation and online display.

  14. A large 2D PSD for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, R. B.; Smith, G. C.; Watt, G.; Boldeman, J. W.

    1997-02-01

    A 2D PSD based on a MWPC has been constructed for a small angle neutron scattering instrument. The active area of the detector was 640 × 640 mm 2. To meet the specifications for neutron detection efficiency and spatial resolution, and to minimise parallax, the gas mixture was 190 kPa 3He plus 100 kPa CF 4, and the active volume had a thickness of 30 mm. The design maximum neutron count rate of the detector was 10 5 events per secod. The (calculated) neutron detection efficiency was 60% for 2 Å neutrons and the (measured) neutron energy resolution on the anode grid was typically 20% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active area was determined using the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 × 5 mm 2) was thereby defined by the wire geometry. A 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator module has been developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1 V/fC, noise line width of 0.4 fC (fwhm) and channel-to-channel cross-talk of less than 5%. The Proportional Counter Operating System (PCOS III) (LeCroy Corp, USA) was used for event encoding. The ECL signals produced by the 16 channel modules were latched in PCOS III by a trigger pulse from the anode and the fast encoders produce a position and width for each event. The information was transferred to a UNIX workstation for accumulation and online display.

  15. Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug

    2014-07-01

    The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.

  16. Microscale 2D separation systems for proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Ke; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Microscale 2D separation systems have been implemented in capillaries and microfabricated channels. They offer advantages of faster analysis, higher separation efficiency and less sample consumption than the conventional methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC) in a column and slab gel electrophoresis. In this article, we review their recent advancement, focusing on three types of platforms, including 2D capillary electrophoresis (CE), CE coupling with capillary LC, and microfluidic devices. A variety of CE and LC modes have been employed to construct 2D separation systems via sophistically designed interfaces. Coupling of different separation modes has also been realized in a number of microfluidic devices. These separation systems have been applied for the proteomic analysis of various biological samples, ranging from a single cell to tumor tissues. PMID:22462786

  17. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-07-16

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method.

  18. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P.; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-07-01

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method.

  19. PFC2D simulation of thermally induced cracks in concrete specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghong; Chang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Shuirong

    2013-06-01

    The appearance of cracks exposed to severe environmental conditions can be critical for concrete structures. The research is to validate Particle Flow Code(PFC2D) method in the context of concrete thermally-induced cracking simulations. First, concrete was discreted as meso-level units of aggregate, cement mortar and the interfaces between them. Parallel bonded-particle model in PFC2D was adapted to describe the constitutive relation of the cementing material. Then, the concrete mechanics meso-parameters were obtained through several groups of biaxial tests, in order to make the numerical results comply with the law of the indoor test. The concrete thermal meso-parameters were determined by compared with the parameters in the empirical formula through the simulations imposing a constant heat flow to the left margin of concrete specimens. At last, a case of 1000mm×500mm concrete specimen model was analyzed. It simulated the formation and development process of the thermally-induced cracks under the cold waves of different durations and temperature decline. Good agreements in fracture morphology and process were observed between the simulations, previous studies and laboratory data. The temperature decline limits during cold waves were obtained when its tensile strength was given as 3MPa. And it showed the feasibility of using PFC2D to simulate concrete thermally-induced cracking.

  20. MODELING THE TRANSVERSE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF 2D-SICF/SIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2002-09-01

    A hierarchical model was developed to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity, K effective, of a 2D-SiC/SiC composite made from stacked and infiltrated woven fabric layers in terms of constituent properties and microstructural and architectural variables. The model includes the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance as well as the effects of high fiber packing fractions within individual tows and the non-uniform nature of 2D-fabric layers that include a significant amount of interlayer porosity. Model predictions were obtained for two versions of DuPont 2D-Hi Nicalon(Trademark)/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite, one with a thin (0.110 micron) and the other with a thick (1.040 micron) PyC fiber coating. The model predicts that the matrix porosity content and porosity shape factor have a major influence on K effective(T) for such a composite.

  1. Thermally induced formation of 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with tunable characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Lee, Tae-Hyuk; Lee, Kap-Ho; Jeong, Seong-Uk; Kang, Kyung-Soo; Bae, Ki-Kwang; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2015-05-15

    We have investigated a thermally induced combustion route for preparing 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid system, for k=1–4 interval. Temperature–time profiles recorded by thermocouples indicated the existence of two sequential exothermic processes in the combustion wave leading to the BN nanoplates formation. The resulting BN nanoplates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, PL spectrometry, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. It was found that B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into BN completely (by XRD) at 1450–1930 °C within tens of seconds in a single-step synthesis process. The BN prepared at a k=1–4 interval comprised well-shaped nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm. The specific surface area of BN nanoplates was 13.7 g/m{sup 2} for k=2 and 28.4 m{sup 2}/g for k=4. - Graphical abstract: 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared by combustion of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid mixture in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Thermally induced combustion route was developed for synthesizing BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Mg was used as reductive agent and NH{sub 4}Cl as an effective nitrogen source. • Temperature–time profiles and the combustion parameters were recorded and discussed. • BN with an average edge length from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared. • Our study clarifies the formation mechanism of BN in the combustion wave.

  2. Simulation of multi-steps thermal transition in 2D spin-crossover nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Pottier, Benjamin-Louis; Linares, Jorge; Richard Dahoo, Pierre; Alayli, Yasser; Rotaru, Aurelian

    2016-04-01

    We have used an Ising like model to study the thermal behavior of a 2D spin crossover (SCO) system embedded in a matrix. The interaction parameter between edge SCO molecules and its local environment was included in the standard Ising like model as an additional term. The influence of the system's size and the ratio between the number of edge molecules and the other molecules were also discussed.

  3. 2-D thermal response calculations of the liquid lithium divertor on NSTX*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K.; McLean, A. G.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.

    2011-10-01

    The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) in NSTX was installed for particle and impurity control in NSTX, and its effectiveness was predicted to vary with the lithium surface temperature. It is therefore important to know the temperature evolution of the LLD during plasma discharges. A 2-D implicit finite difference code (``Li_enthalpy'') was written to simulate the lithium temperature with an accurate description of the LLD components, which include a surface lithium layer, a porous molybdenum mesh that is ~ 50% filled with lithium, a thin stainless steel layer, and a thick underlying copper substrate. The heat flux on the graphite was measured with a recently developed dual-band infrared camera; we use the same heat flux profile on the LLD at the same major radius, because of toroidal symmetry. The code ``Li_enthalpy'' computes the LLD thermal response to this heat flux profile; a Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure was implemented to solve the phase-change problem as lithium melted in response to plasma heating. The computed LLD temperature response is then compared and calibrated with the measured surface temperature on the LLD with the dual-band camera. From this the dynamics of the spatially and time varying liquid lithium layer thickness are extracted. Analysis from a number of plasma discharges is presented. *Supported in part by U.S. DoE contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Meshfree natural vibration analysis of 2D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosta, Tomislav; Tsukanov, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Determination of resonance frequencies and vibration modes of mechanical structures is one of the most important tasks in the product design procedure. The main goal of this paper is to describe a pioneering application of the solution structure method (SSM) to 2D structural natural vibration analysis problems and investigate the numerical properties of the method. SSM is a meshfree method which enables construction of the solutions to the engineering problems that satisfy exactly all prescribed boundary conditions. This method is capable of using spatial meshes that do not conform to the shape of a geometric model. Instead of using the grid nodes to enforce boundary conditions, it employs distance fields to the geometric boundaries and combines them with the basis functions and prescribed boundary conditions at run time. This defines unprecedented geometric flexibility of the SSM as well as the complete automation of the solution procedure. In the paper we will explain the key points of the SSM as well as investigate the accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach by comparing our results with the ones obtained using analytical methods or traditional finite element analysis. Despite in this paper we are dealing with 2D in-plane vibrations, the proposed approach has a straightforward generalization to model vibrations of 3D structures.

  5. Multifunctional Nanofluids with 2D Nanosheets for thermal management and tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha Tijerina, Jose Jaime

    Conventional heat-transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, standard oils and other lubricants are typically low-efficiency heat-transfer fluids. Thermal management plays a critical factor in many applications where these fluids can be used, such as in motors/engines, solar cells, biopharmaceuticals, fuel cells, high voltage power transmission systems, micro/nanoelectronics mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), and nuclear cooling among others. These insulating fluids require superb filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, and for certain applications as in electrical/electronic devices also electrical insulation. The miniaturization and high efficiency of electrical/electronic devices in these fields demand successful heat management and energy-efficient fluid-based heat-transfer systems. Recent advances in layered materials enable large scale synthesis of various two-dimensional (2D) structures. Some of these 2D materials are good choices as nanofillers in heat transfer fluids; mainly due to their inherent high thermal conductivity (TC) and high surface area available for thermal energy transport. Among various 2D-nanostructures, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene (G) exhibit versatile properties such as outstanding TC, excellent mechanical stability, and remarkable chemical inertness. The following research, even though investigate various conventional fluids, will focus on dielectric insulating nanofluids (mineral oil -- MO) with significant thermal performance. It is presented the plan for synthesis and characterization of stable high-thermal conductivity nanofluids using 2D-nanostructures of h-BN, which will be further incorporated at diverse filler concentrations to conventional fluids for cooling applications, without compromising its electrical insulating property. For comparison, properties of h-BN based fluids are compared with conductive fillers such as graphene; where graphene has similar crystal structure of h-BN and also has similar bulk

  6. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The University of Georgia used NASTRAN, a COSMIC program that predicts how a design will stand up under stress, to develop a model for monitoring the transient cooling of vegetables. The winter use of passive solar heating for poultry houses is also under investigation by the Agricultural Engineering Dept. Another study involved thermal analysis of black and green nursery containers. The use of NASTRAN has encouraged student appreciation of sophisticated computer analysis.

  7. Real-time 2D Imaging of Thermal and Mechanical Tissue Response to Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2010-03-01

    An integrated system capable of performing high frame-rate two-dimensional (2D) temperature imaging in realtime is has been developed. The system consists of a SonixRP ultrasound scanner and a custom built data processing unit connected with Gigabit Ethernet (GbE). The SonixRP scanner which serves as the frontend of the integrated system allows us to have flexibilities of controlling the beam sequence and accessing the radio frequency (RF) data in realtime through its research interface. The RF data is then streamlined to the backend of the system through GbE, where the data is processed using a 2D temperature estimation algorithm running in a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPU). Using this system, we have developed a 2D high frame-rate imaging mode, M2D, for imaging the mechanical and thermal tissue response to subtherapeutic HIFU beams. In this paper, we present results from imaging subtherapetic HIFU beams in vitro porcine heart before and after lesion formation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tissue parameter changes due to HIFU-induced lesions.

  8. Thermal stability effects on the separated flow over a steep 2-D hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2012-12-01

    Transport of momentum and scalars in turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography has been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. Applications include but are not limited to weather forecasting, air pollution dispersion, aviation safety control, and wind energy project planning. Linear models have been well accepted to predict boundary-layer flows over topography with gentle slope. However, once the slope of the topography is sufficientlyo steep that flow separation occurs, linear models are not applicable. Modeling the turbulent transport of momentum and scalars in such flows has to be achieved through non-linear models, such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solvers and large-eddy simulations (LES). Dynamics of the separated boundary-layer flows over steep topography is affected by the shape and size of the topography, surface characteristics (e.g., roughness and temperature) and atmospheric thermal stability. Most wind-tunnel experiments of boundary-layer flows over idealized topography (e.g. 2-D or 3-D hills, axisymmetric bumps) do not take thermal stability effects into account due to difficulty of physical simulation. We conducted comprehensive experimental investigation of stably- and unstably- stratified boundary layers over a steep 2-D hill in the thermally-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. The 2-D model hill has a steepest slope of 0.73 and its shape follows a cosine square function: h=Hcos^2 (πx/L) for -L/2 ≤ x ≤ L/2 , where the maximum height H is 7 cm and the total width L is 15 cm. High-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) provides dynamic information of the separated shear layer, the recirculation zone and flow reattachment. Turbulent momentum and scalar (heat) fluxes were characterized up to the top of the thermal boundary layer using a triple-wire (cross-wire and cold-wire) anemometer. Results indicate that promoted and suppressed turbulence

  9. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  10. MODELING THE TRANSVERSE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF 2-D SICF/SIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH WOVEN FABRIC

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E; Senor, David J; Jones, Russell H

    2004-06-01

    The hierarchical two-layer (H2L) model describes the effective transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) of a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite plate made from stacked and infiltrated woven fabric layers in terms of constituent properties and microstructural and architectural variables. The H2L model includes the effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance, high fiber packing fractions within individual tows and the non-uniform nature of 2D fabric/matrix layers that usually include a significant amount of interlayer porosity. Previously, H2L model Keff-predictions were compared to measured values for two versions of 2D Hi-Nicalon/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite, one with a “thin” (0.11m) and the other with a “thick” (1.04m) pyrocarbon (PyC) fiber coating, and for a 2D Tyranno SA/”thin” PyC/FCVI-SIC composite. In this study, H2L model Keff-predictions were compared to measured values for a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made using the ICVI-process with Hi-Nicalon type S fabric and a “thin” PyC fiber coating. The values of Keff determined for the latter composite were significantly greater than the Keff-values determined for the composites made with either the Hi-Nicalon or the Tyranno SA fabrics. Differences in Keff-values were expected for the different fiber types, but major differences also were due to observed microstructural and architectural variations between the composite systems, and as predicted by the H2L model.

  11. Controlled Covalent Functionalization of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide To Generate Defined Bifunctional 2D Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Faghani, Abbas; Donskyi, Ievgen S.; Fardin Gholami, Mohammad; Ziem, Benjamin; Lippitz, Andreas; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Böttcher, Christoph; Rabe, Jürgen P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A controlled, reproducible, gram‐scale method is reported for the covalent functionalization of graphene sheets by a one‐pot nitrene [2+1] cycloaddition reaction under mild conditions. The reaction between commercially available 2,4,6‐trichloro‐1,3,5‐triazine and sodium azide with thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) results in defined dichlorotriazine‐functionalized sheets. The different reactivities of the chlorine substituents on the functionalized graphene allow stepwise post‐modification by manipulating the temperature. This new method provides unique access to defined bifunctional 2D nanomaterials, as exemplified by chiral surfaces and multifunctional hybrid architectures. PMID:28165179

  12. ICF target 2D modeling using Monte Carlo SNB electron thermal transport in DRACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup diffusion electron thermal transport method is adapted into a Monte Carlo (MC) transport method to better model angular and long mean free path non-local effects. The MC model was first implemented in the 1D LILAC code to verify consistency with the iSNB model. Implementation of the MC SNB model in the 2D DRACO code enables higher fidelity non-local thermal transport modeling in 2D implosions such as polar drive experiments on NIF. The final step is to optimize the MC model by hybridizing it with a MC version of the iSNB diffusion method. The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in intermediate mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions allowing for improved computational efficiency while maintaining accuracy. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories and the Univ. of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  13. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Leonard C.; Schmidt, Shelly J.

    Thermal analysis is a term used to describe a broad range of analytical techniques that measure physical and chemical properties as a function of temperature, time, and atmosphere (inert or oxidizing gas, pressure, and relative humidity). Depending on the technique, test temperatures can range from - 180 to 1000∘ C or more, allowing investigation into a range of applications, including low temperature stability and processing (e.g., freezing and freeze-drying) to high temperature processing and cooking (e.g., extrusion, spray drying, and frying).

  14. Thermal Conductivity and Thermopower near the 2D Metal-Insulator transition, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2015-02-20

    STUDIES OF STRONGLY-INTERACTING 2D ELECTRON SYSTEMS – There is a great deal of current interest in the properties of systems in which the interaction between electrons (their potential energy) is large compared to their kinetic energy. We have investigated an apparent, unexpected metal-insulator transition inferred from the behavior of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity; moreover, detailed analysis of the behavior of the magnetoresistance suggests that the electrons’ effective mass diverges, supporting this scenario. Whether this is a true phase transition or crossover behavior has been strenuously debated over the past 20 years. Our measurements have now shown that the thermoelectric power of these 2D materials diverges at a finite density, providing clear evidence that this is, in fact, a phase transition to a new low-density phase which may be a precursor or a direct transition to the long sought-after electronic crystal predicted by Eugene Wigner in 1934.

  15. Investigation of the thermal stability of 2-D patterns of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ting-Yu; Requicha, Aristides A G; Thompson, Mark E; Koel, Bruce E

    2007-08-01

    Nanoparticles can serve as useful components or sub-assemblies, i.e., building blocks, in the design and fabrication of more complex structures needed for rapid prototyping using layered nanofabrication (LNF) or for use in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). This paper describes investigations of the thermal stability of simple 2-D patterns of thiol-coated, 5-nm gold nanoparticles deposited on the native oxide surface of a Si(100) single crystal substrate. The changes in the particle structure and location on the surface were probed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after heating in ambient air. Experiments were carried out on the as-deposited nanoparticles and on patterns of nanoparticles that had been pretreated (prior to heating) by a 10-min exposure in a UV-ozone ashing chamber. All individual particles and 2-D patterns were stable up to 550 degrees C. Higher temperatures caused first a reduction in particle height and eventually a loss of the particle from the field of view (presumably by rather long-range diffusion).

  16. 2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scivner, G.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-12-17

    A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.

  17. Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Avijit; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-04-01

    Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation.

  18. THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY/CONDUCTIVITY OF IRRADIATED HI-NICALON (Trademark) 2D-SICf/SIC COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2003-06-15

    The H2L model was used to critically assess degradation within the individual fiber, fiber coating and matrix components for irradiated 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made with an ICVI-SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon (Trademark) fabric. The composites were made with either a 1.044-micron (“thick”) or a 0.110-micron (“thin”) PyC fiber coating and were irradiated in the HFIR reactor as part of the JUPITER 12J (355 degrees C, 7.1 dpa-SiC) or 14J (330 and 800 degrees C, 5.8 and 7.2 dpa-SiC, respectively) series. Laser flash diffusivity measurements were made on representative samples before and after irradiation and after various annealing treatments. The ratio of the transverse thermal conductivity after to before irradiation K(sub-irr)/K(sub-zero) determined at the irradiation temperatures and predicted by the H2L model were: 0.18, 0.23 and 0.29 for the 330, 355 and 800 degrees C irradiations, respectively. Thermal diffusivity measurements in air, argon, helium and vacuum indicated that physical separation of the fiber/matrix interface was minimal after the irradiations, but was significant after annealing irradiated composites to 1200 degrees C. These results suggest that during irradiation to 6 dpa or more radial swelling of the PyC interface would compensate for the radial shrinkage of the Hi-Nicalon (Trademark) fiber and the SiC matrix swelling. The fiber shrinkage is due to irradiation-induced grain-growth and recrystallization and the matrix swelling is due to accumulation of irradiation-induced point defects. However, when the irradiation induced swelling in the matrix and fiber coating components was removed by recombination of point defects during high temperature annealing there was significant fiber/matrix separation.

  19. A 2D mechanical-magneto-thermal model for direction-dependent magnetoelectric effect in laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Yao, Hong; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-04-01

    A two dimensional (2D) mechanical-magneto-thermal model of direction-dependent magnetoelectric (ME) effect in Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D laminated composites is established. The expressions of ME coefficient at low and resonance frequencies are derived by the average field method, respectively. The prediction of theoretical model presents a good agreement with the experimental data. The combined effect of orientation-dependent stress and magnetic fields, as well as operating temperature on ME coefficient is discussed. It is shown that ME effect presents a significantly nonlinear change with the increasing pre-stress under different loading angles. There exists an optimal angle and value of pre-stress corresponding to the best ME effect, improving the angle of pre-stress can get more prominent ME coupling than in x axis state. Note that an optimal angle of magnetic field gradually increases with the rise of pre-stress, which can further lead to the enhancement of ME coefficient. Meanwhile, reducing the operating temperature can enhance ME coefficient. Furthermore, resonance frequency, affected by pre-stress, magnetic field and temperature via ; ΔE effect;, can enhance ME coefficient about 100 times than that at low frequency.

  20. Thermal Shock Properties of a 2D-C/SiC Composite Prepared by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengyu; Wang, Xuanwei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yongsheng; Han, Dong; Qiao, Shengru; Guo, Yong

    2013-06-01

    The thermal shock properties of a two-dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite with a multilayered self-healing coating (2D-C/SiC) were investigated in air. The composite was prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor infiltration. 2D-C/SiC specimens were thermally shocked for different cycles between 900 and 300 °C. The thermal shock resistance was characterized by residual tensile properties and mass variation. The change of the surface morphology and microstructural evolution of the composite were examined by a scanning electron microscope. In addition, the phase evolution on the surfaces was identified using an X-ray diffractometer. It is found that the composite retains its tensile strength within 20 thermal shock cycles. However, the modulus of 2D-C/SiC decreases gradually with increasing thermal shock cycles. Extensive pullout of fibers on the fractured surface and peeling off of the coating suggest that the damage caused by the thermal shock involves weakening of the bonding strength of coating/composite and fiber/matrix. In addition, the carbon fibers in the near-surface zone were oxidized through the matrix cracks, and the fiber/matrix interfaces delaminated when the composite was subjected to a larger number of thermal shock cycles.

  1. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Helium Near its Transition Temperature T(sub lambda) in a 2D Confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerebets, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We report our recent experiments on thermal conductivity measurements of superfluid He-4 near its phase transition in a two-dimensional (2D) confinement under saturated vapor pressure. A 2D confinement is created by 2-mm- and 1-mm-thick glass capillary plates, consisting of densely populated parallel microchannels with cross-sections of 5 x 50 and 1 x 10 microns, correspondingly. A heat current (2 < Q < 400 nW/sq cm) was applied along the channels long direction. High-resolution measurements were provided by DC SQUID-based high-resolution paramagnetic salt thermometers (HRTs) with a nanokelvin resolution. We might find that thermal conductivity of confined helium is finite at the bulk superfluid transition temperature. Our 2D results will be compared with those in a bulk and 1D confinement.

  2. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, understood as the spatial arrangement of soil pores, is one of the key factors in soil modelling processes. Geometric properties of individual and interpretation of the morphological parameters of pores can be estimated from thin sections or 3D Computed Tomography images (Tarquis et al., 2003), but there is no satisfactory method to binarized these images and quantify the complexity of their spatial arrangement (Tarquis et al., 2008, Tarquis et al., 2009; Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of this work was to apply a multifractal technique, their singularities (α) and f(α) spectra, to quantify it without applying any threshold (Gónzalez-Torres, 2014). Intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of an Argisol, formed on the Tertiary Barreiras group of formations in Pernambuco state, Brazil (Itapirema Experimental Station). The natural vegetation of the region is tropical, coastal rainforest. From each horizon, showing different porosities and spatial arrangements, three adjacent samples were taken having a set of twelve samples. The intact soil samples were imaged using an EVS (now GE Medical. London, Canada) MS-8 MicroCT scanner with 45 μm pixel-1 resolution (256x256 pixels). Though some samples required paring to fit the 64 mm diameter imaging tubes, field orientation was maintained. References Baveye, P.C., M. Laba, W. Otten, L. Bouckaert, P. Dello, R.R. Goswami, D. Grinev, A. Houston, Yaoping Hu, Jianli Liu, S. Mooney, R. Pajor, S. Sleutel, A. Tarquis, Wei Wang, Qiao Wei, Mehmet Sezgin. Observer-dependent variability of the thresholding step in the quantitative analysis of soil images and X-ray microtomography data. Geoderma, 157, 51-63, 2010. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and application of multifractal analysis methods in images for the study of soil structure. Master thesis, UPM, 2014. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, J.B. Grau; J. Fabregat, M.E. Sanchez and J.M. Antón. Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-D

  3. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  4. 2-D Acousto-Optic Signal Processors for Simultaneous Spectrum Analysis and Direction Finding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    National Dfense Defence nationale 2-D ACOUSTO - OPTIC SIGNAL PROCESSORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 00 AND DIRECTION FINDING (U) by NM Jim P.Y...Wr pdft .1w I0~1111191 3 05089 National DIfense Defence nationale 2-D ACOUSTO - OPTIC SIGNAL PROCESSORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AND DIRECTION...Processing, J.T. Tippet et al., Eds., Chapter 38, pp. 715-748, MIT Press, Cambridge 1965. [6] A.E. Spezio," Acousto - optics for Electronic Warfare

  5. Thermal Conductance of the 2D MoS2/h-BN and graphene/h-BN Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yunshan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chi, Dongzhi; Zhang, Gang; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their corresponding van der Waals heterostructures have drawn tremendous interest due to their extraordinary electrical and optoelectronic properties. Insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with an atomically smooth surface has been widely used as a passivation layer to improve carrier transport for other 2D materials, especially for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs). However, heat flow at the interface between TMDCs and h-BN, which will play an important role in thermal management of various electronic and optoelectronic devices, is not yet understood. In this paper, for the first time, the interface thermal conductance (G) at the MoS2/h-BN interface is measured by Raman spectroscopy, and the room-temperature value is (17.0 ± 0.4) MW · m‑2K‑1. For comparison, G between graphene and h-BN is also measured, with a value of (52.2 ± 2.1) MW · m‑2K‑1. Non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) calculations, from which the phonon transmission spectrum can be obtained, show that the lower G at the MoS2/h-BN interface is due to the weaker cross-plane transmission of phonon modes compared to graphene/h-BN. This study demonstrates that the MoS2/h-BN interface limits cross-plane heat dissipation, and thereby could impact the design and applications of 2D devices while considering critical thermal management.

  6. Thermal Conductance of the 2D MoS2/h-BN and graphene/h-BN Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yunshan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chi, Dongzhi; Zhang, Gang; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar

    2017-03-06

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their corresponding van der Waals heterostructures have drawn tremendous interest due to their extraordinary electrical and optoelectronic properties. Insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with an atomically smooth surface has been widely used as a passivation layer to improve carrier transport for other 2D materials, especially for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs). However, heat flow at the interface between TMDCs and h-BN, which will play an important role in thermal management of various electronic and optoelectronic devices, is not yet understood. In this paper, for the first time, the interface thermal conductance (G) at the MoS2/h-BN interface is measured by Raman spectroscopy, and the room-temperature value is (17.0 ± 0.4) MW · m(-2)K(-1). For comparison, G between graphene and h-BN is also measured, with a value of (52.2 ± 2.1) MW · m(-2)K(-1). Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) calculations, from which the phonon transmission spectrum can be obtained, show that the lower G at the MoS2/h-BN interface is due to the weaker cross-plane transmission of phonon modes compared to graphene/h-BN. This study demonstrates that the MoS2/h-BN interface limits cross-plane heat dissipation, and thereby could impact the design and applications of 2D devices while considering critical thermal management.

  7. Thermal Conductance of the 2D MoS2/h-BN and graphene/h-BN Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yunshan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chi, Dongzhi; Zhang, Gang; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their corresponding van der Waals heterostructures have drawn tremendous interest due to their extraordinary electrical and optoelectronic properties. Insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with an atomically smooth surface has been widely used as a passivation layer to improve carrier transport for other 2D materials, especially for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs). However, heat flow at the interface between TMDCs and h-BN, which will play an important role in thermal management of various electronic and optoelectronic devices, is not yet understood. In this paper, for the first time, the interface thermal conductance (G) at the MoS2/h-BN interface is measured by Raman spectroscopy, and the room-temperature value is (17.0 ± 0.4) MW · m−2K−1. For comparison, G between graphene and h-BN is also measured, with a value of (52.2 ± 2.1) MW · m−2K−1. Non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) calculations, from which the phonon transmission spectrum can be obtained, show that the lower G at the MoS2/h-BN interface is due to the weaker cross-plane transmission of phonon modes compared to graphene/h-BN. This study demonstrates that the MoS2/h-BN interface limits cross-plane heat dissipation, and thereby could impact the design and applications of 2D devices while considering critical thermal management. PMID:28262778

  8. Scientometric analysis and bibliography of digit ratio (2D:4D) research, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2009-06-01

    A scientometric analysis of modern research on the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for prenatal androgen action, is presented. In early 2009, this literature totalled more than 300 publications and, since its initiation in 1998, has grown at a rate slightly faster than linear. Key findings included evidence of publication bias and citation bias, incomplete coverage and outdatedness of existing reviews, and a dearth of meta-analyses in this field. 2D:4D research clusters noticeably in terms of researchers, institutions, countries, and journals involved. Although 2D:4D is an anthropometric trait, most of the research has been conducted at psychology departments, not anthropology departments. However, 2D:4D research has not been predominantly published in core and specialized journals of psychology, but rather in more broadly scoped journals of the behavioral sciences, biomedical social sciences, and neurosciences. Total citation numbers of 2D:4D papers for the most part were not larger than their citation counts within 2D:4D research, indicating that until now, only a few 2D:4D studies have attained broader interest outside this specific field. Comparative citation analyses show that 2D:4D research presently is commensurate in size and importance to evolutionary psychological jealousy research, but has grown faster than the latter field. In contrast, it is much smaller and has spread more slowly than research about the Implicit Association Test Fifteen conjectures about anticipated trends in 2D:4D research are outlined, appendixed by a first-time bibliography of the entirety of the published 2D:4D literature.

  9. Thermal Investigation of Common 2d FETs and New Generation of 3d FETs Using Boltzmann Transport Equation in Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samian, R. S.; Abbassi, A.; Ghazanfarian, J.

    2013-09-01

    The thermal performance of two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FET) is investigated frequently by solving the Fourier heat diffusion law and the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). With the introduction of the new generation of 3D FETs in which their thickness is less than the phonon mean-free-path it is necessary to carefully simulate the thermal performance of such devices. This paper numerically integrates the BTE in common 2D transistors including planar single layer and Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) transistor, and the new generation of 3D transistors including FinFET and Tri-Gate devices. In order to decrease the directional dependency of results in 3D simulations; the Legendre equal-weight (PN-EW) quadrature set has been employed. It is found that if similar switching time is assumed for 3D and 2D FETs while the new generation of 3D FETs has less net energy consumption, they have higher hot-spot temperature. The results show continuous heat flux distribution normal to the silicon/oxide interface while the temperature jump is seen at the interface in double layer transistors.

  10. Applicability extent of 2-D heat equation for numerical analysis of a multiphysics problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on thermal problems, solvable using the heat equation. The fundamental question being answered here is: what are the limits of the dimensions that will allow a 3-D thermal problem to be accurately modelled using a 2-D Heat Equation? The presented work solves 2-D and 3-D heat equations using the Finite Difference Method, also known as the Forward-Time Central-Space (FTCS) method, in MATLAB®. For this study, a cuboidal shape domain with a square cross-section is assumed. The boundary conditions are set such that there is a constant temperature at its center and outside its boundaries. The 2-D and 3-D heat equations are solved in a time dimension to develop a steady state temperature profile. The method is tested for its stability using the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) criteria. The results are compared by varying the thickness of the 3-D domain. The maximum error is calculated, and recommendations are given on the applicability of the 2-D heat equation.

  11. On-board monitoring of 2-D spatially-resolved temperatures in cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Part I. Low-order thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Robert R.; Zhao, Shi; Howey, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating the temperature distribution within Li-ion batteries during operation is critical for safety and control purposes. Although existing control-oriented thermal models - such as thermal equivalent circuits (TEC) - are computationally efficient, they only predict average temperatures, and are unable to predict the spatially resolved temperature distribution throughout the cell. We present a low-order 2D thermal model of a cylindrical battery based on a Chebyshev spectral-Galerkin (SG) method, capable of predicting the full temperature distribution with a similar efficiency to a TEC. The model accounts for transient heat generation, anisotropic heat conduction, and non-homogeneous convection boundary conditions. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with finite element simulations, which show that the 2-D temperature field (r, z) of a large format (64 mm diameter) cell can be accurately modelled with as few as 4 states. Furthermore, the performance of the model for a range of Biot numbers is investigated via frequency analysis. For larger cells or highly transient thermal dynamics, the model order can be increased for improved accuracy. The incorporation of this model in a state estimation scheme with experimental validation against thermocouple measurements is presented in the companion contribution (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775316308163).

  12. Thermal influence on the groundwater fluid dynamics of the shallow Santiago forearc basin: 2D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramusset, Anneli; Herrera, Paulo; Parada, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal processes that occur in aquifers is essential to assess local and regional low enthalpy geothermal resources. The relationship between heat convection and heat conduction has been widely studied in basins around the world at a regional scale. However, few studies have focused on smaller, shallower basins containing free aquifers hosted in unconsolidated fluvial-alluvial sediments, like Santiago Basin. We use numerical modeling to simulate the fluid dynamics of the Santiago basin groundwater system under different thermal conditions. Despite the current computational advances, modeling such a complex system with a full 3D approach is still numerically time demanding and unstable. Besides, the basin has irregular geometry and variable hydraulic and thermal features. Thus, we performed a 2D model comprising a thin water saturated slice of sediments beneath the central part of the city, where the basin morphology is well constrained. We simulate coupled groundwater and heat flow throughout this vertical slice and we compare results for different scenarios that comprise different hydraulic, thermal and geometric parameters. Results obtained with certain hydraulic conductivities show that instabilities appear giving rise to free thermal convection in the deepest parts of the basin. If the system is split into several hydrogeological units, the onset of these instabilities is inhibited. Consequently, we suggest that the stratigraphic complexities of a fluvial-alluvial deposit should be considered to better understanding the thermal-driven groundwater fluid dynamics.

  13. Modeling the Transverse Thermal Conductivity of 2-D SiCf/SiC Composites Made with Woven Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2004-06-30

    The hierarchical two-layer (H2L) model was developed to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity, Keff, of a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made from stacked and infiltrated woven fabric layers in terms of constituent properties and microstructural and architectural variables. The H2L model includes the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance as well as the effects of high fiber packing fractions within individual tows and the non-uniform nature of 2D-fabric layers that usually include a significant amount of interlayer porosity. Previously, H2L model predictions were compared to measured values of Keff for two versions of DuPont 2D-Hi NicalonÔ/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite, one with a “thin” (0.110 μm) and the other with a “thick” (1.040 μm) pyrocarbon (PyC) fiber coating, and for a 2D-TyrannoÔ SA/”thin” PyC/FCVI-SIC composite made by ORNL. In this study, H2L model predictions are compared to measured Keff-values for a 2D-SiCf/SiC composite made by GE Power Systems (formerly DuPont Lanxide) using the ICVI-process with Hi-NicalonÔ type S fabric. The values of Keff determined for the composite made with the Hi-NicalonÔ type S fabric were significantly greater than Keff-values determined for the composites made with either the Hi-NicalonÔor the TyrannoÔ SA fabrics. Differences in Keff-values were expected for using different fiber types, but major differences also were due to observed microstructural variations between the systems, and as predicted by the H2L model.

  14. A 1-MHz 2-D CMUT array for HIFU thermal ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyo-Seon; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Firouzi, Kamyar; Choe, Jung Woo; Watkins, Ronald D.; Oguz, Huseyin Kagan; Kupnik, Mario; Pauly, Kim Butts; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    We developed a fully-populated 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. The 2-D CMUT array, which consists of 20 × 20 square CMUT elements with an element-to-element pitch of 1 mm, was designed and fabricated using the thick-buried-oxide (BOX) fabrication process. It was then assembled on a custom interface board that can provide various array configurations depending on the desired applications. In this study, the interface board groups the CMUT array elements into eight channels, based on the phase delay from the element to the targeted focal point at a 20-mm distance from the array surface, which corresponds to an F-number of 1. An 8-channel phase generating system supplies continuous waves with eight different phases to the eight channels of the CMUT array through bias-tees and amplifiers. This array aperture, grouped into eight channels, gives a focusing gain of 6.09 according to field simulation using Field II. Assuming a peak-to-peak pressure of 1 MPa at the surface of the array, our custom temperature simulator predicts successful tissue ablation at the focus. During the measurements, each channel was tuned with a series inductor for an operational frequency of 1 MHz. With a CMUT DC bias of 100 V and a 1-MHz AC input voltage of 55 V, we achieved peak-to-peak output pressures of 173.9 kPa and 568.7 kPa at the array surface and at the focus, respectively. The focusing gain calculated from this measurement is 3.27, which is lower than the simulated gain of 6.09 because of the mutual radiation impedance among the CMUT cells. Further optimization of the operating condition of this array and design improvements for reducing the effect of mutual radiation impedance are currently on-going.

  15. Aircraft target identification based on 2D ISAR images using multiresolution analysis wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Huaitie; Hu, Xiangjiang

    2001-09-01

    The formation of 2D ISAR images for radar target identification hold much promise for additional distinguish- ability between targets. Since an image contains important information is a wide range of scales, and this information is often independent from one scale to another, wavelet analysis provides a method of identifying the spatial frequency content of an image and the local regions within the image where those spatial frequencies exist. In this paper, a multiresolution analysis wavelet method based on 2D ISAR images was proposed for use in aircraft radar target identification under the wide band high range resolution radar background. The proposed method was performed in three steps; first, radar backscatter signals were processed in the form of 2D ISAR images, then, Mallat's wavelet algorithm was used in the decomposition of images, finally, a three layer perceptron neural net was used as classifier. The result of experiments demonstrated that the feasibility of using multiresolution analysis wavelet for target identification.

  16. CYP2D6 genotype and adjuvant tamoxifen: meta-analysis of heterogeneous study populations.

    PubMed

    Province, M A; Goetz, M P; Brauch, H; Flockhart, D A; Hebert, J M; Whaley, R; Suman, V J; Schroth, W; Winter, S; Zembutsu, H; Mushiroda, T; Newman, W G; Lee, M-T M; Ambrosone, C B; Beckmann, M W; Choi, J-Y; Dieudonné, A-S; Fasching, P A; Ferraldeschi, R; Gong, L; Haschke-Becher, E; Howell, A; Jordan, L B; Hamann, U; Kiyotani, K; Krippl, P; Lambrechts, D; Latif, A; Langsenlehner, U; Lorizio, W; Neven, P; Nguyen, A T; Park, B-W; Purdie, C A; Quinlan, P; Renner, W; Schmidt, M; Schwab, M; Shin, J-G; Stingl, J C; Wegman, P; Wingren, S; Wu, A H B; Ziv, E; Zirpoli, G; Thompson, A M; Jordan, V C; Nakamura, Y; Altman, R B; Ames, M M; Weinshilboum, R M; Eichelbaum, M; Ingle, J N; Klein, T E

    2014-02-01

    The International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium was established to address the controversy regarding cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status and clinical outcomes in tamoxifen therapy. We performed a meta-analysis on data from 4,973 tamoxifen-treated patients (12 globally distributed sites). Using strict eligibility requirements (postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, receiving 20 mg/day tamoxifen for 5 years, criterion 1); CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status was associated with poorer invasive disease-free survival (IDFS: hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.06, 1.47; P = 0.009). However, CYP2D6 status was not statistically significant when tamoxifen duration, menopausal status, and annual follow-up were not specified (criterion 2, n = 2,443; P = 0.25) or when no exclusions were applied (criterion 3, n = 4,935; P = 0.38). Although CYP2D6 is a strong predictor of IDFS using strict inclusion criteria, because the results are not robust to inclusion criteria (these were not defined a priori), prospective studies are necessary to fully establish the value of CYP2D6 genotyping in tamoxifen therapy.

  17. PLAN2D - A PROGRAM FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF PLANAR FRAMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.

    1994-01-01

    PLAN2D is a FORTRAN computer program for the plastic analysis of planar rigid frame structures. Given a structure and loading pattern as input, PLAN2D calculates the ultimate load that the structure can sustain before collapse. Element moments and plastic hinge rotations are calculated for the ultimate load. The location of hinges required for a collapse mechanism to form are also determined. The program proceeds in an iterative series of linear elastic analyses. After each iteration the resulting elastic moments in each member are compared to the reserve plastic moment capacity of that member. The member or members that have moments closest to their reserve capacity will determine the minimum load factor and the site where the next hinge is to be inserted. Next, hinges are inserted and the structural stiffness matrix is reformulated. This cycle is repeated until the structure becomes unstable. At this point the ultimate collapse load is calculated by accumulating the minimum load factor from each previous iteration and multiplying them by the original input loads. PLAN2D is based on the program STAN, originally written by Dr. E.L. Wilson at U.C. Berkeley. PLAN2D has several limitations: 1) Although PLAN2D will detect unloading of hinges it does not contain the capability to remove hinges; 2) PLAN2D does not allow the user to input different positive and negative moment capacities and 3) PLAN2D does not consider the interaction between axial and plastic moment capacity. Axial yielding and buckling is ignored as is the reduction in moment capacity due to axial load. PLAN2D is written in FORTRAN and is machine independent. It has been tested on an IBM PC and a DEC MicroVAX. The program was developed in 1988.

  18. Ultrasonic tissue characterization via 2-D spectrum analysis: theory and in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Lizzi, Frederic L; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Silverman, Ronald H; Kutcher, Gerald J

    2007-03-01

    A theoretical model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization using a calibrated 2-D spectrum analysis method. This model relates 2-D spectra computed from ultrasonic backscatter signals to intrinsic physical properties of tissue microstructures, e.g., size, shape, and acoustic impedance. The model is applicable to most clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems. Two experiments employing two types of tissue architectures, spherical and cylindrical scatterers, are conducted using ultrasound with center frequencies of 10 and 40 MHz, respectively. Measurements of a tissue-mimicking phantom with an internal suspension of microscopic glass beads are used to validate the theoretical model. Results from in vitro muscle fibers are presented to further elucidate the utility of 2-D spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization.

  19. Two-dimensional (2D) Chemiluminescence (CL) correlation spectroscopy for studying thermal oxidation of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Hagihara, Hideaki; Suda, Hiroyuki; Mizukado, Jyunji

    2016-11-01

    Application of the two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is extended to Chemiluminescence (CL) spectra of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) under thermally induced oxidation. Upon heating, the polymer chains of the iPP undergoes scissoring and fragmentation to develop several intermediates. While different chemical species provides the emission at different wavelength regions, entire feature of the time-dependent CL spectra of the iPP samples were complicated by the presence of overlapped contributions from singlet oxygen (1O2) and carbonyl species within sample. 2D correlation spectra showed notable enhancement of the spectral resolution to provide penetrating insight into the thermodynamics of the polymer system. For example, the, oxidation induce scissoring and fragmentation of the polymer chains to develop the carbonyl group. Further reaction results in the consumption of the carbonyl species and subsequent production of different 1O2 species each developed in different manner. Consequently, key information on the thermal oxidation can be extracted in a surprisingly simple manner without any analytical expression for the actual response curves of spectral intensity signals during the reaction.

  20. On craton thinning/destruction: Insight from 2D thermal-mechanical numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most cratons maintain stable, some exceptions are present, such as the North China craton, North Atlantic craton, and Wyoming craton, which have experienced dramatic lithospheric deformation/thinning. Mechanisms triggering cratonic thinning remains enigmatic [Lee et al., 2011]. Using a 2D thermo-mechanical coupled numerical model [Gerya and Yuen, 2007], we investigate two possible mechanisms: (1) stratification of cratonic lithospheric mantle, and (2) rheological weakening due to hydration.Lithospheric mantle stratification is a common feature in cratonic areas which has been demonstrated by geophysical and geochemical studies [Thybo and Perchuc, 1997; Griffin et al., 2004; Romanowicz, 2009; Rychert and Shearer, 2009; Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010]. The influence of lithospheric mantle stratification during craton evolution remains poorly understood. A rheologically weak layer representing hydrated and/or metasomatized composition is implemented in the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that the weak mantle layer changes the dynamics of lithospheric extension by enhancing the deformation of the overlying mantle and crust and inhibiting deformation of the underlying mantle [Liao et al., 2013; Liao and Gerya, 2014]. Modeling results are compared with North China and North Atlantic cratons. Our work indicates that although the presence of a weak layer may not be sufficient to initiate craton deformation, it enhances deformation by lowering the required extensional plate boundary force. Rheological weakening due to hydration is a possible mechanism triggering/enhancing craton deformation, especially for cratons jaxtaposing with a subduction, since water can release from a subducting slab. We investigate the influence of wet mantle flow laws [Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003], in which a water parameter (i.e. constant water content) is involved. Our results show that wet dislocation alone does not accelerate cratonic deformation significantly. However, if wet diffusion

  1. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiC f/SiC composites, II. Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, G. E.; Senor, D. J.; Jones, R. H.; Kowbel, Witold

    2002-12-01

    Model predictions of the transverse thermal conductivity ( Keff) are compared to experimentally determined values as a function of temperature for a commercial 2D-SiC f/SiC made by DuPont from plain weave Hi-Nicalon TM fabric and with an ICVI-SiC matrix. Two versions of the DuPont composite were examined: one with a 'thin' and one with a 'thick' pyrolytic carbon (PyC) fiber coating of thickness 0.110 and 1.044 μm, respectively. Generally good agreement of either the Hasselman-Johnson or the Markworth model predictions ( see companion paper, I. Modeling) with measured values of Keff for this composite suggest that these models can be used to predict Keff for composites with various 'non-ideal' fiber, interphase and matrix structures. Importantly, the models make it possible to separate the relative component contributions to Keff so that individual component degradation mechanisms can be examined in detail. For the two versions of the well-bonded, as-received DuPont composite made with Hi-Nicalon TM woven fabric, at 200 °C constituent values Km=22-25 W/m K (matrix thermal conductivity), Kc≈25 W/m K (PyC-coating thermal conductivity) and heq=2.4×10 7 W/m 2 K (equivalent fiber-matrix interfacial thermal conductance) were determined.

  2. 2D calculations of the thermal effects due to femtosecond laser-metal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, S.; Le Harzic, R.; Huot, N.; Audouard, E.; Fortunier, R.

    2005-07-01

    Experimental results previously published have shown that the radial heat affected zone (HAZ) for a 500 nm thick Al sample in the femtosecond case is less than 2 μm [Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 3886]. The spread of radial thermal effects for femtosecond pulses is calculated, by developing a two-dimensional version of the two temperature model (TTM). The case of an axi-symmetrical geometry is simulated by a finite element technique. A physical metallurgy approach is used to define and to estimate the radial HAZ width from the calculations. The evolution of the temperature as a function of time is studied, leading to a radial HAZ width of 220 nm for 500 nm thick Al samples. Similar calculations in the nanosecond regime are also performed and compared to the femtosecond case.

  3. Simulating HFIR Core Thermal Hydraulics Using 3D-2D Model Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, Adam R; Freels, James D; Ekici, Kivanc

    2013-01-01

    A model utilizing interdimensional variable coupling is presented for simulating the thermal hydraulic interactions of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The model s domain consists of a single, explicitly represented three-dimensional fuel plate and a simplified two-dimensional coolant channel slice. In simplifying the coolant channel, and thus the number of mesh points in which the Navier-Stokes equations must be solved, the computational cost and solution time are both greatly reduced. In order for the reduced-dimension coolant channel to interact with the explicitly represented fuel plate, however, interdimensional variable coupling must be enacted along all shared boundaries. The primary focus of this paper is in detailing the collection, storage, passage, and application of variables across this interdimensional interface. Comparisons are made showing the general speed-up associated with this simplified coupled model.

  4. New technologies of 2-D and 3-D modeling for analysis and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, E. N.; Lyubimova, A. V.; Kirpicheva, E. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    For ensuring technological support of research and administrative activity in the sphere of environmental management a specialized modular program complex was developed. The special attention in developing a program complex is focused to creation of convenient and effective tools for creation and visualization 2d and 3D models providing the solution of tasks of the analysis and management of natural resources.

  5. From 2D graphene to 1D graphene nanoribbons: dimensional crossover signals in the structural thermal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobry, Ariel; Costamagna, Sebastián

    2011-03-01

    I this work, by analyzing the thermal excited rippling in the graphene honeycomb lattice, we find clear signals of an existing dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D while reducing one of the dimensions of the graphene layer. Trough a joint study, using montecarlo atomistic simulations and analytical calculation based, we find that the normal-normal correlation function G (q) does not change the power law behavior valid on the long wavelength limit, however the system size dependency of the quadratic out of plane displacement h2 shows a breakdown of its corresponding scaling law. In this case we show that a new scaling law appear which correspond to a truly 1D system. On the basis of these results, and having explored a wide number of realistic systems size, we conclude that narrow nanoribbons presents strongest corrugations than the square graphene sheets. This result could have important consequences on the electron transport properties of freestanding graphene systems.

  6. Elastic shape analysis of cylindrical surfaces for 3D/2D registration in endometrial tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Samir, Chafik; Kurtek, Sebastian; Srivastava, Anuj; Canis, Michel

    2014-05-01

    We study the problem of joint registration and deformation analysis of endometrial tissue using 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2D trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVUS) measurements. In addition to the different imaging techniques involved in the two modalities, this problem is complicated due to: 1) different patient pose during MRI and TVUS observations, 2) the 3D nature of MRI and 2D nature of TVUS measurements, 3) the unknown intersecting plane for TVUS in MRI volume, and 4) the potential deformation of endometrial tissue during TVUS measurement process. Focusing on the shape of the tissue, we use expert manual segmentation of its boundaries in the two modalities and apply, with modification, recent developments in shape analysis of parametric surfaces to this problem. First, we extend the 2D TVUS curves to generalized cylindrical surfaces through replication, and then we compare them with MRI surfaces using elastic shape analysis. This shape analysis provides a simultaneous registration (optimal reparameterization) and deformation (geodesic) between any two parametrized surfaces. Specifically, it provides optimal curves on MRI surfaces that match with the original TVUS curves. This framework results in an accurate quantification and localization of the deformable endometrial cells for radiologists, and growth characterization for gynecologists and obstetricians. We present experimental results using semi-synthetic data and real data from patients to illustrate these ideas.

  7. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd.

  8. Multiple triangulation analysis: application to determine the velocity of 2-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Zhang, X. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Cao, J. B.

    2006-11-01

    In order to avoid the ambiguity of the application of the Triangulation Method (multi-spacecraft timing method) to two-dimensional structures, another version of this method, the Multiple Triangulation Analysis (MTA) is used, to calculate the velocities of these structures based on 4-point measurements. We describe the principle of MTA and apply this approach to a real event observed by the Cluster constellation on 2 October 2003. The resulting velocity of the 2-D structure agrees with the ones obtained by some other methods fairly well. So we believe that MTA is a reliable version of the Triangulation Method for 2-D structures, and thus provides us a new way to describe their motion.

  9. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods.

    PubMed

    Maximov, Ivan I; Vinding, Mads S; Tse, Desmond H Y; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Shah, N Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community.

  10. A 2-D diode array and analysis software for verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery.

    PubMed

    Jursinic, Paul A; Nelms, Ben E

    2003-05-01

    An analysis is made of a two-dimensional array of diodes that can be used for measuring dose generated in a plane by a radiation beam. This measuring device is the MapCHECK Model 1175 (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL). This device has 445 N-type diodes in a 22 x 22 cm2 2-D array with variable spacing. The entire array of diodes is easily calibrated to allow for measurements in absolute dose. For IMRT quality assurance, each beam is measured individually with the beam central axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of diodes. Software is available to do the analytical comparison of measurements versus dose distributions calculated by a treatment planning system. Comparison criteria of percent difference and distance-to-agreement are defined by the operator. Data are presented that show the diode array has linear response when beam fluence changes by over 300-fold, which is typical of the level of modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy, IMRT, beams. A linear dependence is also shown for a 100-fold change in monitors units delivered. Methods for how this device can be used in the clinic for quality assurance of IMRT fields are described. Measurements of typical IMRT beams that are modulated by compensators and MLCs are presented with comparisons to treatment planning system dose calculations. A time analysis is done for typical IMRT quality assurance measurements. The setup, calibration, and analysis time for the 2-D diode array are on the order of 20 min, depending on numbers of fields. This is significantly less time than required to do similar analysis with radiographic film. The 2-D diode array is ideal for per-plan quality assurance after an IMRT system is fully commissioned.

  11. Combining 2D synchrosqueezed wave packet transform with optimization for crystal image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Wirth, Benedikt; Yang, Haizhao

    2016-04-01

    We develop a variational optimization method for crystal analysis in atomic resolution images, which uses information from a 2D synchrosqueezed transform (SST) as input. The synchrosqueezed transform is applied to extract initial information from atomic crystal images: crystal defects, rotations and the gradient of elastic deformation. The deformation gradient estimate is then improved outside the identified defect region via a variational approach, to obtain more robust results agreeing better with the physical constraints. The variational model is optimized by a nonlinear projected conjugate gradient method. Both examples of images from computer simulations and imaging experiments are analyzed, with results demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. 2D light scattering static cytometry for label-free single cell analysis with submicron resolution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linyan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Xuming; Qiao, Xu; Liu, Qiao; Song, Kun; Kong, Beihua; Su, Xuantao

    2015-11-01

    Conventional optical cytometric techniques usually measure fluorescence or scattering signals at fixed angles from flowing cells in a liquid stream. Here we develop a novel cytometer that employs a scanning optical fiber to illuminate single static cells on a glass slide, which requires neither microfluidic fabrication nor flow control. This static cytometric technique measures two dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns via a small numerical aperture (0.25) microscope objective for label-free single cell analysis. Good agreement is obtained between the yeast cell experimental and Mie theory simulated patterns. It is demonstrated that the static cytometer with a microscope objective of a low resolution around 1.30 μm has the potential to perform high resolution analysis on yeast cells with distributed sizes. The capability of the static cytometer for size determination with submicron resolution is validated via measurements on standard microspheres with mean diameters of 3.87 and 4.19 μm. Our 2D light scattering static cytometric technique may provide an easy-to-use, label-free, and flow-free method for single cell diagnostics.

  13. Development of an affordable system for 2D kinematics and dynamics analysis of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahyuddin, A. I.; Mihradi, S.; Dirgantara, T.; Sukmajaya, A.; Juliyad, N.; Purba, U.

    2009-12-01

    Development of a low-cost, yet reliable, system for 2D gait analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of a home video camera with speed of 25 fps, LED markers, PC and a technical computing software, which are used for capturing and processing the digital image of markers attached to human body during motion. In the experiments, a person is instructed to walk in a specially arranged measurement area. The recorded images are then digitally processed to detect and track the 2D coordinate of the markers over time. To conduct a dynamics analysis, a mathematical formulation for human motion is constructed where the body is modeled by a system of five rigid bars connected by joints. Finally, a program is developed to plot and calculate the kinematics and dynamics data of human gait, where the markers position data over time, and other variables such as dimensions and weight of the body are used as the input in the program.

  14. Development of an affordable system for 2D kinematics and dynamics analysis of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahyuddin, A. I.; Mihradi, S.; Dirgantara, T.; Sukmajaya, A.; Juliyad, N.; Purba, U.

    2010-03-01

    Development of a low-cost, yet reliable, system for 2D gait analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of a home video camera with speed of 25 fps, LED markers, PC and a technical computing software, which are used for capturing and processing the digital image of markers attached to human body during motion. In the experiments, a person is instructed to walk in a specially arranged measurement area. The recorded images are then digitally processed to detect and track the 2D coordinate of the markers over time. To conduct a dynamics analysis, a mathematical formulation for human motion is constructed where the body is modeled by a system of five rigid bars connected by joints. Finally, a program is developed to plot and calculate the kinematics and dynamics data of human gait, where the markers position data over time, and other variables such as dimensions and weight of the body are used as the input in the program.

  15. Update on the Fabrication and Performance of 2-D Arrays of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Thermal Detectors for Outer-Planets Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook; Aslam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors with better performance than the current thermopile detectors that operate at room temperature will be needed at the focal plane of far-infrared instruments on future planetary exploration missions. We will present an update on recent results from the 2-D array of MgB2 thermal detectors being currently developed at NASA Goddard. Noise and sensitivity results will be presented and compared to thermal detectors currently in use on planetary missions.

  16. Lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pinliang

    2009-10-01

    Spatial scale plays an important role in many fields. As a scale-dependent measure for spatial heterogeneity, lacunarity describes the distribution of gaps within a set at multiple scales. In Earth science, environmental science, and ecology, lacunarity has been increasingly used for multiscale modeling of spatial patterns. This paper presents the development and implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) software extension for lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns. Depending on the application requirement, lacunarity analysis can be performed in two modes: global mode or local mode. The extension works for: (1) binary (1-bit) and grey-scale datasets in any raster format supported by ArcGIS and (2) 1D, 2D, and 3D point datasets as shapefiles or geodatabase feature classes. For more effective measurement of lacunarity for different patterns or processes in raster datasets, the extension allows users to define an area of interest (AOI) in four different ways, including using a polygon in an existing feature layer. Additionally, directionality can be taken into account when grey-scale datasets are used for local lacunarity analysis. The methodology and graphical user interface (GUI) are described. The application of the extension is demonstrated using both simulated and real datasets, including Brodatz texture images, a Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) image, simulated 1D points on a drainage network, and 3D random and clustered point patterns. The options of lacunarity analysis and the effects of polyline arrangement on lacunarity of 1D points are also discussed. Results from sample data suggest that the lacunarity analysis extension can be used for efficient modeling of spatial patterns at multiple scales.

  17. Simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with activity gel electrophoresis and 2-D gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion blotting method can couple immunoblotting analysis with another biochemical technique in a single polyacrylamide gel, however, with lower transfer efficiency as compared to the conventional electroblotting method. Thus, with diffusion blotting, protein blots can be obtained from an SDS polyacrylamide gel for zymography assay, from a native polyacrylamide gel for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or from a 2-D polyacrylamide gel for large-scale screening and identification of a protein marker. Thereafter, a particular signal in zymography, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and 2-dimensional gel can be confirmed or identified by simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with a corresponding antiserum. These advantages make diffusion blotting desirable when partial loss of transfer efficiency can be tolerated or be compensated by a more sensitive immunodetection reaction using enhanced chemiluminescence detection.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Plastics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Teresa; Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) in the measurement of polymer properties. A total of seven exercises are described. These are dry exercises: students interpret previously recorded scans. They do not perform the experiments. DSC was used to determine the…

  19. Experimental Analysis of a 2-D Lightcraft in Static and Hypersonic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Rego, Israel S.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Channes, José B.

    2010-05-01

    Aiming at the hypersonic phase of the Earth-to-Orbit trajectory for a laser propelled vehicle, a 2-D Lightcraft model was designed to be tested at the T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory for Aerodynamics and Hypersonics. A high energy laser pulse was supplied by a Lumonics TEA 620 laser system operating in unstable resonator cavity mode. The experiments were performed at quiescent (no flow) conditions and at a nominal Mach number of 9.2. A Schlieren visualization apparatus was used in order to access both the cold hypersonic flowfield structure (without laser deposition) and the time dependent flowfield structure, taking place after the laser induced breakdown inside the absorption chamber. The model was fitted with piezoelectric pressure transducers and surface junction thermocouples in an attempt to measure pressure and heat transfer time dependent distributions at the internal surfaces of the model's absorption chamber. The 2-D model followed a modular design for flexibility on the analysis of geometrical features contribution on the expansion of the laser induced blast wave. Finally, future evolution of the experiments being currently pursued is addressed.

  20. Robust 2D principal component analysis: a structured sparsity regularized approach.

    PubMed

    Yipeng Sun; Xiaoming Tao; Yang Li; Jianhua Lu

    2015-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used to extract features and reduce dimensionality in various computer vision and image/video processing tasks. Conventional approaches either lack robustness to outliers and corrupted data or are designed for one-dimensional signals. To address this problem, we propose a robust PCA model for two-dimensional images incorporating structured sparse priors, referred to as structured sparse 2D-PCA. This robust model considers the prior of structured and grouped pixel values in two dimensions. As the proposed formulation is jointly nonconvex and nonsmooth, which is difficult to tackle by joint optimization, we develop a two-stage alternating minimization approach to solve the problem. This approach iteratively learns the projection matrices by bidirectional decomposition and utilizes the proximal method to obtain the structured sparse outliers. By considering the structured sparsity prior, the proposed model becomes less sensitive to noisy data and outliers in two dimensions. Moreover, the computational cost indicates that the robust two-dimensional model is capable of processing quarter common intermediate format video in real time, as well as handling large-size images and videos, which is often intractable with other robust PCA approaches that involve image-to-vector conversion. Experimental results on robust face reconstruction, video background subtraction data set, and real-world videos show the effectiveness of the proposed model compared with conventional 2D-PCA and other robust PCA algorithms.

  1. Coherent X-ray beam metrology using 2D high-resolution Fresnel-diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lopez, M; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Ozaki, N; Mitrofanov, A; Albertazzi, B; Hartley, N; Matsuoka, T; Ochante, Y; Tange, Y; Yabuuchi, T; Habara, T; Tanaka, K A; Inubushi, Y; Yabashi, M; Nishikino, M; Kawachi, T; Pikuz, S; Ishikawa, T; Kodama, R; Bleiner, D

    2017-01-01

    Direct metrology of coherent short-wavelength beamlines is important for obtaining operational beam characteristics at the experimental site. However, since beam-time limitation imposes fast metrology procedures, a multi-parametric metrology from as low as a single shot is desirable. Here a two-dimensional (2D) procedure based on high-resolution Fresnel diffraction analysis is discussed and applied, which allowed an efficient and detailed beamline characterization at the SACLA XFEL. So far, the potential of Fresnel diffraction for beamline metrology has not been fully exploited because its high-frequency fringes could be only partly resolved with ordinary pixel-limited detectors. Using the high-spatial-frequency imaging capability of an irradiated LiF crystal, 2D information of the coherence degree, beam divergence and beam quality factor M(2) were retrieved from simple diffraction patterns. The developed beam metrology was validated with a laboratory reference laser, and then successfully applied at a beamline facility, in agreement with the source specifications.

  2. Interfractional trend analysis of dose differences based on 2D transit portal dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoon, L. C. G. G.; Nijsten, S. M. J. J. G.; Wilbrink, F. J.; Podesta, M.; Snaith, J. A. D.; Lustberg, T.; van Elmpt, W. J. C.; van Gils, F.; Verhaegen, F.

    2012-10-01

    Dose delivery of a radiotherapy treatment can be influenced by a number of factors. It has been demonstrated that the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is valuable for transit portal dosimetry verification. Patient related dose differences can emerge at any time during treatment and can be categorized in two types: (1) systematic—appearing repeatedly, (2) random—appearing sporadically during treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate how systematic and random information appears in 2D transit dose distributions measured in the EPID plane over the entire course of a treatment and how this information can be used to examine interfractional trends, building toward a methodology to support adaptive radiotherapy. To create a trend overview of the interfractional changes in transit dose, the predicted portal dose for the different beams is compared to a measured portal dose using a γ evaluation. For each beam of the delivered fraction, information is extracted from the γ images to differentiate systematic from random dose delivery errors. From the systematic differences of a fraction for a projected anatomical structures, several metrics are extracted like percentage pixels with |γ| > 1. We demonstrate for four example cases the trends and dose difference causes which can be detected with this method. Two sample prostate cases show the occurrence of a random and systematic difference and identify the organ that causes the difference. In a lung cancer case a trend is shown of a rapidly diminishing atelectasis (lung fluid) during the course of treatment, which was detected with this trend analysis method. The final example is a breast cancer case where we show the influence of set-up differences on the 2D transit dose. A method is presented based on 2D portal transit dosimetry to record dose changes throughout the course of treatment, and to allow trend analysis of dose discrepancies. We show in example cases that this method can identify the causes of

  3. Analysis of stochastic phenomena in 2D Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, I.; Ryashko, L.; Slepukhina, E.

    2016-10-01

    In mathematical research of neuronal activity, conceptual models play an important role. We consider 2D Hindmarsh-Rose model, which exhibits the fundamental property of neuron, the excitability. We study how random disturbances affect this property. The effects of noise are analysed in the parametric zone where the deterministic model is characterized by the coexistence of two stable equilibria. We show that under random disturbances, noise-induced transitions between the attractors occur, forming a new complex dynamic regime of stochastic bursting. It is confirmed by changes of distribution of random trajectories and interspike intervals. For the analysis of this noise-induced phenomenon, we apply the stochastic sensitivity technique and confidence domains method. We suggest a method for estimation of threshold noise intensity corresponding to the onset of noise-induced bursting. We show that the obtained values are in a good agreement with direct numerical simulations.

  4. Analysis of the antiferromagnetic phase transitions of the 2D Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The Kondo lattice continues to present an interesting and relevant challenge, with its interactions between Kondo, RKKY, and coherent order. We present our study[1] of the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transitions of a 2D Kondo-Heisenberg square lattice. Starting from the nonlinear sigma model as a model of antiferromagnetism, we carry out a renormalization group analysis of the competing Kondo-RKKY interaction to one-loop order in an ɛ-expansion. We find a new quantum critical point (QCP) strongly affected by Kondo fluctuations. Near this QCP, there is a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, and the spin waves are logarithmically frozen out. The renormalization group results allow us to propose a new phase diagram near the antiferromagnetic fixed point of this 2D Kondo lattice model. The T=0 phase diagram contains four phases separated by a tetracritical point, the new QCP. For small spin fluctuations, we find a stable local magnetic moment antiferromagnet. For stronger coupling, region II is a metallic quantum disordered paramagnet. We find in region III a paramagnetic phase driven by Kondo interactions, with possible ground states of a heavy fermion liquid or a Kondo driven spin-liquid. The fourth phase is a spiral phase, or a large-Fermi-surface antiferromagnetic phase. We will describe these phases in more detail, including possible experimental confirmation of the spiral phase. The existence of the tetracritical point found here would be expected to affect the phase diagram at finite temperatures as well. In addition, It is hoped that these results, and particularly the Kondo interaction paramagnetic phase, will serve to bridge to solutions starting from the opposite limit, of a Kondo effect leading to a heavy fermion ground state. Work in collaboration with T. Tzen Ong. [4pt] [1] T. Ong and B. A. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 066405 (2009).

  5. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  6. Thermal conductivity of 2D C-C composites with pyrolytic and glass-like carbon matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowski, J.; Mikociak, D.; Konsztowicz, K. J.; Blazewicz, S.

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the relationship of thermal properties of C-C composites with structural and microstructural features resulting from specific processing steps. Samples were made with the same type of fibres, but using two distinct different methods of matrix formation: liquid impregnation with phenolic resin and the P-CVI technique. In both cases, thermal treatment after densification had decisive effect on increase of composite coefficient of thermal conductivity, due to crystallization of carbon matrix material and thus increase of its own thermal conductivity. Higher values of thermal conductivity were obtained using the pyrolytic carbon matrix processing.

  7. Thermostable Xanthine Oxidase Activity from Bacillus pumilus RL-2d Isolated from Manikaran Thermal Spring: Production and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal Kant; Thakur, Shikha; Thakur, Neerja; Savitri; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-03-01

    Xanthine oxidase is an important enzyme of purine metabolism that catalyzes the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then xanthine to uric acid. A thermostable xanthine oxidase is being reported from a thermophilic organism RL-2d isolated from the Manikaran (Kullu) hot spring of Himachal Pradesh (India). Based on the morphology, physiological tests, and 16S rDNA gene sequence, RL-2d was identified as Bacillus pumilus. Optimization of physiochemical parameters resulted into 4.1-fold increase in the xanthine oxidase activity from 0.051 U/mg dcw (dry cell weight) to 0.209 U/mg dcw. The xanthine oxidase of B. pumilus RL-2d has exhibited very good thermostability and its t1/2 at 70 and 80 °C were 5 and 1 h, respectively. Activity of this enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg(2+), Ag(+) and allopurinol. The investigation showed that B. pumilus RL-2d exhibited highest xanthine oxidase activity and remarkable thermostability among the other xanthine oxidases reported so far.

  8. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N2 connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed. PMID:27690029

  9. Analysis of capacitive sensing for 2D-MEMS scanner laser projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Wantoch, Thomas; Mallas, Christian; Hofmann, Ulrich; Janes, Joachim; Wagner, Bernhard; Benecke, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Typical applications for resonantly driven vacuum packaged MEMS scanners including laser projection displays require a feedback signal for closed-loop operation as well as high accuracy angle synchronization for data processing. A well known and widely used method is based on determining the angular velocity of the oscillating micromirror by measuring the time derivative of a capacitance. In this work we analyze a capacitive sensing approach that uses integrated vertical comb structures to synchronize the angular motion of a torsional micromirror oscillating in resonance. The investigated measurement method is implemented in a laser display that generates a video projection by scanning a RBG laser beam. As the 2D-micromirror performs sinusoidal oscillations on both perpendicular axes a continuously moving Lissajous pattern is projected. By measuring the displacement current due to an angular deflection of the movable comb structures an appropriate feedback signal for actuation and data synchronization is computed. In order to estimate the angular deflection and velocity a mathematical model of the capacitive sensing system is presented. In particular, the nonlinear characteristic of the capacitance as a function of the angle that is calculated using FEM analysis is approximated using cubic splines. Combining this nonlinear function with a dynamic model of the micromirror oscillation and the analog electronics a mathematical model of the capacitive measurement system is derived. To evaluate the proposed model numerical simulations are realized using MATLAB/Simulink and are compared to experimental measurements.

  10. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks. PMID:25490595

  11. 2-D Fourier transform analysis of the gravitational field of Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad; El-Kenawy, Abeer

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has fascinated the consideration of many geophysical studies as it is influenced by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Moreover, the shear zones inside Sinai have affected intensely the structure development of the northern Sinai area. 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been applied to transfer the data from space domain to frequency domain, in which basic gradients and derived gradients have been estimated. The frequency domain operations resulted in frequency filtering, first and second degree xyz gradients, horizontal, total (analytical signal) and tilt gradients, maximum horizontal gradient amplitude (total horizontal derivative), and theta map. As a result, the basic and derived gradient maps have succeeded to outline the major structure elements of Northern Sinai Peninsula. Comparisons with some well known surface structures showed a large degree of matching.

  12. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  13. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Jia, Yanping; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-09-27

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA) with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N² connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA) is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF) analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block) can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed.

  14. 2-D Stress Accumulation Analysis of the North Anatolian Fault East of the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.; Harbert, W.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    mesh model. To further validate the results of the simulations, we analyzed lineaments from a digital elevation model (DEM) and a daytime ASTER image. Lineaments were then plotted on a rose diagram to determine the directions of principle stress, which trend SE-NW (sigma-1), and SW-NE (sigma-3). The 2-D geophysical model allows for changes in stress direction and magnitude to be depicted over the entire region, while the lineament analysis is a potential sum of how stress has evolved over time. The map of modeled stress accumulation allows us to evaluate the potential geometry of the faults in this section of the NAF system as well as highlight which faults are host to more stress, and thus predict how that stress may migrate to the east, either north or south of the Marmara Sea. Based on a hundred year record of seismicity in Turkey, it is theorized that a higher magnitude of total stress accumulation will migrate south of the Marmara Sea along the SW-NE trending faults within our region of interest. A greater understanding of the stress field will allow researchers to evaluate the seismic risk within the larger region of Eastern Turkey, as well as understand fault dynamics along the NAF.

  15. Mutation Analysis Identifies GUCY2D as the Major Gene Responsible for Autosomal Dominant Progressive Cone Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kitiratschky, Veronique B. D.; Wilke, Robert; Renner, Agnes B.; Kellner, Ulrich; Vadalà, Maria; Birch, David G.; Wissinger, Bernd; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kohl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Heterozygous mutations in the GUCY2D gene, which encodes the membrane-bound retinal guanylyl cyclase-1 protein (RetGC-1), have been shown to cause autosomal dominant inherited cone degeneration and cone–rod degeneration (adCD, adCRD). The present study was a comprehensive screening of the GUCY2D gene in 27 adCD and adCRD unrelated families of these rare disorders. Methods Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing as well as PCR and subsequent restriction length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). Haplotype analysis was performed in selected patients by using microsatellite markers. Results GUCY2D gene mutations were identified in 11 (40%) of 27 patients, and all mutations clustered to codon 838, including two known and one novel missense mutation: p.R838C, p.R838H, and p.R838G. Haplotype analysis showed that among the studied patients only two of the six analyzed p.R838C mutation carriers shared a common haplotype and that none of the p.R838H mutation carriers did. Conclusions GUCY2D is a major gene responsible for progressive autosomal dominant cone degeneration. All identified mutations localize to codon 838. Haplotype analysis indicates that in most cases these mutations arise independently. Thus, codon 838 is likely to be a mutation hotspot in the GUCY2D gene. PMID:18487367

  16. Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian basin, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian basin based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the basin and extend from the Rome trough in West Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through West Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.

  17. Analysis of 2D hyperbolic metamaterial dispersion by elementary excitation coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaianella, Fabio; Maes, Bjorn

    2016-04-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials are examined for many applications thanks to the large density of states and extreme confinement of light they provide. For classical hyperbolic metal/dielectric multilayer structures, it was demon- strated that the properties originate from a specific coupling of the surface plasmon polaritons between the metal/dielectric interfaces. We show a similar analysis for 2D hyperbolic arrays of square (or rectangular) silver nanorods in a TiO2 host. In this case the properties derive from a specific coupling of the plasmons carried by the corners of the nanorods. The dispersion can be seen as the coupling of single rods for a through-metal connection of the corners, as the coupling of structures made of four semi-infinite metallic blocks separated by dielectric for a through-dielectric connection, or as the coupling of two semi-infinite rods for a through-metal and through-dielectric situation. For arrays of small square nanorods the elementary structure that explains the dispersion of the array is the single rod, and for arrays of large square nanorods it is four metallic corners. The medium size square nanorod case is more complicated, because the elementary structure can be one of the three basic designs, depending on the frequency and symmetry of the modes. Finally, we show that for arrays of rectangular nanorods the dispersion is explained by coupling of the two coupled rod structure. This work opens the way for a better understanding of a wide class of metamaterials via their elementary excitations.

  18. ASRM nozzle thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Forrest; King, Belinda

    1993-01-01

    This report describes results from the nozzle thermal analysis contract which has been performed to support NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center in the development of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The emphasis of this study has been directed to four potential problem areas of the nozzle. These areas are the submerged nozzle region containing the flex seal, the nozzle entrance region, the material interface region in the nozzle exit cone, and the aft region of the exit cone. This study was limited throughout by inadequate material response models, especially for the polyisoprene flex seal and the low density carbon phenolic used in the exit cone. Thermal response and particle erosion calculations were performed for each of the potential problem areas. Results from these studies showed excessive erosion (large negative safety margins) to occur in the flex seal and nozzle entrance regions. The exit cone was found to be marginally adequate (near zero safety margins) and the material interface region was found not to be a problem.

  19. 2-D nonlinear IIR-filters for image processing - An exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P. H.; Sartori, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new nonlinear IIR filter structure is introduced and its deterministic properties are analyzed. It is shown to be better suited for image processing applications than its linear shift-invariant counterpart. The new structure is obtained from causality inversion of a 2D quarterplane causal linear filter with respect to the two directions of propagation. It is demonstrated, that by using this design, a nonlinear 2D lowpass filter can be constructed, which is capable of effectively suppressing Gaussian or impulse noise without destroying important image information.

  20. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  1. High thermally conductive and electrically insulating 2D boron nitride nanosheet for efficient heat dissipation of high-power transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ziyuan; Liu, Chunru; Chai, Yang

    2016-12-01

    High-power transistors suffer greatly from inefficient heat dissipation of the hotspots, which elevate the local temperature and significantly degrade the performance and reliability of the high-power devices. Although various thermal management methods at package-level have been demonstrated, the heat dissipation from non-uniform hotspots at micro/nanoscale still persist in the high power transistors. Here, we develop a method for local thermal management using thermally conductive and electrical insulating few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as heat spreaders and thick counterpart as heat sinks. The electrically insulating characteristic of h-BN nanosheet allows it to be intimately contacted with the hotspot region that is located at the gate electrode edge near the drain side of a high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). The high thermal conductivity of h-BN nanosheet, which is quantitatively measured by Raman thermography, reduces the temperature of the hotspot by introducing an additional heat transporting pathway. Our DC and radio-frequency characterizations of the HEMT show the improvement of saturation current, cut-off frequency and maximum oscillation frequency. The finite element simulations show a temperature decrease of ∼32 °C at the hotspot with the use of h-BN nanosheet. This method can be further extended for the micro/nanoscale thermal management of other high-power devices.

  2. Analysis of Korean Students' International Mobility by 2-D Model: Driving Force Factor and Directional Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elisa L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of Korean students' international mobility to study abroad by using the 2-D Model. The first D, "the driving force factor," explains how and what components of the dissatisfaction with domestic higher education perceived by Korean students drives students' outward mobility to seek…

  3. The Accuracy of Webcams in 2D Motion Analysis: Sources of Error and Their Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, A.; Moreno, R.; Candelas, P.; Belmar, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented.…

  4. Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...

  5. Multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity: a CSD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo

    1994-04-01

    We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity and we measure critical slowing down (CSD) with the standard methods. We find that the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms do not eliminate CSD. We interpret the result as an effect of the mesh dynamics.

  6. Validation Test Report for the NRL Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) Quality Control and 2D Variational Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-11

    Test Report for the NRL Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) Quality Control and 2D Variational Analysis System Jackie May Neil VaN de Voorde QinetiQ North...OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Validation Test ...1 2.0 VALIDATION TEST DESIGN

  7. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal decomposition activation energies have been determined using two methods of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), with good correlation being obtained between the two techniques. Initial heating curves indicated a two-component system for Coflon (i.e. polymer plus placticizer) but a single component system for Tefzel. Two widely differing activation energies were for Coflon supported this view, 15 kcl/mol being associated with plasticizer, and 40 kcal/mol with polymer degradation. With Tefzel, values were 40-45 kcal/mol, the former perhaps being associated with a low molecular weight fraction. Appropriate acceleration factors have been determined. Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) has shown considerable dimensional change during temperature cycles. For unaged pipe sections heating to 100 C and then holding the temperature resulted in a stable thickness increase of 2%, whereas the Coflon thickness decreased continuously, reaching -4% in 2.7 weeks. Previously strained tensile bars of Tefzel expanded on cooling during TMA. SEM performed on H2S-aged Coflon samples showed significant changes in both physical and chemical nature. The first may have resulted from explosive decompression after part of the aging process. Chemically extensive dehydrofluorination was indicated, and sulfur was present as a result of the aging. These observations indicate that chemical attack of PVDF can occur in some circumstances.

  8. Controls on the Flow Regime and Thermal Structure of the Subduction Zone Mantle Wedge: A Systematic 2-D and 3-D Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voci, Giuseppe; Davies, Rhodri; Goes, Saskia; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2014-05-01

    Arc volcanism at subduction zones is likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure and, hence, numerous studies have attempted to quantify the principal controls on mantle wedge conditions. Here, we build on these previous studies by undertaking the first systematic 2-D and 3-D numerical investigation, across a wide parameter-space, into how hydration and thermal buoyancy influence the wedge's flow regime and associated thermal structure, above a kinematically driven subducting plate. We find that small-scale convection (SSC), resulting from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, or drips, off the base of the overriding lithosphere, is a typical occurrence, if: (i) viscosities are < 5×1018 Pa s; and (ii) hydrous weakening of wedge rheology extends at least 100-150 km from the trench. In 2-D models, instabilities generally take the form of 'drips'. Although along-strike averages of wedge velocities and temperature in 3-D structure are consistent with those in 2-D, fluctuations are larger in 3-D. Furthermore, in 3-D, two separate, but interacting, longitudinal Richter roll systems form (with their axes aligned perpendicular to the trench), the first below the arc region and the second below the back-arc region. These instabilities result in transient and spatial temperature fluctuations of 100-150K, which are sufficient to influence melting, the stability of hydrous minerals and the dehydration of crustal material. Furthermore, they are efficient at eroding the overriding lithosphere, particularly in 3-D and, thus, provide a means to explain observations of high heat flow and thin back-arc lithosphere at many subduction zones, if back-arc mantle is hydrated.

  9. First experiences with 2D-mXRF analysis of gunshot residue on garment, tissue, and cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knijnenberg, Alwin; Stamouli, Amalia; Janssen, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of garment and human tissue originating from a victim of a shooting incident can provide crucial information for the reconstruction of such an incident. The use of 2D-mXRF for such investigations has several advantages over current methods as this new technique can be used to scan large areas, provides simultaneous information on multiple elements, can be applied under ambient conditions and is non-destructive. In this paper we report our experiences and challenges with the implementation of 2D-mXRF in GSR analysis. Currently we mainly focus on the use of 2D-mXRF as a tool for visualizing elemental distributions on various samples.

  10. Multifractal and Singularity Maps of soil surface moisture distribution derived from 2D image analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbrera, Ramiro; Millán, Humberto; Martín-Sotoca, Juan Jose; Pérez Soto, Luis; Sanchez, Maria Elena; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    methods for mapping geochemical anomalies caused by buried sources and for predicting undiscovered mineral deposits in covered areas. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 122, 55-70. Cumbrera, R., Ana M. Tarquis, Gabriel Gascó, Humberto Millán (2012) Fractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images. Journal of Hydrology (452-453), 205-212. Martin Sotoca; J.J. Antonio Saa-Requejo, Juan Grau and Ana M. Tarquis (2016). Segmentation of singularity maps in the context of soil porosity. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-11402. Millán, H., Cumbrera, R. and Ana M. Tarquis (2016) Multifractal and Levy-stable statistics of soil surface moisture distribution derived from 2D image analysis. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40(3), 2384-2395.

  11. Dynamical Analysis and Big Bang Bifurcations of 1D and 2D Gompertz's Growth Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, J. Leonel; Taha, Abdel-Kaddous; Fournier-Prunaret, D.

    In this paper, we study the dynamics and bifurcation properties of a three-parameter family of 1D Gompertz's growth functions, which are defined by the population size functions of the Gompertz logistic growth equation. The dynamical behavior is complex leading to a diversified bifurcation structure, leading to the big bang bifurcations of the so-called “box-within-a-box” fractal type. We provide and discuss sufficient conditions for the existence of these bifurcation cascades for 1D Gompertz's growth functions. Moreover, this work concerns the description of some bifurcation properties of a Hénon's map type embedding: a “continuous” embedding of 1D Gompertz's growth functions into a 2D diffeomorphism. More particularly, properties that characterize the big bang bifurcations are considered in relation with this coupling of two population size functions, varying the embedding parameter. The existence of communication areas of crossroad area type or swallowtails are identified for this 2D diffeomorphism.

  12. A Block-matching based technique for the analysis of 2D gel images.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ana; Seoane, José A; Rodríguez, Alvaro; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; López-Campos, Guillermo; Dorado, Julián

    2010-01-01

    Research at protein level is a useful practice in personalized medicine. More specifically, 2D gel images obtained after electrophoresis process can lead to an accurate diagnosis. Several computational approaches try to help the clinicians to establish the correspondence between pairs of proteins of multiple 2D gel images. Most of them perform the alignment of a patient image referred to a reference image. In this work, an approach based on block-matching techniques is developed. Its main characteristic is that it does not need to perform the whole alignment between two images considering each protein separately. A comparison with other published methods is presented. It can be concluded that this method works over broad range of proteomic images, although they have a high level of difficulty.

  13. NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    A study combined 1D (one-dimensional) and 2D (two-dimensional) NMR spectroscopy to solve structural organic problems of three unknowns, which include 2-, 3-, and 4-heptanone. Results showed [to the first power]H NMR and [to the thirteenth power]C NMR signal assignments for 2- and 3-heptanone were more challenging than for 4-heptanone owing to the…

  14. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Lian; Peyrin, Francoise; Yot, Sophie; Basset, Olivier; Odet, Christophe; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Boudousq, Vincent; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier

    2004-05-01

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography (μCT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution s-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships betweeen 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray μCT at the ESRF. The 3D digital imagees were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identfying the most relevant 2D texture parameters.

  15. Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Measurement Facility for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module 2-D Test Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Franklin; Bagdanove, paul; Blake, Peter; Canavan, Ed; Cofie, Emmanuel; Crane, J. Allen; Dominquez, Kareny; Hagopian, John; Johnston, John; Madison, Tim; Miller, Dave; Oaks, Darrell; Williams, Pat; Young, Dan; Zukowski, Barbara; Zukowski, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module (ISIM) is being designed and developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISM Thermal Distortion Testing (ITDT) program was started with the primary objective to validate the ISM mechanical design process. The ITDT effort seeks to establish confidence and demonstrate the ability to predict thermal distortion in composite structures at cryogenic temperatures using solid element models. This-program's goal is to better ensure that ISIM meets all the mechanical and structural requirements by using test results to verify or improve structural modeling techniques. The first step to accomplish the ITDT objectives was to design, and then construct solid element models of a series 2-D test assemblies that represent critical building blocks of the ISIM structure. Second, the actual test assemblies consisting of composite tubes and invar end fittings were fabricated and tested for thermal distortion. This paper presents the development of the GSFC Cryo Distortion Measurement Facility (CDMF) to meet the requirements of the ISIM 2-D test. assemblies, and other future ISIM testing needs. The CDMF provides efficient cooling with both a single, and two-stage cryo-cooler. Temperature uniformity of the test assemblies during thermal transients and at steady state is accomplished by using sapphire windows for all of the optical ports on the radiation shields and by using .thermal straps to cool the test assemblies. Numerical thermal models of the test assemblies were used to predict the temperature uniformity of the parts during cooldown and at steady state. Results of these models are compared to actual temperature data from the tests. Temperature sensors with a 0.25K precision were used to insure that test assembly gradients did not exceed 2K lateral, and 4K axially. The thermal distortions of two assemblies were measured during six thermal cycles from 320K to 35K using laser interferometers. The standard

  16. Thermal analysis of electromagnetic launcher rails

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.

    1987-10-01

    A numerical technique has been developed to analyze the combined thermal and electric field diffusion in electromagnetic launcher rails. TOPAZ2D, a two-dimensional finite-element thermal analysis code, has been adapted for this purpose. The resulting code, TOPAZRG, was used to predict the temperature field in the rails of the Lethality Test System being constructed at Los Alamos. Results of those calculations indicate the possibility of localized melting at the rail corners under full-power conditions. A parametric study was made to determine the effect of using tungsten coatings to prevent the melting of rail surfaces. The results of those computations show that the time to melt for a given surface heat flux can be increased by a factor of 2.8. Optimum coating thicknesses were determined for a range of heat fluxes. 11 refs.

  17. Parametrics on 2D Navier-Stokes analysis of a Mach 2.68 bifurcated rectangular mixed-compression inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, M.; Saunders, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The supersonic diffuser of a Mach 2.68 bifurcated, rectangular, mixed-compression inlet was analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) Navier-Stokes flow solver. Parametric studies were performed on turbulence models, computational grids and bleed models. The computer flowfield was substantially different from the original inviscid design, due to interactions of shocks, boundary layers, and bleed. Good agreement with experimental data was obtained in many aspects. Many of the discrepancies were thought to originate primarily from 3D effects. Therefore, a balance should be struck between expending resources on a high fidelity 2D simulation, and the inherent limitations of 2D analysis. The solutions were fairly insensitive to turbulence models, grids and bleed models. Overall, the k-e turbulence model, and the bleed models based on unchoked bleed hole discharge coefficients or uniform velocity are recommended. The 2D Navier-Stokes methods appear to be a useful tool for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets, by providing a higher fidelity simulation of the inlet flowfield than inviscid methods, in a reasonable turnaround time.

  18. 2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2016-07-01

    A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli's law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets.

  19. 2D-CELL: image processing software for extraction and analysis of 2-dimensional cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, F.; Telley, H.; Leibling, Th. M.; Mocellin, A.

    1992-01-01

    2D-CELL is a software package for the processing and analyzing of photographic images of cellular structures in a largely interactive way. Starting from a binary digitized image, the programs extract the line network (skeleton) of the structure and determine the graph representation that best models it. Provision is made for manually correcting defects such as incorrect node positions or dangling bonds. Then a suitable algorithm retrieves polygonal contours which define individual cells — local boundary curvatures are neglected for simplicity. Using elementary analytical geometry relations, a range of metric and topological parameters describing the population are then computed, organized into statistical distributions and graphically displayed.

  20. Analysis of 2D Phase Contrast MRI in Renal Arteries by Self Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöllner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R.

    We present an approach based on self organizing maps to segment renal arteries from 2D PC Cine MR, images to measure blood velocity and flow. Such information are important in grading renal artery stenosis and support the decision on surgical interventions like percu-tan transluminal angioplasty. Results show that the renal arteries could be extracted automatically. The corresponding velocity profiles show high correlation (r=0.99) compared those from manual delineated vessels. Furthermore, the method could detect possible blood flow patterns within the vessel.

  1. Wind-tunnel experiments of turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in a thermally-stratified boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).

  2. 2D perovskite nanosheets with thermally-stable high-κ response: a new platform for high-temperature capacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Osada, Minoru; Li, Bao-Wen; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-11-26

    We investigated high-temperature dielectric responses of high-κ perovskite nanosheet (Ca2Nb3O10), an important material platform for postgraphene technology and ultrascale electronic devices. Through in situ characterizations using conducting atomic force microscopy, we found a robust high-temperature property of Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet even in a monolayer form (∼2 nm). Furthermore, layer-by-layer assembled nanocapacitors retained both size-free high-εr characteristic (∼200) and high insulation resistance (∼1×10(-7) A/cm2) at high temperatures up to 250 °C. The simultaneous improvement of εr and thermal stability in high-κ nanodielectrics is of critical technological importance, and perovskite nanosheet has great potential for a rational design and construction of high-temperature capacitors.

  3. Rovibrational analysis of the ethylene isotopologue 13C2D4 by high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Gabona, M. G.; Godfrey, Peter D.; McNaughton, Don

    2015-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the unperturbed a-type ν12 band of 13C2D4 was recorded at an unapodized resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 between 1000 and 1140 cm-1 for a rovibrational analysis. By assigning and fitting a total of 2068 infrared transitions using a Watson's A-reduced and S-reduced Hamiltonians in the Ir representation, rovibrational constants for the upper state (ν12 = 1) up to five quartic centrifugal distortion terms were derived for the first time. The root-mean-square (rms) deviation of the fits was 0.00034 cm-1 both in the A-reduction and S-reduction Hamiltonian. The ground state rovibrational constants of 13C2D4 in the A-reduced and S-reduced Hamiltonians were also determined for the first time by a fit of 985 combination-differences from the present infrared measurements, with rms deviation of 0.00036 cm-1. The ν12 band centre of 13C2D4 was at 1069.970824(17) cm-1 and at 1069.970799(17) cm-1 for the A-reduced and S-reduced Hamiltonians respectively. The ground state constants of 13C2D4 from this experimental work are in close agreement to those derived from theoretical calculations using the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ, MP2/cc-pVTZ, and CSSD(T)/cc-pVTZ levels of theory.

  4. Study on molecular structure and hydration mechanism of Domyoji-ko starch by IR and NIR hetero 2D analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Kondo, Miyuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2010-06-01

    The hydration structure of starch molecule in Domyoji-ko, which is made from gluey rice, was investigated by hetero 2D correlation analysis of IR and NIR spectroscopy. The feature near 1020 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Domyoji-ko is changed by rehydration process, indicating that the molecular structure of amylopectin in the starch has been varied by the hydration without heating. The intensity of a band at 4770 cm -1 in NIR spectra is decreasing with the increasing of either the heating time with water or rehydration time without heating. These results suggest that the hydration of Domyoji-ko has proceeded in similar mechanisms on these processes. The generalized hetero 2D IR-NIR correlation analysis for rehydration of Domyoji-ko has supported the assignments for NIR bands concerning the gelatinization of starch.

  5. Red wine proteins: two dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Mainente, Federica; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Cecconi, Daniela; Vincenzi, Simone; Rizzi, Corrado; Simonato, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize protein extraction from red wine (cv. Cabernet) in order to obtain a separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) compatible with mass spectrometry identification. Proteins were denatured by sodium dodecyl-sulphate (SDS) and precipitated as potassium salts. The potassium-DS (KDS) protein complexes obtained were treated with different solutions in order to remove the detergent. Proteins were solubilized with different buffers and separated by different electrophoretic approaches [native, urea, acid urea PAGEs and isoelectric focusing (IEF)] as the first-dimension (1-DE). The best 2D separation was achieved by using 10% saccharose in the DS removal step, and 6-cyclohexylhexyl β-d-maltoside detergent in the solubilisation buffer combined with the IEF approach. Several well focalized protein spots were obtained and analyzed through mass-spectrometry.

  6. Analysis of pyruvylated beta-carrageenan by 2D NMR spectroscopy and reductive partial hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Falshaw, Ruth; Furneaux, Richard H; Wong, Herbert

    2003-06-23

    A polysaccharide rich in 4',6'-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-substituted (i.e., pyruvylated) beta-carrageenan has been prepared by solvolytic desulfation of a polysaccharide containing predominantly pyruvylated alpha-carrageenan, which was extracted from the red seaweed, Callophycus tridentifer. The 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of pyruvylated beta-carrageenan have been fully assigned using 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. The 4',6'-O-(1-methoxycarbonylethylidene) group, generated during chemical methylation of the polysaccharide, has been shown to survive under the conditions of acidic hydrolysis that cleave the 3,6-anhydro-alpha-D-galactosidic bonds in permethylated samples of both pyruvylated beta- and pyruvylated alpha-carrageenans. As a result, two novel pyruvylated carrabiitol derivatives have been prepared.

  7. Symmetry Analysis and Exact Solutions of the 2D Unsteady Incompressible Boundary-Layer Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhong; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    To find intrinsically different symmetry reductions and inequivalent group invariant solutions of the 2D unsteady incompressible boundary-layer equations, a two-dimensional optimal system is constructed which attributed to the classification of the corresponding Lie subalgebras. The comprehensiveness and inequivalence of the optimal system are shown clearly under different values of invariants. Then by virtue of the optimal system obtained, the boundary-layer equations are directly reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by only one step. It has been shown that not only do we recover many of the known results but also find some new reductions and explicit solutions, which may be previously unknown. Supported by the Global Change Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072, 11435005, 11675054, and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213

  8. A 2D correlation Raman spectroscopy analysis of a human cataractous lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacharz, Julia; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Chaniecki, Piotr; Błażewicz, Marta

    2016-11-01

    This work is a continuation of our study of a cataractous human eye lens removed after phacoemulsification surgery. There are clear differences in the lens colors that allowed for distinguishing two opaque phases in the obtained biological material: the white- and yellow-phase. The Raman spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy method were used to trace a pathologically altered human cataract lens at a molecular level. Although the Raman spectra of these two phases are relatively similar, taking advantage of 2D correlation, and considering time as an external perturbation, the synchronous and asynchronous spectra were obtained showing completely different patterns. Prominent synchronous auto-peaks appear at 3340, 2920, 1736, 1665 and 1083 cm-1 for the white-, and at 2929 and 1670 cm-1 for the yellow phase. The white phase is characterized by intensive asynchronous peaks at -(2936, 3360), -(1650, 1674) and +(1620,1678). The modifications in the water contained in the white phase structure are ahead of the changes in the protein (CH3-groups), furthermore changes in β-conformation are asynchronous with respect to the α-structure. The yellow phase demonstrates asynchronous peaks: +(2857, 2928), +(1645,1673), +(1663, 1679), and +(1672,1707). These illustrate concomitant modifications in the β- and unordered conformation. Both forms of cataractous human eye lens, white- and yellow-phases, are degenerate forms of the eye lens proteins, both are arranged in a different way. The main differences are observed for the amide I, methyl, methylene and Osbnd H vibrational band region. The effect of Asp, Glu and Tyr amino acids in cataractous lens transformations was observed.

  9. Numerical simulation on the thermal radiative properties of a 2D SiO2/W/SiO2/W layered grating for thermophotovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Fu, Ceji

    2016-10-01

    Tailoring the spectrum of thermal emission from the emitter is important for improving the performance of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) layered grating structure made of SiO2 and tungsten (W), which can realize wavelength-selective control of thermal emission, was proposed for a potential emitter in TPV applications. Numerical simulations of the spectral emissivity of the structure from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared region reveals that the spectral-normal emissivity of the structure is enhanced to above 0.95 in the wavelength region from 0.55 μm to 1.9 μm for both TE and TM waves, but drops sharply at wavelength larger than 2 μm. Physical mechanisms responsible for the wavelength-selective emissivity were elucidated as due to resonance of magnetic polaritons (MPs) in the SiO2 spacer and in the grooves of the tungsten grating, Wood's anomaly (WA), excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and wave interference. Furthermore, the structure was found to exhibit quasi-diffuse and polarization-insensitive features of thermal emission, suggesting that the proposed structure can serve as the emitter in the design of high performance TPV systems.

  10. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maskaly, Karlene Rosera

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  11. 2D correlation analysis of the magnetic excitations in Raman spectra of HoMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Huyen; Nguyen, Thi Minh Hien; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Yang, In-Sang; Park, Yeonju; Jung, Young Mee

    2014-07-01

    2D correlation analysis is performed on the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of HoMnO3 thin films. As the temperature of the HoMnO3 thin films decrease, the depletion of the spectral weight at 336, 656, and 1304 cm-1 occurs at higher temperatures than the increase of the intensity at 508, 766, and 945 cm-1 below ∼70 K, the Néel temperature. The power spectrum asserts that all the changes in the spectral weight are strongly correlated. Most of the temperature-induced spectral changes of HoMnO3 occur at lower temperature than 70 K, while there is slight depletion of the spectral weight at 336, 656, and 1304 cm-1 even at higher temperature than 70 K. PCA scores and loading vectors plots also support these 2D correlation results. Our 2D correlation analysis supports the existence of the short range spin correlations between Mn sites in HoMnO3 even above the Néel temperature.

  12. Capturing tumor complexity in vitro: Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D tumor models for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Kristin; Estrada, Marta F.; Vidic, Suzana; Gjerde, Kjersti; Rudisch, Albin; Santo, Vítor E.; Barbier, Michaël; Blom, Sami; Arundkar, Sharath C.; Selvam, Irwin; Osswald, Annika; Stein, Yan; Gruenewald, Sylvia; Brito, Catarina; van Weerden, Wytske; Rotter, Varda; Boghaert, Erwin; Oren, Moshe; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Chong, Yolanda; de Hoogt, Ronald; Graeser, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures growing on plastic do not recapitulate the three dimensional (3D) architecture and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required for drug discovery and validation. Here, 2D culture and 3D mono- and stromal co-culture models of increasing complexity have been established and cross-comparisons made using three standard cell carcinoma lines: MCF7, LNCaP, NCI-H1437. Fluorescence-based growth curves, 3D image analysis, immunohistochemistry and treatment responses showed that end points differed according to cell type, stromal co-culture and culture format. The adaptable methodologies described here should guide the choice of appropriate simple and complex in vitro models. PMID:27364600

  13. Core-shell reconfiguration through thermal annealing in Fe(x)O/CoFe2O4 ordered 2D nanocrystal arrays.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Anil O; de Nijs, Bart; Fan, Zhaochuan; Tichelaar, Frans D; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Vlugt, Thijs J H; van Huis, Marijn A; Zandbergen, Henny W

    2014-02-07

    A great variety of single- and multi-component nanocrystals (NCs) can now be synthesized and integrated into nanocrystal superlattices. However, the thermal and temporal stability of these superstructures and their components can be a limiting factor for their application as functional devices. On the other hand, temperature induced reconstructions can also reveal opportunities to manipulate properties and access new types of nanostructures. In situ atomically resolved monitoring of nanomaterials provides insight into the temperature induced evolution of the individual NC constituents within these superstructures at the atomic level. Here, we investigate the effect of temperature annealing on 2D square and hexagonal arrays of FexO/CoFe2O4 core/shell NCs by in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both cubic and spherical NCs undergo a core-shell reconfiguration at a temperature of approximately 300 ° C, whereby the FexO core material segregates at the exterior of the CoFe2O4 shell, forming asymmetric dumbbells ('snowman-type' particles) with a small FexO domain attached to a larger CoFe2O4 domain. Upon continued annealing, the segregated FexO domains form bridges between the CoFe2O4 domains, followed by coalescence of all domains, resulting in loss of ordering in the 2D arrays.

  14. 2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  15. 2D-DIGE proteome analysis on the platelet proteins of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet activation is related to the psychopathology of major depression. We attempted to search and identify protein biomarkers from the platelets of patients with major depression. High resolution two-dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), Western blot, and bioinformatic tools were applied to examine the platelet proteins of 10 patients with major depression and 10 healthy controls. Results The levels of 8 proteins were significantly different between the patients with major depression in the acute phase and healthy controls. The levels of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) and F-actin-capping protein subunit beta (CAPZB) were higher in patients with major depression than in healthy controls. The levels of fibrinogen beta chain (FIBB), fibrinogen gamma chain (FIBG), retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), SH3 domain-containing protein 19 (SH319), and T-complex protein 1 subunit beta (TCPB) were lower in patients with major depression than in healthy controls. Conclusions Platelet provided valuable information about the pathways and processes of inflammation/immunity, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis, related to major depression. PMID:24383611

  16. Usability analysis of 2D graphics software for designing technical clothing.

    PubMed

    Teodoroski, Rita de Cassia Clark; Espíndola, Edilene Zilma; Silva, Enéias; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Pereira, Vera Lucia D V

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of technology, the computer became a working tool increasingly present in companies. Its purpose is to increase production and reduce the inherent errors in manual production. The aim of this study was to analyze the usability of 2D graphics software in creating clothing designs by a professional during his work. The movements of the mouse, keyboard and graphical tools were monitored in real time by software Camtasia 7® installed on the user's computer. To register the use of mouse and keyboard we used auxiliary software called MouseMeter®, which quantifies the number of times they pressed the right, middle and left mouse's buttons, the keyboard and also the distance traveled in meters by the cursor on the screen. Data was collected in periods of 15 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours, consecutively. The results showed that the job is considered repetitive and high demands physical efforts, which can lead to the appearance of repetitive strain injuries. Thus, the goal of minimizing operator efforts and thereby enhance the usability of the examined tool, becomes imperative to replace the mouse by a device called tablet, which also offers an electronic pen and a drawing platform for design development.

  17. Rifaximin-mediated changes to the epithelial cell proteome: 2-D gel analysis.

    PubMed

    Schrodt, Caroline; McHugh, Erin E; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; Dupont, Herbert L; Brown, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    Rifaximin is a semi-synthetic rifamycin derivative that is used to treat different conditions including bacterial diarrhea and hepatic encephalopathy. Rifaximin is of particular interest because it is poorly adsorbed in the intestines and has minimal effect on colonic microflora. We previously demonstrated that rifaximin affected epithelial cell physiology by altering infectivity by enteric pathogens and baseline inflammation suggesting that rifaximin conferred cytoprotection against colonization and infection. Effects of rifaximin on epithelial cells were further examined by comparing the protein expression profile of cells pretreated with rifaximin, rifampin (control antibiotic), or media (untreated). Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis identified 36 protein spots that were up- or down-regulated by over 1.7-fold in rifaximin treated cells compared to controls. 15 of these spots were down-regulated, including annexin A5, intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase, histone H4, and histone-binding protein RbbP4. 21 spots were up-regulated, including heat shock protein (HSP) 90α and fascin. Many of the identified proteins are associated with cell structure and cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, and cellular metabolism. These data suggested that in addition to its antimicrobial properties, rifaximin may alter host cell physiology that provides cytoprotective effects against bacterial pathogens.

  18. Thermal Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, III, Frank James (Inventor); Wobick, Craig A. (Inventor); Chapman, Kirt Auldwin (Inventor); McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A thermal fluid system modeler including a plurality of individual components. A solution vector is configured and ordered as a function of one or more inlet dependencies of the plurality of individual components. A fluid flow simulator simulates thermal energy being communicated with the flowing fluid and between first and second components of the plurality of individual components. The simulation extends from an initial time to a later time step and bounds heat transfer to be substantially between the flowing fluid, walls of tubes formed in each of the individual components of the plurality, and between adjacent tubes. Component parameters of the solution vector are updated with simulation results for each of the plurality of individual components of the simulation.

  19. Simulation and analysis of solute transport in 2D fracture/pipe networks: the SOLFRAC program.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Jacques; Porel, Gilles; Delay, Fred; Ubertosi, Fabrice; Bernard, Stéphane; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2007-01-05

    The Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) method has been recently developed by Delay and Bodin [Delay, F. and Bodin, J., 2001. Time domain random walk method to simulate transport by advection-dispersion and matrix diffusion in fracture networks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21): 4051-4054.] and Bodin et al. [Bodin, J., Porel, G. and Delay, F., 2003c. Simulation of solute transport in discrete fracture networks using the time domain random walk method. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 6566: 1-8.] for simulating solute transport in discrete fracture networks. It is assumed that the fracture network can reasonably be represented by a network of interconnected one-dimensional pipes (i.e. flow channels). Processes accounted for are: (1) advection and hydrodynamic dispersion in the channels, (2) matrix diffusion, (3) diffusion into stagnant zones within the fracture planes, (4) sorption reactions onto the fracture walls and in the matrix, (5) linear decay, and (6) mass sharing at fracture intersections. The TDRW method is handy and very efficient in terms of computation costs since it allows for the one-step calculation of the particle residence time in each bond of the network. This method has been programmed in C++, and efforts have been made to develop an efficient and user-friendly software, called SOLFRAC. This program is freely downloadable at the URL (labo.univ-poitiers.fr/hydrasa/intranet/telechargement.htm). It calculates solute transport into 2D pipe networks, while considering different types of injections and different concepts of local dispersion within each flow channel. Post-simulation analyses are also available, such as the mean velocity or the macroscopic dispersion at the scale of the entire network. The program may be used to evaluate how a given transport mechanism influences the macroscopic transport behaviour of fracture networks. It may also be used, as is the case, e.g., with analytical solutions, to interpret laboratory or field tracer test experiments performed

  20. Thermal radiation analysis system (TRASYS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, C. L.; Goble, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Analysis System, TRASYS, is a digital computer software system with generalized capability to solve the radiation-related aspects of thermal analysis problems. When used in conjunction with a generalized thermal analyzer program any thermal problem that can be expressed in terms of a lumped parameter R-C thermal network can be solved. The function of TRASYS is twofold. It provides: (1) internode radiation interchange data; and (2) incident and absorbed heat rate data from environmental radiant heat sources. Data of both types is provided in a format directly usable by the thermal analyzer programs. One of the primary features of TRASYS is that it allows the user to write his own executive or driver program which organizes and directs the program library routines toward solution of each specific problem in the most expeditious manner. The user also may write his own output routines, thus the system data output can directly interface with any thermal analyzer using the R-C network concept.

  1. A detailed postprocess analysis of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma using SPEC2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Kammash, T.; Davis, J.

    1997-05-01

    A postprocess analysis of a single time frame hydrodynamic profile from the PRISM two-dimensional MHD simulation of an argon gas puff Z-pinch plasma experiment on Double-Eagle generator at Physics Internationals, Co. is presented. In addition, spatially resolved emission spectra and filtered (K- and L-shell radiation) x-ray pinhole images, generated using the SPEC2D code, are examined toward the understanding of the emission characteristics of the hot spots and the formation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the plasma.

  2. Analysis of high Reynolds numbers effects on a wind turbine airfoil using 2D wind tunnel test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The aerodynamic behaviour of a wind turbine airfoil has been measured in a dedicated 2D wind tunnel test at the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG), Germany. The tests have been performed on the DU00W212 airfoil at different Reynolds numbers: 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 million, and at low Mach numbers (below 0.1). Both clean and tripped conditions of the airfoil have been measured. An analysis of the impact of a wide Reynolds number variation over the aerodynamic characteristics of this airfoil has been performed.

  3. Global 2D stability analysis of the cross lid-driven cavity flow with a streamfunction-vorticity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Bidyut B.

    2016-07-01

    We have recently analyzed the global two-dimensional (2D) stability of the staggered lid-driven cavity (LDC) flow with a higher order compact (HOC) approach. In the analysis, critical parameters are determined for both the parallel and anti-parallel motion of the lids and a detailed analysis has been carried out on either side of the critical values. In this article, we carry out an investigation of flow stabilities inside a two-sided cross lid-driven cavity with a pair of opposite lids moving in both parallel and anti-parallel directions. On discretization, the governing 2D Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations describing the steady flow and flow perturbations results in a generalized eigenvalue problem which is solved for determining the critical parameters on four different grids. Elaborate computation is performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re) on either side of the critical values in the range 200 ⩽ Re ⩽ 10000. For flows below the critical Reynolds number Rec, our numerical results are compared with established steady-state results and excellent agreement is obtained in all the cases. For Reynolds numbers above Rec, phase plane and spectral density analysis confirmed the existence of periodic, quasi-periodic, and stable flow patterns.

  4. Application of 2D-HPLC/taste dilution analysis on taste compounds in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    PubMed

    Pickrahn, Stephen; Sebald, Karin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    This is the first application of fully automated, preparative, two-dimensional HPLC combined with sensory analysis for taste compound discovery using a sweet and licorice-like bitter-tasting aniseed extract as an example. Compared to the traditional iterative fractionation of food extracts by sensory-guided sequential application of separation techniques, the fully automated 2D-HPLC allowed the comprehensive separation of the aniseed extract into 256 subfractions and reduced the fractionation time from about 1 week to <1day. Using a smart sensory strategy to locate high-impact fractions, e.g., by evaluating first-dimension fractions by reconstituting them from second-dimension subfractions, followed by straightforward application of the taste dilution analysis on the individual second-dimension subfractions revealed the sweet-tasting trans-anethole and the bitter-tasting trans-pseudoisoeugenol 2-methylbutyrate, showing recognition thresholds of 70 and 68 μmol/L, respectively, as the primary orosensory active compounds in aniseed. 2D-HPLC combined with smart sensory analysis seems to be a promising strategy to speed the discovery of the key players imparting the attractive taste of foods.

  5. Multichannel response analysis on 2D projection views for detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jun Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Chuan; Samala, Ravi

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a new two-dimensional (2D) multichannel response (MCR) analysis approach for the detection of clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: With IRB approval and informed consent, a data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts containing biopsy-proven MC clusters was collected in this study. The authors developed a 2D approach for MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) DBT volume. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement processing was first applied to each PV to enhance the potential MCs. The locations of MC candidates were then identified with iterative thresholding. The individual MCs were decomposed with Hermite–Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) basis functions and the channelized Hotelling model was trained to produce the MCRs for each MC on the 2D images. The MCRs from the PVs were fused in 3D by a coincidence counting method that backprojects the MC candidates on the PVs and traces the coincidence of their ray paths in 3D. The 3D MCR was used to differentiate the true MCs from false positives (FPs). Finally a dynamic clustering method was used to identify the potential MC clusters in the DBT volume based on the fact that true MCs of clinical significance appear in clusters. Using two-fold cross validation, the performance of the 3D MCR for classification of true and false MCs was estimated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the overall performance of the MCR approach for detection of clustered MCs was assessed by free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. Results: When the HG basis function was used for MCR analysis, the detection of MC cluster achieved case-based test sensitivities of 80% and 90% at the average FP rates of 0.65 and 1.55 FPs per DBT volume, respectively. With LG basis function, the average FP rates were 0.62 and 1.57 per DBT volume at

  6. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: power-spectrum analysis of the final data set and cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Shaun; Percival, Will J.; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Cross, Nicholas J. G.; Dalton, Gavin; Eke, Vincent R.; De Propris, Roberto; Driver, Simon P.; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jackson, Carole; Jenkins, Adrian; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2005-09-01

    We present a power-spectrum analysis of the final 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), employing a direct Fourier method. The sample used comprises 221414 galaxies with measured redshifts. We investigate in detail the modelling of the sample selection, improving on previous treatments in a number of respects. A new angular mask is derived, based on revisions to the photometric calibration. The redshift selection function is determined by dividing the survey according to rest-frame colour, and deducing a self-consistent treatment of k-corrections and evolution for each population. The covariance matrix for the power-spectrum estimates is determined using two different approaches to the construction of mock surveys, which are used to demonstrate that the input cosmological model can be correctly recovered. We discuss in detail the possible differences between the galaxy and mass power spectra, and treat these using simulations, analytic models and a hybrid empirical approach. Based on these investigations, we are confident that the 2dFGRS power spectrum can be used to infer the matter content of the universe. On large scales, our estimated power spectrum shows evidence for the `baryon oscillations' that are predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) models. Fitting to a CDM model, assuming a primordial ns= 1 spectrum, h= 0.72 and negligible neutrino mass, the preferred parameters are Ωmh= 0.168 +/- 0.016 and a baryon fraction Ωb/Ωm= 0.185 +/- 0.046 (1σ errors). The value of Ωmh is 1σ lower than the 0.20 +/- 0.03 in our 2001 analysis of the partially complete 2dFGRS. This shift is largely due to the signal from the newly sampled regions of space, rather than the refinements in the treatment of observational selection. This analysis therefore implies a density significantly below the standard Ωm= 0.3: in combination with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we infer Ωm= 0.231 +/- 0.021.

  7. 2D pair distribution function analysis of anisotropic small-angle scattering patterns from elongated nano-composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Small angle scattering (SAS) on polymer nanocomposites under elongation or shear flow is an important experimental method to investigate the reinforcement effects of the mechanical properties by fillers. However, the anisotropic scattering patterns that appear in SAS are very complicated and difficult to interpret. A representative example is a four-spot scattering pattern observed in the case of polymer materials containing silica nanoparticles, the origin of which is still in debate because of the lack of quantitative analysis. The difficulties in the interpretation of anisotropic scattering patterns mainly arise from the abstract nature of the reciprocal space. Here, we focus on the 2D pair distribution function (PDF) directly evaluated from anisotropic scattering patterns. We applied this method to elongated poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) gels containing silica nanoparticles (PDAM-NP gel), which show a four-spot scattering pattern under elongation. From 2D PDFs, we obtained detailed and concrete structural information about the elongated PDAM-NP gel, such as affine and non-affine displacements of directly attached and homogeneously dispersed silica nanoparticles, respectively. We proposed that nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the perpendicular direction are not displaced due to the collision of the adsorbed polymer layer during elongation, while those in the parallel direction are displaced in an affine way. We assumed that this suppression of the lateral compression is the origin of the four-spot pattern in this study. These results strongly indicate that our 2D PDF analysis will provide deep insight into the internal structure of polymer nanocomposites hidden in the anisotropic scattering patterns.

  8. A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

  9. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats

    PubMed Central

    TAKANO, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; AOKI, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart. PMID:25373881

  10. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroshi; Isogai, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; Wakao, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart.

  11. Analysis of simple 2-D and 3-D metal structures subjected to fragment impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witmer, E. A.; Stagliano, T. R.; Spilker, R. L.; Rodal, J. J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical methods were developed for predicting the large-deflection elastic-plastic transient structural responses of metal containment or deflector (C/D) structures to cope with rotor burst fragment impact attack. For two-dimensional C/D structures both, finite element and finite difference analysis methods were employed to analyze structural response produced by either prescribed transient loads or fragment impact. For the latter category, two time-wise step-by-step analysis procedures were devised to predict the structural responses resulting from a succession of fragment impacts: the collision force method (CFM) which utilizes an approximate prediction of the force applied to the attacked structure during fragment impact, and the collision imparted velocity method (CIVM) in which the impact-induced velocity increment acquired by a region of the impacted structure near the impact point is computed. The merits and limitations of these approaches are discussed. For the analysis of 3-d responses of C/D structures, only the CIVM approach was investigated.

  12. Modeling of 2D diffusion processes based on microscopy data: parameter estimation and practical identifiability analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffusion is a key component of many biological processes such as chemotaxis, developmental differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. Since recently, the spatial gradients caused by diffusion can be assessed in-vitro and in-vivo using microscopy based imaging techniques. The resulting time-series of two dimensional, high-resolutions images in combination with mechanistic models enable the quantitative analysis of the underlying mechanisms. However, such a model-based analysis is still challenging due to measurement noise and sparse observations, which result in uncertainties of the model parameters. Methods We introduce a likelihood function for image-based measurements with log-normal distributed noise. Based upon this likelihood function we formulate the maximum likelihood estimation problem, which is solved using PDE-constrained optimization methods. To assess the uncertainty and practical identifiability of the parameters we introduce profile likelihoods for diffusion processes. Results and conclusion As proof of concept, we model certain aspects of the guidance of dendritic cells towards lymphatic vessels, an example for haptotaxis. Using a realistic set of artificial measurement data, we estimate the five kinetic parameters of this model and compute profile likelihoods. Our novel approach for the estimation of model parameters from image data as well as the proposed identifiability analysis approach is widely applicable to diffusion processes. The profile likelihood based method provides more rigorous uncertainty bounds in contrast to local approximation methods. PMID:24267545

  13. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell

  14. Advantages of 3D FEM numerical modeling over 2D, analyzed in a case study of transient thermal-hydraulic groundwater utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    In general most aquifers have a much larger lateral extent than vertical. This fact leads to the application of the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions to many groundwater problems, whereas a two dimensional simulation is considered sufficient. By coupling transient fluid flow modeling with heat transport the 2D aquifer approximation is in many cases insufficient as it does not consider effects of the subjacent and overlying aquitards on heat propagation as well as the impact of surface climatic effects on shallow aquifers. A shallow Holocene aquifer in Vienna served as a case study to compare different modeling approaches in two and three dimensions in order to predict the performance and impact of a thermal aquifer utilization for heating (1.3 GWh) and cooling (1.4 GWh) of a communal building. With the assumption of a 6 doublets well field, the comparison was realized in three steps: At first a two dimensional model for unconfined flow was set up, assuming a varying hydraulic conductivity as well as a varying top and bottom elevation of the aquifer (gross - thickness). The model area was chosen along constant hydraulic head at steady state conditions. A second model was made by mapping solely the aquifer in three dimensions using the same subdomain and boundary conditions as defined in step one. The third model consists of a complete three dimensional geological build-up including the aquifer as well as the overlying and subjacent layers and additionally an annually variable climatic boundary condition at the surface. The latter was calibrated with measured water temperature at a nearby water gauge. For all three models the same annual operating mode of the 6 hydraulic doublets was assumed. Furthermore a limited maximal groundwater temperature at a range between 8 and 18 °C as well as a constrained well flow rate has been given. Finally a descriptive comparison of the three models concerning the extracted thermal power, drawdown, temperature distribution and Darcy

  15. Uncertainty Estimation for 2D PIV: An In-Depth Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Bhattacharya, Syantan; Troolin, Dan; Vlachos, Pavlos; Pothos, Stamatios

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty quantification methods have recently made great strides in accurately predicting uncertainties for planar PIV, and several different approaches are now documented. In the present study, we provide an analysis of these methods across different experiments and different PIV processing codes. To assess the performance of said methods, we follow the approach of Sciacchitano et al. (2015) and utilize two PIV measurement systems with overlapping fields of view-one acting as a reference (which is validated using simultaneous LDV measurements) and the other as a measurement system, paying close attention to the effects of interrogation window overlap and bias errors on the analysis. A total of three experiments were performed: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. In brief, the standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from approximately 65%-77% for PPR and MI methods, 40%-50% for image matching methods. We present an in-depth survey of both global (e.g., coverage and error histograms) and local (e.g., spatially varying statistics) parameters to examine the strengths and weaknesses of each method in monitor their responses to different regions of the experimental flows.

  16. Multiscale quantification of morphodynamics: MorphoLeaf software for 2D shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Biot, Eric; Cortizo, Millán; Burguet, Jasmine; Kiss, Annamaria; Oughou, Mohamed; Maugarny-Calès, Aude; Gonçalves, Beatriz; Adroher, Bernard; Andrey, Philippe; Boudaoud, Arezki; Laufs, Patrick

    2016-09-15

    A major challenge in morphometrics is to analyse complex biological shapes formed by structures at different scales. Leaves exemplify this challenge as they combine differences in their overall shape with smaller shape variations at their margin, leading to lobes or teeth. Current methods based on contour or on landmark analysis are successful in quantifying either overall leaf shape or leaf margin dissection, but fail in combining the two. Here, we present a comprehensive strategy and its associated freely available platform for the quantitative, multiscale analysis of the morphology of leaves with different architectures. For this, biologically relevant landmarks are automatically extracted and hierarchised, and used to guide the reconstruction of accurate average contours that properly represent both global and local features. Using this method, we establish a quantitative framework of the developmental trajectory of Arabidopsis leaves of different ranks and retrace the origin of leaf heteroblasty. When applied to different mutant forms, our method can contribute to a better understanding of gene function, as we show here for the role of CUC2 during Arabidopsis leaf serration. Finally, we illustrate the wider applicability of our tool by analysing hand morphometrics.

  17. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  18. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.; Thornton, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    Work has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution of the Coflon material using a dual detector Gel Permeation Analysis. Again these changes may result in variation in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-Ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed in a modified Fluid G, which we will call G2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures, 70 C, 110 C, and 130 C. The primary purpose of the pressure tests in Fluid G2 was to further elucidate the aging mechanism of PVDF degradation.

  19. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Deshmukh, Nikhil; Prinke, Amanda; Miller, Brian; ...

    2017-01-13

    The aim of this study is to compare radioxenon beta–gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Finally, our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newermore » algorithms can be better than the ones currently used.« less

  20. UCF WASTE PACKAGE SHIELDING ANALYSIS/2-D DORT (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Skulina

    1996-01-18

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to determine the dose rates from the UCF waste packages to be used by the EBS and other repository systems to incorporate ALARA practices in the overall repository design in compliance with the goals of the Waste Package Implementation Plan for conceptual design. These design calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive comparison base with other design alternatives. The objectives of this evaluation are (1) to show the dose rate as a function of distance from the waste package surface and (2) to provide the shielding thicknesses required for the waste package transporter to meet a 10 mr/hr target dose rate at 2 meters from the transporter surface.

  1. High pH reversed-phase chromatography with fraction concatenation for 2D proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Feng; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-04-01

    Orthogonal high-resolution separations are critical for attaining improved analytical dynamic ranges of proteome measurements. Concatenated high pH reversed phase liquid chromatography affords better separations than the strong cation exchange conventionally applied for two-dimensional shotgun proteomic analysis. For example, concatenated high pH reversed phase liquid chromatography increased identification coverage for peptides (e.g., by 1.8-fold) and proteins (e.g., by 1.6-fold) in shotgun proteomics analyses of a digested human protein sample. Additional advantages of concatenated high pH RPLC include improved protein sequence coverage, simplified sample processing, and reduced sample losses, making this an attractive first dimension separation strategy for two-dimensional proteomics analyses.

  2. 2D analysis of polydisperse core-shell nanoparticles using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Gorbet, Gary; Akdas, Tugce; Segets, Doris; Demeler, Borries; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-12-19

    Accurate knowledge of the size, density and composition of nanoparticles (NPs) is of major importance for their applications. In this work the hydrodynamic characterization of polydisperse core-shell NPs by means of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is addressed. AUC is one of the most accurate techniques for the characterization of NPs in the liquid phase because it can resolve particle size distributions (PSDs) with unrivaled resolution and detail. Small NPs have to be considered as core-shell systems when dispersed in a liquid since a solvation layer and a stabilizer shell will significantly contribute to the particle's hydrodynamic diameter and effective density. AUC measures the sedimentation and diffusion transport of the analytes, which are affected by the core-shell compositional properties. This work demonstrates that polydisperse and thus widely distributed NPs pose significant challenges for current state-of-the-art data evaluation methods. The existing methods either have insufficient resolution or do not correctly reproduce the core-shell properties. First, we investigate the performance of different data evaluation models by means of simulated data. Then, we propose a new methodology to address the core-shell properties of NPs. This method is based on the parametrically constrained spectrum analysis and offers complete access to the size and effective density of polydisperse NPs. Our study is complemented using experimental data derived for ZnO and CuInS2 NPs, which do not have a monodisperse PSD. For the first time, the size and effective density of such structures could be resolved with high resolution by means of a two-dimensional AUC analysis approach.

  3. A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.

  4. Analysis of 2D periodic nanostructures with an oxide overlayer via spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Ghong, T H; Byun, J S; Han, S-H; Chung, J-M; Kim, Y D

    2011-07-01

    The accurate nondestructive determination of the shapes or critical dimensions of periodic nanostructures is essential to the current integrated-circuits technology. Optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology is fast, nondestructive, and can be used in air, allows higher sampling rates compared to the non-optical methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and does not damage the sample. The data are typically analyzed via rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), where the sample is modeled as a series of layers whose dimensional parameters are determined by a least-squares fit. The layers are typically approximated as a combination of core material and ambient. Oxide overlayers and surface roughness are common, however, and call into question two-phase approximation. In this study, a structure that is periodic in two dimensions and that is coated with a thin (3 nm) oxide was studied, and an extension of the RCWA method that allows structural information to be extracted from optical data even in the presence of oxide overlayers or surface roughness was developed.

  5. A Complete 2D Stability Analysis of Fast MHD Shocks in an Ideal Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhinin, Yuri

    An algorithm of numerical testing of the uniform Lopatinski condition for linearized stability problems for 1-shocks is suggested. The algorithm is used for finding the domains of uniform stability, neutral stability, and instability of planar fast MHD shocks. A complete stability analysis of fast MHD shock waves is first carried out in two space dimensions for the case of an ideal gas. Main results are given for the adiabatic constant γ=5/3 (mono-atomic gas), that is most natural for the MHD model. The cases γ=7/5 (two-atomic gas) and γ>5/3 are briefly discussed. Not only the domains of instability and linear (in the usual sense) stability, but also the domains of uniform stability, for which a corresponding linearized stability problem satisfies the uniform Lopatinski condition, are numerically found for different given angles of inclination of the magnetic field behind the shock to the planar shock front. As is known, uniform linearized stability implies the nonlinear stability, that is local existence of discontinuous shock front solutions of a quasilinear system of hyperbolic conservation laws.

  6. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  7. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  8. Micropolar dissipative models for the analysis of 2D dispersive waves in periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, H.; Ganghoffer, J. F.; Lakiss, H.

    2017-03-01

    The computation of the dispersion relations for dissipative periodic lattices having the attributes of metamaterials is an actual research topic raising the interest of researchers in the field of acoustics and wave propagation phenomena. We analyze in this contribution the impact of wave damping on the dispersion features of periodic lattices, which are modeled as beam-lattices. The band diagram structure and damping ratio are computed for different repetitive lattices, based on the homogenized continuum response of the initially discrete lattice architecture, modeled as Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic beams. Three of these lattices (reentrant hexagonal, chiral diamond, hexachiral lattice) are auxetic metamaterials, since they show negative Poisson's ratio. The effective viscoelastic anisotropic continuum behavior of the lattices is first computed in terms of the homogenized stiffness and viscosity matrices, based on the discrete homogenization technique. The dynamical equations of motion are obtained for an equivalent homogenized micropolar continuum evaluated based on the homogenized properties, and the dispersion relation and damping ratio are obtained by inserting an harmonic plane waves Ansatz into these equations. The comparison of the acoustic properties obtained in the low frequency range for the four considered lattices shows that auxetic lattices attenuate waves at lower frequencies compared to the classical hexagonal lattice. The diamond chiral lattice shows the best attenuation properties of harmonic waves over the entire Brillouin zone, and the hexachiral lattice presents better acoustic properties than the reentrant hexagonal lattice. The range of validity of the effective continuum obtained by the discrete homogenization has been assessed by comparing the frequency band structure of this continuum with that obtained by a Floquet-Bloch analysis.

  9. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  10. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

  11. Stress analysis of a rectangular implant in laminated composites using 2-D and 3-D finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Wai T.; Graves, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis method using the FEM based on the Hellinger-Reissner variation principle has been developed to determine the 3-D stresses and displacements near a rectangular implant inside a laminated composite material. Three-dimensional elements are employed in regions where the interlaminar stress is considered to be significant; 2-D elements are used in other areas. Uniaxially loaded graphite-epoxy laminates have been analyzed; the implant was modeled as four plies of 3501/6 epoxy located in the middle of the laminate. It is shown that the interlaminar stresses are an order of magnitude lower than the stress representing the applied far-field load. The stress concentration factors of both the interlaminar and in-plane stresses depend on the stacking sequence of the laminate.

  12. 2D-DIGE analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit reveals major proteomic changes associated with ripening.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jonathan de Magalhães; Toledo, Tatiana Torres; Nogueira, Silvia Beserra; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2012-06-18

    A comparative proteomic investigation between the pre-climacteric and climacteric mango fruits (cv. Keitt) was performed to identify protein species with variable abundance during ripening. Proteins were phenol-extracted from fruits, cyanine-dye-labeled, and separated on 2D gels at pH 4-7. Total spot count of about 373 proteins spots was detected in each gel and forty-seven were consistently different between pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits and were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. Functional classification revealed that protein species involved in carbon fixation and hormone biosynthesis decreased during ripening, whereas those related to catabolism and the stress-response, including oxidative stress and abiotic and pathogen defense factors, accumulated. In relation to fruit quality, protein species putatively involved in color development and pulp softening were also identified. This study on mango proteomics provides an overview of the biological processes that occur during ripening.

  13. Relevance of 2D radiographic texture analysis for the assessment of 3D bone micro-architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Lian; Boudousq, Vincent; Basset, Oliver; Odet, Christophe; Yot, Sophie; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Peyrin, Francoise

    2006-09-15

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual x-ray absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regard to fracture risk. In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. Thirty-three calcaneus and femoral neck bone samples including the cortical shells (diameter: 14 mm, height: 30-40 mm) were imaged using 3D-synchrotron x-ray micro-CT at the ESRF. The 3D reconstructed images with a cubic voxel size of 15 {mu}m were further used for two purposes: (1) quantification of three-dimensional trabecular bone micro-architecture (2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. The simulated x-ray radiographs were then analyzed using a large variety of texture analysis methods (co-occurrence, spectral density, fractal, morphology, etc.). The range of micro-architecture parameters was in agreement with previous studies and rather large, suggesting that the population was representative. More than 350 texture parameters were tested. A small number of them were selected based on their correlation to micro-architectural morphometric parameters. Using this subset of texture parameters, multiple regression allowed one to predict up to 93% of the variance of micro-architecture parameters using three texture features. 2D texture features predicting 3D micro-architecture parameters other than BV/TV were identified. The methodology proposed for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters may also be used for optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Further work will include the application of the method to physical radiographs. In the future, this approach could be used in combination with DXA to refine osteoporosis diagnosis.

  14. 2D THD and 3D TEHD analysis of large spindle supported thrust bearings with pins and double layer system used in the three gorges hydroelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Wu, Z. D.; Wu, J. L.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    A 2D THD model and a 3DTEHD model for large spindle supported thrust bearings were set up and used to analyze the lubrication performance of the Three Gorges test thrust beating withpins and double layer system developed by Alstom Power. The finite difference method was employed to solve the THD model, and the thermal-elasticdeformations in the pad and runner were obtained by the finite element software ANSYS11.0. The data transfer between the THD model and ANSYS11.0 was carried out automatically by an interface program.A detailed comparison between the experimental results and numerical predictions by the two different modelsset up in this paper was carried out. Poor agreement has been found between the theoretical results obtained by 2D THD model and experimental data, while 3D TEHD provides fairly good agreement, confirming the importance of thermal effects and thermal-elastic deformations in both pad and runner.

  15. WASI-2D: A software tool for regionally optimized analysis of imaging spectrometer data from deep and shallow waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gege, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An image processing software has been developed which allows quantitative analysis of multi- and hyperspectral data from oceanic, coastal and inland waters. It has been implemented into the Water Colour Simulator WASI, which is a tool for the simulation and analysis of optical properties and light field parameters of deep and shallow waters. The new module WASI-2D can import atmospherically corrected images from airborne sensors and satellite instruments in various data formats and units like remote sensing reflectance or radiance. It can be easily adapted by the user to different sensors and to optical properties of the studied area. Data analysis is done by inverse modelling using established analytical models. The bio-optical model of the water column accounts for gelbstoff (coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM), detritus, and mixtures of up to 6 phytoplankton classes and 2 spectrally different types of suspended matter. The reflectance of the sea floor is treated as sum of up to 6 substrate types. An analytic model of downwelling irradiance allows wavelength dependent modelling of sun glint and sky glint at the water surface. The provided database covers the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm in 1 nm intervals. It can be exchanged easily to represent the optical properties of water constituents, bottom types and the atmosphere of the studied area.

  16. Thermal Analysis Methods For Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Lindell, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates inclusion of detailed thermal analysis early in the design of the vehicle. This paper will describe the challenges and solutions for a preliminary thermal analysis of an Earth Entry Vehicle. The aeroheating on the vehicle during entry would be the main driver for the thermal behavior, and is a complex function of time, spatial position on the vehicle, vehicle temperature, and trajectory parameters. Thus, the thermal analysis must be closely tied to the aeroheating analysis in order to make accurate predictions. Also, the thermal analysis must account for the material response of the ablative thermal protection system (TPS). For the exo-atmospheric portion of the mission, the thermal analysis must include the orbital radiation fluxes on the surfaces. The thermal behavior must also be used to predict the structural response of the vehicle (the thermal stress and strains) and whether they remain within the capability of the materials. Thus, the thermal analysis requires ties to the three-dimensional geometry, the aeroheating analysis, the material response analysis, the orbital analysis, and the structural analysis. The goal of this paper is to describe to what degree that has been achieved.

  17. Transient thermal analysis of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of the SPAR thermal analyzer to the thermal analysis of a thermal protection system concept is discussed. The titanium multiwall thermal protection system concept consists of alternate flat and dimpled sheets which are joined together at the crests of the dimples and formed into 30 cm by 30 cm (12 in. by 12 in.) tiles. The tiles are mechanically attached to the structure. The complex tile geometry complicates thermal analysis. Three modes of heat transfer were considered: conduction through the gas inside the tile, conduction through the metal, and radiation between the various layers. The voids between the dimpled and flat sheets were designed to be small enough so that natural convection is insignificant (e.g., Grashof number 1000). A two step approach was used in the thermal analysis of the multiwall thermal protection system. First, an effective normal (through-the-thickness) thermal conductivity was obtained from a steady state analysis using a detailed SPAR finite element model of a small symmetric section of the multiwall tile. This effective conductivity was then used in simple one dimensional finite element models for preliminary analysis of several transient heat transfer problems.

  18. 2D wavelet-analysis-based calibration technique for flat-panel imaging detectors: application in cone beam volume CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Rongfeng; Conover, David L.

    1999-05-01

    The application of the newly developed flat panel x-ray imaging detector in cone beam volume CT has attracted increasing interest recently. Due to an imperfect solid state array manufacturing process, however, defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image unavoidably exist in all kinds of flat panel x-ray imaging detectors, which will cause severe streak and ring artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image and severely degrade image quality. A calibration technique, in which the artifacts resulting from the defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image can be reduced significantly, is presented in this paper. The detection of defective elements is distinctively based upon two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis. Because of its inherent localizability in recognizing singularities or discontinuities, wavelet analysis possesses the capability of detecting defective elements over a rather large x-ray exposure range, e.g., 20% to approximately 60% of the dynamic range of the detector used. Three-dimensional (3D) images of a low-contrast CT phantom have been reconstructed from projection images acquired by a flat panel x-ray imaging detector with and without calibration process applied. The artifacts caused individually by defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image have been separated and investigated in detail, and the correlation with each other have also been exposed explicitly. The investigation is enforced by quantitative analysis of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the image uniformity of the cone beam reconstruction image. It has been demonstrated that the ring and streak artifacts resulting from the imperfect performance of a flat panel x-ray imaging detector can be reduced dramatically, and then the image qualities of a cone beam reconstruction image, such as contrast resolution and image uniformity are improved significantly. Furthermore, with little modification, the calibration technique presented here is also applicable

  19. Anisotropic multi-resolution analysis in 2D, application to long-range correlations in cloud mm-radar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.B.; Clothiaux, E.

    1999-03-01

    Because of Earth`s gravitational field, its atmosphere is strongly anisotropic with respect to the vertical; the effect of the Earth`s rotation on synoptic wind patterns also causes a more subtle form of anisotropy in the horizontal plane. The authors survey various approaches to statistically robust anisotropy from a wavelet perspective and present a new one adapted to strongly non-isotropic fields that are sampled on a rectangular grid with a large aspect ratio. This novel technique uses an anisotropic version of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) in image analysis; the authors form a tensor product of the standard dyadic Haar basis, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub z} = 2, and a nonstandard triadic counterpart, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub x} = 3. The natural support of the field is therefore 2{sup n} pixels (vertically) by 3{sup n} pixels (horizontally) where n is the number of levels in the MRA. The natural triadic basis includes the French top-hat wavelet which resonates with bumps in the field whereas the Haar wavelet responds to ramps or steps. The complete 2D basis has one scaling function and five wavelets. The resulting anisotropic MRA is designed for application to the liquid water content (LWC) field in boundary-layer clouds, as the prevailing wind advects them by a vertically pointing mm-radar system. Spatial correlations are notoriously long-range in cloud structure and the authors use the wavelet coefficients from the new MRA to characterize these correlations in a multifractal analysis scheme. In the present study, the MRA is used (in synthesis mode) to generate fields that mimic cloud structure quite realistically although only a few parameters are used to control the randomness of the LWC`s wavelet coefficients.

  20. Thermal analysis in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smykatz-Kloss, W.; Heil, A.; Kaeding, L.; Roller, E.

    Thermal analysis offers suitable methods for environmental studies. Impurities of toxic elements in minerals, rocks, and raw materials can be determined by DTA, TG, CSA-CWA or EGA techniques (S in clays and coals, Cr or Cd in oxides and sulphides etc.). The DTA of the illite or smectite crystallinity shows to be a good controlling measure for barrier clays around waste disposals. The DTA/TG investigation of organo-clay mineral complexes contributes to the estimation of erosion tendencies in agricultural environments. This is discussed for several pesticide-bentonite complexes.

  1. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF GASES

    DOEpatents

    Clark, W.J.

    1949-06-01

    This patent describes apparatus for the quantitative analysis of a gaseous mixture at subatmospheric pressure by measurement of its thermal conductivity. A heated wire forms one leg of a bridge circuit, while the gas under test is passed about the wire at a constant rate. The bridge unbalance will be a measure of the change in composition of the gas, if compensation is made for the effect due to gas pressure change. The apparatus provides a voltage varying with fluctuations of pressure in series with the indicating device placed across the bridge, to counterbalance the voltage change caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the gaseous mixture.

  2. Integral equation analysis and optimization of 2D layered nanolithography masks by complex images Green's function technique in TM polarization.

    PubMed

    Haghtalab, Mohammad; Faraji-Dana, Reza

    2012-05-01

    Analysis and optimization of diffraction effects in nanolithography through multilayered media with a fast and accurate field-theoretical approach is presented. The scattered field through an arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) mask pattern in multilayered media illuminated by a TM-polarized incident wave is determined by using an electric field integral equation formulation. In this formulation the electric field is represented in terms of complex images Green's functions. The method of moments is then employed to solve the resulting integral equation. In this way an accurate and computationally efficient approximate method is achieved. The accuracy of the proposed method is vindicated through comparison with direct numerical integration results. Moreover, the comparison is made between the results obtained by the proposed method and those obtained by the full-wave finite-element method. The ray tracing method is combined with the proposed method to describe the imaging process in the lithography. The simulated annealing algorithm is then employed to solve the inverse problem, i.e., to design an optimized mask pattern to improve the resolution. Two binary mask patterns under normal incident coherent illumination are designed by this method, where it is shown that the subresolution features improve the critical dimension significantly.

  3. Interaction Between Tropical Convection and its Embedding Environment: An Energetics Analysis of a 2-D Cloud Resolving Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The phase relation between the perturbation kinetic energy (K') associated with the tropical convection and the horizontal-mean moist available potential energy (bar-P) associated with environmental conditions is investigated by an energetics analysis of a numerical experiment. This experiment is performed using a 2-D cloud resolving model forced by the TOGA-COARE derived vertical velocity. The imposed upward motion leads to a decrease of bar-P directly through the associated vertical advective cooling, and to an increase of K' directly through cloud related processes, feeding the convection. The maximum K' and its maximum growth rate lags and leads, respectively, the maximum imposed large-scale upward motion by about 1-2 hours, indicating that convection is phase locked with large-scale forcing. The dominant life cycle of the simulated convection is about 9 hours, whereas the time scales of the imposed large-scale forcing are longer than the diurnal cycle. In the convective events, maximum growth of K' leads maximum decay of the perturbation moist available potential energy (P') by about 3 hours through vertical heat transport by perturbation circulation, and perturbation cloud heating. Maximum decay of P' leads maximum decay of bar-P by about one hour through the perturbation radiative, processes, the horizontal-mean cloud heating, and the large-scale vertical advective cooling. Therefore, maximum gain of K' occurs about 4-5 hours before maximum decay of bar-P.

  4. 2D fluid model analysis for the effect of 3D gas flow on a capacitively coupled plasma deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2016-06-01

    The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.

  5. Monitoring guanidinium-induced structural changes in ribonuclease proteins using Raman spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Victoria L; Ashton, Lorna; Goodacre, Royston

    2013-04-02

    Assessing the stability of proteins by comparing their unfolding profiles is a very important characterization and quality control step for any biopharmaceutical, and this is usually measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. In this paper we propose Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, noninvasive alternative analytical method and we shall show this has enhanced sensitivity and can therefore reveal very subtle protein conformational changes that are not observed with fluorescence measurements. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful nondestructive method that has a strong history of applications in protein characterization. In this work we describe how Raman microscopy can be used as a fast and reliable method of tracking protein unfolding in the presence of a chemical denaturant. We have compared Raman spectroscopic data to the equivalent samples analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy in order to validate the Raman approach. Calculations from both Raman and fluorescence unfolding curves of [D]50 values and Gibbs free energy correlate well with each other and more importantly agree with the values found in the literature for these proteins. In addition, 2D correlation analysis has been performed on both Raman and fluorescence data sets in order to allow further comparisons of the unfolding behavior indicated by each method. As many biopharmaceuticals are glycosylated in order to be functional, we compare the unfolding profiles of a protein (RNase A) and a glycoprotein (RNase B) as measured by Raman spectroscopy and discuss the implications that glycosylation has on the stability of the protein.

  6. Experimental analysis of natural convection in square cavities heated from below with 2D-PIV and holographic interferometry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Corvaro, F.; Paroncini, M.

    2007-07-15

    A numerical and experimental analysis was performed to study the natural convection heat transfer in a square cavity heated from below and cooled by the sidewalls. The enclosure was filled with air (Pr = 0.71) and a discrete heater was mounted on its lower surface; the effect of three different positions was evaluated. The air temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers at different Rayleigh numbers on the heated strip were measured by an holographic interferometry thanks to the real-time and the double-exposure technique. The double-exposure technique was performed at steady-state and it was used to obtain the isothermal lines in the cavity at different Rayleigh numbers; while the real-time technique was used to control the presence of the plume oscillations and to determinate the achievement of the steady-state. A 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to measure the velocity fields at the same Rayleigh numbers. In particular we analysed the distribution of the velocity vectors and their modulus inside the cavity. The convective phenomenon was studied and the Nusselt numbers were presented as well as the Rayleigh numbers analysed. Moreover experimental and numerical correlations were determined for each position analysed to connect the Rayleigh numbers with the Nusselt numbers. Measured quantities were compared with the numerical results which were obtained with the finite volume code Fluent 6.2.16. (author)

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and male facial attractiveness: new data and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hönekopp, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) appears to correlate negatively with prenatal testosterone (T) effects in humans. As T probably increases facial masculinity, which in turn might be positively related to male facial attractiveness, a number of studies have looked into the relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness, showing equivocal results. Here, I present the largest and third largest samples so far, which investigate the relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness in adolescents (n = 115) and young men (n = 80). I then present random-effects meta-analyses of the available data (seven to eight samples, overall n = 362 to 469). These showed small (r ≈ -.09), statistically non-significant relationships between 2D:4D measures and male facial attractiveness. Thus, 2D:4D studies offer no convincing evidence at present that prenatal T has a positive effect on male facial attractiveness. However, a consideration of confidence intervals shows that, at present, a theoretically meaningful relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness cannot be ruled out either.

  8. Transient thermal analysis of fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, G. D.; Trust, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Computer program performs transient thermal analysis of any 2-node to 200-node-thermal network, which transports heat by fluid flow convection. Program can be modified to add conduction along tubes and radiation.

  9. Hybrid materials based on novel 2D lanthanide coordination polymers covalently bonded to amine-modified SBA-15 and MCM-41: assembly, characterization, structural features, thermal and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Dou, Wei; Kirillov, Alexander M; Liu, Weisheng; Xu, Cailing; Fang, Ran; Yang, Lizi

    2016-11-22

    Three novel 2D coordination polymers [Tb2(μ4-L)2(μ-HL)(μ-HCOO)(DEF)]n (Tb-L), [Eu(μ4-L)(L)(H2O)2]n (Eu-L), and [Nd(μ4-L)(L)(H2O)2]n (Nd-L) were assembled from the corresponding lanthanide(iii) nitrates and 5 methoxy-(4-benzaldehyde)-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2L) as a main multifunctional building block bearing carboxylate and aldehyde functional groups, using H2O/DEF {DEF = N,N-diethylformamide} as a reaction medium. The obtained coordination polymers were isolated as stable microcrystalline solids and fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, BET, PXRD, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Their structures feature intricate 2D metal-organic networks, which were topologically classified as underlying layers with the 4,6L26 (for Tb-L) or sql (for Eu-L and Nd-L) topologies. Besides, a novel series of mesoporous hybrid materials wherein the Tb-L, Eu-L, or Nd-L coordination polymers are covalently grafted into the amine-functionalized SBA-15-NH2 or MCM-41-NH2 matrices (via the formation of Schiff-base groups) was also synthesized and fully characterized. These hybrid materials show high thermal and photoluminescence stability, as well as remarkable chemical resistance to boiling water, and acidic or alkaline medium. Luminescent properties of the parent coordination polymers and derived hybrid materials are investigated in detail, showing that the latter combine the luminescent characteristics (intense green or red emissions and excellent stability) of lanthanide coordination polymers and structural features of ordered mesoporous silica molecular sieves. Moreover, light emitting devices were assembled, by coating the hybrid materials onto the surface of UV-LED bulbs, and showed excellent light emitting properties.

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  11. Thermal Analysis of the MC1 Engine Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MC1 Engine turbopump supplied the propellants to the main injector. The turbopump consisted of four parts; lox pump, interpropellant seal package (IPS), RP pump and turbine. The thermal analysis was divided into two 2D finite element models; Housing or stationary parts and rotor or rotating parts. Both models were analyzed at the same boundary conditions using SINDA. The housing model consisted of, lox pump housing, ips housing, RP housing, turbine inlet housing, turbine housing, exit guide vane, heat shield and both bearing outer races. The rotor model consisted of the lox impeller; lox end bearing and id race, RP impeller, and RP bearing and id race, shaft and turbine disk. The objectives of the analysis were to: (1) verified the original design and recommend modifications to it, (2) submitted a thermal environment to support the structural analysis, (3) support the component and engine test program. and (4) to support the X34 vehicle program.

  12. Allosteric pathway identification through network analysis: from molecular dynamics simulations to interactive 2D and 3D graphs.

    PubMed

    Allain, Ariane; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Langenfeld, Florent; Guarracino, Yann; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba

    2014-01-01

    Allostery is a universal phenomenon that couples the information induced by a local perturbation (effector) in a protein to spatially distant regulated sites. Such an event can be described in terms of a large scale transmission of information (communication) through a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. To elaborate a rational description of allosteric coupling, we propose an original approach - MOdular NETwork Analysis (MONETA) - based on the analysis of inter-residue dynamical correlations to localize the propagation of both structural and dynamical effects of a perturbation throughout a protein structure. MONETA uses inter-residue cross-correlations and commute times computed from molecular dynamics simulations and a topological description of a protein to build a modular network representation composed of clusters of residues (dynamic segments) linked together by chains of residues (communication pathways). MONETA provides a brand new direct and simple visualization of protein allosteric communication. A GEPHI module implemented in the MONETA package allows the generation of 2D graphs of the communication network. An interactive PyMOL plugin permits drawing of the communication pathways between chosen protein fragments or residues on a 3D representation. MONETA is a powerful tool for on-the-fly display of communication networks in proteins. We applied MONETA for the analysis of communication pathways (i) between the main regulatory fragments of receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs), KIT and CSF-1R, in the native and mutated states and (ii) in proteins STAT5 (STAT5a and STAT5b) in the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated forms. The description of the physical support for allosteric coupling by MONETA allowed a comparison of the mechanisms of (a) constitutive activation induced by equivalent mutations in two RTKs and (b) allosteric regulation in the activated and non

  13. FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zetao; Ogusu, Kazuhiko

    2009-04-01

    A finite-difference time-domain method based on Yee's orthogonal cell is utilized to calculate the band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based photonic crystals through a simple modification to properly shifting the boundaries of the original unit cell. A strategy is proposed for transforming the triangular unit cell into an orthogonal one, which can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PhCs with various shapes of inclusions, such as triangular, quadrangular, and hexagonal shapes, to overcome the shortage of plane-wave expansion method for circular one. The band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based PhCs with hexagonal air-holes are calculated and discussed for different values of its radius and rotation angle. The obtained results provide an insight to manipulate the band structures of PhCs.

  14. Time evolution analysis of a 2D solid gas equilibrium: a model system for molecular adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, S.; Brunner, M.; Ramoino, L.; Suzuki, H.; Güntherodt, H.-J.; Jung, T. A.

    2001-11-01

    The adsorption of sub-phthalocyanine molecules on Ag(1 1 1) has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The molecules are observed in different two-dimensional (2D) phases of adsorption which coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. In the condensed phase the molecules form well-ordered islands with a honeycomb pattern. In the gas phase single molecules can be discriminated in single scan lines by characteristic tip excursions which occur randomly. The energy barrier for surface diffusion as well as the condensation energy to form 2D islands is estimated and discussed.

  15. Determination of phosphine and other fumigants in air samples by thermal desorption and 2D heart-cutting gas chromatography with synchronous SIM/Scan mass spectrometry and flame photometric detection.

    PubMed

    Fahrenholtz, Svea; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2010-12-24

    Fumigants and volatile industrial chemicals are particularly hazardous to health when a freight container is fumigated or the contaminated material is introduced into its enclosed environment. Phosphine is now increasingly used as a fumigant, after bromomethane--the former fumigant of choice--has been banned by the Montreal Protocol. We have enhanced our previously established thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method by integrating a second gas chromatographic dimension and a flame photometric detector to allow the simultaneous detection of phosphine and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), providing a novel application. A thermal desorption system is coupled to a two dimensional gas chromatograph using both mass spectrometric and flame photometric detection (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD). Additionally, the collection of mass spectrometric SIM and Scan data has been synchronised, so only a single analysis is now sufficient for qualitative scanning of the whole sample and for sensitive quantification. Though detection limits for the herewith described method are slightly higher than in the previous method, they are in the low μL m(-3) range, which is not only below the respective occupational exposure and intervention limits but also allows the detection of residual contamination after ventilation. The method was developed for the separation and identification of 44 volatile substances. For 12 of these compounds (bromomethane, iodomethane, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichlorethane, benzene, tetrachloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, toluene, trichloronitromethane, ethyl benzene, phosphine, carbon disulfide) the method was validated as we chose the target compounds due to their relevance in freight container handling.

  16. Molecular analysis and modeling of inactivation of human CYP2D6 by four mechanism based inactivators.

    PubMed

    Livezey, Mara; Nagy, Leslie D; Diffenderfer, Laura E; Arthur, Evan J; Hsi, David J; Holton, Jeffrey M; Furge, Laura Lowe

    2012-03-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in metabolism of approximately 25% of pharmaceutical drugs. Inactivation of CYP2D6 can lead to adverse drug interactions. Four inactivators of CYP2D6 have previously been identified: 5-Fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine(SCH66712), (1-[(2-ethyl- 4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine(EMTPP), paroxetine, and 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). All four contain planar, aromatic groups as well as basic nitrogens common to CYP2D6 substrates. SCH66712 and EMTPP also contain piperazine groups and substituted imidazole rings that are common in pharmaceutical agents, though neither of these compounds is clinically relevant. Paroxetine and MDMA contain methylenedioxyphenyls. SCH66712 and EMTPP are both known protein adductors while paroxetine and MDMA are probable heme modifiers. The current study shows that each inactivator displays Type I binding with Ks values that vary by 2-orders of magnitude with lower Ks values associated with greater inactivation. Comparison of KI, kinact, and partition ratio values shows SCH66712 is the most potent inactivator. Molecular modeling experiments using AutoDock identify Phe120 as a key interaction for all four inactivators with face-to-face and edge-to-face pi interactions apparent. Distance between the ligand and heme iron correlates with potency of inhibition. Ligand conformations were scored according to their binding energies as calculated by AutoDock and correlation was observed between molecular models and Ks values.

  17. 2D Hydrodynamic Based Logic Modeling Tool for River Restoration Decision Analysis: A Quantitative Approach to Project Prioritization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrowski, D.; Lai, Y.; Bradley, N.; Gaeuman, D. A.; Murauskas, J.; Som, N. A.; Martin, A.; Goodman, D.; Alvarez, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the field of river restoration sciences there is a growing need for analytical modeling tools and quantitative processes to help identify and prioritize project sites. 2D hydraulic models have become more common in recent years and with the availability of robust data sets and computing technology, it is now possible to evaluate large river systems at the reach scale. The Trinity River Restoration Program is now analyzing a 40 mile segment of the Trinity River to determine priority and implementation sequencing for its Phase II rehabilitation projects. A comprehensive approach and quantitative tool has recently been developed to analyze this complex river system referred to as: 2D-Hydrodynamic Based Logic Modeling (2D-HBLM). This tool utilizes various hydraulic output parameters combined with biological, ecological, and physical metrics at user-defined spatial scales. These metrics and their associated algorithms are the underpinnings of the 2D-HBLM habitat module used to evaluate geomorphic characteristics, riverine processes, and habitat complexity. The habitat metrics are further integrated into a comprehensive Logic Model framework to perform statistical analyses to assess project prioritization. The Logic Model will analyze various potential project sites by evaluating connectivity using principal component methods. The 2D-HBLM tool will help inform management and decision makers by using a quantitative process to optimize desired response variables with balancing important limiting factors in determining the highest priority locations within the river corridor to implement restoration projects. Effective river restoration prioritization starts with well-crafted goals that identify the biological objectives, address underlying causes of habitat change, and recognizes that social, economic, and land use limiting factors may constrain restoration options (Bechie et. al. 2008). Applying natural resources management actions, like restoration prioritization, is

  18. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF INACTIVATION OF HUMAN CYP2D6 BY FOUR MECHANISM BASED INACTIVATORS

    PubMed Central

    Livezey, Mara; Nagy, Leslie D.; Diffenderfer, Laura E.; Arthur, Evan J.; Hsi, David J.; Holton, Jeffrey M.; Furge, Laura Lowe

    2014-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in metabolism of approximately 25% of pharmaceutical drugs. Inactivation of CYP2D6 can lead to adverse drug interactions. Four inactivators of CYP2D6 have previously been identified: 5-Fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH66712), (1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H(-EMTPP-imidazol-5-yl)-methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP), paroxetine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). All four contain planar, aromatic groups as well as basic nitrogens common to CYP2D6 substrates. SCH66712 and EMTPP also contain piperazine groups and substituted imidazole rings that are common in pharmaceutical agents, though neither of these compounds is clinically relevant. Paroxetine and MDMA contain methylenedioxyphenyls. SCH66712 and EMTPP are both known protein adductors while paroxetine and MDMA are probable heme modifiers. The current study shows that each inactivator displays Type I binding with Ks values that vary by 2-orders of magnitude with lower Ks values associated with greater inactivation. Comparison of KI, kinact, and partition ratio values shows SCH66712 is the most potent inactivator. Molecular modeling experiments using AutoDock identify Phe120 as a key interaction for all four inactivators with face-to-face and edge-to-face pi interactions apparent. Distance between the ligand and heme iron correlates with potency of inhibition. Ligand conformations were scored according to their binding energies as calculated by AutoDock and correlation was observed between molecular models and Ks values. PMID:22372551

  19. Analysis of the terrestrial ion foreshock: 2D Full-Particle simulation of a curved supercritical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembege, B.; Savoini, P.; Stienlet, J.

    2013-05-01

    Two distinct ion populations backstreaming into the solar wind have been clearly evidenced by various space missions within the quasi-perpendicular region of the ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's Bow shock (i.e. for 45° ≤ Theta_Bn ≤ 90°, where Theta_Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (« FAB ») characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions («GPB »), characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The origin of these backstreaming ions has not been clearly identified and is presently analyzed with the help of 2D PIC simulation of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described within a self consistent approach. Present simulations evidence that these two populations can be effectively created directly by the shock front without invoking microinstabilities. The analysis of both individual and statistical ion trajectories evidences that: (i) two new parameters, namely the interaction time DT_inter and distance of penetration L_depth into the shock wave, play a key role and allow to discriminate these two populations. "GPB" population is characterized by a very short interaction time (DT_inter = 1 to 2 Tci) in comparison to the "FAB" population (DT_inter = 2 Tci to 10 Tci) which moves back and forth between the upstream edge of the shock front and the overshoot, where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. (ii) the importance of the injection angle (i.e. the angle between the normal of the shock front and the gyration velocity when ions reach the shock) to understand how the reflection process takes place. (iii) "FAB" population drifts along the curved shock front scanning a large Theta_Bn range from 90°. (iv) "GPB" population is embedded within the "FAB" population near the shock front which explains the difficulty to identify such a population in the experimental

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Granite Matrix Pore Structure and Hydraulic Characteristics in 2D and 3D Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdik, L.; Polak, M.; Zaruba, J.; Vanecek, M.

    2010-12-01

    A geological environment labeled as a Granite massif represents in terms of groundwater flow and transport a distinct hydrogeological environment from that of sedimentary basins, the characterisation of which is generally more complex and uncertain. Massifs are composed of hard crystalline rocks with the very low effective porosity. Due to their rheological properties such rocks are predisposed to brittle deformation resulting from changes in stress conditions. Our specific research project (Research on the influence of intergrangular porosity on deep geological disposal: geological formations, methodology and the development of measurement apparatus) is focussed on the problem of permeable zones within apparently undisturbed granitic rock matrix. The project including the both laboratory and in-situ tracer tests study migration along and through mineral grains in fresh and altered granite. The objective of the project is to assess whether intergranular porosity is a general characteristic of the granitic rock matrix or subject to significant evolution resulting from geochemical and/or hydrogeochemical processes, geotechnical and/or mechanical processes. Moreover, the research is focussed on evaluating methods quantifying intergranular porosity by both physical testing and mathematical modelling using verified standard hydrological software tools. Groundwater flow in microfractures and intergranular pores in granite rock matrix were simulated in three standard hydrogeological modeling programs with completely different conceptual approaches: MODFLOW (Equivalent Continuum concept), FEFLOW (Discrete Fracture and Equivalent Continuum concepts) and NAPSAC (Discrete Fracture Network concept). Specialized random fracture generators were used for creation of several 2D and 3D models in each of the chosen program. Percolation characteristics of these models were tested and analyzed. Several scenarios of laboratory tests of the rock samples permeability made in triaxial

  1. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  2. Thermal Analysis of Calorimetric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aulerio, L.; Violante, V.; Castagna, E.; Fiore, R.; Capobianco, L.; Del Prete, Pr.; Tanzella, F.; McKubre, M.

    Calorimetric analysis has been carried out for both electrochemical and gas loading experiment. A finite element modeling for steady state and transient gave a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. For electrochemical cells modeling was applied for isoperibolic and flow calorimeters with the main goal to optimize the system. For high-temperature gas loading experiments the modeling was applied to translate the temperature field (steady state and transient three-dimensional analysis), then, in such a case calculations allowed to perform the calorimetry. This experiment was a replication of the MATRIX experiment performed at SRI by some of the authors.1,2 A correlation between 4He production and excess of power during gas loading of deuterium in palladium was observed. Excess of power was estimated by means of the temperature measurements and by comparing experimental data with both the calibration data and the modeling results. Also the effect of the room temperature evolution was considered in the mathematical model of the experiment. 4He tights stainless steel cell have been filled first with a Pd-based catalyst then loaded with deuterium or hydrogen (blank). After filling cells with gas we observed a different thermal behavior of the cells C1 and C2 containing deuterium, compared to the cell C4 containing hydrogen. The temperature increasing in cells C1 and C2 was estimated to be produced by an additional power source of 0.1 W. The measured excess of helium was consistent with expected value obtained by assuming that the excess of energy was produced by a D+D reaction giving 4He+heat (24 MeV). The slope of the temperature increasing was larger in cells C1 and C2, and after achieving a stationary condition for the system the temperature of cells C1 and C2 increased again. During the thermal effect an analysis of the gas was done for the cells C1 and C2. An increasing of the helium content was revealed for both the cells. The He concentration

  3. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  4. Localization of the CYP2D gene locus to human chromosome 22q13. 1 by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gouch, A.C.; Howell, S.M.; Bryant, S.P.; Spurr, N.K. ); Smith, C.A.D.; Wolf, C.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Using a combination of somatic cell hybrids, in situ hybridization, and linkage mapping, we have been able to localize the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene to chromosome 22 in the region q13.1. Linkage analysis, using locus-specific primers, showed a maximum sex-average lod score of 8.12 ([theta] = 0.00) between the marker pH130 (D22S64) and CYPsD6, of 6.92 ([theta] - 0.00) between the marker KI839 (D22S95) and CYP2D6, and 4.80 ([theta] = 0.036) between the platelet-derived growth factor [beta] subunit gene (PDGFB) and CYP2D6. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1981-03-01

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling system are also being evaluated.

  6. A New Family of 2-D Optical Orthogonal Codes and Analysis of Its Performance in Optical CDMA Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurong, Sun; Yin, Hongxi; Wang, Ziyu; Xu, Anshi

    2006-04-01

    A new family of two-dimensional optical orthogonal code (2-D OOC), one-coincidence frequency hop code (OCFHC)/OOC, which employs OCFHC and OOC as wavelengthhopping and time-spreading patterns, respectively, is proposed in this paper. In contrary to previously constructed 2-D OOCs, OCFHC/OOC provides more choices on the number of available wavelengths and its cardinality achieves the upper bound in theory without sacrificing good auto-and-cross correlation properties, i.e., the correlation properties of the code is still ideal. Meanwhile, we utilize a new method, called effective normalized throughput, to compare the performance of diverse codes applicable to optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems besides conventional measure bit error rate, and the results indicate that our code performs better than obtained OCDMA codes and is truly applicable to OCDMA networks as multiaccess codes and will greatly facilitate the implementation of OCDMA access networks.

  7. Quantification and geometric analysis of coiling patterns in gastropod shells based on 3D and 2D image data.

    PubMed

    Noshita, Koji

    2014-12-21

    The morphology of gastropod shells has been a focus of analyses in ecology and evolution. It has recently emerged as an important issue in developmental biology, thanks to recent advancements in molecular biological techniques. The growing tube model is a theoretical morphological model for describing various coiling patterns of molluscan shells, and it is a useful theoretical tool to relate local tissue growth with global shell morphology. However, the growing tube model has rarely been adopted in empirical research owing to the difficulty in estimating the parameters of the model from morphological data. In this article, I solve this problem by developing methods of parameter estimation when (1) 3D Computed Tomography (CT) data are available and (2) only 2D image data (such as photographs) are available. When 3D CT data are available, the parameters can be estimated by fitting an analytical solution of the growing tube model to the data. When only 2D image data are available, we first fit Raup׳s model to the 2D image data and then convert the parameters of Raup׳s model to those of the growing tube model. To illustrate the use of these methods, I apply them to data generated by a computer simulation of the model. Both methods work well, except when shells grow without coiling. I also demonstrate the effectiveness of the methods by applying the model to actual 3D CT data and 2D image data of land snails. I conclude that the method proposed in this article can reconstruct the coiling pattern from observed data.

  8. A simple method to produce 2D and 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ricardo A G; Camargo, Fiamma; Pesquero, Naira C; Faria, Ronaldo Censi

    2017-03-08

    This paper describes the fabrication of 2D and 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for monitoring glucose, total protein, and nitrite in blood serum and artificial urine. A new method of cutting and sealing filter paper to construct μPADs was demonstrated. Using an inexpensive home cutter printer soft cellulose-based filter paper was easily and precisely cut to produce pattern hydrophilic microchannels. 2D and 3D μPADs were designed with three detection zones each for the colorimetric detection of the analytes. A small volume of samples was added to the μPADs, which was photographed after 15 min using a digital camera. Both μPADs presented an excellent analytical performance for all analytes. The 2D device was applied in artificial urine samples and reached limits of detection (LODs) of 0.54 mM, 5.19 μM, and 2.34 μM for glucose, protein, and nitrite, respectively. The corresponding LODs of the 3D device applied for detecting the same analytes in artificial blood serum were 0.44 mM, 1.26 μM, and 4.35 μM.

  9. Analysis of EEG signals regularity in adults during video game play in 2D and 3D.

    PubMed

    Khairuddin, Hamizah R; Malik, Aamir S; Mumtaz, Wajid; Kamel, Nidal; Xia, Likun

    2013-01-01

    Video games have long been part of the entertainment industry. Nonetheless, it is not well known how video games can affect us with the advancement of 3D technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the EEG signals regularity when playing video games in 2D and 3D modes. A total of 29 healthy subjects (24 male, 5 female) with mean age of 21.79 (1.63) years participated. Subjects were asked to play a car racing video game in three different modes (2D, 3D passive and 3D active). In 3D passive mode, subjects needed to wear a passive polarized glasses (cinema type) while for 3D active, an active shutter glasses was used. Scalp EEG data was recorded during game play using 19-channel EEG machine and linked ear was used as reference. After data were pre-processed, the signal irregularity for all conditions was computed. Two parameters were used to measure signal complexity for time series data: i) Hjorth-Complexity and ii) Composite Permutation Entropy Index (CPEI). Based on these two parameters, our results showed that the complexity level increased from eyes closed to eyes open condition; and further increased in the case of 3D as compared to 2D game play.

  10. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  11. SU-E-T-77: Comparison of 2D and 3D Gamma Analysis in Patient-Specific QA for Prostate VMAT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, F; Perez, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient-specific QA procedures for IMRT and VMAT are traditionally performed by comparing TPS calculations with measured single point values and plane dose distributions by means of gamma analysis. New QA devices permit us to calculate 3D dose distributions on patient anatomy as redundant secondary check and reconstruct it from measurements taken with 2D and 3D detector arrays. 3D dose calculations allow us to perform DVH-based comparisons with clinical relevance, as well as 3D gamma analysis. One of these systems (Compass, IBA Dosimetry) combines traditional 2D with new anatomical-based 3D gamma analysis. This work shows the ability of this system by comparing 2D and 3D gamma analysis in pre-treatment QA for several VMAT prostate plans. Methods: Compass is capable of calculating dose as secondary check from DICOM TPS data and reconstructing it from measurements taken by a 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Both 2D and 3D gamma tests are available to compare calculated and reconstructed dose in Compass with TPS RT Dose. Results: 15 VMAT prostate plans have been measured with Compass. Dose is reconstructed with Compass for these plans. 2D gamma comparisons can be done for any plane from dose matrix. Mean gamma passing rates for isocenter planes (axial, coronal, sagittal) are (99.7±0.2)%, (99.9±0.1)%, (99.9±0.1)% for reconstructed dose planes. 3D mean gamma passing rates are (98.5±1.7)% for PTVs, (99.1±1.5)% for rectum, (100.0±0.0)% for bladder, (99.6±0.7)% for femoral heads and (98.1±4.1)% for penile bulb. Conclusion: Compass is a powerful tool to perform a complete pre-treatment QA analysis, from 2D techniques to 3D DVH-based techniques with clinical relevance. All reported values for VMAT prostate plans are in good agreement with TPS values. This system permits us to ensure the accuracy in the delivery of VMAT treatments completing a full patient-specific QA program.

  12. Mean cell size and collagen orientation from 2D Fourier analysis on confocal laser scanning microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy on human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Gerald W.; Bakker, Bernard L.; Neerken, Sieglinde; Hendriks, Rob F. M.

    2003-07-01

    We present results from 2D Fourier analysis on 3D stacks of images obtained by confocal laser scanning reflectance microscopy (CLSM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) on human skin in vivo. CLSM images were obtained with a modified commercial system (Vivascope1000, Lucid Inc, excitation wavelength 830 nm) equipped with a piezo-focusing element (350 μm range) for depth positioning of the objective lens. 2PM was performed with a specially designed set-up with excitation wavelength 730 nm. Mean cell size in the epidermal layer and structural orientation in the dermal layer have been determined as a function of depth by 2D Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis on microscopic images enables automatic non-invasive quantitative structural analysis (mean cell size and orientation) of living human skin.

  13. Thermal-Hydraulic-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    ELM computer program is simple computational tool for modeling steady-state thermal hydraulics of flows of propellants through fuel-element-coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Evaluates various heat-transfer-coefficient and friction-factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with addition of heat. Comparisons possible within one program. Machine-independent program written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  15. User's Guide for MSAP2D: A Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Multistage Compressors and Turbines. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.

  16. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  17. Importance of the Correlation between Width and Length in the Shape Analysis of Nanorods: Use of a 2D Size Plot To Probe Such a Correlation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhihua; Zheng, Zhiqin; Roux, Clément; Delmas, Céline; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Kahn, Myrtil L; Mingotaud, Christophe

    2016-08-22

    Analysis of nanoparticle size through a simple 2D plot is proposed in order to extract the correlation between length and width in a collection or a mixture of anisotropic particles. Compared to the usual statistics on the length associated with a second and independent statistical analysis of the width, this simple plot easily points out the various types of nanoparticles and their (an)isotropy. For each class of nano-objects, the relationship between width and length (i.e., the strong or weak correlations between these two parameters) may suggest information concerning the nucleation/growth processes. It allows one to follow the effect on the shape and size distribution of physical or chemical processes such as simple ripening. Various electron microscopy pictures from the literature or from the authors' own syntheses are used as examples to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed 2D plot combined with a multivariate analysis.

  18. NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.

    1992-01-24

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  19. A Comparative Analysis for Verification of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans using a 2-D and 3-D Diode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, Michael J.

    With the added complexity of current radiation treatment dose delivery modalities such as IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy), quality assurance (QA) of these plans become multifaceted and labor intensive. To simplify the patient specific quality assurance process, 2D or 3D diode arrays are used to measure the radiation fluence for IMRT and VMAT treatments which can then be quickly and easily compared against the planned dose distribution. Because the arrays that can be used for IMRT and VMAT patient-specific quality assurance are of different geometry (planar vs. cylindrical), the same IMRT or VMAT treatment plan measured by two different arrays could lead to different measured radiation fluences, regardless of the output and performance of linear accelerator. Thus, the purpose of this study is to compare patient specific QA results as measured by the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays for the same IMRT and VMAT treatment plans to see if one diode array consistently provides a closer comparison to reference data. Six prostate and three thoracic spine IMRT treatment plans as well as three prostate and three thoracic spine VMAT treatment plans were produced. Radiotherapy plans for this study were generated using the Pinnacle TPS v9.6 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI) using 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV x-ray beams from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a 120-millenium multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Each IMRT and VMAT therapy plan was measured on Sun Nuclear's MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays. IMRT measured data was compared with planned dose distribution using Sun Nuclear's 3DVH quality assurance software program using gamma analysis and dose-volume histograms for target volumes and critical structures comparison. VMAT arc plans measured on the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK were compared using beam-by-beam analysis with the gamma evaluation method with

  20. Electro thermal analysis of rotary type micro thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. Arefin; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Ahmed, A. K. Waiz

    2005-09-01

    In micro domain, thermal actuators are favored because it provides higher force and deflection than others. This paper presents a new type of micro thermal actuator that provides rotary motion of the circular disc shaped cold arm, which can be used in various optical applications, such as, switching, attenuation, diffraction, etc. The device has been fabricated in MUMPS technology. In this new design, the hot arms are arranged with the cold disc in such a way that thermal expansion of the hot arms due to Joule heating, will make the cold disc to rotate and the rotation is unidirectional on loading. The dominant heat transfer modes in the operating temperature zone are through the anchor and the air between the structure and the substrate because of the very low gap provided by MUMPS. A mathematical model was used for predicting steady state temperature profile along the actuator length and rotational behavior of the cold disc under different applied voltages. A 3-D coupled field finite element analysis (FEM) for the device is also presented. A FEM analysis was done by defining an air volume around the structure and substrate below the structure. Results obtained from the mathematical model, was compared with that of the finite element analysis. The presented results confirm the applicability of this novel rotary type thermal actuator for many optical MEMS applications.

  1. Parasitic extraction and magnetic analysis for transformers, inductors and igbt bridge busbar with maxwell 2d and maxwell 3d simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    This thesis presents the parasitic extraction and magnetic analysis for transformers, inductors, and IGBT bridge busbars with Maxwell 2D and Maxwell 3D simulation. In the first chapter, the magnetic field of a transformer in Maxwell 2D is analyzed. The parasitic capacitance between each winding of the transformer are extracted by Maxwell 2D. According to the actual dimensions, the parasitic capacitances are calculated. The results are verified by comparing with the measurement results from 4395A impedance analyzer. In the second chapter, two CM inductors are simulated in Maxwell 3D. One is the conventional winding inductor, the other one is the proposed one. The magnetic field distributions of different winding directions are analyzed. The analysis is verified by the simulation result. The last chapter introduces a technique to analyze, extract, and measure the parasitic inductance of planar busbars. With this technique, the relationship between self-inductance and mutual-inductance is analyzed. Secondly, a total inductance is calculated based on the developed technique. Thirdly, the current paths and the inductance on a planar busbar are investigated with DC-link capacitors. Furthermore, the analysis of the inductance is addressed. Ansys Q3D simulation and analysis are presented. Finally, the experimental verification is shown by the S-parameter measurement.

  2. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  3. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  4. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  5. Users manual for AUTOMESH-2D: A program of automatic mesh generation for two-dimensional scattering analysis by the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chongyu; Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    AUTOMESH-2D is a computer program specifically designed as a preprocessor for the scattering analysis of two dimensional bodies by the finite element method. This program was developed due to a need for reproducing the effort required to define and check the geometry data, element topology, and material properties. There are six modules in the program: (1) Parameter Specification; (2) Data Input; (3) Node Generation; (4) Element Generation; (5) Mesh Smoothing; and (5) Data File Generation.

  6. Analysis of the high Reynolds number 2D tests on a wind turbine airfoil performed at two different wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.

  7. Analysis of Highly-Resolved Simulations of 2-D Humps Toward Improvement of Second-Moment Closures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Rumsey Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Fully resolved simulation data of flow separation over 2-D humps has been used to analyze the modeling terms in second-moment closures of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. Existing models for the pressure-strain and dissipation terms have been analyzed using a priori calculations. All pressure-strain models are incorrect in the high-strain region near separation, although a better match is observed downstream, well into the separated-flow region. Near-wall inhomogeneity causes pressure-strain models to predict incorrect signs for the normal components close to the wall. In a posteriori computations, full Reynolds stress and explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models predict the separation point with varying degrees of success. However, as with one- and two-equation models, the separation bubble size is invariably over-predicted.

  8. Analysis of Telomere-Homologous DNA with Different Conformations Using 2D Agarose Electrophoresis and In-Gel Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zepeng; Hu, Qian; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian cells, in addition to double-stranded telomeric DNA at chromosome ends, extra telomere-homologous DNA is present that adopts different conformations, including single-stranded G- or C-rich DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNA (T-circle), and telomeric complex (T-complex) with an unidentified structure. The formation of such telomere-homologous DNA is closely related to telomeric DNA metabolism and chromosome end protection by telomeres. Conventional agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to separate DNA based on conformation. Here, we introduce the method of two-dimensional (2D) agarose electrophoresis in combination with in-gel native/denatured hybridization to determine different conformations formed by telomere-homologous DNA.

  9. Computer-aided 2D and 3D quantification of human stem cell fate from in vitro samples using Volocity high performance image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Piltti, Katja M; Haus, Daniel L; Do, Eileen; Perez, Harvey; Anderson, A J; Cummings, B J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate automated cell fate analysis of immunostained human stem cells from 2- and 3-dimensional (2D-3D) images would improve efficiency in the field of stem cell research. Development of an accurate and precise tool that reduces variability and the time needed for human stem cell fate analysis will improve productivity and interpretability of the data across research groups. In this study, we have created protocols for high performance image analysis software Volocity® to classify and quantify cytoplasmic and nuclear cell fate markers from 2D-3D images of human neural stem cells after in vitro differentiation. To enhance 3D image capture efficiency, we optimized the image acquisition settings of an Olympus FV10i® confocal laser scanning microscope to match our quantification protocols and improve cell fate classification. The methods developed in this study will allow for a more time efficient and accurate software based, operator validated, stem cell fate classification and quantification from 2D and 3D images, and yield the highest ≥94.4% correspondence with human recognized objects.

  10. Comparative Variable Temperature Studies of Polyamide II with a Benchtop Fourier Transform and a Miniature Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer Using 2D-COS and PCMW-2D Analysis.

    PubMed

    Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this communication is to compare the performance of a miniaturized handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with a benchtop Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometer. Generally, NIR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful analytical tool to study hydrogen-bonding changes of amide functionalities in solid and liquid materials and therefore variable temperature NIR measurements of polyamide II (PAII) have been selected as a case study. The information content of the measurement data has been further enhanced by exploiting the potential of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and the perturbation correlation moving window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) evaluation technique. The data provide valuable insights not only into the changes of the hydrogen-bonding structure and the recrystallization of the hydrocarbon segments of the investigated PAII but also in their sequential order. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the 2D-COS and PCMW2D results derived from the spectra measured with the miniaturized NIR instrument are equivalent to the information extracted from the data obtained with the high-performance FT-NIR instrument.

  11. Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Ag Doping in 2D Layered Material (PbSe)5(Bi2Se3)3.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaochen; Singh, Arunima K; Fang, Lei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Tavazza, Francesca; Davydov, Albert V; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2016-10-12

    Impurity doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials can provide a route to tuning electronic properties, so it is important to be able to determine the distribution of dopant atoms within and between layers. Here we report the tomographic mapping of dopants in layered 2D materials with atomic sensitivity and subnanometer spatial resolution using atom probe tomography (APT). APT analysis shows that Ag dopes both Bi2Se3 and PbSe layers in (PbSe)5(Bi2Se3)3, and correlations in the position of Ag atoms suggest a pairing across neighboring Bi2Se3 and PbSe layers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm the favorability of substitutional doping for both Pb and Bi and provide insights into the observed spatial correlations in dopant locations.

  12. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process.

  13. A rapid and efficient 2D/3D nuclear segmentation method for analysis of early mouse embryo and stem cell image data.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xinghua; Kang, Minjung; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-03-11

    Segmentation is a fundamental problem that dominates the success of microscopic image analysis. In almost 25 years of cell detection software development, there is still no single piece of commercial software that works well in practice when applied to early mouse embryo or stem cell image data. To address this need, we developed MINS (modular interactive nuclear segmentation) as a MATLAB/C++-based segmentation tool tailored for counting cells and fluorescent intensity measurements of 2D and 3D image data. Our aim was to develop a tool that is accurate and efficient yet straightforward and user friendly. The MINS pipeline comprises three major cascaded modules: detection, segmentation, and cell position classification. An extensive evaluation of MINS on both 2D and 3D images, and comparison to related tools, reveals improvements in segmentation accuracy and usability. Thus, its accuracy and ease of use will allow MINS to be implemented for routine single-cell-level image analyses.

  14. Simultaneous 2-D Measurements of Transient Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Thermal Starting Plume: Laboratory Models of Entrainment and Structure of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurita, K.

    2002-12-01

    Both numerical and experimental models of thermal plumes suggest that mantle plumes entrain surrounding mantle and their morphology (temperature and compositional fields in the plume head) evolves as they rise. Recent geochemical and isotopic studies of mantle plume products have revealed mixing of the ambient mantle with the primitive plume source. In order to make a quantitative comparison of the geophysical modeling with geological evidences, it is desired to show a precise image of spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and compositional fields in the plumes. Here, we present preliminary results of our laboratory experiments on thermal starting plumes using a quantitative technique of digital image processing. By coupling Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) we can measure simultaneous 2-dimensional transient velocity and temperature fields in a thermal plume. Our experiments were conducted in a transparent rectangular tank containing a viscous fluid. Buoyancy in the form of heat was injected into the fluid by operating a heater at the base of the tank. The flow was marked with tracer particles for velocity and with the fluorescence dye, Rhodamine B, for temperature measurements. The particles and the fluorescence dye were illuminated and exited by a thin vertical sheet of laser light that was oriented to contain the axis of symmetry. We succeeded in simultaneous measurements of ascent velocity of the plume head, precise velocity field within the plume head, and evolution of the temperature field. This makes clear their relation and is useful for considering the entrainment process of plumes. Our aim of this study is to clarify the physics of entrainment and mixing phenomena of starting plumes, and to make quantitative geophysical models of mantle plumes connecting with geological and seismic evidences. In this presentation, we will show that this quantitative technique is a powerful tool for approaching these issues.

  15. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  16. Analysis of amorphous solid dispersions using 2D solid-state NMR and (1)H T(1) relaxation measurements.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tran N; Watson, Simon A; Edwards, Andrew J; Chavda, Manisha; Clawson, Jacalyn S; Strohmeier, Mark; Vogt, Frederick G

    2010-10-04

    Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) can provide detailed structural information about amorphous solid dispersions of pharmaceutical small molecules. In this study, the ability of SSNMR experiments based on dipolar correlation, spin diffusion, and relaxation measurements to characterize the structure of solid dispersions is explored. Observation of spin diffusion effects using the 2D (1)H-(13)C cross-polarization heteronuclear correlation (CP-HETCOR) experiment is shown to be a useful probe of association between the amorphous drug and polymer that is capable of directly proving glass solution formation. Dispersions of acetaminophen and indomethacin in different polymers are examined using this approach, as well as (1)H double-quantum correlation experiments to probe additional structural features. (1)H-(19)F CP-HETCOR serves a similar role for fluorinated drug molecules such as diflunisal in dispersions, providing a rapid means to prove the formation of a glass solution. Phase separation is detected using (13)C, (19)F, and (23)Na-detected (1)H T(1) experiments in crystalline and amorphous solid dispersions that contain small domains. (1)H T(1) measurements of amorphous nanosuspensions of trehalose and dextran illustrate the ability of SSNMR to detect domain size effects in dispersions that are not glass solutions via spin diffusion effects. Two previously unreported amorphous solid dispersions involving up to three components and containing voriconazole and telithromycin are analyzed using these experiments to demonstrate the general applicability of the approach.

  17. Infrared image processing devoted to thermal non-contact characterization-Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation, Microfluidics and 2D source term distribution for multispectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Pradere, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The cost of IR cameras is more and more decreasing. Beyond the preliminary calibration step and the global instrumentation, the infrared image processing is then one of the key step for achieving in very broad domains. Generally the IR images are coming from the transient temperature field related to the emission of a black surface in response to an external or internal heating (active IR thermography). The first applications were devoted to the so called thermal Non-Destructive Evaluation methods by considering a thin sample and 1D transient heat diffusion through the sample (transverse diffusion). With simplified assumptions related to the transverse diffusion, the in-plane diffusion and transport phenomena can be also considered. A general equation can be applied in order to balance the heat transfer at the pixel scale or between groups of pixels in order to estimate several fields of thermophysical properties (heterogeneous field of in-plane diffusivity, flow distributions, source terms). There is a lot of possible strategies to process the space and time distributed big amount of data (previous integral transformation of the images, compression, elimination of the non useful areas...), generally based on the necessity to analyse the derivative versus space and time of the temperature field. Several illustrative examples related to the Non-Destructive Evaluation of heterogeneous solids, the thermal characterization of chemical reactions in microfluidic channels and the design of systems for multispectral tomography, will be presented.

  18. Enhanced dietary formulation to mitigate winter thermal stress in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): a 2D-DIGE plasma proteome study.

    PubMed

    Schrama, Denise; Richard, Nadège; Silva, Tomé S; Figueiredo, Filipe A; Conceição, Luís E C; Burchmore, Richard; Eckersall, David; Rodrigues, Pedro M L

    2016-11-24

    Low water temperatures during winter are common in farming of gilthead sea bream in the Mediterranean. This causes metabolic disorders that in extreme cases can lead to a syndrome called "winter disease." An improved immunostimulatory nutritional status might mitigate the effects of this thermal metabolic stress. A trial was set up to assess the effects of two different diets on gilthead sea bream physiology and nutritional state through plasma proteome and metabolites. Four groups of 25 adult gilthead sea bream were reared during winter months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL) or with a diet called "winter feed" (WF). Proteome results show a slightly higher number of proteins upregulated in plasma of fish fed the WF. These proteins are mostly involved in the immune system and cell protection mechanisms. Lipid metabolism was also affected, as shown both by plasma proteome and by the cholesterol plasma levels. Overall, the winter feed diet tested seems to have positive effects in terms of fish condition and nutritional status, reducing the metabolic effects of thermal stress.

  19. Comparison and analysis of 2-D simulation results with two implosion radiation experiments on the Los Alamos Pegasus I and Pegasus II capacitor banks

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Lebeda, C.F.; Matuska, W.; Benage, J.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.; Roderick, N.F.

    1995-09-01

    Two experiments, PegI-41, conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus I capacitor bank, and PegII-25, on the Pegasus II bank, consisted of the implosions of 13 mg (nominal), 5 cm radius, 2 cm high thin cylindrical aluminum foils resulting in soft x-ray radiation pulses from the plasma thermalization on axis. The implosions were conducted in direct-drive (no intermediate switching) mode with peak currents of about 4 MA and 5 MA respectively, and implosion times of about 2.5 {micro}s and 2.0 {micro}s. A radiation yield of about 250 kJ was measured for PegII-25. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the physics of the implosion and relate this physics to the production of the radiation pulse and to provide detailed experimental data which could be compared with 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. Included in the experimental diagnostic suites were faraday rotation and dB/dt current measurements, a visible framing camera, an x-ray stripline camera, time-dependent spectroscopy, bolometers and XRD`S. A comparison of the results from these experiments shows agreement with 2-D simulation results in the instability development, current, and radiation pulse data, including the pulsewidth, shape, peak power and total radiation yield as measured by bolometry. Instabilities dominate the behavior of the implosion and largely determine the properties of the resulting radiation pulse. The 2-D simulations can be seen to be an important tool in understanding the implosion physics.

  20. [Identification and analysis of genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cai, Fang; Sun, Su-qin; Yan, Wen-rong; Niu, Shi-jie; Li, Xian-en

    2009-09-01

    The genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora) were examined in terms of their differences by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy. The three species were shown very similar in FTIR spectra. The peak of 1318 cm(-1) of genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae is not obvious but this peak could be found sharp in Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora. Generally, the second derivative IR spectrum can clearly enhance the spectral resolution. Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos rosae Chinensis have aromatic compounds distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 617 and 1 618 cm(-1), respectively. Nevertheless, FlosRosa multiflora has the peak at 1612 cm(-1). There is a discrepancy of 5 to 6 cm(-1). FlosRosa multiflora has glucide's distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 044 cm(-1), but Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos Rosae Chinensis don't. The second derivative infrared spectra indicated different fingerprint characteristics. Three of them showed aromatic compounds with autopeaks at 1620, 1560 and 1460 cm(-1). Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora have the shoulder peak at 1660 cm(-1). In the range of 850-1250 cm(-1), three of them are distinct different, Flos Rosae Rugosae has the strongest autopeak, Flos Rosae Chinensis has the feeble autopeak and Flos Rosa multiflora has no autopeak at 1050 cm(-1). In third-step identification, the different contents of aromatic compounds and glucide in Flos Rosae Rugosae, Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora were revealed. It is proved that the method is fast and effective for distinguishing and analyzing genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora).

  1. Proteome analysis of the large and the small rubber particles of Hevea brasiliensis using 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiulan; Xia, Kecan; Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2012-11-01

    The rubber particle is a specialized organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). It has been demonstrated that the small rubber particles (SRPs) has higher rubber biosynthesis ratio than the large rubber particles (LRPs), but the underlying molecular mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, LRPs and SRPs were firstly separated from the fresh latex using differential centrifugation, and two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF was then applied to investigate the proteomic alterations associated with the changed rubber biosynthesis capacity between LRPs and SRPs. A total of 53 spots corresponding to 22 gene products, were significantly altered with the |ratio|≥2.0 and T value ≤0.05, among which 15 proteins were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in the SRPs compared with the LRPs. The 15 up-regulated proteins in the SRPs included small rubber particle protein (SRPP), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS), phospholipase D alpha (PLD α), ethylene response factor 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A isoform IV (eIF 5A-4), 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (HSC 70), several unknown proteins, etc., whereas the 7 up-regulated proteins in the LRPs were rubber elongation factor (REF, 19.6kDa), ASR-like protein 1, REF-like stress-related protein 1, a putative phosphoglyceride transfer family protein, β-1,3-glucanase, a putative retroelement, and a hypothetical protein. Since several proteins related to rubber biosynthesis were differentially expressed between LRPs and SRPs, the comparative proteome data may provide useful insights into understanding the mechanism involved in rubber biosynthesis and latex coagulation in H. brasiliensis.

  2. 2D Investigation of LH Coupling and Thermal Loads in Presence of the ITER-Like ICRH Antenna in Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Ekedahl, A.; Mendes, A.; Colas, L.; Hillairet, J.; Vulliez, K.

    2009-11-26

    Radial poloidal scrape-off layer (SOL) density modifications are known to take place around powered ICRH antennas. Such inhomogeneities alter the Lower Hybrid (LH) wave coupling the associated thermal loads. LH power limitations could therefore possibly be expected in ITER if the LHICRH antennas are to be magnetically connected. The LH behaviour has been investigated in separate experiments Tore Supra in order to compare the influence of the ITER-like antenna prototype with a the standard ICRH antenna. In both experiments density depletion LH coupling degradation was found in the region below the ICRH antenna corner. Above the ICRH antenna corner the IR measurements indicated in both cases a density increase. These experiments confirm that the SOL density modifications around ICRH antennas in spite of different electrical designs are always linked to the antenna corners where SOL biasing by RF sheaths is the strongest.

  3. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  4. Thermal strain analysis of optic fiber sensors.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying

    2013-01-31

    An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  5. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  6. Computerized Analysis Of Thermal-Diffusivity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Wood, Charles; Vandersande, Jan W.

    1988-01-01

    Improved data-acquisition and data-analysis system for thermal-diffusivity measurements using flash method incorporates digital oscilloscope and microcomputer for rapid reduction of experimental data. In thermal-diffusivity apparatus thin specimen heated on one face by pulsed xenon flashlamp, subsequent temperature rise on opposite face monitored by infrared detector. Thermal diffusivity estimated from thickness of specimen and from time after initial pulse during which temperature rise reaches half maximum value. Accuracy of estimate improved by correcting temperature measurements for radiative loss of heat from specimen and for finite duration and specific waveform of flashlamp pulse. System devised for use in high-temperature measurements of thermoelectric materials.

  7. Thermal Analysis of a TREAT Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Papadias, Dionissios; Wright, Arthur E.

    2014-07-09

    The objective of this study was to explore options as to reduce peak cladding temperatures despite an increase in peak fuel temperatures. A 3D thermal-hydraulic model for a single TREAT fuel assembly was benchmarked to reproduce results obtained with previous thermal models developed for a TREAT HEU fuel assembly. In exercising this model, and variants thereof depending on the scope of analysis, various options were explored to reduce the peak cladding temperatures.

  8. Thermal Analysis of AC Contactor Using Thermal Network Finite Difference Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chunping; Chen, Degui; Li, Xingwen; Geng, Yingsan

    To predict the thermal behavior of switchgear quickly, the Thermal Network Finite Difference Analysis method (TNFDA) is adopted in thermal analysis of AC contactor in the paper. The thermal network model is built with nodes, thermal resistors and heat generators, and it is solved using finite difference method (FDM). The main circuit and the control system are connected by thermal resistors network, which solves the problem of multi-sources interaction in the application of TNFDA. The temperature of conducting wires is calculated according to the heat transfer process and the fundamental equations of thermal conduction. It provides a method to solve the problem of boundary conditions in applying the TNFDA. The comparison between the results of TNFDA and measurements shows the feasibility and practicability of the method.

  9. Measuring thermal conductivity of thin films by Scanning Thermal Microscopy combined with thermal spreading resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Juszczyk, J; Kaźmierczak-Bałata, A; Firek, P; Bodzenta, J

    2017-01-27

    While measuring the thermal properties of a thin film, one of the most often encountered problems is the influence of the substrate thermal properties on measured signal and the need for its separation. In this work an approach for determining the thermal conductivity κ of a thin layer is presented. It bases on Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) measurement combined with thermal spreading resistance analysis for a system consisting of a single layer on a substrate. Presented approach allows to take into account the influence of the substrate thermal properties on SThM signal and to estimate the true value of a thin film κ. It is based on analytical solution of the problem being a function of dimensionless parameters and requires numerical solution of relatively simple integral equation. As the analysis utilizes a solution in dimensionless parameters it can be used for any substrate-layer system. As an example, the method was applied for determination of the thermal conductivities of 4 different thin layers of thicknesses from 12 to 100nm. The impact of model parameters on the uncertainty of the estimated final κ value was analyzed.

  10. A Fast One Step Extraction and UPLC-MS/MS Analysis for E2/D2 Series Prostaglandins and Isoprostanes

    PubMed Central

    Brose, Stephen A.; Baker, Andrew G.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) and isoprostanes (iso-PG) may be derived through cyclooxygenase or free radical pathways and are important signaling molecules that are also robust biomarkers of oxidative stress. Their quantification is important for understanding many biological processes where PG, iso-PG, or oxidative stress are involved. One of the common methods for PG and iso-PG quantifications is LC-MS/MS that allows a highly selective, sensitive, simultaneous analysis for prostanoids without derivatization. However, the currently used LC-MS/MS methods require a multi-step extraction and a long (within an hour) LC separation to achieve simultaneous separation and analysis of the major iso-PG. The developed and validated for brain tissue analysis one-step extraction protocol and UPLC-MS/MS method significantly increases the recovery of the PG extraction up to 95%, and allows for a much faster (within 4 min) major iso-PGE2 and -PGD2 separation with 5 times narrower chromatographic peaks as compared to previously used methods. In addition, it decreases the time and cost of analysis due to one-step extraction approach performed in disposable centrifuge tubes. All together, this significantly increases the sensitivity, and the time and cost efficiency of the PG and iso-PG analysis. PMID:23400687

  11. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project is described. A way to resolve the problem of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners is outlined. The interactions between the general model of TPS (thermal protection system) used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving accurate temperature map details of hot and cold structures, are described. The organization of the structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses, are cut to size, into the general model by super element techniques. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes. The Catia-Elfini software system is proposed as a possible code system for structural analysis and optimization purposes.

  12. RixsToolBox: software for the analysis of soft X-ray RIXS data acquired with 2D detectors.

    PubMed

    Kummer, K; Tamborrino, A; Amorese, A; Minola, M; Braicovich, L; Brookes, N B; Ghiringhelli, G

    2017-03-01

    A software with a graphical user interface has been developed with the aim of facilitating the data analysis for users of a new resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer installed at the ESRF beamline ID32. The software is organized in modules covering all relevant steps in the data reduction from a stack of several hundred two-dimensional CCD images to a single RIXS spectrum. It utilizes both full charge integration and single-photon centroiding to cope with high-flux and high-resolution requirements. Additional modules for further data analysis and the extraction of instrumental parameters are available. The software has been in routine use for about a year now and in that time many additional features have been incorporated. It now meets the users' need for an easy-to-use data analysis tool that allows looking at and understanding data as it is acquired and thus steering users' experiments more efficiently.

  13. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  14. Twelfth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Twelfth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 01) was held at the Bevill Center, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, September 10-14, 2001. The theme for the hands-on training workshop and conference was "Engineering Excellence and Advances in the New Millenium." Forty-five technical papers were presented in four sessions: (1) Thermal Spacecraft/Payloads, (2) Thermal Propulsion/Vehicles, (3) Interdisciplinary Papers, and (4) Fluids Papers. Thirty-nine papers were published in these proceedings. The remaining six papers were not available in electronic format at the time of publication. In addition to the technical papers, there were (a) nine hands-on classes on thermal and flow analyses software, (b) thirteen short courses and product overview lectures, (c) five keynote lectures and, (d) panel discussions consisting of eight presentations. The workshop resulted in participation of 195 persons representing NASA Centers, Government agencies, aerospace industries, academia, software providers, and private corporations.

  15. The Tenth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok (Compiler); McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tenth Thermal arid Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 99) was held at the Bevill Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama, September 13-17, 1999. The theme for the hands-on training workshop and conference was "Tools and Techniques Contributing to Engineering Excellence". Forty-seven technical papers were presented in four sessions. The sessions were: (1) Thermal Spacecraft/Payloads, (2) Thermal Propulsion/Vehicles, (3) Interdisciplinary Paper, and (4) Fluids Paper. Forty papers were published in these proceedings. The remaining seven papers were not available in electronic format at the time of publication. In addition to the technical papers, there were (a) nine hands-on classes on thermal and flow analyses software, (b) twelve short courses, (c) thirteen product overview lectures, and (d) three keynote lectures. The workshop resulted in participation of 171 persons representing NASA Centers, Government agencies, aerospace industries, academia, software providers, and private corporations.

  16. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  17. Hydrophobic cluster analysis: procedures to derive structural and functional information from 2-D-representation of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Lemesle-Varloot, L; Henrissat, B; Gaboriaud, C; Bissery, V; Morgat, A; Mornon, J P

    1990-08-01

    Hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA) [15] is a very efficient method to analyse and compare protein sequences. Despite its effectiveness, this method is not widely used because it relies in part on the experience and training of the user. In this article, detailed guidelines as to the use of HCA are presented and include discussions on: the definition of the hydrophobic clusters and their relationships with secondary and tertiary structures; the length of the clusters; the amino acid classification used for HCA; the HCA plot programs; and the working strategies. Various procedures for the analysis of a single sequence are presented: structural segmentation, structural domains and secondary structure evaluation. Like most sequence analysis methods, HCA is more efficient when several homologous sequences are compared. Procedures for the detection and alignment of distantly related proteins by HCA are described through several published examples along with 2 previously unreported cases: the beta-glucosidase from Ruminococcus albus is clearly related to the beta-glucosidases from Clostridum thermocellum and Hansenula anomala although they display a reverse organization of their constitutive domains; the alignment of the sequence of human GTPase activating protein with that of the Crk oncogene is presented. Finally, the pertinence of HCA in the identification of important residues for structure/function as well as in the preparation of homology modelling is discussed.

  18. High-throughput morphometric analysis of pulmonary airways in MSCT via a mixed 3D/2D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Margarete; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Pr"teux, Françoise; Grenier, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Asthma and COPD are complex airway diseases with an increased incidence estimated for the next decade. Today, the mechanisms and relationships between airway structure/physiology and the clinical phenotype and genotype are not completely understood. We thus lack the tools to predict disease progression or therapeutic responses. One of the main causes is our limited ability to assess the complexity of airway diseases in large populations of patients with appropriate controls. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) imaging opened the way to the non-invasive assessment of airway physiology and structure, but the use of such technology in large cohorts requires a high degree of automation of the measurements. This paper develops an investigation framework and the associated image quantification tools for high-throughput analysis of airways in MSCT. A mixed approach is proposed, combining 3D and cross-section measurements of the airway tree where the user-interaction is limited to the choice of the desired analysis patterns. Such approach relies on the fully-automated segmentation of the 3D airway tree, caliber estimation and visualization based on morphologic granulometry, central axis computation and tree segment selection, cross-section morphometry of airway lumen and wall, and bronchus longitudinal shape analysis for stenosis/bronciectasis detection and measure validation. The developed methodology has been successfully applied to a cohort of 96 patients from a multi-center clinical study of asthma control in moderate and persistent asthma.

  19. The chemical composition of animal cells reconstructed from 2D and 3D ToF-SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenstein, D.; Rommel, C. E.; Stolwijk, J.; Wegener, J.; Hagenhoff, B.

    2008-12-01

    This paper gives an overview on the progress achieved in our lab within the last two years in the analysis of single cells and tissue-like cell layers by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Basically two types of investigations were performed: on the one hand a two-dimensional imaging and on the other hand a three-dimensional microarea analysis. In both cases chemical fixation in combination with slow air-drying were used as easy sample preparation method. It was the goal of both approaches to identify the distribution of natural components as well as the localisation of xenobiotic fluorophors. In our experimental set-ups the distribution of phophatidylcholine and amino-acid signals were in line with the expectation. In contrast, the distribution of the fluorophor ethidiumhomodimer could only be detected within the two-dimensional imaging, whereas it was not detected in the three-dimensional analysis. Also four other fluorophors failed in the latter approach. Thus, in our hands the three-dimensional detection is to date limited to certain molecules with a comparably low mass and/or an intrinsical charge.

  20. The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem of Colloidal Particle's energy on 2D Periodic Substrates: A Monte Carlo Study of thermal noise-like fluctuation and diffusion like Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Amin

    2014-05-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.

  1. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3 PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to our recently published article ('20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%', Huang et al., 2017 [1]) where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012.) [2], [3], [4], [5] on our current industrial Al2O3 PERC cell. The data include: i) PC2D simulations on J02, ii) the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV) on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii) the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  2. A Model Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Routine Genotyping for CYP2D6 among Older, Depressed Inpatients Starting Nortriptyline Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Luttjeboer, Jos; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genotyping for CYP2D6 has the potential to predict differences in metabolism of nortriptyline. This information could optimize pharmacotherapy. We determined the costs and effects of routine genotyping for old aged Dutch depressed inpatients. Methods With a decision-tree, we modelled the first 12 weeks of nortriptyline therapy. Direct costs of genotyping, hospitalization, therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs were included. Based on genotype, patients could be correctly, sub-, or supratherapeutically dosed. Improvement from sub- or supratherapeutically dosed patients to correctly dosed patients was simulated, assuming that genotyping would prevent under- or overdosing of patients. In the base case, this improvement was assumed to be 35%. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to determine uncertainty around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results In the base case analysis, costs for genotyping were assumed €200 per test with a corresponding ICER at €1 333 000 per QALY. To reach a €50 000 per QALY cut-off, genotyping costs should be decreased towards €40 per test. At genotyping test costs < €35 per test, genotyping was dominant. At test costs of €17 per test there was a 95% probability that genotyping was cost-effective at €50 000 per QALY. Conclusions CYP2D6 genotyping was not cost-effective at current genotyping costs at a €50 000 per QALY threshold, however at test costs below €40, genotyping could be costs-effective. PMID:28033366

  3. Evaluation of Accuracy for 2D Elastic-Plastic Analysis by Embedded Force Doublet Model Combined with Automated Delaunay Tessellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Takuichiro; Hasib, M. D. Abdul; Takase, Toru; Saimoto, Akihide

    2015-03-01

    An embedded force doublet (EFD) model is proposed to express the presence of permanent strain in body force method (BFM). BFM is known as a boundary type method for elastic stress analysis based on the principle of superposition. In EFD model, the permanent strain is replaced by distributed force doublets. In an actual elastic-plastic analysis, the plastic region whose shape is not clear a priori, have to be discretized into elements where the magnitude of embedded force doublets is unknown to be determined numerically. In general, the determination process of magnitude of EFD is considerably difficult due to nonlinear nature of yield criterion and plastic constitutive relations. In this study, by introducing the automated Delaunay tessellation scheme for discretizing the prospective plastic region, appreciable reduction in input data was realized. Adding to this, in order to improve the computational efficiency, influence coefficients used for determining the magnitude of EFD are stored in a database. The effectiveness of these two inventions was examined by computing the elastic-plastic problem of an infinite medium with circular hole subjected to uniform internal pressure. The numerical solution was compared with Nadai’s closed form solution and found a good agreement.

  4. Comparison of 2D Finite Element Modeling Assumptions with Results From 3D Analysis for Composite Skin-Stiffener Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isbelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of two-dimensional finite element modeling assumptions on the debonding prediction for skin-stiffener specimens was investigated. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses using two-dimensional plane-stress and plane-strain elements as well as three different generalized plane strain type approaches were performed. The computed skin and flange strains, transverse tensile stresses and energy release rates were compared to results obtained from three-dimensional simulations. The study showed that for strains and energy release rate computations the generalized plane strain assumptions yielded results closest to the full three-dimensional analysis. For computed transverse tensile stresses the plane stress assumption gave the best agreement. Based on this study it is recommended that results from plane stress and plane strain models be used as upper and lower bounds. The results from generalized plane strain models fall between the results obtained from plane stress and plane strain models. Two-dimensional models may also be used to qualitatively evaluate the stress distribution in a ply and the variation of energy release rates and mixed mode ratios with delamination length. For more accurate predictions, however, a three-dimensional analysis is required.

  5. Characterization of the isomeric configuration and impurities of (Z)-endoxifen by 2D NMR, high resolution LC⬜MS, and quantitative HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Phyllis; Coleman, Donna; Burgess, Jason; Gardner, Michael; Hines, John; Scott, Brendan; Kroenke, Michelle; Larson, Jami; Lightner, Melissa; Turner, Gregory; White, Jonathan; Liu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    (Z)-Endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), an active metabolite generated via actions of CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6, is a more potent selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) than tamoxifen. In the MCF-7 human mammary tumor xenograft model with female athymic mice, (Z)-endoxifen, at an oral dose of 4⬜8 mg/kg, significantly inhibits tumor growth. (Z)-Endoxifen's potential as an alternative therapeutic agent independent of CYP2D6 activities, which can vary widely in ER+ breast cancer patients, is being actively evaluated. This paper describes confirmation of the configuration of the active (Z)-isomer through 2D NMR experiments, including NOE (ROESY) to establish spatial proton⬜proton correlations, and identification of the major impurity as the (E)-isomer in endoxifen drug substance by HPLC/HRMS (HPLC/MS-TOF). Stability of NMR solutions was confirmed by HPLC/UV analysis. For pre-clinical studies, a reverse-phase HPLC⬜UV method, with methanol/water mobile phases containing 10 mM ammonium formate at pH 4.3, was developed and validated for the accurate quantitation and impurity profiling of drug substance and drug product. Validation included demonstration of linearity, method precision, accuracy, and specificity in the presence of impurities, excipients (for the drug product), and degradation products. Ruggedness and reproducibility of the method were confirmed by collaborative studies between two independent laboratories. The method is being applied for quality control of the API and oral drug product. Kinetic parameters of Z- to E-isomerization were also delineated in drug substance and in aqueous formulation, showing conversion at temperatures above 25 °C.

  6. Characterization of the isomeric configuration and impurities of (Z)-endoxifen by 2D NMR, high resolution LC–MS, and quantitative HPLC analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Phyllis; Coleman, Donna; Burgess, Jason; Gardner, Michael; Hines, John; Scott, Brendan; Kroenke, Michelle; Larson, Jami; Lightner, Melissa; Turner, Gregory; White, Jonathan; Liu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    (Z)-Endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), an active metabolite generated via actions of CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6, is a more potent selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) than tamoxifen. In the MCF-7 human mammary tumor xenograft model with female athymic mice, (Z)-endoxifen, at an oral dose of 4– 8 mg/kg, significantly inhibits tumor growth. (Z)-Endoxifen's potential as an alternative therapeutic agent independent of CYP2D6 activities, which can vary widely in ER+ breast cancer patients, is being actively evaluated. This paper describes confirmation of the configuration of the active (Z)-isomer through 2D NMR experiments, including NOE (ROESY) to establish spatial proton–proton correlations, and identification of the major impurity as the (E)-isomer in endoxifen drug substance by HPLC/HRMS (HPLC/MS-TOF). Stability of NMR solutions was confirmed by HPLC/UV analysis. For pre-clinical studies, a reverse-phase HPLC–UV method, with methanol/water mobile phases containing 10 mM ammonium formate at pH 4.3, was developed and validated for the accurate quantitation and impurity profiling of drug substance and drug product. Validation included demonstration of linearity, method precision, accuracy, and specificity in the presence of impurities, excipients (for the drug product), and degradation products. Ruggedness and reproducibility of the method were confirmed by collaborative studies between two independent laboratories. The method is being applied for quality control of the API and oral drug product. Kinetic parameters of Z- to E-isomerization were also delineated in drug substance and in aqueous formulation, showing conversion at temperatures above 25 °C. PMID:24055701

  7. Extended multiscale finite element method for elasto-plastic analysis of 2D periodic lattice truss materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J. K.; Fu, Z. D.

    2010-05-01

    An extended multiscale finite element method is developed for small-deformation elasto-plastic analysis of periodic truss materials. The base functions constructed numerically are employed to establish the relationship between the macroscopic displacement and the microscopic stress and strain. The unbalanced nodal forces in the micro-scale of unit cells are treated as the combined effects of macroscopic equivalent forces and microscopic perturbed forces, in which macroscopic equivalent forces are used to solve the macroscopic displacement field and microscopic perturbed forces are used to obtain the stress and strain in the micro-scale to make sure the correctness of the results obtained by the downscale computation in the elastic-plastic problems. Numerical examples are carried out and the results verify the validity and efficiency of the developed method by comparing it with the conventional finite element method.

  8. Self-diffusion of polycrystalline ice Ih under confining pressure: Hydrogen isotope analysis using 2-D Raman imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Naoki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ichiko

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a high-resolution technique based on micro Raman spectroscopy to measure hydrogen isotope diffusion profiles in ice Ih. The calibration curve for quantitative analysis of deuterium in ice Ih was constructed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion experiments using diffusion couples composed of dense polycrystalline H2O and D2O ice were carried out under a gas confining pressure of 100 MPa (to suppress micro-fracturing and pore formation) at temperatures from 235 K to 245 K and diffusion times from 0.2 to 94 hours. Two-dimensional deuterium profiles across the diffusion couples were determined by Raman imaging. The location of small spots of frost from room air could be detected from the shapes of the Raman bands of OH and OD stretching modes, which change because of the effect of the molar ratio of deuterium on the molecular coupling interaction. We emphasize the validity for screening the impurities utilizing the coupling interaction. Some recrystallization and grain boundary migration occurred in recovered diffusion couples, but analysis of two-dimensional diffusion profiles of regions not affected by grain boundary migration allowed us to measure a volume diffusivity for ice at 100 MPa of (2.8 ± 0.4) ×10-3exp[ -57.0 ± 15.4kJ /mol/RT ] m2 /s (R is the gas constant, T is temperature). Based on ambient pressure diffusivity measurements by others, this value indicates a high (negative) activation volume for volume diffusivity of -29.5 cm3/mol or more. We can also constrain the value of grain boundary diffusivity in ice at 100 MPa to be <104 that of volume diffusivity.

  9. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  10. Hyporheic Exchange: Analysis of Aquifer Heterogeneity, Channel Morphology and Bedforms- 2D and 3D Simulations Using MODFLOW and MODPATH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, J. R.; Welty, C.; Packman, A.

    2005-12-01

    The main purpose of the simulations in this research is the analysis of three-dimensional surface-groundwater interchange in heterogeneous systems. The effects of channel pattern, bed forms and aquifer heterogeneity on flow interactions between stream and groundwater systems are examined in order to contribute for a better understanding of the hyporheic process. A two-dimensional approach was also adopted to allow comparisons with the three-dimensional results. The grid was designed using the correlation scales of the heterogeneous fields and the scale of the stream meanders. MODFLOW and MODPATH were used to evaluate magnitude, direction and spatial distribution of the exchange flow. PMWIN and PMPATH were used as pre and post-processors during the construction of the models and analysis of results. Gaining and losing streams as well as parallel flow and flow across streams were simulated as idealized cases intended to describe how properties of the streambed and aquifer in low-gradient lowland streams contribute to hyporheic exchange. At first a straight river was analyzed then meandering streams were created with a sine curve and variations on wavelength and amplitude. Bed forms were simulated assuming a sinusoidal distribution of pressure head in the bed surface. Aspects of the influence of bedforms on mechanisms such as "pumping" and "turnover" are expected to be addressed with simulations. Flow velocities between 20 and 40 cm/s in the channel were tested with the objective of showing the influence of river morphology and natural bed forms on the flow exchange in the hyporheic zone. Several meander cycles and four levels of hydraulic conductivity variance were analyzed. Results of flow variances along the cross-sections and wetted perimeter show the increasing on hyporheic exchange as the degree of heterogeneity increases. Particle tracking was performed to define hyporheic residence time distributions. When comparing the homogeneous fields with all degrees of

  11. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  12. Thermal-Structural Analysis of Sunshield Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John; Parrish, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Future large infrared space telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will require deployable sunshields to provide passive cooling for optics and instruments. Deployable sunshield structures for such applications typically consist of multiple thin-film membrane layers supported by deployable booms. The mechanical design of the sunshield must accommodate thermal strains due to layer-to-layer temperature differences as well as potentially large in-plane temperature gradients within individual film layers. This paper describes a thermal-structural analysis for predicting the stress state in a thin-film membrane subject to both mechanical thermal loads that could aid in the mechanical design of future sunshield structures. First the temperature field predicted by a thermal analysis is mapped to a structural finite element model, and then the structural response is predicted using a nonlinear static analysis. The structural model uses membrane elements in conjunction with a tension field material model to predict the response of the thin-film membrane layer. The tension field material model accounts for no-compression behavior associated with wrinkling and slackness. This approach was used to study the problem of a single membrane layer from the NASA reference concept for the JWST sunshield. Results from the analysis show that the membrane can experience a loss of tensile preload due to the presence of an in-plane temperature gradient representative of the cold-side layer temperature distribution predicted for the reference concept JWST.

  13. Differential thermal analysis of lunar soil simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D.; Setzer, A.

    1991-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis of a lunar soil simulant, 'Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1' (MLS-1) was performed. The MLS-1 was tested in as-received form (in glass form) and with another silica. The silica addition was seen to depress nucleation events which lead to a better glass former.

  14. ZORNOC: a 1 1/2-D tokamak data analysis code for studying noncircular high beta plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zurro, B.; Wieland, R.M.; Murakami, M.; Swain, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    A new tokamak data analysis code, ZORNOC, was developed to study noncircular, high beta plasmas in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B). These plasmas exhibit significant flux surface shifts and elongation in both ohmically heated and beam-heated discharges. The MHD equilibrium flux surface geometry is determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation based on: (1) the shape of the outermost flux surface, deduced from the magnetic loop probes; (2) a pressure profile, deduced by means of Thomson scattering data (electrons), charge exchange data (ions), and a Fokker-Planck model (fast ions); and (3) a safety factor profile, determined from the experimental data using a simple model (Z/sub eff/ = const) that is self-consistently altered while the plasma equilibrium is iterated. For beam-heated discharches the beam deposition profile is determined by means of a Monte Carlo scheme and the slowing down of the fast ions by means of an analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The code also carries out an electron power balance and calculates various confinement parameters. The code is described and examples of its operation are given.

  15. Thermal and structural analysis of the TPX divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Redler, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    The high heat flux on the surfaces of the TPX divertor will require a design in which a carbon-carbon (C-C) tile material is brazed to water cooled copper tubes. Thermal and structural analyses were performed to assist in the design selection of a divertor tile concept and C-C material. The relevancy of finite element analysis (FEA) for evaluating tile design was examined by conducting a literature survey to compare FEA stress results to subsequent brazing and thermal test results. The thermal responses for five tile concepts and four C-C materials were analyzed for a steady-state heat flux of 7.5 MW/m{sup 2}. Elastic-plastic stress analyses were performed to calculate the residual stresses due to brazing C-C tiles to soft copper heat sinks for the various tile designs. Monoblock and archblock divertor tile concepts were analyzed for residual stresses in which elevated temperature creep effects were included with the elastic-plastic behavior of the copper heat sink for an assumed braze cooldown cycle. As a result of these 2D studies, the archblock concept with a 3D fine weave C-C was initially found to be a preferred design for the divertor. A 3D elastic-plastic analysis for brazing of the arch block tile was performed to investigate the singularity effects at the C-C to copper interface in the direction of the tube axis. This analysis showed that the large residual stresses at the tube and tile edge intersection would produce cracks in the C-C and possible delamination along the braze interface. These results, coupled with the difficulties experienced in brazing archblocks for the Tore Supra Limiter, required that other tile designs be considered.

  16. Semi-automated 2D Bruch's membrane shape analysis in papilledema using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui-Kai; Sibony, Patrick A.; Kardon, Randy H.; Kupersmith, Mark J.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Bruch's membrane (BM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), visualized on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), is deformed anteriorly towards the vitreous in patients with intracranial hypertension and papilledema. The BM/RPE shape has been quantified using a statistical-shape-model approach; however, to date, the approach has involved the tedious and time-consuming manual placement of landmarks and correspondingly, only the shape (and shape changes) of a limited number of patients has been studied. In this work, we first present a semi-automated approach for the extraction of 20 landmarks along the BM from an optic-nerve-head (ONH) centered OCT slice from each patient. In the approach, after the manual placement of the two Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) points, the remaining 18 landmarks are automatically determined using a graph-based segmentation approach. We apply the approach to the OCT scans of 116 patients (at baseline) enrolled in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial and generate a statistical shape model using principal components analysis. Using the resulting shape model, the coefficient (shape measure) corresponding to the second principal component (eigenvector) for each set of landmarks indicates the degree of the BM/RPE is oriented away from the vitreous. Using a subset of 20 patients, we compare the shape measure computed using this semi-automated approach with the resulting shape measure when (1) all landmarks are specified manually (Experiment I); and (2) a different expert specifies the two BMO points (Experiment II). In each case, a correlation coefficient >= 0.99 is obtained.

  17. A model of adsorption of albumin on the implant surface titanium and titanium modified carbon coatings (MWCNT-EPD). 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Piś, Wojciech; Długoń, Elżbieta; Benko, Aleksandra; Błażewicz, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Common materials used as orthopedic implants are titanium and its alloys. To improve its compatibility with the environment of a living organism titanium implant surfaces are covered with bioactive layers of MWCNT. During the insertion into a living organism such material is exposed to direct contact with the patient's blood, which includes proteins - eg. albumin. The adsorption of albumin may constitute one of the early stages of implant surface modification serving cell adhesion. An analysis of this phenomenon in terms of the kinetics of deposition of protein on the surface of the implant confirms its biocompatibility in vivo. The proposed working model of the adsorption of albumin allows for choosing the best of time for the protein to form a stable connection with the surface of the titanium implant. Traditional methods of materials engineering and chemistry allow for the obtaining of information about the presence of a protein on the surface (UV-Vis, the wettability). The application of 2D correlation analysis, in turn, gains insight into the dynamics of the changes associated with the deposition of protein (the formation of a uniform layer, the change in conformation). This analysis has allowed for the selection of an optimal time of protein adsorption to the surface of the implant. Better compatibility with the body of the implant provides its modification by introducing layers that accelerate the material-tissue interactions. Such a composition is a layer of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on titanium by the electrophoretic (EPD) method. Using Raman spectroscopy and analyzing the spectra with the 2D correlation method it is possible to gain insight into the molecular structure of this layer. Our studies indicate that albumin in contact with the surface of titanium has obtained stable conformation after 30 min (confirmed by: UV-Vis, Raman). Shifts of the CH2, CH3 stretching bands position as well as an analysis of the amide I band confirms this

  18. Thermal analysis of a linear infrared lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of an infrared lamp is presented based on radiant heat transfer theory. The analysis is performed on a specific type of linear lamp which has a coiled tungsten filament surrounded by a fused quartz envelope. The purpose of the study was to model the lamp thermally, not electrically, to arrive at a better understanding of the operation of the lamp.

  19. Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared studies of poly(L-lactic acid) in different states of order: A 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pudun; Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2016-11-01

    Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a predominantly amorphous and a semi-crystalline poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film were measured between 30 °C and 170 °C in order to investigate their temperature-dependent structural changes as a function of the initial state of order. For an in-depth analysis of the spectral variations in the carbonyl stretching band region (1803-1722 cm-1) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied. Significant spectral changes were observed during heating of the amorphous PLLA sample whereas the semi-crystalline specimen showed only slight band shifts as a function of the external perturbation. The PCMW2D results suggested that for efficient 2DCOS analyses the heating process should be split up in two temperature intervals. These analyses then provided information on the recrystallization of the amorphous regions, the presence of an intermediate state of order and a sequence scenario for the observed spectral changes.

  20. Analysis of tissue proteomes of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abbaraju, Naga V; Boutaghou, Mohamed Nazim; Townley, Ian K; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi; Cole, Richard B; Rees, Bernard B

    2012-11-01

    The Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, is a small teleost fish that inhabits marshes of the Gulf of Mexico and demonstrates high tolerance of environmental variation, making it an excellent subject for the study of physiological and molecular adaptations to environmental stress. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were used to resolve and identify proteins from five tissues: skeletal muscle, liver, brain, heart, and gill. Of 864 protein features excised from 2D gels, 424 proteins were identified, corresponding to a 49% identification rate. For any given tissue, several protein features were identified as the same protein, resulting in a total of 254 nonredundant proteins. These nonredundant proteins were categorized into a total of 11 molecular functions, including catalytic activity, structural molecule, binding, and transport. In all tissues, catalytic activity and binding were the most highly represented molecular functions. Comparing across the tissues, proteome coverage was lowest in skeletal muscle, due to a combination of a low number of gel spots excised for analysis and a high redundancy of identifications among these spots. Nevertheless, the identification of a substantial number of proteins with high statistical confidence from other tissues suggests that F. grandis may serve as a model fish for future studies of environmental proteomics and ultimately help to elucidate proteomic responses of fish and other vertebrates to environmental stress.

  1. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  2. Hip2Norm: an object-oriented cross-platform program for 3D analysis of hip joint morphology using 2D pelvic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G; Tannast, M; Anderegg, C; Siebenrock, K A; Langlotz, F

    2007-07-01

    We developed an object-oriented cross-platform program to perform three-dimensional (3D) analysis of hip joint morphology using two-dimensional (2D) anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs. Landmarks extracted from 2D AP pelvic radiographs and optionally an additional lateral pelvic X-ray were combined with a cone beam projection model to reconstruct 3D hip joints. Since individual pelvic orientation can vary considerably, a method for standardizing pelvic orientation was implemented to determine the absolute tilt/rotation. The evaluation of anatomically morphologic differences was achieved by reconstructing the projected acetabular rim and the measured hip parameters as if obtained in a standardized neutral orientation. The program had been successfully used to interactively objectify acetabular version in hips with femoro-acetabular impingement or developmental dysplasia. Hip(2)Norm is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway) for graphical user interface (GUI) and is transportable to any platform.

  3. An analysis of electrochemical energy storage using electrodes fabricated from atomically thin 2D structures of MoS2, graphene and MoS2/graphene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffstutler, Jacob D.

    The behavior of 2D materials has become of great interest in the wake of development of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and the discovery of monolayer graphene by Geim and Novoselov. This study aims to analyze the response variance of 2D electrode materials for EDLCs prepared through the liquid-phase exfoliation method when subjected to differing conditions. Once exfoliated, samples are tested with a series of structural characterization methods, including tunneling electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A new ionic liquid for EDLC use, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate is compared in performance to 6M potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte. Devices composed of liquid-phase exfoliated graphene / MoS2 composites are analyzed by concentration for ideal performance. Device performance under cold extreme temperatures for the ionic fluid is presented as well. A brief overview of by-layer analysis of graphene electrode materials is presented as-is. All samples were tested with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, with good capacitive results. The evolution of electrochemical behavior through the altered parameters is tracked as well.

  4. Thermally Conductive Structural 2D Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    5 Figure 3. Micrographs of Carbon Nanostructures Grown on Carbon Fibers Using Microwave Generated Plasmas at MSU...methods provided in literature, however, utilize a microwave plasma technique, not conducive to continuous manufacturing. Therefore, in the current work...carbon fibers per the methodologies reported by Bhuvana et al. [1], which used microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The MSU unit is a “cold

  5. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  6. Thermal and structural analysis of Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petiau, C.

    1989-08-01

    After a brief recap of Hermes TPS and structure principles, we present the organization of thermal and structural analysis of the Hermes project, and we describe the way to resolve the problems of connections between calculations performed by the different Hermes partners. We describe in detail the interactions between the general model of TPS, used for global dimensioning of insulation, and refined thermal models giving an accurate temperature map inside details of "hot" and "cold" structures. The organization for structural analysis is based on a finite element general model which supports preliminary design, loads and vibration analyses. Boundary conditions for refined subpart analyses are cut to size, into the general model by a super element technique. This process involves the use by all partners of efficient computer codes, in the field of structural analysis and optimization integrated with CAD; for this Dassault proposes as a reference: the CATIA-ELFINI system.

  7. Thermal analysis of paracetamol polymorphs by FT-IR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Boris; Baranović, Goran

    2011-01-25

    A simple IR spectroscopy based methodology in routine screening studies of polymorphism is proposed. Reflectance and transmittance temperature-dependent IR measurements (coupled with the 2D-IR data presentation and the baseline analysis) offer a positive identification of each polymorphic phase, therefore allowing simple and rapid monitoring of the measured system. Applicability and flexibility of the methodology was demonstrated on the measurement of the model polymorphic compound paracetamol under various conditions (including geometric constraints and elevated pressure). The thermal behavior of paracetamol strongly depends on slight variations in experimental conditions that can result in formation of various phases (three polymorphs and the amorphous form). The amorphous phase can crystallize during heating into either Form II or Form III within almost identical temperature range. Likewise, the crystal transformations II→I and III→II also can proceed within almost identical temperature range. Furthermore, the thermal behavior is even more diverse than that, and includes the crystallizations of Forms I, II and III from the melt, and the high temperature II→I transition. The variety of the temperatures of the transformations is a major obstacle for unambiguous identification of a particular phase by DSC and a major reason for the implementation of these IR methods.

  8. A combination of metabolic labeling and 2D-DIGE analysis in response to a farnesyltransferase inhibitor facilitates the discovery of new prenylated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palsuledesai, Charuta C.; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Markowski, Todd W.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification required for proper cellular localization and activity of many important eukaryotic proteins. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have been explored extensively for their antitumor activity. To assist in identifying potentially new and more useful markers for therapeutic applications, we developed a strategy that uses a combination of metabolic labeling and 2D DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) to discover new prenylated proteins whose cellular levels are influenced by FTIs. In this approach, metabolic labeling of prenylated proteins was first carried out with an alkyne-modified isoprenoid analog, C15Alk, in the presence or absence of the FTI L-744,832. The resulting alkyne-tagged proteins were then labeled with Cy3-N3 and Cy5-N3 and subjected to 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Multiple spots having altered levels of labeling in presence of the FTI were observed. Mass spectrometric analysis of some of the differentially labeled spots identified several known prenylated proteins, along with HisRS, PACN-3, GNAI-1 and GNAI-2, which are not known to be prenylated. In vitro farnesylation of a C-terminal peptide sequence derived from GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 produced a farnesylated product, suggesting GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 are potential novel farnesylated proteins. These results suggest that this new strategy could be useful for the identification of prenylated proteins whose level of post-translational modification has been modulated by the presence of an FTI. Additionally, this approach, which decreases sample complexity and thereby facilitates analysis, should be applicable to studies of other post-translational modifications as well. PMID:24577581

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of chronic kidney disease in T2D subjects: A case-control and dose-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Li, Hong-Bing; Zhu, Xiao-Rong; Song, Hai-Lin; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2017-04-01

    Evidence indicated a positive association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and cardiovascular diseases. But the relationship between SCH and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) remains unclear. A case-control study was performed to ascertain this relationship followed by a meta-analysis. In this hospital-based, case-control study, we recruited 3270 type 2 diabetic patients with euthyroidism and 545 type 2 diabetic patients with SCH. All English studies were searched upon the relationship between SCH and CKD up to October 2016. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 13.0 software. Our case-control study indicated an association between SCH and CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes [OR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.09-1.36)]. Five observational studies reporting risk of CKD in SCH individuals were enrolled. A significant relationship between SCH and CKD was shown [pooled OR 1.80, (95% CI) 1.38-2.35]. Among normal TSH range, individuals with TSH ≥3.0 μIU/ml had a significantly higher rate of CKD (Fisher exact test, P = 0.027). Dose-response linear increase of CKD events was explored [pooled OR 1.09 (95% CI): 1.03-1.16 per1 mIU/L increase of TSH]. The present evidence suggests that SCH is probably a significant risk factor of CKD in T2D. Linear trend is shown between TSH elevation and CKD in T2D. This relationship between serum TSH and renal impairment in type 2 diabetic patients needs further studies to investigate.

  10. A combination of metabolic labeling and 2D-DIGE analysis in response to a farnesyltransferase inhibitor facilitates the discovery of new prenylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Palsuledesai, Charuta C; Ochocki, Joshua D; Markowski, Todd W; Distefano, Mark D

    2014-05-01

    Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification required for proper cellular localization and activity of many important eukaryotic proteins. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have been explored extensively for their antitumor activity. To assist in identifying potentially new and more useful markers for therapeutic applications, we developed a strategy that uses a combination of metabolic labeling and 2D DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) to discover new prenylated proteins whose cellular levels are influenced by FTIs. In this approach, metabolic labeling of prenylated proteins was first carried out with an alkyne-modified isoprenoid analog, C15Alk, in the presence or absence of the FTI L-744,832. The resulting alkyne-tagged proteins were then labeled with Cy3-N3 and Cy5-N3 and subjected to 2D-DIGE. Multiple spots having altered levels of labeling in presence of the FTI were observed. Mass spectrometric analysis of some of the differentially labeled spots identified several known prenylated proteins, along with HisRS, PACN-3, GNAI-1 and GNAI-2, which are not known to be prenylated. In vitro farnesylation of a C-terminal peptide sequence derived from GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 produced a farnesylated product, suggesting GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 are potential novel farnesylated proteins. These results suggest that this new strategy could be useful for the identification of prenylated proteins whose level of post-translational modification has been modulated by the presence of an FTI. Additionally, this approach, which decreases sample complexity and thereby facilitates analysis, should be applicable to studies of other post-translational modifications as well.

  11. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH.

  12. Thermal Analysis Methods for Aerobraking Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Dec, John A.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA begins exploration of other planets, a method of non-propulsively slowing vehicles at the planet, aerobraking, may become a valuable technique for managing vehicle design mass and propellant. An example of this is Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which will launch in late 2005 and reach Mars in March of 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO will use aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft will dip into the atmosphere briefly on each orbit, and during the drag pass, the atmospheric drag on the spacecraft will slow it, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, and that most affected by the heat generated during the aerobraking process, is the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley, to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. Several interesting methods were used to make this analysis more rapid and robust. Two separate models were built for this analysis, one in Thermal Desktop for radiation and orbital heating analysis, and one in MSC.Patran for thermal analysis. The results from the radiation model were mapped in an automated fashion to the Patran thermal model that was used to analyze the thermal behavior during the drag pass. A high degree of automation in file manipulation as well as other methods for reducing run time were employed, since toward the end of the aerobraking period the orbit period is short, and in order to support flight operations the runs must be computed rapidly. All heating within the Patran Thermal model was combined in one section of logic, such that data mapped from the radiation model and aeroheating model, as well as skin temperature effects on the aeroheating and surface radiation, could be incorporated easily. This approach calculates the aeroheating at any given node, based on its position and temperature as well as the density and velocity at that trajectory point. Run times on

  13. Analysis and Visualization of 2D and 3D Grain and Pore Size ofFontainebleau Sandstone Using Digital Rock Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, FDE

    2016-08-01

    Fontainebleau sandstone is sandstone found in one of the cities in France. This sandstone has unique characteristics, which is a clean-fme sandstone, composed of 99% quartz, virtually devoid of clay, with the grain size of about 200 μm. Fontainebleau sandstone is widely used as a reference in the study of rock microstructure analysis and modelling. In this work analysis regarding the grain and pore size of Fontainebleau is presented. Calculation of 2D pore size and grain size distribution were done on the 299 slice of digital image of the Fontainebleau sandstone using Feret's diameters, equivalent diameters (d = 4A/P), and by means of local thickness/separation using plate model. For the 3D grain and pore size distribution, calculation of local thickness and local separation of the structure were used. Two dimensional analysis by means of Feret's diameter and equivalent diameter reveal that both grain and pore size distributions are in the form of reverse-J shaped (right skewed) while the local thickness/separation approach produces almost similar to symmetric Gaussian distribution. Three dimensional analysis produces fairly symmetric Gaussian distribution for both the grain and pore size. Further image processing were conducted and were succeed in producing three dimensional visual of the colour coded structure thickness (grain related) and structure separation (pore related).

  14. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; del Mastro, Nélida Lucia

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were 60Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600°C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  15. Performance Analysis of Error Probabilities for Arbitrary 2-D Signaling with I/Q Unbalances over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeyoon; Yoon, Dongweon; Park, Sang Kyu

    Recently, we provided closed-form expressions involving two-dimensional (2-D) joint Gaussian Q-function for the symbol error rate (SER) and bit error rate (BER) of an arbitrary 2-D signal with I/Q unbalances over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel [1]. In this letter, we extend the expressions to Nakagami-m fading channels. Using Craig representation of the 2-D joint Gaussian Q-function, we derive an exact and general expression for the error probabilities of arbitrary 2-D signaling with I/Q phase and amplitude unbalances over Nakagami-m fading channels.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lledó, Luis D.; Díez, Jorge A.; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J.; Sabater-Navarro, José M.; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  17. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  18. Thermal Analysis of Various Epoxy Mixtures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Dicyandiamide Thermal analysis Accelerator r20 ABSTRAC r (Continue on revre side If necesary and identif by. block riimeyp.) 4 4 (SEE REVERSE SIDE...mixed with Monuron. Also, three-component mixtures, epoxide + Dicy/Monuron, were prepared with dicyandiamide . The mixtures were cured by differential... dicyandiamide and Monuron, on the curing process, was simulated by the isothermal reaction of two mixtures. A type of reaction kinetics having the

  19. Analysis of lunar regolith thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using lunar regolith as a thermal energy storage medium was evaluated. The concept was examined by mathematically modeling the absorption and transfer of heat by the lunar regolith. Regolith thermal and physical properties were established through various sources as functions of temperature. Two cases were considered: a semi-infinite, constant temperature, cylindrical heat source embedded in a continuum of lunar regolith and a spherically shaped molten zone of lunar regolith set with an initial temperature profile. The cylindrical analysis was performed in order to examine the amount of energy which can be stored in the regolith during the day. At night, the cylinder acted as a perfect insulator. This cycling was performed until a steady state situation was reached in the surrounding regolith. It was determined that a cycling steady state occurs after approximately 15 day/night cycles. Results were obtained for cylinders of various diameters. The spherical molten zone analysis was performed to establish the amount of thermal energy, within the regolith, necessary to maintain some molten material throughout a nighttime period. This surrounding temperature profile was modeled after the cycling steady state temperature profile established by the cylindrical analysis. It was determined that a molten sphere diameter of 4.76 m is needed to maintain a core temperature near the low end of the melting temperature range throughout one nighttime period.

  20. A Benchmarking Analysis for Five Radionuclide Vadose Zone Models (Chain, Multimed{_}DP, Fectuz, Hydrus, and Chain 2D) in Soil Screening Level Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J-S.; Drake, R.; Lin, Z.; Jewett, D. G.

    2002-02-26

    Five vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED{_}DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in radionuclide soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide ({sup 99}Tc) release scenario at the Las Cruces Trench Site in New Mexico. Sensitivity of three model outputs to the input parameters were evaluated and compared among the models. The three outputs were peak contaminant concentrations, time to peak concentrations at the water table, and time to exceed the contaminants maximum critical level at a representative receptor well. Model parameters investigated include soil properties such as bulk density, water content, soil water retention parameters and hydraulic conductivity. Chemical properties examined include distribution coefficient, radionuclide half-life, dispersion coefficient, and molecular diffusion. Other soil characteristics, such as recharge rate, also were examined. Model sensitivity was quantified in the form of sensitivity and relative sensitivity coefficients. Relative sensitivities were used to compare the sensitivities of different parameters. The analysis indicates that soil water content, recharge rate, saturated soil water content, and soil retention parameter, {beta}, have a great influence on model outputs. In general, the results of sensitivities and relative sensitivities using five models are similar for a specific scenario. Slight differences were observed in predicted peak contaminant concentrations due to different mathematical treatment among models. The results of benchmarking and sensitivity analysis would facilitate the model selection and application of the model in SSL calculations.

  1. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  2. Parameter Uncertainty for Repository Thermal Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Hadgu, Teklu; Greenberg, Harris; Dupont, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This report is one follow-on to a study of reference geologic disposal design concepts (Hardin et al. 2011a). Based on an analysis of maximum temperatures, that study concluded that certain disposal concepts would require extended decay storage prior to emplacement, or the use of small waste packages, or both. The study used nominal values for thermal properties of host geologic media and engineered materials, demonstrating the need for uncertainty analysis to support the conclusions. This report is a first step that identifies the input parameters of the maximum temperature calculation, surveys published data on measured values, uses an analytical approach to determine which parameters are most important, and performs an example sensitivity analysis. Using results from this first step, temperature calculations planned for FY12 can focus on only the important parameters, and can use the uncertainty ranges reported here. The survey of published information on thermal properties of geologic media and engineered materials, is intended to be sufficient for use in generic calculations to evaluate the feasibility of reference disposal concepts. A full compendium of literature data is beyond the scope of this report. The term “uncertainty” is used here to represent both measurement uncertainty and spatial variability, or variability across host geologic units. For the most important parameters (e.g., buffer thermal conductivity) the extent of literature data surveyed samples these different forms of uncertainty and variability. Finally, this report is intended to be one chapter or section of a larger FY12 deliverable summarizing all the work on design concepts and thermal load management for geologic disposal (M3FT-12SN0804032, due 15Aug2012).

  3. Chemical analysis of solid materials by a LIMS instrument designed for space research: 2D elemental imaging, sub-nm depth profiling and molecular surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-García, Pavel; Grimaudo, Valentine; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B.; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Direct quantitative chemical analysis with high lateral and vertical resolution of solid materials is of prime importance for the development of a wide variety of research fields, including e.g., astrobiology, archeology, mineralogy, electronics, among many others. Nowadays, studies carried out by complementary state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Glow Discharge Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GD-TOF-MS) or Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide extensive insight into the chemical composition and allow for a deep understanding of processes that might have fashioned the outmost layers of an analyte due to its interaction with the surrounding environment. Nonetheless, these investigations typically employ equipment that is not suitable for implementation on spacecraft, where requirements concerning weight, size and power consumption are very strict. In recent years Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) has re-emerged as a powerful analytical technique suitable not only for laboratory but also for space applications.[1-3] Its improved performance and measurement capabilities result from the use of cutting edge ultra-short femtosecond laser sources, improved vacuum technology and fast electronics. Because of its ultimate compactness, simplicity and robustness it has already proven to be a very suitable analytical tool for elemental and isotope investigations in space research.[4] In this contribution we demonstrate extended capabilities of our LMS instrument by means of three case studies: i) 2D chemical imaging performed on an Allende meteorite sample,[5] ii) depth profiling with unprecedented sub-nm vertical resolution on Cu electrodeposited interconnects[6,7] and iii) preliminary molecular desorption of polymers without assistance of matrix or functionalized substrates.[8] On the whole

  4. PCaAnalyser: A 2D-Image Analysis Based Module for Effective Determination of Prostate Cancer Progression in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell based assays for Prostate Cancer (PCa) research are rapidly becoming the preferred alternative to that of conventional 2D monolayer cultures. 3D assays more precisely mimic the microenvironment found in vivo, and thus are ideally suited to evaluate compounds and their suitability for progression in the drug discovery pipeline. To achieve the desired high throughput needed for most screening programs, automated quantification of 3D cultures is required. Towards this end, this paper reports on the development of a prototype analysis module for an automated high-content-analysis (HCA) system, which allows for accurate and fast investigation of in vitro 3D cell culture models for PCa. The Java based program, which we have named PCaAnalyser, uses novel algorithms that allow accurate and rapid quantitation of protein expression in 3D cell culture. As currently configured, the PCaAnalyser can quantify a range of biological parameters including: nuclei-count, nuclei-spheroid membership prediction, various function based classification of peripheral and non-peripheral areas to measure expression of biomarkers and protein constituents known to be associated with PCa progression, as well as defining segregate cellular-objects effectively for a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, PCaAnalyser architecture is highly flexible, operating as a single independent analysis, as well as in batch mode; essential for High-Throughput-Screening (HTS). Utilising the PCaAnalyser, accurate and rapid analysis in an automated high throughput manner is provided, and reproducible analysis of the distribution and intensity of well-established markers associated with PCa progression in a range of metastatic PCa cell-lines (DU145 and PC3) in a 3D model demonstrated. PMID:24278197

  5. Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, A. D.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    The application of thermal control techniques to the cooling of electronic components is examined from theoretical and practical points of view. The electronic-thermal-control (ETC) problem and the physical and conceptual restraints on its solution are characterized, with a focus on the goal of system reliability. The fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid mechanics are discussed, including steady-state and transient conduction, convection, radiation, phase-change processes, contact resistance, heat exchangers, air handling, and dimensional analysis. Mathematical models and empirical correlations are explored for such ETC techniques as direct air cooling, extended surfaces, cold plates, immersion cooling, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers. Specific ETC applications to inertial equipment, transistors, vacuum tubes, microwave equipment, microelectronics, and printed-circuit boards are considered.

  6. Reliability modelling and analysis of thermal MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratet, Sylvaine; Lavu, Srikanth; Fourniols, Jean-Yves; Bell, George; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a MEMS reliability study methodology based on the novel concept of 'virtual prototyping'. This methodology can be used for the development of reliable sensors or actuators and also to characterize their behaviour in specific use conditions and applications. The methodology is demonstrated on the U-shaped micro electro thermal actuator used as test vehicle. To demonstrate this approach, a 'virtual prototype' has been developed with the modeling tools MatLab and VHDL-AMS. A best practice FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) is applied on the thermal MEMS to investigate and assess the failure mechanisms. Reliability study is performed by injecting the identified defaults into the 'virtual prototype'. The reliability characterization methodology predicts the evolution of the behavior of these MEMS as a function of the number of cycles of operation and specific operational conditions.

  7. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  8. Novel TOPP descriptors in 3D-QSAR analysis of apoptosis inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes: comparison versus other 2D- and 3D-descriptors.

    PubMed

    Sciabola, Simone; Carosati, Emanuele; Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes; Baroni, Massimo; Mannhold, Raimund

    2007-10-01

    Novel 3D-descriptors using Triplets Of Pharmacophoric Points (TOPP) were evaluated in QSAR-studies on 80 apoptosis-inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes. A predictive QSAR model was obtained using PLS, confirmed by means of internal and external validations. Performance of the TOPP approach was compared with that of other 2D- and 3D-descriptors; statistical analysis indicates that TOPP descriptors perform best. A ranking of TOPP>GRIND>BCI 4096=ECFP>FCFP>GRID-GOLPE>DRAGON>MDL 166 was achieved. Finally, in a 'consensus' analysis predictions obtained using the single methods were compared with an average approach using six out of eight methods. The use of the average is statistically superior to the single methods. Beyond it, the use of several methods can help to easily investigate the presence/absence of outliers according to the 'consensus' of the predicted values: agreement among all the methods indicates a precise prediction, whereas large differences between predicted values (for the same compounds by different methods) would demand caution when using such predictions.

  9. Structural requirements of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolones as potential antimalarials from 2D and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Li, Shuyan; Bai, Chongliang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-07-01

    Malaria is a fatal tropical and subtropical disease caused by the protozoal species Plasmodium. Many commonly available antimalarial drugs and therapies are becoming ineffective because of the emergence of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, which drives the need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Recently, a series of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolone analogs, derived from the famous compound endochin, were reported as promising candidates for orally efficacious antimalarials. In this study, to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these quinolones and investigate the structural requirements for antimalarial activity, the 2D multiple linear regressions (MLR) method and 3D comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods are employed to evolve different QSAR models. All these models give satisfactory results with highly accurate fitting and strong external predictive abilities for chemicals not used in model development. Furthermore, the contour maps from 3D models can provide an intuitive understanding of the key structure features responsible for the antimalarial activities. In conclusion, we summarize the detailed position-specific structural requirements of these derivatives accordingly. All these results are helpful for the rational design of new compounds with higher antimalarial bioactivities.

  10. Comparative proteomics profile of osteoblasts cultured on dissimilar hydroxyapatite biomaterials: an iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinling; Khor, Khiam Aik; Sui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianhua; Tan, Tuan Lin; Chen, Wei Ning

    2008-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and its derived bioceramic materials have been widely used for skeletal implants and/or bone repair scaffolds. It has been reported that carbon nanotube (CNT) is able to enhance the brittle ceramic matrix without detrimental to the bioactivity. However, interaction between osteoblasts and these bioceramics, as well as the underlying mechanism of osteoblast proliferation on these bioceramic surfaces remain to be determined. Using iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis, we report the first comparative proteomics profiling of human osteoblast cells cultured on plane HA and CNT reinforced HA, respectively. Cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, signaling, and cell growth proteins previous associated with cell adhesion and proliferation were found to be differentially expressed on these two surfaces. The level of these proteins was generally higher in cells adhered to HA surface, indicating a higher level of cellular proliferation in these cells. The significance of these findings was further assessed by Western blot analysis. The differential protein profile in HA and CNT strengthened HA established in our study should be valuable for future design of biocompatible ceramics.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Magnetically-Coupled Pump for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senocak, Inanc; Udaykumar, H. S.; Ndri, Narcisse; Francois, Marianne; Shyy, Wei

    1999-01-01

    Magnetically-coupled pump is under evaluation at Kennedy Space Center for possible cryogenic applications. A major concern is the impact of low temperature fluid flows on the pump performance. As a first step toward addressing this and related issues, a computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer tool has been adopted in a pump geometry. The computational tool includes (i) a commercial grid generator to handle multiple grid blocks and complicated geometric definitions, and (ii) an in-house computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer software developed in the Principal Investigator's group at the University of Florida. Both pure-conduction and combined convection-conduction computations have been conducted. A pure-conduction analysis gives insufficient information about the overall thermal distribution. Combined convection-conduction analysis indicates the significant influence of the coolant over the entire flow path. Since 2-D simulation is of limited help, future work on full 3-D modeling of the pump using multi-materials is needed. A comprehensive and accurate model can be developed to take into account the effect of multi-phase flow in the cooling flow loop, and the magnetic interactions.

  12. Saturn Ring Data Analysis and Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Coleman

    2011-01-01

    CIRS, VIMS, UVIS, and ISS (Cassini's Composite Infrared Specrtometer, Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, Ultra Violet Imaging Spectrometer and Imaging Science Subsystem, respectively), have each operated in a multidimensional observation space and have acquired scans of the lit and unlit rings at multiple phase angles. To better understand physical and dynamical ring particle parametric dependence, we co-registered profiles from these three instruments, taken at a wide range of wavelengths, from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, to associate changes in ring particle temperature with changes in observed brightness, specifically with albedos inferred by ISS, UVIS and VIMS. We work in a parameter space where the solar elevation range is constrained to 12 deg - 14 deg and the chosen radial region is the B3 region of the B ring; this region is the most optically thick region in Saturn's rings. From this compilation of multiple wavelength data, we construct and fit phase curves and color ratios using independent dynamical thermal models for ring structure and overplot Saturn, Saturn ring, and Solar spectra. Analysis of phase curve construction and color ratios reveals thermal emission to fall within the extrema of the ISS bandwidth and a geometrical dependence of reddening on phase angle, respectively. Analysis of spectra reveals Cassini CIRS Saturn spectra dominate Cassini CIRS B3 Ring Spectra from 19 to 1000 microns, while Earth-based B Ring Spectrum dominates Earth-based Saturn Spectrum from 0.4 to 4 microns. From our fits we test out dynamical thermal models; from the phase curves we derive ring albedos and non-lambertian properties of the ring particle surfaces; and from the color ratios we examine multiple scattering within the regolith of ring particles.

  13. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  14. The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysis. Paper topics included advances an uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  15. Thermal Analysis Methods for an Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Lindell, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a vehicle designed to return samples from another planet, such as the Earth Entry vehicle for the Mars Sample Return mission, presents several unique challenges. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) must contain Martian material samples after they have been collected and protect them from the high heating rates of entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This requirement necessitates inclusion of detailed thermal analysis early in the design of the vehicle. This paper will describe the challenges and solutions for a preliminary thermal analysis of an Earth Entry Vehicle. The aeroheatina on the vehicle during entry would be the main driver for the thermal behavior. and is a complex function of time, spatial position on the vehicle, vehicle temperature, and trajectory parameters. Thus. the thermal analysis must be closely tied to the aeroheating analysis in order to make accurate predictions. Also, the thermal analysis must account for the material response of the ablative thermal protection system TPS. For the exo-atmospheric portion of the mission, the thermal analysis must include the orbital radiation fluxes on the surfaces. The thermal behavior must also be used to predict the structural response of the vehicle (the thermal stress and strains) and whether they remain within the capability of the materials. Thus, the thermal analysis requires ties to the three-dimensional geometry, the aeroheating analysis, the material response analysis, the orbital analysis. and the structural analysis. The goal of this paper is to describe to what degree that has been achieved.

  16. Thermal radiation analysis system (TRASYS 2), programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, R. J.; Paulson, R. E.; Goble, R. G.; Jensen, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    TRASYS, the Thermal Radiation Analysis System, is a digital computer software system with a generalized capability to solve the radiation-related aspects of thermal analysis problems. When used in conjunction with a generalized thermal analysis program such as the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) program, any thermal problem that can be expressed in terms of a lumped parameter, radiation conductor thermal network can be solved. The function of TRASYS is twofold. It provides: 1) Internode radiation interchange data; 2) Incident and absorbed heat rate data from environmental radiant heat sources. Data of both types are provided in a format directly usable by the thermal analyzer programs.

  17. MTCLAB: A MATLAB ®-based program for traveltime quality analysis and pre-inversion velocity tuning in 2D transmission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Alvarez, J. P.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

    2008-03-01

    A MATLAB ®-based computer code that analyses the traveltime distribution and performs quality analysis at the pre-inversion stage for 2D transmission experiments is presented. The core tools of this approach are the so-called mean traveltime curves. For any general recording geometry, the user may select any pair of subsets of contiguous sources and receivers. The portion of the domain swept by the implied rays defines a zone of analysis, and for each source (receiver) the outcoming (incoming) ray fan is named a source (receiver) gather. The empirical mean traveltime curves are constructed, for each zone, by assigning the average and the standard deviation of the traveltimes in the gathers to the positions of the sources (receivers). The theoretical expressions assume isotropic homogeneous velocity inside each zone. The empirical counterparts use the observed traveltimes and make no assumptions. Isotropic velocity in each zone is inferred by least-squares fitting of the empirical mean traveltime curves. The user may refine the analysis considering different zones (multi-zone analysis). Initially the whole domain is modelled as a single zone. The procedure compares empirical versus theoretical curves. In addition, residuals can be plotted using source-receiver positions as plane coordinates. The results are used to unravel the possible presence of anomalous gathers, heterogeneities, anisotropies, etc. Depending on the kind of anomalies, velocity estimation and mean time residuals are different in the source and receiver gather curves. This software helps to grasp a better understanding of the data variability before the inversion and provides to the geophysicist an approximate zonal isotropic model and a range of velocity variation that can be used in the inverse problem as a priori information (regularization term). Its use is described through tutorial examples. A guided user interface leads the user through the algorithm steps.

  18. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  19. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  20. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  1. Analysis of thermally loaded transmissive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.

    2013-09-01

    The performance metrics of many optical systems are affected by temperature changes in the system through different physical phenomena. Temperature changes cause materials to expand and contract causing deformations of optical components. The resulting stress states in transmissive optics can cause refractive changes that can affect optical performance. In addition, the temperature changes themselves can cause changes in the refractive properties of transmissive optics. Complex distributions of refractive indices that relate to the thermal profile, the thermo-optic refractive index profile, within the optical media can be predicted by the finite element method. One current technique for representing such refractive index profiles is through the generation of optical path difference (OPD) maps by integration along integration paths. While computationally efficient, this method has limitations in its ability to represent the effect of the index changes for rays associated with multiple field points and multiple wavelengths. A more complete representation of the thermo-optic refractive index profile may be passed to the optical analysis software through the use of a user defined gradient index material. The interface consists of a dynamic link library (DLL) which supplies indices of refraction to a user defined gradient index lens as ray tracing calculations are being performed. The DLL obtains its refractive index description from a database derived from the thermal analysis of the optics. This process allows optical analysis software to perform accurate ray tracing for an arbitrary refractive index profile induced by changes in temperature.

  2. Kinetic and thermal analysis of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffery David

    2002-09-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques have been used to study the thermal degradation of polymeric materials. These polymers were subjected to a variety of heating programs as well as numerous types of atmospheric conditions. The results from these analyses were then used to determine activation energies as a function of an extent of reaction variable, alpha. This technique, known as the model-free isoconversional method, allows for changes in energies to occur as decomposition pathways change. This produces a more realistic means of observing complex kinetic schemes and is a better representation of kinetic analysis. Chapters 1 and 2 provide introductory backgrounds into both polymer chemistry and the isoconversional analysis technique, respectively. A brief description of the research goals and motivations is also discussed. Thermal analysis of pure polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP) samples are presented in Chapter 3. The obtained activation energy dependencies are interpreted in terms of degradation mechanisms. These mechanisms vary greatly according to the gaseous environment in which they were analyzed. The thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in both pure nitrogen and in various oxygen-containing atmospheres is discussed in Chapter 4. It was observed that oxygen exhibits a stabilizing effect on PMMA decomposition. Activation energies for these processes, and their mechanistic interpretations, will also be presented. Chapter 5 builds off the understanding gained in Chapter 4 by investigating the char-forming effects of silica gel and potassium carbonate additives on PMMA. These additives are known for their fire-resistant properties when combined in a 3:1 silica gel to potassium carbonate ratio. The effects of these additives, and their respective ratio amounts, on PMMA char formation are reported. Chapters 6 and 7 conclude the dissertation by looking at the thermal

  3. Silicon dendritic web growth thermal analysis task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.; Bhandari, P.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal analysis model is presented which describes the dendritic ribbon process. The model uses a melt-dendrite interface which projects out of the bulk melt as the basic interpretation of the ribbon production process. This is a marked departure from the interpretations of the interface phenomena which were used previously. The model was extensively illustrated with diagrams and pictures of ribbon samples. This model should have great impact on the analyses of experimental data as well as on future design modifications of ribbon-pulling equipment.

  4. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-05: Using 2D Relative Gamma Analysis From EPID Image as a Predictor of Plan Deterioration Due to Anatomical Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Piron, O; Varfalvy, N; Archambault, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: One of the side effects of radiotherapy for head and neck (H&N) cancer is the patient’s anatomical changes. The changes can strongly affect the planned dose distribution. In this work, our goal is to demonstrate that relative analysis of EPID images is a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can have a strong dosimetric impact on the treatment plan for H&N patients. Methods: EPID images were recorded at every beam and all fractions for 50 H&N patients. Of these, five patients that showed important anatomical changes were selected to evaluate dosimetric impacts of these changes and to correlate them with a 2D relative gamma analysis of EPID images. The planning CT and original contours were deformed onto CBCTs (one mid treatment and one at the end of treatment). By using deformable image registration, it was possible to map accurate CT numbers from the planning CT to the anatomy of the day obtained with CBCTs. Clinical treatment plan were then copied on the deformed dataset and dose was re-computed. In parallel, EPID images were analysed using the gamma index (3%3mm) relative to the first image. Results: It was possible to divide patients in two distinct, statistically different (p<0.001) categories using an average gamma index of 0.5 as a threshold. Below this threshold no significant dosimetric degradation of the plan are observed. Above this threshold two types of plan deterioration were seen: (1) target dose increases, but coverage remains adequate while dose to at least one OAR increases beyond tolerances; (2) the OAR doses remain low, but the target dose is reduced and coverage becomes inadequate. Conclusion: Relative analysis gamma of EPID images could indeed be a fast and simple method to detect anatomical changes that can potentially deteriorates treatment plan for H&N patients. This work was supported in part by Varian Medical System.

  6. Automated screening of 2D crystallization trials using transmission electron microscopy: a high-throughput tool-chain for sample preparation and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Nicolas; Hermann, Gilles; Caujolle-Bert, Daniel; Karathanou, Argyro; Erne-Brand, Françoise; Buessler, Jean-Luc; Daum, Pamela; Plitzko, Juergen M; Chami, Mohamed; Mueller, Urs; Kihl, Hubert; Urban, Jean-Philippe; Engel, Andreas; Rémigy, Hervé-W

    2011-02-01

    We have built and extensively tested a tool-chain to prepare and screen two-dimensional crystals of membrane proteins by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at room temperature. This automated process is an extension of a new procedure described recently that allows membrane protein 2D crystallization in parallel (Iacovache et al., 2010). The system includes a gantry robot that transfers and prepares the crystalline solutions on grids suitable for TEM analysis and an entirely automated microscope that can analyze 96 grids at once without human interference. The operation of the system at the user level is solely controlled within the MATLAB environment: the commands to perform sample handling (loading/unloading in the microscope), microscope steering (magnification, focus, image acquisition, etc.) as well as automatic crystal detection have been implemented. Different types of thin samples can efficiently be screened provided that the particular detection algorithm is adapted to the specific task. Hence, operating time can be shared between multiple users. This is a major step towards the integration of transmission electron microscopy into a high throughput work-flow.

  7. A 2-D hydro-morphodynamic modelling approach for predicting suspended sediment propagation and related heavy metal contamination in floodplain: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, R.; Hissler, C.; Matgen, P.; Guignard, C.; Bates, P.

    2014-02-01

    Fine sediments represent an important vector of pollutant diffusion in rivers. When deposited in floodplains and riverbeds they can be responsible for soil pollution. In this context, this paper proposes a hydro-morphodynamic modelling exercise aiming at predicting transport and diffusion of fine sediments and dissolved pollutants. The model is based upon the Telemac hydro-informatic system (dynamical coupling Telemac-2D-Sysiphe). As empirical and semi-empirical parameters need to be calibrated for such a modelling exercise, a sensitivity analysis is proposed. In parallel to the modelling exercise, an extensive hydrological/geochemical database has been set up during two flood events. The main sensitive parameters were found to be the hydraulic friction coefficient and the sediment particle settling velocity in water. Using the two monitored hydrological events as calibration and validation, it was found that the model is able to satisfyingly predict suspended sediment and dissolve pollutant transport in the river channel. In addition, a qualitative comparison between simulated sediment deposition in the floodplain and a soil contamination map shows that the preferential zones for deposition identified by the model are realistic.

  8. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.

  9. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling.

  10. Inversion of TEM data and analysis of the 2D induced magnetic field applied to the aquifers characterization in the Paraná basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe Campaña, Julian David; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Serejo de Oliveira, Gabriela; Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando Acácio

    2017-03-01

    Results of a TEM profile by using the fixed-loop array and an analysis of the induced magnetic field are presented in this work performed in the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, Paraná Basin. The objectives of this research were to map the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the area and analyzing the behavior of the magnetic field by observation of magnetic profiles. TEM measurements in the three spatial components were taken to create magnetic profiles of the induced (secondary) magnetic field. The TEM data were acquired using a fixed transmitter loop of 200 m × 200 m and a 3D coil receiver moving along a profile line of 1000 m. Magnetic profiles of dBz, dBx and dBy components showed symmetrical spatial behavior related with loop geometry. z-component showed a behavior probably related to superparamagnetic effect (SPM). dBz data was used to perform individual 1D inversion for each position and to generate an interpolated pseudo-2D geoelectric profile. The results showed two low resistivity zones: the first shallow, between 10 m and 70 m deep, probably related to the Adamantina Formation (sedimentary aquifer). The second between 200 m and 300 m depth, probably related to a fractured zone filled with water or clay inside the basalt layer of the Serra Geral Formation (crystalline aquifer). These results agree with the well logs information available in the studied region.

  11. Effects of coffee bean aroma on the rat brain stressed by sleep deprivation: a selected transcript- and 2D gel-based proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hirano, Misato; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Hwang, In Kyeong; Masuo, Yoshinori

    2008-06-25

    The aim of this study was 2-fold: (i) to demonstrate influences of roasted coffee bean aroma on rat brain functions by using the transcriptomics and proteomics approaches and (ii) to evaluate the impact of roasted coffee bean aroma on stress induced by sleep deprivation. The aroma of the roasted coffee beans was administered to four groups of adult male Wistar rats: 1, control group; 2, 24 h sleep deprivation-induced stress group (the stress group); 3, coffee aroma-exposed group without stress (the coffee group); and 4, the stress with coffee aroma group (the stress with coffee group). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of some known genes responsive to aroma or stress was performed using total RNA from these four groups. A total of 17 selected genes of the coffee were differently expressed over the control. Additionally, the expression levels of 13 genes were different between the stress group and the stress with coffee group: Up-regulation was found for 11 genes, and down-regulation was seen for two genes in the stress with coffee group. We also looked to changes in protein profiles in these four samples using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis; 25 differently expressed gel spots were detected on 2D gels stained by silver nitrate. Out of these, a total of nine proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins belonged to five functional categories: antioxidant; protein fate; cell rescue, defense, and virulence; cellular communication/signal transduction mechanism; and energy metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes and proteins between the stress and the stress with coffee group, NGFR, trkC, GIR, thiol-specific antioxidant protein, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 are known to have antioxidant or antistress functions. In conclusion, the roasted coffee bean aroma changes the mRNA and protein expression levels of the rat brain, providing for the first time clues to the potential antioxidant or stress

  12. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Predictions of Tramadol Exposure Throughout Pediatric Life: an Analysis of the Different Clearance Contributors with Emphasis on CYP2D6 Maturation.

    PubMed

    T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Snoeys, Jan; Vermeulen, An; Michelet, Robin; Cuyckens, Filip; Mannens, Geert; Van Peer, Achiel; Annaert, Pieter; Allegaert, Karel; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Boussery, Koen

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the retrospective evaluation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) techniques used to mechanistically predict clearance throughout pediatric life. An intravenous tramadol retrograde PBPK model was set up in Simcyp® using adult clearance values, qualified for CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and renal contributions. Subsequently, the model was evaluated for mechanistic prediction of total, CYP2D6-related, and renal clearance predictions in very early life. In two in vitro pediatric human liver microsomal (HLM) batches (1 and 3 months), O-desmethyltramadol and N-desmethyltramadol formation rates were compared with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity, respectively. O-desmethyltramadol formation was mediated only by CYP2D6, while N-desmethyltramadol was mediated in part by CYP3A4. Additionally, the clearance maturation of the PBPK model predictions was compared to two in vivo maturation models (Hill and exponential) based on plasma concentration data, and to clearance estimations from a WinNonlin® fit of plasma concentration and urinary excretion data. Maturation of renal and CYP2D6 clearance is captured well in the PBPK model predictions, but total tramadol clearance is underpredicted. The most pronounced underprediction of total and CYP2D6-mediated clearance was observed in the age range of 2-13 years. In conclusion, the PBPK technique showed to be a powerful mechanistic tool capable of predicting maturation of CYP2D6 and renal tramadol clearance in early infancy, although some underprediction occurs between 2 and 13 years for total and CYP2D6-mediated tramadol clearance.

  13. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  14. Thermal analysis of superconducting undulator cryomodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator (SCU0) has been operating in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring since January of 2013. Based on lessons learned from the construction and operation of SCU0, a second superconducting undulator (SCU1) has been built and cold tested stand-alone. An excess cooling capacity measurement and static heat load analysis show a large improvement of cryogenic performance of SCU1 compared with SCU0. ANSYS-based thermal analysis of these cryomodules incorporating all the cooling circuits was completed. Comparisons between measured and calculated temperatures at the three operating conditions of the cryomodule (static, beam heat only, beam heat and magnet current) will be presented.

  15. Thermal Analysis of Cryogenic Hydrogen Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congiardo, Jared F.; Fortier, Craig R. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    During launch for the new Space Launch System (SLS) liquid hydrogen is bleed through the engines during replenish, pre-press, and extended pre-press to condition the engines prior to launch. The predicted bleed flow rates are larger than for the shuttle program. A consequence of the increased flow rates is having liquif hydrogen in the vent system, which the facilities was never designed to handle. To remedy the problem a liquid separator is being designed in the system to accumulated the liquid propellant and protect the facility flare stack (which can only handle gas). The attached document is a presentation of the current thermalfluid analysis performed for the separator and will be presented at the Thermal and Fluid Analysis Workshop (NASA workshop) next week in Cleveland, Ohio.

  16. 2D DIGE analysis of the bursa of Fabricius reveals characteristic proteome profiles for different stages of chicken B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Korte, Julia; Fröhlich, Thomas; Kohn, Marina; Kaspers, Bernd; Arnold, Georg J; Härtle, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Antibody producing B-cells are an essential component of the immune system. In contrast to human and mice where B-cells develop in the bone marrow, chicken B-cells develop in defined stages in the bursa of Fabricius, a gut associated lymphoid tissue. In order to gain a better understanding of critical biological processes like immigration of B-cell precursors into the bursa anlage, their differentiation and final emigration from the bursa we analyzed the proteome dynamics of this organ during embryonic and posthatch development. Samples were taken from four representative developmental stages (embryonic day (ED) 10, ED18, day 2, and day 28) and compared in an extensive 2D DIGE approach comprising six biological replicates per time point. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated high reliability and reproducibility of the obtained data set and revealed distinctive proteome profiles for the selected time points, which precisely reflect the differentiation processes. One hundred fifty three protein spots with significantly different intensities were identified by MS. We detected alterations in the abundance of several proteins assigned to retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. retinal-binding protein 5) and the actin-cytoskeleton (e.g. vinculin and gelsolin). By immunohistochemistry, desmin was identified as stromal cell protein associated with the maturation of B-cell follicles. Strongest protein expression difference (10.8-fold) was observed for chloride intracellular channel 2. This protein was thus far not associated with B-cell biology but our data suggest an important function in bursa B-cell development.

  17. Influences of CYP2D6*10 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a population pharmacokinetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qi; Huang, Lu; Huang, Jie; Gu, Jing-kai; Kuang, Yun; Zuo, Xiao-cong; Ding, Jun-jie; Tan, Hong-yi; Guo, Cheng-xian; Liu, Shi-kun; Yang, Guo-ping

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Iloperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and cytosolic enzymes. Previous studies show that extensive and poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 exhibit different plasma concentrations of iloperidone and its metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to quantify the effects of CYP2D6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Methods: Seventy Chinese schizophrenia patients were enrolled, from whom limited blood samples were collected on d 15 (0 h) and d 28 (0, 4 and 12 h after drug administration). The plasma concentrations of iloperidone and its metabolites M1 (P-88) and M2 (P-95) were simultaneously detected using a validated HPLC-MS assay. CYP2D6*10 (rs1065852) genotyping was performed. A PPK model was developed based on data from the patients using the NONMEM software (version 7.2). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to describe the pharmacokinetic data related to iloperidone and its metabolites. Results: Patients with the CYP2D6*10 T/T genotype had significantly higher concentrations of iloperidone and M1, and lower concentrations of M2 than the patients with C/C or C/T genotypes. The CYP2D6*10 genotype affected the elimination constants for transformation of iloperidone to the metabolites M1 (K23) and M2 (K24). The K23 value of the patients with T/T genotype was 1.34-fold as great as that of the patients with C/C or C/T genotype. The K24 value of the patients with C/T and T/T genotypes was 0.693- and 0.492-fold, respectively, as low as that of the patients with C/C genotype. Conclusion: CYP2D6*10 mutations affect the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese schizophrenia patients, suggesting that the clinical doses of iloperidone for patients with CYP2D6*10 mutations need to be optimized. PMID:27665849

  18. Pharmaceutical applications of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S; Tian, Yiwei; Abu-Diak, Osama; Andrews, Gavin P

    2012-04-01

    The successful development of polymeric drug delivery and biomedical devices requires a comprehensive understanding of the viscoleastic properties of polymers as these have been shown to directly affect clinical efficacy. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) is an accessible and versatile analytical technique in which an oscillating stress or strain is applied to a sample as a function of oscillatory frequency and temperature. Through cyclic application of a non-destructive stress or strain, a comprehensive understanding of the viscoelastic properties of polymers may be obtained. In this review, we provide a concise overview of the theory of DMTA and the basic instrumental/operating principles. Moreover, the application of DMTA for the characterization of solid pharmaceutical and biomedical systems has been discussed in detail. In particular we have described the potential of DMTA to measure and understand relaxation transitions and miscibility in binary and higher-order systems and describe the more recent applications of the technique for this purpose.

  19. Low Gravity Rapid Thermal Analysis of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been observed by two research groups that ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown at the present time. In order to better understand the mechanism, an experiment was performed on NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft to obtain quantitative crystallization data. An apparatus was designed and constructed for performing rapid thermal analysis of milligram quantities of ZBLAN glass. The apparatus employs an ellipsoidal furnace allowing for rapid heating and cooling. Using this apparatus nucleation and crystallization kinetic data was obtained leading to the construction of time-temperature-transformation curves for ZBLAN in microgravity and unit gravity.

  20. Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerning the development of a system of mathematical solutions and computer programs for one- and two-dimensional analyses for thermal stresses. Reports presented include: the investigation of thermal stress and buckling of tantalum and columbium sheet; and analysis of two dimensional thermal strains and metal movement during welding.

  1. Thermal stress analysis for a wood composite blade. [wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, K. C.; Harb, A.

    1984-01-01

    Heat conduction throughout the blade and the distribution of thermal stresses caused by the temperature distribution were determined for a laminated wood wind turbine blade in both the horizontal and vertical positions. Results show that blade cracking is not due to thermal stresses induced by insulation. A method and practical example of thermal stress analysis for an engineering body of orthotropic materials is presented.

  2. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  3. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  4. Thermal algorithms analysis. [programming tasks supporting the development of a thermal model of the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, T.

    1981-01-01

    The programming and analysis methods to support the development of a thermal model of the Earth's surface from detailed analysis of day/night registered data sets from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission satellite are briefly described.

  5. The effect of excitation and preparation pulses on nonslice selective 2D UTE bicomponent analysis of bound and free water in cortical bone at 3T

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shihong; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B.; Bae, Won C.; Du, Jiang; Hua, Yanqing; Zhou, Yi

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of excitation, fat saturation, long T2 saturation, and adiabatic inversion pulses on ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging with bicomponent analysis of bound and free water in cortical bone for potential applications in osteoporosis. Methods: Six bovine cortical bones and six human tibial midshaft samples were harvested for this study. Each bone sample was imaged with eight sequences using 2D UTE imaging at 3T with half and hard excitation pulses, without and with fat saturation, long T2 saturation, and adiabatic inversion recovery (IR) preparation pulses. Single- and bicomponent signal models were utilized to calculate the T2{sup *}s and/or relative fractions of short and long T2{sup *}s. Results: For all bone samples UTE T2{sup *} signal decay showed bicomponent behavior. A higher short T2{sup *} fraction was observed on UTE images with hard pulse excitation compared with half pulse excitation (75.6% vs 68.8% in bovine bone, 79.9% vs 73.2% in human bone). Fat saturation pulses slightly reduced the short T2{sup *} fraction relative to regular UTE sequences (5.0% and 2.0% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 6.3% and 8.2% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). Long T2 saturation pulses significantly reduced the long T2{sup *} fraction relative to regular UTE sequence (18.9% and 17.2% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 26.4% and 27.7% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). With IR-UTE preparation the long T2{sup *} components were significantly reduced relative to regular UTE sequence (75.3% and 66.4% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 87.7% and 90.3% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). Conclusions: Bound and free water T2{sup *}s and relative fractions can

  6. NEW SCX PEPTIDE ELUTION SCORE FOR PH/SALT-GRADIENT SCX CHROMATOGRAPHY IN 2D-NANO-LC/MSMS ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN DIGESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new automated 2D-(SCX/RP)-nano-LC/MSMS method was developed. Separation of the peptides in the first LC dimension was the main focus of this work, and it was optimized using human serum albumin (HSA) and human lung cell lysate tryptic digests. Samples were reduced and alkylated...

  7. VERA2D-84: a computer program for two-dimensional analysis of flow, heat, and mass transfer in evaporative cooling towers. Volume 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.K.; Agrawal, N.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.

    1985-07-01

    Cooling towers that do not meet design performance standards can add millions of dollars to the long-term operating costs of generating plants. The VERA2D-84 code offers a reliable method for predicting the performance of natural-draft and mechanical-draft towers on the basis of physical design information.

  8. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  9. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  10. A 2D hydro-morphodynamic modelling approach for predicting suspended sediment propagation and related heavy metal contamination in floodplains: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, Renaud; Hissler, Christophe; Matgen, Patrick; Guignard, Cédric; Bates, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have seen a growing awareness for the central role that fine sediment loads play in transport and diffusion of pollutants by rivers and streams. Suspended sediment can potentially carry important amounts of nutrients and contaminants, such as trace metals among which some are recognized as Potential Harmful Elements (PHE). These threaten water quality in rivers and wetlands and soil quality in floodplains. Currently, many studies focusing on sediment transport modelling deal with marine and estuarine areas. Some studies evaluate sediment transport at basin scales and often evaluate yearly sediment fluxes using hydrologic and simplified hydraulic models. Some more theoretical studies develop and improve numerical models on the basis of physical model experiments. As a matter of fact, sediment transport modelling in small rivers at reach/floodplain scale is a rather new research field. In this study, we aim at simulating sediment transport at the floodplain scale and the single flood event scale in order to predict sediment spreading on alluvial soils. This simulation will help for the estimation of the potential pollution of soils due to the transport of PHEs by suspended sediments. The model is based upon the Telemac hydro-informatic system (i.e. dynamical coupling of Telemac-2D and Sysiphe). As empirical and semi-empirical parameters need to be calibrated for such a modelling exercise, a sensitivity analysis is proposed. In parallel to the modelling exercise, an extensive hydrological/geochemical database has been set up for two flood events. The most sensitive parameters were found to be the hydraulic friction coefficient and the sediment particle settling velocity in water. Using the two monitored hydrological events for calibration and validation, it was found that the model is able to satisfyingly predict suspended sediment and dissolved pollutant transport in the river channel. In addition, a qualitative comparison between simulated sediment

  11. Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 98) was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio from August 31 to September 4, 1998. The theme for the hands-on training workshop and conference was "Integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer into the Design Process." Highlights of the workshop (in addition to the papers published herein) included an address by the NASA Chief Engineer, Dr. Daniel Mulville; a CFD short course by Dr. John D. Anderson of the University of Maryland; and a short course by Dr. Robert Cochran of Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, lectures and hands-on training were offered in the use of several cutting-edge engineering design and analysis-oriented CFD and Heat Transfer tools. The workshop resulted in international participation of over 125 persons representing aerospace and automotive industries, academia, software providers, government agencies, and private corporations. The papers published herein address issues and solutions related to the integration of computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer into the engineering design process. Although the primary focus is aerospace, the topics and ideas presented are applicable to many other areas where these and other disciplines are interdependent.

  12. The Curvelet Transform in the analysis of 2-D GPR data: Signal enhancement and extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    processing GPR data is its capability to describe wavefronts. The roots of the CT are traced to the field of Harmonic Analysis, where curvelets were introduced as expansions for asymptotic solutions of wave equations (Smith, 1998; Candès, 1999). In consequence, curvelets can be viewed as primitive and prototype waveforms - they are local in both space and spatial frequency and correspond to a partitioning of the 2D Fourier plane by highly anisotropic elements (for the high frequencies) that obey the parabolic scaling principle, that their width is proportional to the square of their length (Smith, 1998). The GPR data essentially comprise recordings of the amplitudes of transient waves generated and recorded by source and receiver antennae, with each source/receiver pair generating a data trace that is a function of time. An ensemble of traces collected sequentially along a scan line, i.e. a GPR section or B-scan, provides a spatio-temporal sampling of the wavefield which contains different arrivals that correspond to different interactions with wave scatterers (inhomogeneities) in the subsurface. All these arrivals represent wavefronts that are relatively smooth in their longitudinal direction and oscillatory in their transverse direction. The connection between Harmonic Analysis and curvelets has resulted in important nonlinear approximations of functions with intermittent regularity (Candès and Donoho, 2004). Such functions are assumed to be piecewise smooth with singularities, i.e. regions where the derivative diverges. In the subsurface, these singularities correspond to geological inhomogeneities, at the boundaries of which waves reflect. In GPR data, these singularities correspond to wavefronts. Owing to their anisotropic shape, curvelets are well adapted to detect wavefronts at different angles and scales because aligned curvelets of a given scale, locally correlate with wavefronts of the same scale. The CT can also be viewed as a higher dimensional extension of the

  13. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  14. Thermal conductivity analysis of lanthanum doped manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Mansuri, Irfan; Shaikh, M. W.; Khan, E.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2014-04-24

    The temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of the doped manganites La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} is theoretically analyzed within the framework of Kubo formulae. The Hamiltonian consists of phonon, electron and magnon thermal conductivity contribution term. In this process we took defects, carrier, grain boundary, scattering process term and then calculate phonon, electron and magnon thermal conductivity.

  15. Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analysis is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperatures for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.

  16. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopic analysis of the ν11 and ν2 + ν7 bands of 13C2D4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabona, M. G.; Tan, T. L.

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR spectrum of the ν11 band of 13C2D4 was recorded at a resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 in the 2130-2250 cm-1 region. This band was perturbed by the unobserved ν2 + ν7 band. By fitting 862 infrared transitions for the ν11 band with a rms deviation of 0.0024 cm-1 using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation including a Coriolis coupling constant, the rovibrational constants for the ν11 = 1 state and three rotational constants for the ν2 = ν7 = 1 state of 13C2D4 were derived for the first time. The band centers of ν11 and ν2 + ν7 were determined to be 2193.75982(25) cm-1 and 2184.613(11) cm-1 respectively.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils by using comprehensive 2D GC with dual MS/FID detection.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Salivo, Simona; Franchina, Flavio A; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation is focused on the development of a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) method, with dual MS/FID detection, for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the entire unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils. The unsaponifiable fraction forms a minor, highly specific part of a vegetable oil, and can be used as an indicator of genuineness. The column set used consisted of a low-polarity first dimension, and a medium-polarity secondary one, both characterized by a high thermal stability. The use of dual detection enabled the attainment of both mass spectral information and relative % FID data. The complexity of the fingerprint, generated by the unsaponifiable fraction, fully justified the employment of the two-dimensional GC technology. Furthermore, two other GC × GC benefits contributed greatly to the attainment of promising results, namely sensitivity enhancement and the formation of group-type patterns. The method herein proposed could potentially open a new opportunity for the more in-depth knowledge of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils.

  18. Theoretical analysis on the measurement errors of local 2D DIC: Part I temporal and spatial uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yueqi; Lava, Pascal; Reu, Phillip; Debruyne, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Paul

    2015-12-23

    This study presents a theoretical uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements by subset-based 2D-digital image correlation. A generalized solution to estimate the random error of displacement measurement is presented. The obtained solution suggests that the random error of displacement measurements is determined by the image noise, the summation of the intensity gradient in a subset, the subpixel part of displacement, and the interpolation scheme. The proposed method is validated with virtual digital image correlation tests.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Self-Propagating Reaction Joining Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    stainless steel instruments. The powders were also mixed for 10 min just prior to thermal SHS reaction. 2.2. Thermal Analysis. Simultaneous DTA/ TGA ... analysis was performed using a TA Instruments model 2960, capable of reaching a maximum temperature of 1,500° C. Two series of experiments were

  20. Application Experiences of NASTRAN Thermal Analysis in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The application of the thermal analysis phase of NASTRAN in engineering is described. Some illustrative samples are presented to demonstrate the applicability and limitation of NASTRAN thermal analysis capability. The results of the evaluation of the relative efficiency, applicability and accuracy among NASTRAN, other finite element programs, and finite difference programs are also presented.

  1. Thermal analysis of SC quadrupoles in accelerator interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, Igor; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents results of a thermal analysis and operation margin calculation performed for NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn low-beta quadrupoles in collider interaction regions. Results of the thermal analysis for NbTi quadrupoles are compared with the relevant experimental data. An approach to quench limit measurements for Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is discussed.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Thermal Analysis of Pharmaceutical Solids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Shelley R. Rabel

    2015-01-01

    A three-tiered experiment for undergraduate Instrumental Analysis students is presented in which students characterize the solid-state thermal behavior of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (acetaminophen) and excipient (a-lactose hydrate) using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermal microscopy. Students are…

  3. Morphologic Analysis of the Temporomandibular Joint Between Patients With Facial Asymmetry and Asymptomatic Subjects by 2D and 3D Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Li; Song, Jin-Lin; Xu, Xian-Chao; Zheng, Lei-Lei; Wang, Qing-Yuan; Fan, Yu-Bo; Liu, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction are commonly found in patients with facial asymmetry. Previous studies on the TMJ position have been limited to 2-dimensional (2D) radiographs, computed tomography (CT), or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of TMJ position by using 2D CBCT and 3D model measurement methods. In addition, the differences of TMJ positions between patients with facial asymmetry and asymptomatic subjects were investigated. We prospectively recruited 5 patients (cases, mean age, 24.8 ± 2.9 years) diagnosed with facial asymmetry and 5 asymptomatic subjects (controls, mean age, 26 ± 1.2 years). The TMJ spaces, condylar and ramus angles were assessed by using 2D and 3D methods. The 3D models of mandible, maxilla, and teeth were reconstructed with the 3D image software. The variables in each group were assessed by t-test and the level of significance was 0.05. There was a significant difference in the horizontal condylar angle (HCA), coronal condylar angle (CCA), sagittal ramus angle (SRA), medial joint space (MJS), lateral joint space (LJS), superior joint space (SJS), and anterior joint space (AJS) measured in the 2D CBCT and in the 3D models (P < 0.05). The case group had significantly smaller SJS compared to the controls on both nondeviation side (P = 0.009) and deviation side (P = 0.004). In the case group, the nondeviation SRA was significantly larger than the deviation side (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the coronal condylar width (CCW) in either group. In addition, the anterior disc displacement (ADD) was more likely to occur on the deviated side in the case group. In conclusion, the 3D measurement method is more accurate and effective for clinicians to investigate the morphology of TMJ than the 2D method. PMID:27043669

  4. THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF FIRE DIVERTOR

    SciTech Connect

    C.B. bAXI; M.A. ULRICKSON; D.E. DRIMEYER; P. HEITZENROEDER

    2000-10-01

    The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is being designed as a next step in the US magnetic fusion program. The FIRE tokamak has a major radius of 2 m, a minor radius of 0.525 m, and liquid nitrogen cooled copper coils. The aim is to produce a pulse length of 20 s with a plasma current of 6.6 MA and with alpha dominated heating. The outer divertor and baffle of FIRE are water cooled. The worst thermal condition for the outer divertor and baffle is the baseline D-T operating mode (10 T, 6.6 MA, 20 s) with a plasma exhaust power of 67 MW and a peak heat flux of 20 MW/m{sup 2}. A swirl tape (ST) heat transfer enhancement method is used in the outer divertor cooling channels to increase the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux (CHF). The plasma-facing surface consists of tungsten brush. The finite element (FE) analysis shows that for an inlet water temperature of 30 C, inlet pressure of 1.5 MPa and a flow velocity of 10 m/s, the incident critical heat flux is greater than 30 MW/m{sup 2}. The peak copper temperature is 490 C, peak tungsten temperature is 1560 C, and the pressure drop is less than 0.5 MPa. All these results fulfill the design requirements.

  5. Thermal mechanical analysis of sprag clutches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Robert L.; Zab, Ronald Joseph; Kurniawan, Antonius S.

    1992-01-01

    Work done at Case Western Reserve University on the Thermal Mechanical analysis of sprag helicopter clutches is reported. The report is presented in two parts. The first part is a description of a test rig for the measurement of the heat generated by high speed sprag clutch assemblies during cyclic torsional loading. The second part describes a finite element modeling procedure for sliding contact. The test rig provides a cyclic torsional load of 756 inch-pounds at 5000 rpm using a four-square arrangement. The sprag clutch test unit was placed between the high speed pinions of the circulating power loop. The test unit was designed to have replaceable inner ad outer races, which contain the instrumentation to monitor the sprag clutch. The torque loading device was chosen to be a water cooled magnetic clutch, which is controlled either manually or through a computer. In the second part, a Generalized Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for non-linear dynamic problems is developed for solid materials. This formulation is derived from the basic laws and axioms of continuum mechanics. The novel aspect of this method is that we are able to investigate the physics in the spatial region of interest as material flows through it without having to follow material points. A finite element approximation to the governing equations is developed. Iterative Methods for the solution of the discrete finite element equations are explored. A FORTRAN program to implement this formulation is developed and a number of solutions to problems of sliding contact are presented.

  6. ANALYSIS OF CARBONACEOUS AEROSOLS USING THE THERMAL OPTICAL TRANSMITTANCE AND THERMAL OPTICAL REFLECTANCE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonaceous particulate typically represents a large fraction of PM2.5 (20 - 40%). Two primary techniques presently used for the analysis of particulate carbon are Thermal Optical Transmission (TOT - NIOSH Method 5040) and Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR). These two methods b...

  7. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  8. Analysis of thermally-degrading, confined HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Renlund, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    The response of a thermally-degrading, confined HMX pellet is analyzed using a Reactive Elastic-Plastic (REP) constitutive model which is founded on the collapse and growth of internal inclusions resulting from physical and chemical processes such as forced displacement, thermal expansion, and/or decomposition. Axial stress predictions compare adequately to data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  9. On a thermal analysis of a second stripper for rare isotope accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-08-04

    This memo summarizes simple calculations and results of the thermal analysis on the second stripper to be used in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Both liquid (Sodium) and solid (Titanium and Vanadium) stripper concepts were considered. These calculations were intended to provide basic information to evaluate the feasibility of liquid (thick film) and solid (rotating wheel) second strippers. Nuclear physics calculations to estimate the volumetric heat generation in the stripper material were performed by 'LISE for Excel'. In the thermal calculations, the strippers were modeled as a thin 2D plate with uniform heat generation within the beam spot. Then, temperature distributions were computed by assuming that the heat spreads conductively in the plate in radial direction without radiative heat losses to surroundings.

  10. The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  11. The Fifth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute, Brook Park, Ohio, cosponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Ohio Aerospace Institute, 16-20 Aug. 1993. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluid analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.

  12. Multi-Region Boundary Element Analysis for Coupled Thermal-Fracturing Processes in Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Baotang; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Park, Eui-Seob; Kim, Taek-Kon; Wuttke, Manfred W.; Rinne, Mikael; Backers, Tobias; Stephansson, Ove

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a boundary element code development on coupled thermal-mechanical processes of rock fracture propagation. The code development was based on the fracture mechanics code FRACOD that has previously been developed by Shen and Stephansson (Int J Eng Fracture Mech 47:177-189, 1993) and FRACOM (A fracture propagation code—FRACOD, User's manual. FRACOM Ltd. 2002) and simulates complex fracture propagation in rocks governed by both tensile and shear mechanisms. For the coupled thermal-fracturing analysis, an indirect boundary element method, namely the fictitious heat source method, was implemented in FRACOD to simulate the temperature change and thermal stresses in rocks. This indirect method is particularly suitable for the thermal-fracturing coupling in FRACOD where the displacement discontinuity method is used for mechanical simulation. The coupled code was also extended to simulate multiple region problems in which rock mass, concrete linings and insulation layers with different thermal and mechanical properties were present. Both verification and application cases were presented where a point heat source in a 2D infinite medium and a pilot LNG underground cavern were solved and studied using the coupled code. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results, analytical solutions and in situ measurements which validates an applicability of the developed coupled code.

  13. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  14. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  15. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  16. Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analyses is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperature for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal-structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.

  17. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage Progression in Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Damage evolution of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EBVD-PVD) ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under thermal cyclic conditions was monitored using an acoustic emission (AE) technique. The coatings were heated using a laser heat flux technique that yields a high reproducibility in thermal loading. Along with AE, real-time thermal conductivity measurements were also taken using infrared thermography. Tests were performed on samples with induced stress concentrations, as well as calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) exposure, for comparison of damage mechanisms and AE response to the baseline (as-produced) coating. Analysis of acoustic waveforms was used to investigate damage development by comparing when events occurred, AE event frequency, energy content and location. The test results have shown that AE accumulation correlates well with thermal conductivity changes and that AE waveform analysis could be a valuable tool for monitoring coating degradation and provide insight on specific damage mechanisms.

  18. Adaptive Photothermal Emission Analysis Techniques for Robust Thermal Property Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Raymond

    The characterization of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is increasingly important because they enable gas turbine engines to operate at high temperatures and efficiency. Phase of photothermal emission analysis (PopTea) has been developed to analyze the thermal behavior of the ceramic top-coat of TBCs, as a nondestructive and noncontact method for measuring thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Most TBC allocations are on actively-cooled high temperature turbine blades, which makes it difficult to precisely model heat transfer in the metallic subsystem. This reduces the ability of rote thermal modeling to reflect the actual physical conditions of the system and can lead to higher uncertainty in measured thermal properties. This dissertation investigates fundamental issues underpinning robust thermal property measurements that are adaptive to non-specific, complex, and evolving system characteristics using the PopTea method. A generic and adaptive subsystem PopTea thermal model was developed to account for complex geometry beyond a well-defined coating and substrate system. Without a priori knowledge of the subsystem characteristics, two different measurement techniques were implemented using the subsystem model. In the first technique, the properties of the subsystem were resolved as part of the PopTea parameter estimation algorithm; and, the second technique independently resolved the subsystem properties using a differential "bare" subsystem. The confidence in thermal properties measured using the generic subsystem model is similar to that from a standard PopTea measurement on a "well-defined" TBC system. Non-systematic bias-error on experimental observations in PopTea measurements due to generic thermal model discrepancies was also mitigated using a regression-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis reported measurement uncertainty and was developed into a data reduction method to filter out these "erroneous" observations. It was found

  19. User's Manual: Thermal Radiation Analysis System TRASYS 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    A digital computer software system with generalized capability to solve the radiation related aspects of thermal analysis problems is presented. When used in conjunction with a generalized thermal analysis program such as the systems improved numerical differencing analyzer program, any thermal problem that can be expressed in terms of a lumped parameter R-C thermal network can be solved. The function of TRASYS is twofold. It provides: (a) Internode radiation interchange data; and (b) Incident and absorbed heat rate data from environmental radiant heat sources. Data of both types is provided in a format directly usable by the thermal analyzer programs. The system allows the user to write his own executive or driver program which organizes and directs the program library routines toward solution of each specific problem in the most expeditious manner. The user also may write his own output routines, thus the system data output can directly interface with any thermal analyzer using the R-C network concept.

  20. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  1. Thermal stability analysis of the fine structure of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, Pascal; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Schmieder, Brigitte; Raadu, Mickael A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear thermal stability of a 2D periodic structure (alternatively hot and cold) in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. The energy equation includes wave heating (assumed proportional to density), radiative cooling and both conduction parallel and orthogonal to magnetic lines. The equilibrium is perturbed at constant gas pressure. With parallel conduction only, it is found to be unstable when the length scale 1// is greater than 45 Mn. In that case, orthogonal conduction becomes important and stabilizes the structure when the length scale is smaller than 5 km. On the other hand, when the length scale is greater than 5 km, the thermal equilibrium is unstable, and the corresponding time scale is about 10,000 s: this result may be compared to observations showing that the lifetime of the fine structure of solar prominences is about one hour; consequently, our computations suggest that the size of the unresolved threads could be of the order of 10 km only.

  2. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Titanium GTA Welds Using Multiple Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Huang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse thermal analysis of titanium gas-tungsten-arc welds using multiple constraint conditions is presented. This analysis employs a methodology that is in terms of numerical-analytical basis functions for inverse thermal analysis of steady-state energy deposition in plate structures. The results of this type of analysis provide parametric representations of weld temperature histories that can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, such as those for prediction of solid-state phase transformations. In addition, these temperature histories can be used to construct parametric function representations for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other process parameters or welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study applies an inverse thermal analysis procedure that provides for the inclusion of constraint conditions associated with both solidification and phase transformation boundaries.

  3. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  4. Thermal analysis of a hypersonic wing test structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Swanson, Neil J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional finite element modeling techniques developed for the thermal analysis of a hypersonic wing test structure (HWTS) are described. The computed results are compared to measured test data. In addition, the results of a NASA two-dimensional parameter finite difference local thermal model and the results of a contractor two-dimensional lumped parameter finite difference local thermal model will be presented.

  5. Topographic slope correction for analysis of thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A simple topographic slope correction using a linearized thermal model and assuming slopes less than about 20 degrees is presented. The correction can be used to analyzed individual thermal images or composite products such as temperature difference or thermal inertia. Simple curves are provided for latitudes of 30 and 50 degrees. The form is easily adapted for analysis of HCMM images using the DMA digital terrain data.

  6. Thermal-structural finite element analysis using linear flux formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Wieting, Allan R.

    1990-01-01

    A linear flux approach is developed for a finite element thermal-structural analysis of steady state thermal and structural problems. The element fluxes are assumed to vary linearly in the same form as the element unknown variables, and the finite element matrices are evaluated in closed form. Since numerical integration is avoided, significant computational time saving is achieved. Solution accuracy and computational speed improvements are demonstrated by solving several two and three dimensional thermal-structural examples.

  7. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and escitalopram in postmortem blood together with genotyping for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Björn; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn

    2009-03-01

    Citalopram is marketed as a racemate (50:50) mixture of the S(+)-enantiomer and R(-)-enantiomer and the active S(+)-enantiomer (escitalopram) that possess inhibitory effects. Citalopram was introduced in Sweden in 1992 and is the most frequently used antidepressant to date in Sweden. In 2002, escitalopram was introduced onto the Swedish market for treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The main objective of this study was to investigate S(+)-citalopram [i.e., the racemic drug (citalopram) or the enantiomer (escitalopram)] present in forensic autopsy cases positive for the presence of citalopram in routine screening using a non-enantioselective bioanalytical method. Fifty out of the 270 samples found positive by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection were further analyzed using enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography. The 50 cases were genotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, as these isoenzymes are implicated in the metabolism of citalopram and escitalopram. In samples positive for racemic citalopram using the screening method for forensic autopsy cases, up to 20% would have been misinterpreted in the absence of an enantioselective method. An enantioselective method is thus necessary for correct interpretation of autopsy cases, after the enantiomer has been introduced onto the market. The percentage of poor metabolizers was 6% for CYP2D6 and 8% for CYP2C19.

  8. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  9. Thermal analysis of cold vacuum drying of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Piepho, M.G.

    1998-07-20

    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with Mark IV N, Reactor spent fuel in four fuel baskets and one scrap basket. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility for its Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (revision 4).

  10. TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.

    1990-08-01

    Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Quantum chemical analysis of thermodynamics of 2D cluster formation of alkanes at the water/vapor interface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Kartashynska, E S; Belyaeva, E A; Fainerman, V B; Vollhardt, D; Miller, R

    2015-11-21

    Using the quantum chemical semi-empirical PM3 method it is shown that aliphatic alcohols favor the spontaneous clusterization of vaporous alkanes at the water surface due to the change of adsorption from the barrier to non-barrier mechanism. A theoretical model of the non-barrier mechanism for monolayer formation is developed. In the framework of this model alcohols (or any other surfactants) act as 'floats', which interact with alkane molecules of the vapor phase using their hydrophobic part, whereas the hydrophilic part is immersed into the water phase. This results in a significant increase of contact effectiveness of alkanes with the interface during the adsorption and film formation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. To test the model the thermodynamic and structural parameters of formation and clusterization are calculated for vaporous alkanes C(n)H(2n+2) (n(CH3) = 6-16) at the water surface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols C(n)H(2n+1)OH (n(OH) = 8-16) at 298 K. It is shown that the values of clusterization enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy per one monomer of the cluster depend on the chain lengths of corresponding alcohols and alkanes, the alcohol molar fraction in the monolayers formed, and the shift of the alkane molecules with respect to the alcohol molecules Δn. Two possible competitive structures of mixed 2D film alkane-alcohol are considered: 2D films 1 with single alcohol molecules enclosed by alkane molecules (the alcohols do not form domains) and 2D films 2 that contain alcohol domains enclosed by alkane molecules. The formation of the alkane films of the first type is nearly independent of the surfactant type present at the interface, but depends on their molar fraction in the monolayer formed and the chain length of the compounds participating in the clusterization, whereas for the formation of the films of the second type the interaction between the hydrophilic parts of the surfactant is

  12. Thermal-buckling analysis of an LMFBR overflow vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Severud, L.K.

    1983-01-01

    During a reactor scram, cold sodium flows into the hot overflow vessel. The effect on the vessel is a compressive thermal stress in a zone just above the sodium level. This condition must be sufficiently controlled to preclude thermal buckling. Also, under repeated scrams, the vessel should not suffer thermal stress low cycle fatigue. To evaluate the closeness to buckling and satisfaction of ASMA Code limits, a combination of simple approximations, detailed elastic shell buckling analyses, and correlations to results of thermal buckling tests were employed. This paper describes the analysis methods, special considerations, and evaluations accomplished for this FFTF vessel to assure satisfaction of ASME buckling design criteria, rules, and limits.

  13. SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

    1990-01-01

    The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

  14. LANDSAT-D thermal analysis and design support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Detailed thermal models of the LANDSAT-D Earth Sensor Assembly Module (ESAM), the Dummy Thematic Mapper (DTM), and a small thermal model of the LANDSAT-D spacecraft for a heater analysis were developed. These models were used to develop and verify the thermal design of the ESAM and DTM, to evaluate the aeroheating effects on ESAM during launch and to evaluate the thermal response of the LANDSAT-D assuming the hard-line heaters failed on with the spacecraft in the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter bay. Results of model applications are summarized.

  15. A 2D Microphysical Analysis of Aerosol Nucleation in the Polar Winter Stratosphere: Implications for H2SO4 Photolysis and Nucleation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Mills, Michael J.; Solomon, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Each spring a layer of small particles forms between 20 and 30 km in the polar regions. Results are presented from a 2D microphysical model of sulfate aerosol, which provide the first self-consistent explanation of the observed "CN layer." Photochemical conversion of sulfuric acid to SO2 in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere is necessary for this layer to form. Recent laboratory measurements of H2SO4 and SO3 photolysis rates are consistent with such conversion, though an additional source of SO2 may be required. Nucleation throughout the polar winter extends the top of the aerosol layer to higher altitudes, despite strong downward transport of ambient air. This finding may be important to heterogeneous chemistry at the top of the aerosol layer in polar winter and spring.

  16. Strategies of statistical image analysis of 2D immunoblots: the case of IgG response in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Jacobo, Pedro; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-12-31

    A procedure is described to measure the diversity and enrich the meaning and usefulness of the information contained in 2D immunoblot images of the reaction between a complex mixture of parasite antigens and the complex set of antibodies usually present in the sera of infected individual hosts. The procedure and results are illustrated by the experimental infection of 30 mice (three strains, both sexes, 5 mice in each strain x sex combination) with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, thirty days after the challenge. The exercise revealed a significant positive correlation of parasite loads with the hosts' IgG response, in association with their genetic background and less clearly with their sex, all in the midst of a remarkable diversity of both response variables among individual mice. After superimposing a 10 x 10 grid upon the 2D immunoblots some 10% of the positive grid-cells (those who had at least one spot) were positively correlated, suggesting shared epitopes between different antigen spots and/or similar factors controlling different antibody-producing cell clones. Also, a significant correlation was found between many of the positive grid-cells with high values of [Sigma]parasites, but none with low. Thus, the procedure provided many clues for the selection of antigen spots useful to improve immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis and weakened the inclusion of any as vaccine candidate(s). However, some 16 antigen spots were shared almost exclusively by the resistant strains and could relate to protection. The procedure here illustrated may be used in other infections to assess and identify the relevance of antibodies in diagnosis and prevention, as well as provides a measurement of the expected diversity in the hosts' antibody response to the pathogen and of the possible relations between the individual responses towards different antigens contained in the mixture.

  17. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E. S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Janssens, K.; Sette, F.; Mass, J.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration—the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a role

  18. Integrated Thermal Analysis of the FRIB Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Xu, M. Barrios, F. Casagrande, M.J. Johnson, M. Leitner, D. Arenius, V. Ganni, W.J. Schneider, M. Wiseman

    2012-07-01

    Thermal analysis of the FRIB cryomodule design is performed to determine the heat load to the cryogenic plant, to minimize the cryogenic plant load, to simulate thermal shield cool down as well as to determine the pressure relief sizes for failure conditions. Static and dynamic heat loads of the cryomodules are calculated and the optimal shield temperature is determined to minimize the cryogenic plant load. Integrated structural and thermal simulations of the 1100-O aluminium thermal shield are performed to determine the desired cool down rate to control the temperature profile on the thermal shield and to minimize thermal expansion displacements during the cool down. Pressure relief sizing calculations for the SRF helium containers, solenoids, helium distribution piping, and vacuum vessels are also described.

  19. An Approach of Uncertainty Evaluation for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Katsunori Ogura; Hisashi Ninokata

    2002-07-01

    An approach to evaluate uncertainty systematically for thermal-hydraulic analysis programs is demonstrated. The approach is applied to the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip 2 Benchmark and is validated. (authors)

  20. Spatial and temporal thermal analysis of acousto-optic deflectors using finite element analysis model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2012-07-01

    Thermal effects greatly influence the optical properties of the acousto-optic deflectors (AODs). Thermal analysis plays an important role in modern AOD design. However, the lack of an effective method of analysis limits the prediction in the thermal performance. In this paper, we propose a finite element analysis model to analyze the thermal effects of a TeO(2)-based AOD. Both transducer heating and acoustic absorption are considered as thermal sources. The anisotropy of sound propagation is taken into account for determining the acoustic absorption. Based on this model, a transient thermal analysis is employed using ANSYS software. The spatial temperature distributions in the crystal and the temperature changes over time are acquired. The simulation results are validated by experimental results. The effect of heat source and heat convection on temperature distribution is discussed. This numerical model and analytical method of thermal analysis would be helpful in the thermal design and practical applications of AODs.

  1. Thermal Analysis of Selected Commercial Thermoplastic Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    thermogravimetrique (ATG) et le calorimetrie par balayage differentiel (CBD) ont characterises et identifies plusieurs plastiques commerciaux utilises ou consideres... fabrication . Et l’ATG et la CBD ont demontre les characteristiques de transition thermale de polymeres specifiques utilises dans les echantillons. Dans

  2. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1993-01-01

    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  3. Transient Thermal Testing and Analysis of a Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bird, Richard K.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    A core configuration was devised for a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Two titanium prototype panels were constructed to illustrate the proposed sandwich panel geometry. The core of one of the titanium panels was filled with Saffil(trademark) alumina fibrous insulation and the panel was tested in a series of transient thermal tests. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal response of the panel using one- and two-dimensional models. Excellent agreement was obtained between predicted and measured temperature histories.

  4. Thermal-Acoustic Analysis of a Metallic Integrated Thermal Protection System Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Marlana N.; Sharma, Anurag; Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A study is undertaken to investigate the response of a representative integrated thermal protection system structure under combined thermal, aerodynamic pressure, and acoustic loadings. A two-step procedure is offered and consists of a heat transfer analysis followed by a nonlinear dynamic analysis under a combined loading environment. Both analyses are carried out in physical degrees-of-freedom using implicit and explicit solution techniques available in the Abaqus commercial finite-element code. The initial study is conducted on a reduced-size structure to keep the computational effort contained while validating the procedure and exploring the effects of individual loadings. An analysis of a full size integrated thermal protection system structure, which is of ultimate interest, is subsequently presented. The procedure is demonstrated to be a viable approach for analysis of spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales.

  5. A Multi-scale Approach to Urban Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluch, Renne; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2005-01-01

    An environmental consequence of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, a situation where urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. The urban heat island phenomenon results from the replacement of natural landscapes with impervious surfaces such as concrete and asphalt and is linked to adverse economic and environmental impacts. In order to better understand the urban microclimate, a greater understanding of the urban thermal pattern (UTP), including an analysis of the thermal properties of individual land covers, is needed. This study examines the UTP by means of thermal land cover response for the Salt Lake City, Utah, study area at two scales: 1) the community level, and 2) the regional or valleywide level. Airborne ATLAS (Advanced Thermal Land Applications Sensor) data, a high spatial resolution (10-meter) dataset appropriate for an environment containing a concentration of diverse land covers, are used for both land cover and thermal analysis at the community level. The ATLAS data consist of 15 channels covering the visible, near-IR, mid-IR and thermal-IR wavelengths. At the regional level Landsat TM data are used for land cover analysis while the ATLAS channel 13 data are used for the thermal analysis. Results show that a heat island is evident at both the community and the valleywide level where there is an abundance of impervious surfaces. ATLAS data perform well in community level studies in terms of land cover and thermal exchanges, but other, more coarse-resolution data sets are more appropriate for large-area thermal studies. Thermal response per land cover is consistent at both levels, which suggests potential for urban climate modeling at multiple scales.

  6. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Hydromagnesite and Nesquehonite: Implications for Remote Thermal Analysis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.; Lin, I.-C.; Boynton, W. V.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile-bearing minerals (e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates) may be important phases on the surface of Mars. In order to characterize these potential phases the Thermal Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), which was onboard the Mars Polar Lander, was to have performed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved-gas analysis of soil samples collected from the surface. The sample chamber in TEGA operates at about 100 mbar (approximately 76 torr) with a N2, carrier gas flow of 0.4 seem. Essentially, no information exists on the effects of reduced pressure on the thermal properties of volatile-bearing minerals. In support of TEGA, we have constructed a laboratory analog for TEGA from commercial instrumentation. We connected together a commercial differential scanning calorimeter, a quadruple mass spectrometer, a vacuum pump, digital pressure gauge, electronic mass flow meter, gas "K" bottles, gas dryers, and high and low pressure regulators using a collection of shut off and needle valves. Our arrangement allows us to vary and control the pressure and carrier gas flow rate inside the calorimeter oven chamber.

  7. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-10-01

    Asphalt is used extensively in roofing applications. Traditionally, it is used in a built-up roof system, where four or five plies are applied in conjunction with asphalt. This is labour intensive and requires good quality assurance on the roof top. Alternatively, asphalt can be used in a polymer-modified sheet where styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) or atactic polypropylene (APP) are added to the asphalt shipped in a roll where reinforcement (e.g., glass fibre mat) has been added. Regardless of the system used, the roof must be able to withstand the environmental loads such UV, heat, etc. Thermoanalytical techniques such as DSC, DMA, TMA and TG/DTA are ideally suited to monitor the weathering of asphalt. This paper presents data obtained using these techniques and shows how the performance of asphalt-based roof systems can be followed by thermal analysis.

  8. Field observations, preliminary model analysis, and aquifer thermal efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.T.; Delin, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    In the first model, the sensitivity analysis assumed 8 days of injection of 150°C water at 18.9 liters per second (L/s), 8 days of storage, and 8 days of withdrawal of hot water at 18.9 L/s. The analysis indicates that, for practical ranges of hydraulic and thermal properties, the ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity is the least important property and thermal dispersivity is the most important property used to compute temperature and aquifer thermal efficiency

  9. Thermal radiation analysis system TRASYS 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goble, R. G.; Jensen, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) program put thermal radiation analysis on the same basis as thermal analysis using program systems such as MITAS and SINDA. The user is provided the powerful options of writing his own executive, or driver logic and choosing, among several available options, the most desirable solution technique(s) for the problem at hand. This User's Manual serves the twofold purpose of instructing the user in all applications and providing a convenient reference book that presents the features and capabilities in a concise, easy-to-find manner.

  10. An Extension of Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Suzuki, N. H.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an extension of an earlier analysis of performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. The current analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and validates the formerly used 1-D model by comparison of predictions to those obtained from 2-D and 3-D computations. It includes the effects of a thin dust layer covering the surface of the wadi, and incorporating either water as a phase-change material or aluminum stakes as a high thermal conductivity material into the regolith. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  11. Shuttle TPS thermal performance and analysis methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuenschwander, W. E.; Mcbride, D. U.; Armour, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal performance of the thermal protection system was approximately as predicted. The only extensive anomalies were filler bar scorching and over-predictions in the high Delta p gap heating regions of the orbiter. A technique to predict filler bar scorching has been developed that can aid in defining a solution. Improvement in high Delta p gap heating methodology is still under study. Minor anomalies were also examined for improvements in modeling techniques and prediction capabilities. These include improved definition of low Delta p gap heating, an analytical model for inner mode line convection heat transfer, better modeling of structure, and inclusion of sneak heating. The limited number of problems related to penetration items that presented themselves during orbital flight tests were resolved expeditiously, and designs were changed and proved successful within the time frame of that program.

  12. Verification of the Calore thermal analysis code.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Blackwell, Bennie Francis

    2004-07-01

    Calore is the ASC code developed to model steady and transient thermal diffusion with chemistry and dynamic enclosure radiation. An integral part of the software development process is code verification, which addresses the question 'Are we correctly solving the model equations'? This process aids the developers in that it identifies potential software bugs and gives the thermal analyst confidence that a properly prepared input will produce satisfactory output. Grid refinement studies have been performed on problems for which we have analytical solutions. In this talk, the code verification process is overviewed and recent results are presented. Recent verification studies have focused on transient nonlinear heat conduction and verifying algorithms associated with (tied) contact and adaptive mesh refinement. In addition, an approach to measure the coverage of the verification test suite relative to intended code applications is discussed.

  13. A Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Power Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vafai, Kambiz

    1997-01-01

    The state-of-art power semiconductor devices require a thorough understanding of the thermal behavior for these devices. Traditional thermal analysis have (1) failed to account for the thermo-electrical interaction which is significant for power semiconductor devices operating at high temperature, and (2) failed to account for the thermal interactions among all the levels involved in, from the entire device to the gate micro-structure. Furthermore there is a lack of quantitative studies of the thermal breakdown phenomenon which is one of the major failure mechanisms for power electronics. This research work is directed towards addressing. Using a coupled thermal and electrical simulation, in which the drift-diffusion equations for the semiconductor and the energy equation for temperature are solved simultaneously, the thermo-electrical interactions at the micron scale of various junction structures are thoroughly investigated. The optimization of gate structure designs and doping designs is then addressed. An iterative numerical procedure which incorporates the thermal analysis at the device, chip and junction levels of the power device is proposed for the first time and utilized in a BJT power semiconductor device. In this procedure, interactions of different levels are fully considered. The thermal stability issue is studied both analytically and numerically in this research work in order to understand the mechanism for thermal breakdown.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the NKG2D ligand cluster on the long arm of chromosome 6: Extensive polymorphisms and evidence of diversity between human populations.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ayman; Jobson, Shirley; Cook, Mark; O'Callaghan, Chris A; Moss, Paul; Briggs, David C

    2010-06-01

    NKG2D is an important activating receptor on NK cells and T-cells and has a diverse panel of ligands (NKG2DL) which include the ULBP and RAET1 proteins. Several NKG2DL exhibit a considerable degree of genetic polymorphism, and although the functional significance of such allelic variation remains unclear, genetic variants have been implicated in susceptibility to infection and auto-immune disease. We used sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter and coding regions of genes of the RAET1/ULBP cluster in 223 Euro-Caucasoid, 60 Afro-Caribbean, and 52 Indo-Asian individuals to determine NKG2DL allele and haplotype frequencies within these populations. We show marked differences in the frequency of NKG2DL SNPs and haplotypes among the three ethnic groups, and certain haplotypes were observed almost exclusively in Afro-Caribbean compared with the Euro-Caucasoid and Indo-Asian populations. Interestingly, variation was focused within the RAET1E (ULBP4), RAET1L, and ULBP3 genes, whereas the ULBP1, ULBP2 and RAET1G (ULBP5) genes were highly conserved. These findings suggest that individual NKG2DL alleles have been subject to divergent selective pressures during the migration of Homo sapiens. This information will be of importance in understanding the biology and clinical significance of NKG2DL polymorphism.

  15. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of ovarian carcinoma cells: toward a reorientation of biosynthesis pathways associated with acquired platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Lincet, Hubert; Guével, Blandine; Pineau, Charles; Allouche, Stéphane; Lemoisson, Edwige; Poulain, Laurent; Gauduchon, Pascal

    2012-02-02

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women. Emergence of chemoresistance in the course of treatments with platinum drugs is in part responsible for therapeutic failures. In order to improve the understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in acquired platinum chemoresistance, we decided to compare the basal protein expression profile of the platinum-sensitive cell line OAW42 and that of its resistant counterpart OAW42-R by a proteomic approach. Reversed-phase HPLC pre-fractionated extracts from both cell lines were subjected to 2D-DIGE coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Forty eight differentially expressed proteins were identified, 39 being up-regulated and 19 down-regulated in OAW42-R versus OAW42 cells. From the current knowledge on biological activities of most differentially expressed proteins, it can be inferred that the acquisition of resistance was associated with a global reorganization of biochemical pathways favoring the production of precursors for biosynthesis, and with the mobilization of macromolecule quality control mechanisms, preserving RNA and protein integrity under damage-inducing conditions.

  16. 2-D DIGE analysis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) testis proteome in wild-caught and hormone-treated F1 fish.

    PubMed

    Forné, Ignasi; Agulleiro, María J; Asensio, Esther; Abián, Joaquín; Cerdà, Joan

    2009-04-01

    In the farmed flatfish Senegalese sole, F1 males reared in captivity often show lower sperm production and fertilization capacity than wild-caught males. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be altered in the F1 testis, we used 2-D DIGE to compare the protein profiling of the testis of wild-caught males at the spermiation stage with that of F1 males showing different stages of germ cell development after hormone treatment in vivo. The abundance of 58 out of 1014 protein spots was found to differ significantly between the groups. De novo identification of these proteins by MS/MS revealed that proteins implicated in oxidoreductase activity, protein catabolism, formation of the zona pellucida receptor, cytoskeleton organization, and lipid binding and metabolism, were regulated in the F1 testes as germ cell development progressed. However, distinct isoforms or PTMs of some of these proteins, as well as of proteins involved in iron and glucose metabolism and ATP production, were expressed at lower levels in the testes of F1 males than in wild fish regardless of the hormone treatment. These results contribute to identifying proteins associated with spermatogenesis not previously described in teleosts, and suggest potential mechanisms that may be involved in the poor reproductive performance of Senegalese sole F1 males.

  17. Rotational Analysis of Bands in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-2-d1

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Easterday, Clay C.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Williamson, Drew; Sams, Robert L.

    2012-02-01

    Pure samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-2-d1 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) infrared spectra have been recorded for these nonpolar molecules in the gas phase. For the cis,cis isomer, the rotational structure in two C-type bands at 775 and 666 cm-1 and one A-type band at 866 cm-1 has been analyzed to yield a combined set of 2020 ground state combination differences (GSCDs). Ground state rotational constants fit to these GSCDs are A0 = 0.4195790(4), B0 = 0.0536508(8), and C0 = 0.0475802(9) cm-1. For the trans,trans isomer, three Ctype bands at 856, 839, and 709 cm-1 have been investigated to give a combined set of 1624 GSCDs. Resulting ground state rotational constants for this isomer are A0 = 0.9390117(8), B0 = 0.0389225(4), and C0 = 0.0373778(3) cm-1. Small inertial defects confirm the planarity of both isomers in the ground state. Upper state rotational constants have been determined for most of the transitions. The ground state rotational constants for the two isotopologues will contribute to the data set needed for determining semiexperimental equilibrium structures for the nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  18. High resolution infrared synchrotron study of CH2D81Br: ground state constants and analysis of the ν5, ν6 and ν9 fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacci, A.; Stoppa, P.; Visinoni, R.; Wugt Larsen, R.

    2012-09-01

    The high resolution infrared absorption spectrum of CH2D81Br has been recorded by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the range 550-1075 cm-1, with an unapodized resolution of 0.0025 cm-1, employing a synchrotron radiation source. This spectral region is characterized by the ν6 (593.872 cm-1), ν5 (768.710 cm-1) and ν9 (930.295 cm-1) fundamental bands. The ground state constants up to sextic centrifugal distortion terms have been obtained for the first time by ground-state combination differences from the three bands and subsequently employed for the evaluation of the excited state parameters. Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation has been used in the calculations. The ν 6 = 1 level is essentially free from perturbation whereas the ν 5 = 1 and ν 9 = 1 states are mutually interacting through a-type Coriolis coupling. Accurate spectroscopic parameters of the three excited vibrational states and a high-order coupling constant which takes into account the interaction between ν5 and ν9 have been determined.

  19. Kinematic analysis of healthy hips during weight-bearing activities by 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique.

    PubMed

    Hara, Daisuke; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Hamai, Satoshi; Higaki, Hidehiko; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hirata, Masanobu; Kanazawa, Masayuki; Kohno, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic hip kinematics during weight-bearing activities were analyzed for six healthy subjects. Continuous X-ray images of gait, chair-rising, squatting, and twisting were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector. Digitally reconstructed radiographic images were used for 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique. The root-mean-square errors associated with tracking the pelvis and femur were less than 0.3 mm and 0.3° for translations and rotations. For gait, chair-rising, and squatting, the maximum hip flexion angles averaged 29.6°, 81.3°, and 102.4°, respectively. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly around 4.4° on average during full gait cycle. For chair-rising and squatting, the maximum absolute value of anterior/posterior pelvic tilt averaged 12.4°/11.7° and 10.7°/10.8°, respectively. Hip flexion peaked on the way of movement due to further anterior pelvic tilt during both chair-rising and squatting. For twisting, the maximum absolute value of hip internal/external rotation averaged 29.2°/30.7°. This study revealed activity dependent kinematics of healthy hip joints with coordinated pelvic and femoral dynamic movements. Kinematics' data during activities of daily living may provide important insight as to the evaluating kinematics of pathological and reconstructed hips.

  20. Transient thermal analysis of micromachined silicon bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Hiroyasu; Ohya, Seishiro; Karasawa, Shiro; Kodato, Setsuo; Akimoto, Kenji

    1996-09-01

    We investigate the transient thermal response of micromachined silicon microbridges. The silicon microbridge has a large potential for sensors relating to heat because silicon has large thermal conductivity. The silicon microbridge is stable in heat cycle compared with the other hetero-structures. The silicon process has an advantage of mass production and good controllability. The silicon microbridge is abruptly heated by its Joule's heat when a voltage pulse is applied. The measured time constant was less than 1 ms because the heat capacity of the microbridge is small. A heavily doped silicon layer which is made by ion implantation works as stopping layer for anisotropic etching process. Furthermore the dependence of resistance on temperature is metallic such that the drive current is automatically controlled with negative feedback. We could easily control the temperature of silicon microbridge by electric signal up to the frequency range of 1 kHz. The temperature modulation was more than 700 degree(s)C at 100 Hz. The microbridge is one of the fastest heater driven by Joule's heat because of the small heat capacity and the large thermal conductivity of silicon.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  2. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  3. Viscoelastic Analysis of Thermally Stiffening Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Andrew; Rende, Deniz; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, filled with silica nanoparticles coated with poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, was shown to present thermally stiffening behavior above the glass transition temperature of both PEO and PMMA. In the current study, the viscoelastic beahvior of this nanocomposite system is investigated via nanoindenation experiments to complement on going rheological studies. Results were compared to neat polymers, PEO and PMMA, to understand the effect of coated nanoparticles. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  4. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  5. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  6. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  7. Integrated Modeling Tools for Thermal Analysis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Needels, Laura; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    1999-01-01

    Integrated modeling of spacecraft systems is a rapidly evolving area in which multidisciplinary models are developed to design and analyze spacecraft configurations. These models are especially important in the early design stages where rapid trades between subsystems can substantially impact design decisions. Integrated modeling is one of the cornerstones of two of NASA's planned missions in the Origins Program -- the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Common modeling tools for control design and opto-mechanical analysis have recently emerged and are becoming increasingly widely used. A discipline that has been somewhat less integrated, but is nevertheless of critical concern for high precision optical instruments, is thermal analysis and design. A major factor contributing to this mild estrangement is that the modeling philosophies and objectives for structural and thermal systems typically do not coincide. Consequently the tools that are used in these discplines suffer a degree of incompatibility, each having developed along their own evolutionary path. Although standard thermal tools have worked relatively well in the past. integration with other disciplines requires revisiting modeling assumptions and solution methods. Over the past several years we have been developing a MATLAB based integrated modeling tool called IMOS (Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems) which integrates many aspects of structural, optical, control and dynamical analysis disciplines. Recent efforts have included developing a thermal modeling and analysis capability, which is the subject of this article. Currently, the IMOS thermal suite contains steady state and transient heat equation solvers, and the ability to set up the linear conduction network from an IMOS finite element model. The IMOS code generates linear conduction elements associated with plates and beams/rods of the thermal network directly from the finite element structural

  8. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  9. The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter

    2014-10-01

    The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.

  10. The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Andrea De; Giaretto, Valter

    2014-10-01

    The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.

  11. Thermal analysis of combinatorial solid geometry models using SINDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerencser, Diane; Radke, George; Introne, Rob; Klosterman, John; Miklosovic, Dave

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms have been developed using Monte Carlo techniques to determine the thermal network parameters necessary to perform a finite difference analysis on Combinatorial Solid Geometry (CSG) models. Orbital and laser fluxes as well as internal heat generation are modeled to facilitate satellite modeling. The results of the thermal calculations are used to model the infrared (IR) images of targets and assess target vulnerability. Sample analyses and validation are presented which demonstrate code products.

  12. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  13. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  14. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  15. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  16. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities for Oyster creek

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) has been involved in developing analytical methodologies for Oyster Creek plant thermal-hydraulic response simulation for approx. 15 yr. Plant-system-related transient analysis is being accomplished via RETRAN02 MOD4 and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analysis by SAFER-CORECOOL. This paper reviews the developmental process and lessons learned through this process.

  17. Thermal Analysis of ISS Service Module Active TCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altov, Vladimir V.; Zaletaev, Sergey V.; Belyavskiy, Evgeniy P.

    2000-01-01

    ISS Service Module mission must begin in July 2000. The verification of design thermal requirements is mostly due to thermal analysis. The thermal analysis is enough difficult problem because of large number of ISS configurations that had to be investigated and various orbital environments. Besides the ISS structure has articulating parts such as solar arrays and radiators. The presence of articulating parts greatly increases computation times and requires accurate approach to organization of calculations. The varying geometry needs us to calculate the view factors several times during the orbit, while in static geometry case we need do it only once. In this paper we consider the thermal mathematical model of SM that includes the TCS and construction thermal models and discuss the results of calculations for ISS configurations 1R and 9Al. The analysis is based on solving the nodal heat balance equations for ISS structure by Kutta-Merson method and analytical solutions of heat transfer equations for TCS units. The computations were performed using thermal software TERM [1,2] that will be briefly described.

  18. Projection-Based Reduced Order Modeling for Spacecraft Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Yi; Song, Hongjun; Pant, Kapil; Peabody, Hume; Ku, Jentung; Butler, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematically rigorous, subspace projection-based reduced order modeling (ROM) methodology and an integrated framework to automatically generate reduced order models for spacecraft thermal analysis. Two key steps in the reduced order modeling procedure are described: (1) the acquisition of a full-scale spacecraft model in the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and differential algebraic equation (DAE) form to resolve its dynamic thermal behavior; and (2) the ROM to markedly reduce the dimension of the full-scale model. Specifically, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in conjunction with discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) and trajectory piece-wise linear (TPWL) methods are developed to address the strong nonlinear thermal effects due to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in the spacecraft environment. Case studies using NASA-relevant satellite models are undertaken to verify the capability and to assess the computational performance of the ROM technique in terms of speed-up and error relative to the full-scale model. ROM exhibits excellent agreement in spatiotemporal thermal profiles (<0.5% relative error in pertinent time scales) along with salient computational acceleration (up to two orders of magnitude speed-up) over the full-scale analysis. These findings establish the feasibility of ROM to perform rational and computationally affordable thermal analysis, develop reliable thermal control strategies for spacecraft, and greatly reduce the development cycle times and costs.

  19. Nonlinear Transient Thermal Analysis by the Force-Derivative Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Narayani V.; Hou, Gene

    1997-01-01

    High-speed vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter must withstand severe aerodynamic heating during reentry through the atmosphere. The Shuttle skin and substructure are constructed primarily of aluminum, which must be protected during reentry with a thermal protection system (TPS) from being overheated beyond the allowable temperature limit, so that the structural integrity is maintained for subsequent flights. High-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI), a popular choice of passive insulation system, typically absorbs the incoming radiative or convective heat at its surface and then re-radiates most of it to the atmosphere while conducting the smallest amount possible to the structure by virtue of its low diffusivity. In order to ensure a successful thermal performance of the Shuttle under a prescribed reentry flight profile, a preflight reentry heating thermal analysis of the Shuttle must be done. The surface temperature profile, the transient response of the HRSI interior, and the structural temperatures are all required to evaluate the functioning of the HRSI. Transient temperature distributions which identify the regions of high temperature gradients, are also required to compute the thermal loads for a structural thermal stress analysis. Furthermore, a nonlinear analysis is necessary to account for the temperature-dependent thermal properties of the HRSI as well as to model radiation losses.

  20. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  1. The Curvelet Transform in the analysis of 2-D GPR data: Signal enhancement and extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Ground Probing Radar (GPR) is a valuable tool for near surface geological, geotechnical, engineering, environmental, archaeological and other work. GPR images of the subsurface frequently contain geometric information (constant or variable-dip reflections) from various structures such as bedding, cracks, fractures etc. Such features are frequently the target of the survey; however, they are usually not good reflectors and they are highly localized in time and in space. Their scale is therefore a factor significantly affecting their detectability. At the same time, the GPR method is very sensitive to broadband noise from buried small objects, electromagnetic anthropogenic activity and systemic factors, which frequently blurs the reflections from such targets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Curvelet Transform (CT) as a means of S/N enhancement and information retrieval from 2-D GPR sections, with particular emphasis on the recovery of features associated with specific temporal or spatial scales and geometry (orientation/dip). The CT is a multiscale and multidirectional expansion that formulates an optimally sparse representation of bivariate functions with singularities on twice-differentiable (C2-continuous) curves (e.g. edges) and allows for the optimal, whole or partial reconstruction of such objects. The CT can be viewed as a higher dimensional extension of the wavelet transform: whereas discrete wavelets are isotropic and provide sparse representations of functions with point singularities, curvelets are highly anisotropic and provide sparse representations of functions with singularities on curves. A GPR section essentially comprises a spatio-temporal sampling of the transient wavefield which contains different arrivals that correspond to different interactions with wave scatterers in the subsurface (wavefronts). These are generally longitudinally piecewise smooth and transversely oscillatory, i.e. they comprise edges. Curvelets can detect

  2. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Refractory Metal Laser Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.

    2013-09-01

    Case study inverse thermal analyses of Vanadium and Tantalum laser welds are presented. These analyses employ a methodology that is in terms of analytic basis functions for inverse thermal analysis of steady-state energy deposition in plate structures. The results of the case studies presented provide parametric representations of weld temperature histories that can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, such as those for prediction of solid-state phase transformations. In addition, these temperature histories can be used to construct parametric-function representations for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other process parameters or welding processes process conditions of which fall within similar regimes. This study also discusses specific aspects the inverse-analysis methodology relevant to further development of algorithms for its application in practice.

  3. Thermal analysis of RFETS SS and C

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.S.

    2000-02-04

    In support of the gas generation test program (GGTP) for the 9975 shipping container, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted. The objective of this activity was to determine the moisture content as an input to the gas generation model.

  4. Ascent Heating Thermal Analysis on Spacecraft Adaptor Fairings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Yuko, James; Motil, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is launched, the spacecraft adaptor (SA) fairings that cover the CEV service module (SM) are exposed to aero heating. Thermal analysis is performed to compute the fairing temperatures and to investigate whether the temperatures are within the material limits for nominal ascent aeroheating case. The ascent heating is analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and engineering codes at Marshall Space Flight Center. The aeroheating environment data used for this work is known as Thermal Environment 3 (TE3) heating data. One of the major concerns is with the SA fairings covering the CEV SM and the SM/crew launch vehicle (CLV) flange interface. The TE3 heating rate is a function of time, wall temperature, and the spatial locations. The implementation of the TE3 heating rate as boundary conditions in the thermal analysis becomes challenging. The ascent heating thermal analysis on SA fairings and SM/CLV flange interface are performed using two commercial software packages: Cullimore & Ring (C&R) Thermal Desktop (TD) 5.1 and MSC Patran 2007r1 b. TD is the pre-and post-processor for SINDA, which is a finite-difference-based solver. In TD, the geometry is built and meshed, the boundary conditions are defined, and then SINDA is used to compute temperatures. MSC Pthermal is a finite-element- based thermal solver. MSC Patran is the pre- and post-processor for Pthermal. Regarding the boundary conditions, the convection, contact resistance, and heat load can be imposed in different ways in both programs. These two software packages are used to build the thermal model for the same analysis to validate each other and show the differences in the modeling details.

  5. Thermal sensors utilizing thin layer technology applied to the analysis of aeronautical thermal exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroy, J. C.; Gageant, C.; Francois, D.

    Thin film surface thermometers and thermal gradient fluxmeters developed by ONERA to monitor thermal exchanges in aircraft engines to predict the remaining service life of the components are described. The sensors, less than 80 microns thick, with flexible Kapton dielectric layers and metal substrates, are integrated into the shape of the surface being monitored. Features of Cu-n, Ni-, Au-, and Cr-based films, including mounting and circuitry methods that permit calibration and accurate signal analysis, are summarized. Results are discussed from sample applications of the devices on a symmetric NACA 65(1)-012 airfoil and on a turbine blade.

  6. Thermal Analysis of the ILC Superconductin Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Ian; /Rose-Hulman Inst., Terre Haute /SLAC

    2006-09-13

    Critical to a particle accelerator's functioning, superconducting magnets serve to focus and aim the particle beam. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has received a prototype superconducting quadrupole designed and built by the Centro de Investigaciones Energ{acute e}ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol{acute o}gicas (CIEMAT) to be evaluated for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. To ensure proper functioning of the magnet, the device must be maintained at cryogenic temperatures by use of a cooling system containing liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The cool down period of a low temperature cryostat is critical to the success of an experiment, especially a prototype setup such as this one. The magnet and the dewar each contain unique heat leaks and material properties. These differences can lead to tremendous thermal stresses. The system was analyzed mathematically, leading to ideal liquid helium and liquid nitrogen flow rates during the magnet's cool-down to 4.2 K, along with a reasonable estimate of how long this cool-down will take. With a flow rate of ten gaseous liters of liquid nitrogen per minute, the nitrogen shield will take approximately five hours to cool down to 77 K. With a gaseous helium flow rate of sixty liters per minute, the magnet will take at least nineteen hours to cool down to a temperature of 4.2 K.

  7. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  8. Analysis of thermal vias in molded interconnect devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Barth, Maximilian; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Keßler, Ulrich; Kück, Heinz; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    The ongoing miniaturization of micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems requires compact multifunctional packaging solutions like offered by the three-dimensional MID (molded interconnect device) technology which combines integrated electronic circuitry and mechanical support structures directly into one compact housing. Due to the inherently large thermal resistance of thermoplastic MID substrate materials, temperature-sensitive applications require carefully arranged thermal vias in order to reduce the thermal resistance of the packaging effectively. This paper presents the analysis and optimization of various laser-drilled thermal via design parameters of MIDs including hole diameter, pitch, plating thickness of the Cu/Ni/Au metallization layers as well as the void level of the filling material inside the vias.

  9. Thermal stress analysis of a new turbine shroud seal concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal stress field of a two piece turbine shroud seal concept was analyzed and results compared to one piece designs by finite element analysis. The two piece seal has independently formed structure (substrate) and ceramic components that are assembled at ambient conditions. The boundary conditions used for analysis were hot gas surface temperatures of 1370 and 1650 C (2500 and 3000 F) and cooled surface temperature of 700 C (1285 F). The resulting thermal stress field, of the two piece seal when compared to the one piece seals in the region of all ceramic material, was reduced substantially.

  10. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  11. A new thermal hydraulics code coupled to agent for light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Matthew Deric

    A new numerical model for coupling a thermal hydraulics method based on the Drift Flux and Homogeneous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) models, with a deterministic neutronics code system AGENT (Arbitrary Geometry Neutron Transport), is developed. Named the TH thermal hydraulics code, it is based on the mass continuity, momentum, and energy equations integrated with appropriate relations for liquid and vapor phasic velocities. The modified conservation equations are then evaluated in one-dimensional (1D) steady-state conditions for LWR coolant subchannel in the axial direction. This permits faster computation times without sacrificing significant accuracy, as compared to other three-dimensional (3D) codes such as RELAP5/TRACE. AGENT is a deterministic neutronics code system based on the Method of Characteristics to solve the 2D/3D neutron transport equation in current and future reactor systems. The coupling scheme between the TH and AGENT codes is accomplished by computing the normalized fission rate profile in the LWR fuel elements by AGENT. The normalized fission rate profile is then transferred to the TH thermal hydraulics code for computing the reactor coolant properties. In conjunction with the 1D axial TH code, a separate 1D radial heat transfer model within the TH code is used to determine the average fuel temperature at each node where coolant properties are calculated. These properties then are entered into Scale 6.1, a criticality analysis code, to recalculate fuel pin neutron interaction cross sections based on thermal feedback. With updated fuel neutron interaction cross sections, the fission rate profile is recalculated in AGENT, and the cycle continues until convergence is reached. The TH code and coupled AGENT-TH code are benchmarked against the TRACE reactor analysis software, showing required agreement in evaluating the basic reactor parameters.

  12. Zero Boil-Off System Design and Thermal Analysis of the Bimodal Thermal Nuclear Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Mars exploration studies at NASA are evaluating vehicles that incorporate Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion which use a high temperature nuclear fission reactor and hydrogen to produce thermal propulsion. The hydrogen propellant is to be stored in liquid state for periods up to 18 months. To prevent boil-off of the liquid hydrogen, a system of passive and active components are needed to prevent heat from entering the tanks and to remove any heat that does. This report describes the design of the system components used for the BNTR Crew Transfer Vehicle and the thermal analysis performed. The results show that Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) can be achieved with the electrical power allocated for the ZBO system.

  13. Zero Boil-Off System Design and Thermal Analysis of the Bimodal Thermal Nuclear Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.

    2006-01-20

    Mars exploration studies at NASA are evaluating vehicles that incorporate Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion which use a high temperature nuclear fission reactor and hydrogen to produce thermal propulsion. The hydrogen propellant is to be stored in liquid state for periods up to 18 months. To prevent boil-off of the liquid hydrogen, a system of passive and active components are needed to prevent heat from entering the tanks and to remove any heat that does. This report describes the design of the system components used for the BNTR Crew Transfer Vehicle and the thermal analysis performed. The results show that Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) can be achieved with the electrical power allocated for the ZBO system.

  14. Statistical Characterization of Altitude Matrices by Computer. Report 2. Calibration Tests on the Rayner-McCalden Program for 2-D Spectral Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    igurecs for th e %oT t o t al ’a iac rC i n domain show how mucl , variance is sacrificod In rm;nni ,’-sir.., S1.ClOdS I the case of C’amclon the...analysis; Te-’- 1- 4C S 3 (𔃼 I. .- 2 TOBLER, W.R. 1969, An analysis of a digitalizd sUr ac; 2xs 2~ (Ed.) A Study of the Land T1’r-e (U.S. Army "Reseal’ch Qfc,~ru North Carolina, Contract DA-31-12-4-ARG-D)-453, z;9-6~

  15. Linear-Elastic 2D and 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    circular hole in an aluminium plate fitted with a titanium fastener that were computed using two-dimensional finite element contact analysis. By...used to validate the contact stress distributions associated with a circular hole in an aluminium plate fitted with a titanium fastener that were...fatigue life and aircraft structural integrity management of RAAF airframes. An aluminium coupon has been previously designed in support of the

  16. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P < 0.05). Western blotting result shows that 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  17. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  18. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  19. Thermal Sensor Arrays for The Combinatorial Analysis of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Patrick James

    2011-12-01

    Membrane-based thermal sensor arrays were developed for the high-throughput analysis of the thermophysical properties of thin films. The continuous growth of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems, as well as the development of functional materials and the optimization of materials properties, have produced the need for instruments capable of fast materials screening and analysis at reduced length scales. Two instruments were developed based on a similar architecture, one to measure thermal transport properties and the other to perform calorimetry measurements. Both have the capability to accelerate the pace of materials development and understanding using combinatorial measurement methods. The shared architecture of the instruments consists of a silicon-based micromachined array of thermal sensors. Each sensor consists of a SiN X membrane and a W heating element that also serves as a temperature gauge. The array design allows the simultaneous creation of a library of thin film samples by various deposition techniques while systematically varying a parameter of interest across the device. The membrane-based sensors have little thermal mass making them extremely sensitive to changes in thermal energy. The nano-thermal transport array has an array of sensors optimized for sensitivity to heat loss. The heat loss is determined from the temperature response of the sensor to an applied current. An analytical model is used with a linear regression analysis to fit the thermal properties of the samples to the temperature response. The assumptions of the analytical model are validated with a finite element model. Measured thermal properties include specific heat, thermal effusivity, thermal conductivity, and emissivity. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the thermal transport properties of sputter deposited Cu multilayers with a total film thickness from 15 to 470 nm. The experimental results compare well to a theory based on electronic thermal

  20. Study of the mechanical behavior of a 2-D carbon-carbon composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, W. B.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The out-of-plane fracture of a 2-D carbon-carbon composite was observed and characterized to gain an understanding of the factors influencing the stress distribution in such a laminate. Finite element analyses of a two-ply carbon-carbon composite under in-plane, out-of-plane, and thermal loading were performed. Under in-plane loading all components of stress were strong functions of geometry. Additionally, large thermal stresses were predicted. Out-of-plane tensile tests revealed that failure was interlaminar, and that cracks propagated along the fiber-matrix interface. An elasticity solution was utilized to analyze an orthotropic fiber in an isotropic matrix under uniform thermal load. The analysis reveals that the stress distributions in a transversely orthotropic fiber are radically different than those predicted assuming the fiber to be transversely isotropic.

  1. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  2. Thermal analysis of nanofluids in microfluidics using an infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Yi, Pyshar; Kayani, Aminuddin A; Chrimes, Adam F; Ghorbani, Kamran; Nahavandi, Saeid; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2012-07-21

    We present the thermal analysis of liquid containing Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles in a microfluidic platform using an infrared camera. The small dimensions of the microchannel along with the low flow rates (less than 120 μl min(-1)) provide very low Reynolds numbers of less than 17.5, reflecting practical parameters for a microfluidic cooling platform. The heat analysis of nanofluids has never been investigated in such a regime, due to the deficiencies of conventional thermal measurement systems. The infrared camera allows non-contact, three dimensional and high resolution capability for temperature profiling. The system was studied at different w/w concentrations of thermally conductive Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles and the experiments were in excellent agreement with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  3. Transfinite element methodology towards a unified thermal/structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, K. K.; Railkar, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes computational developments towards thermal/structural modeling and analysis via a generalized common numerical methodology for effectively and efficiently interfacing interdisciplinary areas. The proposed formulations use transform methods in conjunction with finite element developments for each of the heat transfer and structural disciplines, respectively, providing avenues for obtaining the structural response due to thermal effects. An alternative methodology for unified thermal/structural analysis is presented. The potential of the approach is outlined in comparison with conventional schemes and existing practices. Highlights and characteristic features of the approach are described via general formulations and applications to several problems. Results obtained demonstrate excellent agreement in comparison with analytic and/or conventional finite element schemes accurately and efficiently.

  4. Proteome analysis of responses to ascochlorin in a human osteosarcoma cell line by 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Han; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Lee, In-Seon; Magae, Junji; Ando, Kunio; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae

    2006-10-01

    Ascochlorin is a prenyl-phenol compound that was isolated from the fungus Ascochyta viciae. Ascochlorin reduces serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, suppresses hypertension and tumor development, and ameliorates type I and II diabetes. Here, to better understand the mechanisms by which ascochlorin regulates physiological or pathological events and induces responses in the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we performed differential analysis of the proteome of the human osteosarcoma cells U2OS in response to ascochlorin. In addition, we established the first two-dimensional map of the U2OS proteome. The U2OS cell proteomes with and without treatment with ascochlorin were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. The largest differences in expression were observed for the epidermal growth factor receptor (4-fold decrease), ribulose-5-phosphate-epimerase (13-fold decrease), ATP-dependent RNA helicase (8-fold decrease), and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (6-fold decrease). The abundance of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 increased 12- and 8.2-fold, respectively. In addition, Erk 2 was increased 3-fold in U2OS cells treated with ascochlorin. The expression of some selected proteins was confirmed by western blotting, zymography and RT-PCR analysis.

  5. Megaflood analysis through channel networks of the Athabasca Valles, Mars based on multi-resolution stereo DTMs and 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Rack; Schumann, Guy; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Lin, Shih-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Stereo analysis of in-orbital imagery provides valuable topographic data for scientific research over planetary surfaces especially for the interpretation of potential fluvial activity. The focus of research into planetary fluvial activity has been shifting toward quantitative modeling with various spatial resolution DTMs from visual interpretation with ortho images. Thus in this study, we tested the application of hydraulic analysis with multi resolution Martian DTMs, which were constructed following the approaches of Kim and Muller (2009). Planet. Space Sci. 57 (14), 2095. Subsequently, a two-dimensional hydraulic model was introduced to conduct flow simulation using the extracted 1.2-150 m resolution DTMs. As a result, it was found that the simulated water flows coincided with what might be water eroded geomorphic features over target areas. Moreover, the information acquired from the modeling, such as water depth along the time line, flow direction and travel time, is proving of great value for the interpretation of surface characteristics. Results highlighted the importance of DTM quality for simulating fluvial channel hydraulics across planetary surfaces.

  6. Proteome analysis of Sorangium cellulosum employing 2D-HPLC-MS/MS and improved database searching strategies for CID and ETD fragment spectra.

    PubMed

    Leinenbach, Andreas; Hartmer, Ralf; Lubeck, Markus; Kneissl, Benny; Elnakady, Yasser A; Baessmann, Carsten; Müller, Rolf; Huber, Christian G

    2009-09-01

    Shotgun proteome analysis of the myxobacterial model strain for secondary metabolite biosynthesis Sorangium cellulosum was performed employing off-line two-dimensional high-pH reversed-phase HPLC x low-pH ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC and dual tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) as complementary fragmentation techniques. Peptide identification using database searching was optimized for ETD fragment spectra to obtain the maximum number of identifications at equivalent false discovery rates (1.0%) in the evaluation of both fragmentation techniques. In the database search of the CID MS/MS data, the mass tolerance was set to the well-established 0.3 Da window, whereas for ETD data, it was widened to 1.1 Da to account for hydrogen-rearrangement in the radical-intermediate of the peptide precursor ion. To achieve a false discovery rate comparable to the CID results, we increased the significance threshold for peptide identification to 0.001 for the ETD data. The ETD based analysis yielded about 74% of all peptides and about 78% of all proteins compared to the CID-method. In the combined data set, 952 proteins of S. cellulosum were confidently identified by at least two peptides per protein, facilitating the study of the function of regulatory proteins in the social myxobacteria and their role in secondary metabolism.

  7. General stability analysis of composite sandwich plates under thermal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Shaher A.

    In structures subjected to high temperature change such as high-speed aircraft the panels are stressed more significantly under thermal loading than mechanical loading. This can produce instability within the structure; therefore, the thermal loading may become the primary factor in the design of the structure. For example, buckling and facesheet wrinkling are two major failure modes of the composite sandwich plates subjected to various loadings. The goal of this dissertation is to study the stability analysis of composite sandwich plates due to buckling and wrinkling subjected to thermal loading. The primary objective is to find out the critical failure mode and the associated critical temperature change causing it. For thermal buckling and wrinkling analysis, the critical temperature change Delta Tcr, is of more interest than the critical thermal load. In this study, two different approaches of the stability problem of the composite sandwich plate subjected to thermally induced load are developed. In the first approach, the wrinkling analysis and buckling analysis are performed separately to evaluate their associated critical wrinkling and buckling temperature changes. For the face-wrinkling problem, two different models, the linear decaying Hoff model and exponential decaying Chen model are employed. The global buckling analysis is based on the energy method. The second approach is based on the unified theory of Benson and Mayers. In such an approach, the critical temperature change for both the global buckling and face wrinkling can be evaluated simultaneously. A potential energy based variation principle has been applied to formulate the problem. The Lagrange multipliers are used to satisfy the face-core continuity conditions. The buckling and wrinkling can be analyzed and calculated simultaneously. Therefore, the critical wrinkling temperature and the critical buckling temperature are found in a single analysis. The critical buckling and wrinkling stresses

  8. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  9. Note: Thermal analysis of the long line source electron gun.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Wasy, A; Lodhi, M A K

    2013-05-01

    We performed thermal analysis for our previously reported [M. Iqbal, K. Masood, M. Rafiq, M. A. Chaudhry, and F. Aleem, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4616 (2003)], long linear filament electron gun assembly using ANSYS software. The source was set under a thermal load of 3000 °C, to evaluate temperature distribution, thermal strain, and heat flux at various components of the gun. We calculated the maximum heat flux (9.0 W/mm(2)) that produced a thermal strain of 0.05 at the focusing electrodes. However, the minimum value of the heat flux (0.3 W/mm(2)) was at the anode electrodes which correspond to a negligible thermal strain. The gun was validated experimentally showing a uniform cross section of the beam at the molybdenum work plate comparable to the size of the filament. Our experimental and theoretical results are in agreement. The gun had been in continuous operation for several hours at high temperatures without any thermal run-out.

  10. Structure and Metabolic-Flow Analysis of Molecular Complexity in a (13) C-Labeled Tree by 2D and 3D NMR.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takanori; Ohishi, Risa; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-05-10

    Improved signal identification for biological small molecules (BSMs) in a mixture was demonstrated by using multidimensional NMR on samples from (13) C-enriched Rhododendron japonicum (59.5 atom%) cultivated in air containing (13) C-labeled carbon dioxide for 14 weeks. The resonance assignment of 386 carbon atoms and 380 hydrogen atoms in the mixture was achieved. 42 BSMs, including eight that were unlisted in the spectral databases, were identified. Comparisons between the experimental values and the (13) C chemical shift values calculated by density functional theory supported the identifications of unlisted BSMs. Tracing the (13) C/(12) C ratio by multidimensional NMR spectra revealed faster and slower turnover ratios of BSMs involved in central metabolism and those categorized as secondary metabolites, respectively. The identification of BSMs and subsequent flow analysis provided insight into the metabolic systems of the plant.

  11. Label Free Cell-Tracking and Division Detection Based on 2D Time-Lapse Images For Lineage Analysis of Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Gutwein, Michelle; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Geiger, Davi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report a database and a series of techniques related to the problem of tracking cells, and detecting their divisions, in time-lapse movies of mammalian embryos. Our contributions are: (1) a method for counting embryos in a well, and cropping each individual embryo across frames, to create individual movies for cell tracking; (2) a semi-automated method for cell tracking that works up to the 8-cell stage, along with a software implementation available to the public (this software was used to build the reported database); (3) an algorithm for automatic tracking up to the 4-cell stage, based on histograms of mirror symmetry coefficients captured using wavelets; (4) a cell-tracking database containing 100 annotated examples of mammalian embryos up to the 8-cell stage; (5) statistical analysis of various timing distributions obtained from those examples. PMID:24873887

  12. The Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) : LST, Linear and Nonlinear PSE for 2-D, Axisymmetric, and Infinite Swept Wing Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2003-01-01

    During the past two decades, our understanding of laminar-turbulent transition flow physics has advanced significantly owing to, in a large part, the NASA program support such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), High-speed Civil Transport (HSCT), and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST). Experimental, theoretical, as well as computational efforts on various issues such as receptivity and linear and nonlinear evolution of instability waves take part in broadening our knowledge base for this intricate flow phenomenon. Despite all these advances, transition prediction remains a nontrivial task for engineers due to the lack of a widely available, robust, and efficient prediction tool. The design and development of the LASTRAC code is aimed at providing one such engineering tool that is easy to use and yet capable of dealing with a broad range of transition related issues. LASTRAC was written from scratch based on the state-of-the-art numerical methods for stability analysis and modem software technologies. At low fidelity, it allows users to perform linear stability analysis and N-factor transition correlation for a broad range of flow regimes and configurations by using either the linear stability theory (LST) or linear parabolized stability equations (LPSE) method. At high fidelity, users may use nonlinear PSE to track finite-amplitude disturbances until the skin friction rise. Coupled with the built-in receptivity model that is currently under development, the nonlinear PSE method offers a synergistic approach to predict transition onset for a given disturbance environment based on first principles. This paper describes the governing equations, numerical methods, code development, and case studies for the current release of LASTRAC. Practical applications of LASTRAC are demonstrated for linear stability calculations, N-factor transition correlation, non-linear breakdown simulations, and controls of stationary crossflow instability in supersonic swept wing boundary

  13. Central Calorimeter Thermal Gradient Module Connection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-07

    Two 20 kW condensing and one 10 kW steady state cooling coils will be used to cool and condense gaseous argon in the Central Calorimeter (CC) Cryostat. Since this cool down (300K to 90K) will inevitably cause shrinkage in the modules contained inside the cryostat, the connections between the modules have to be designed to withstand the increase in forces and moments induced by this contraction. This paper presents finite element analysis (ANSYS{reg_sign}) results to aid in the design or modification of the Central Calorimeter module connections.

  14. Thermal Analysis of LED Phosphor Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Ukwatte Lokuliyanage Indika Upendra

    Solid-state lighting technology has progressed to a level where light-emitting diode (LED) products are either on par or better than their traditional lighting technology counterparts with respect to efficacy and lifetime. At present, the most common method to create "white" light from LEDs for illumination applications is by using the LED primary radiation and wavelength-converting materials. In this method, the re-emission from the wavelength-converting materials excited by the LED primary radiation is combined with the LED primary radiation to create the "white" light. During this conversion process, heat is generated as a result of conversion inefficiencies and other loss mechanisms in the LED and the wavelength-converting materials. This generated heat, if not properly dissipated, increases the operating temperature, thereby increasing the light output degradation of the system over both the short and long term. The heat generation of the LED and thermal management of the LED have been studied extensively. Methods to effectively dissipate heat from the LEDs and maintain lower LED operating temperature are well understood. However, investigation of factors driving heat generation, the resulting temperature distribution in the phosphor layer, and the influence of the phosphor layer temperature on LED performance and reliability have not received the same focus. The goal of this dissertation was to understand the main factors driving heat and light generation and the transport of light and heat in the wavelength-converting layer of an LED system. Another goal was to understand the interaction between heat and light in the system and to develop and analyze a solution to reduce the wavelength-converting layer operating temperature, thereby improving light output and reliability. Even though past studies have explored generation and transfer separately for light and heat, to the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study that has analyzed both factors

  15. A Complete Piping Analysis With Thermal Stratification Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Milton Dong; Hong Ming Lee; Chii Chern

    2002-07-01

    The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) had issued Bulletins 88-08, 88-11, 89-90, and 93-38 to address the concerns and problems due to thermal stratification loading during the life span of normal plant operation. The thermal stratification condition typically will cause pipe to bow in on a long horizontal segment. These conditions have not been commonly considered in piping design. However, the additional thermal cyclic stresses and loads due to these conditions could lead to the fatigue damage of the piping components and the failures of pipe supports. Analyzing the effects of thermal stratification loads can be very cumbersome if it is not a built-in functionality of the analysis program. Thus in response to the recent increase in such cases we have incorporated this feature in our piping stress computer program. A stress engineer can now define the thermal stratification conditions easily and the program will compute the pipe stresses and pipe support loads automatically as one of the load cases. The program then combines the thermal stratification load cases with other load cases as required in accordance with the load histogram to determine the cumulative fatigue damage of the piping system. The thermal cyclic stresses are evaluated in accordance with the design rules of Nuclear Class 1 piping components provided in NB-3650 of ASME section III Code. This paper presents the method, modeling and validation for implementing the functionality of analyzing thermal stratification loads in a computer program, as well as an application on an actual piping system as an illustration. (authors)

  16. Validation tests of the thermal analysis research program

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, G.N.; Cavanaugh, K.

    1985-09-01

    In the study analytical and empirical tests were performed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). TARP was found to be very accurate relative to the analytical tests (calculations for simplified conditions) which covered steady and transient conduction, internal radiant interchange, latent loads, and clear sky solar gains. Six one-room buildings with different wall constructions provided data for the empirical tests.

  17. Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    September 2013 Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries Frank C. Krieger and Michael S. Ding Sensors and Electron Devices...certified gas cylinder calibration tests. These measured gas pressures all include the 0.5813 total volume fraction of argon gas in the certified gas...volume fraction of argon gas in the certified gas cylinder. .....................................................................8 Table 4. Moles of

  18. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  19. Analysis of piping response to thermal and operational transients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The reactor piping system is an extremely complex three-dimensional structure. Maintaining its structural integrity is essential to the safe operation of the reactor and the steam-supply system. In the safety analysis, various transient loads can be imposed on the piping which may cause plastic deformation and possible damage to the system, including those generated from hydrodynamic wave propagations, thermal and operational transients, as well as the seismic events. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a three-dimensional (3-D) piping code, SHAPS, aimed for short-duration transients due to wave propagation, has been developed. Since 1984, the development work has been shifted to the long-duration accidents originating from the thermal and operational transient. As a result, a new version of the code, SHAPS-2, is being established. This paper describes many features related to this later development. To analyze piping response generated from thermal and operational transients, a 3-D implicit finite element algorithm has been developed for calculating the hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional deformations induced by the thermomechanical loads. The analysis appropriately accounts for stresses arising from the temperature dependence of the elastic material properties, the thermal expansion of the materials, and the changes in the temperature-dependent yield surface. Thermal softening, failure, strain rate, creep, and stress ratching can also be considered.

  20. Validation of a computer analysis to determine 3-D rotations and translations of the rib cage in upright posture from three 2-D digital images

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Deed E.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Cailliet, Rene; Normand, Martin C.; Perron, Denise L.; Ferrantelli, Joseph R

    2006-01-01

    Since thoracic cage posture affects lumbar spine coupling and loads on the spinal tissues and extremities, a scientific analysis of upright posture is needed. Common posture analyzers measure human posture as displacements from a plumb line, while the PosturePrint™ claims to measure head, rib cage, and pelvic postures as rotations and translations. In this study, it was decided to evaluate the validity of the PosturePrint™ Internet computer system’s analysis of thoracic cage postures. In a university biomechanics laboratory, photographs of a mannequin thoracic cage were obtained in different postures on a stand in front of a digital camera. For each mannequin posture, three photographs were obtained (left lateral, right lateral, and AP). The mannequin thoracic cage was placed in 68 different single and combined postures (requiring 204 photographs) in five degrees of freedom: lateral translation (Tx), lateral flexion (Rz), axial rotation (Ry), flexion–extension (Rx), and anterior–posterior translation (Tz). The PosturePrint™ system requires 13 reflective markers to be placed on the subject (mannequin) during photography and 16 additional “click-on” markers via computer mouse before a set of three photographs is analyzed by the PosturePrint™ computer system over the Internet. Errors were the differences between the positioned mannequin and the calculated positions from the computer system. Average absolute value errors were obtained by comparing the exact inputted posture to the PosturePrint™’s computed values. Mean and standard deviation of computational errors for sagittal displacements of the thoracic cage were Rx=0.3±0.1°, Tz=1.6±0.7 mm, and for frontal view displacements were Ry=1.2±1.0°, Rz=0.6±0.4°, and Tx=1.5±0.6 mm. The PosturePrint™ system is sufficiently accurate in measuring thoracic cage postures in five degrees of freedom on a mannequin indicating the need for a further study on human subjects. PMID:16547756

  1. Identification of Serine Conformers by Matrix-Isolation IR Spectroscopy Aided by Near-Infrared Laser-Induced Conformational Change, 2D Correlation Analysis, and Quantum Mechanical Anharmonic Computations.

    PubMed

    Najbauer, Eszter E; Bazsó, Gábor; Apóstolo, Rui; Fausto, Rui; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo; Tarczay, György

    2015-08-20

    The conformers of α-serine were investigated by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. This method, aided by 2D correlation analysis, enabled unambiguously grouping the spectral lines to individual conformers. On the basis of comparison of at least nine experimentally observed vibrational transitions of each conformer with empirically scaled (SQM) and anharmonic (GVPT2) computed IR spectra, six conformers were identified. In addition, the presence of at least one more conformer in Ar matrix was proved, and a short-lived conformer with a half-life of (3.7 ± 0.5) × 10(3) s in N2 matrix was generated by NIR irradiation. The analysis of the NIR laser-induced conversions revealed that the excitation of the stretching overtone of both the side chain and the carboxylic OH groups can effectively promote conformational changes, but remarkably different paths were observed for the two kinds of excitations.

  2. Application of the order-of-magnitude analysis to a fourth-order RANS closure for simulating a 2D boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.

    2013-11-01

    Simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flows are usually conducted using a set of the simplified Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations obtained by order-of-magnitude analysis (OMA) of the original RANS equations. The resultant equations for the mean-velocity components are closed using the Boussinesq approximation for the Reynolds stresses. In this study OMA is applied to the fourth-order RANS (FORANS) set of equations. The FORANS equations are chosen as they can be closed on the level of the 5th-order correlations without using unknown model coefficients, i.e. no turbulent diffusion modeling is required. New models for the 2nd-, 3rd- and 4th-order velocity-pressure gradient correlations are derived for the current FORANS equations. This set of FORANS equations and models are analyzed for the case of two-dimensional mean flow. The equations include familiar transport terms for the mean-velocity components along with algebraic expressions for velocity correlations of different orders specific to the FORANS approach. Flat plate DNS data (Spalart, 1988) are used to verify these expressions and the areas of the OMA applicability within the boundary layer. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.

  3. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

    1992-10-14

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  4. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III )

    1993-01-10

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  5. Thermal analysis of polyethylene + X% carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovyi, Fedir; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Nedilko, Sergii; Revo, Sergiy; Hamamda, Smail

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research is to study the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the thermomechanical and structural properties of high-density polyethylene. Several, complementary experimental techniques were used, namely, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Dilatometry data showed that nanocomposites exhibit anisotropic behavior, and intensity of the anisotropy depends on the MWCNT concentration. The shapes of the dilatometric curves of the nanocomposites under study differ significantly for the radial and longitudinal directions of the samples. DSC results show that MWCNTs weekly influence calorimetry data, while Raman spectra show that the I D/ I G ratio decreases when MWCNT concentration increases. The IR spectra demonstrate improvement of the crystallinity of the samples as the content in MWCNTs rises.

  6. Origin of the Ion Foreshock in a Quasi-perpendicular Curved Collisionless Shock: Particles Trajectory Analysis in 2D PIC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.

    2015-12-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's shock wave is populated with ions having interacted with the shock, and then, reflected back with an high energy gain. Spacecrafts have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45° ≤ ΘBn ≤ 90°, where ΘBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field) : (i) field-aligned ion beams or « FAB » characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions or « GPB » characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. One of the important unresolved problem is the exact origin of the particles contributing to these two populations. To our knowledge, it was the first time that full-particle simulations have been performed including self-consistently the shock front curvature and nonstationarity, and the time-of-flight effects. Our analysis evidences that these two backstreaming populations may be reflected by the front itself and can be differentiated both in terms of interaction time and trajectory within the shock front. In particular, simulations evidence that "GPB" population is characterized by a short interaction time (ΔTinter = 1 to 2 τci) while the "FAB" population corresponds to a much larger time range (from 1 τci to 10 τci), where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. Present individual ion trajectories evidence that "FAB" population shows a strong perpendicular drift at the shock front (i.e. strong dependence of the pitch angle to the perpendicular velocity) whereas the "GPB" population shows no perpendicular drift (i.e. its pitch angle is mainly driven by the parallel velocity). Such differences explain why the "FAB" population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the "GPB". This important result was not expected and greatly simplifies the question of their origin.

  7. 2D spatiotemporal visualization system of expired gaseous ethanol after oral administration for real-time illustrated analysis of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ando, Eri; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hirokazu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2010-08-15

    A novel 2-dimensional spatiotemporal visualization system of expired gaseous ethanol after oral administration for real-time illustrated analysis of alcohol metabolism has been developed, which employed a low level light CCD camera to detect chemiluminescence (CL) generated by catalytic reactions of standard gaseous ethanol and expired gaseous ethanol after oral administration. First, the optimization of the substrates for visualization and the concentration of luminol solution for CL were investigated. The cotton mesh and 5.0 mmol L(-1) luminol solution were selected for further investigations and this system is useful for 0.1-20.0 mmol L(-1) of H(2)O(2) solution. Then, the effect of pH condition of Tris-HCl buffer solution was also evaluated with CL intensity and under the Tris-HCl buffer solution pH 10.1, a wide calibration range of standard gaseous ethanol (30-400 ppm) was obtained. Finally, expired air of 5 healthy volunteers after oral administration was measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min after oral administration, and this system showed a good sensitivity on expired gaseous ethanol for alcohol metabolism. The peaks of expired gaseous ethanol concentration appeared within 30 min after oral administration. During the 30 min after oral administration, the time variation profile based on mean values showed the absorption and distribution function, and the values onward showed the elimination function. The absorption and distribution of expired gaseous ethanol in 5 healthy volunteers following first-order absorption process were faster than the elimination process, which proves efficacious of this system for described alcohol metabolism in healthy volunteers. This system is expected to be used as a non-invasive method to detect VOCs as well as several other drugs in expired air for clinical purpose.

  8. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  9. Diagnosis of cutaneous thermal burn injuries by multispectral imaging analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Zawacki, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    Special photographic or television image analysis is shown to be a potentially useful technique to assist the physician in the early diagnosis of thermal burn injury. A background on the medical and physiological problems of burns is presented. The proposed methodology for burns diagnosis from both the theoretical and clinical points of view is discussed. The television/computer system constructed to accomplish this analysis is described, and the clinical results are discussed.

  10. Thermal analysis for the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment (CFMFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolak, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to identify recent thermal analysis efforts and to review that part of the analysis that addresses the prediction of fluid and container temperature gradients during low gravity storage in space. It was concluded that both small and large tanks require hundreds of hours to reach even 60 PSIA. In about 1000 hours, the small tank is close to equilibrium; the large tank requires many thousands of hours to reach equilibrium.

  11. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  12. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  13. Prediction of p38 map kinase inhibitory activity of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3, 2-d] pyrimidone derivatives using an expert system based on principal component analysis and least square support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    Shahlaei, M.; Saghaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study is suggested for the prediction of biological activity (pIC50) of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3,2-d] pyrimidone derivatives as p38 inhibitors. Modeling of the biological activities of compounds of interest as a function of molecular structures was established by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) methods. The results showed that the pIC50 values calculated by LS-SVM are in good agreement with the experimental data, and the performance of the LS-SVM regression model is superior to the PCA-based model. The developed LS-SVM model was applied for the prediction of the biological activities of pyrimidone derivatives, which were not in the modeling procedure. The resulted model showed high prediction ability with root mean square error of prediction of 0.460 for LS-SVM. The study provided a novel and effective approach for predicting biological activities of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3,2-d] pyrimidone derivatives as p38 inhibitors and disclosed that LS-SVM can be used as a powerful chemometrics tool for QSAR studies. PMID:26339262

  14. Concrete resource analysis of the quantum linear-system algorithm used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of a 2D target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Artur; Valiron, Benoît; Mau, Siun-Chuon; Alexander, Scott; van den Berg, Eric; Chapuran, Thomas E.

    2017-03-01

    We provide a detailed estimate for the logical resource requirements of the quantum linear-system algorithm (Harrow et al. in Phys Rev Lett 103:150502, 2009) including the recently described elaborations and application to computing the electromagnetic scattering cross section of a metallic target (Clader et al. in Phys Rev Lett 110:250504, 2013). Our resource estimates are based on the standard quantum-circuit model of quantum computation; they comprise circuit width (related to parallelism), circuit depth (total number of steps), the number of qubits and ancilla qubits employed, and the overall number of elementary quantum gate operations as well as more specific gate counts for each elementary fault-tolerant gate from the standard set { X, Y, Z, H, S, T, { CNOT } }. In order to perform these estimates, we used an approach that combines manual analysis with automated estimates generated via the Quipper quantum programming language and compiler. Our estimates pertain to the explicit example problem size N=332{,}020{,}680 beyond which, according to a crude big-O complexit