Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-11-01
Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.
Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in forced 2-D turbulence
Kadoch, B.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Bos, W.J.T.; Schneider, Kai
2011-01-01
A study of the relationship between Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a Lagrangian approach and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the Lagrangian Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the Lagrangian velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order - 2.
Turbulence modeling for subsonic separated flows over 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Aaron M.
Accurate predictions of turbulent boundary layers and flow separation through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are becoming more and more essential for the prediction of loads in the design of aerodynamic flight components. Standard eddy viscosity models used in many commercial codes today do not capture the nonequilibrium effects seen in a separated flow and thus do not generally make accurate separation predictions. Part of the reason for this is that under nonequilibrium conditions such as a strong adverse pressure gradient, the history effects of the flow play an important role in the growth and decay of turbulence. More recent turbulence models such as Olsen and Coakley's Lag model and Lillard's lagRST model seek to simulate these effects by lagging the turbulent variables when nonequilibrium effects become important. The purpose of the current research is to assess how these nonequilibrium turbulence models capture the separated regions on various 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings. Nonequilibrium models including the Lag model and the lagRST model are evaluated in comparison with three baseline models (Spalart-Allmaras, Wilcox's k-omega, and Menter's SST) using a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. Tuning the model coefficients of the Lag and lagRST models is also explored. Results show that the various lagRST formulations display an improvement in velocity profile predictions over the standard RANS models, but have trouble capturing the edge of the boundary layer. Experimental separation location measurements were not available, but several trends are noted which may be useful to tuning the model coefficients in the future.
Micro PIV measurements of turbulent flow over 2D structured roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartenberger, Joel; Perlin, Marc
2015-11-01
We investigate the turbulent boundary layer over surfaces with 2D spanwise square and triangular protrusions having nominal heights of 100 - 300 microns for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ ~ 1500 through Reτ ~ 4500 using a high speed, high magnification imaging system. Micro PIV analysis gives finely resolved velocity fields of the flow (on the order of 10 microns between vectors) enabling a detailed look at the inner region as well as the flow in the immediate vicinity of the roughness elements. Additionally, planar PIV with lower resolution is performed to capture the remainder of the boundary layer to the freestream flow. Varying the streamwise distance between individual roughness elements from one to ten times the nominal heights allows investigation of k-type and d-type roughness in both the transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. Preliminary results show a shift in the mean velocity profile similar to the results of previous studies. Turbulent statistics will be presented also. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of NAVSEA which funded this project through the Naval Engineering Education Center (NEEC).
Turbulence Measurements on a 2D NACA 0036 with Synthetic Jet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J. S.
2006-01-01
An active flow control experiment was conducted on a 2-ft chord NACA 0036 airfoil in a 3-ft by 4-ft Wind Tunnel at Re = 1 x 10(exp 6). The model was equipped with synthetic jet actuators at x/c = 0.30 and 0.65 that provided 120 Hz periodic excitation at a C(sub mu) 0.86% through 0.06-in wide slots. Three different slot con gurations were tested, including a baseline with no slots. Surface pressure data was collected to compare to previous tests and to combine with turbulence data to aid future CFD modeling efforts. Turbulence data, measured by hot-wire, was compared with and without flow control. Pressure data corroborates previous test data and provides more points for CFD validation. Hot-wire results showed ow control reduced the separated wake size and brought the high Reynolds stress shear layer closer to the airfoil surface. The position of this layer to the surface was altered more significantly than the magnitude of the peak stresses. Flow control was shown to increase turbulent energy in the attached boundary layer downstream of the slot but to have little effect upstream. These results provide further justification to continue assessing the potential of active flow control to reduce drag of helicopter airframe components.
Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight
2016-11-01
The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.
Time-Dependent 2D Modeling of Magnetron Plasma Torch in Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lincun; Xia, Weidong
2008-06-01
A theoretical model is presented to describe the electromagnetic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a magnetron plasma torch and in the resultant plume, by using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. Specific calculations are presented for a pure argon system (i.e., an argon plasma discharging into an argon environment), operated in a turbulent mode. An important finding of this work is that the external axial magnetic field (AMF) may have a significant effect on the behavior of arc plasma and thus affects the resulting plume. The AMF impels the plasma to retract axially and expand radially. As a result, the plasma intensity distribution on the cross section of torch seems to be more uniform. Numerical results also show that with AMF, the highest plasma temperature decreases and the anode arc root moves upstream significantly, while the current density distribution at the anode is more concentrated with a higher peak value. In addition, the use of AMF then induces a strong backflow at the torch spout and its magnitude increases with the AMF strength but decreases with the inlet gas velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awad, Esam; Toorman, Erik; Lacor, Chris
2009-06-01
In this study, the performance of the horizontal large eddy simulation module, developed at the University of Leuven (HLES-KULeuven module) is assessed. A comparison between different subgrid scale models has been carried out. The study is concerned with the non-rotating and unstratified flows. The results of the simulation for an oscillatory backward facing (BFS) flow are presented in case of an expanding flume based on a one-length scale approach and a two-length scale approach. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models have been tested: Smagorinsky SGS model (Smagorinsky, J., (1963). General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. the basic experiments. Monthly Weather Review, 91(3), 99-164), Uittenbogaard SGS model (Uittenbogaard, R.E., and van Vossen, B., (2004). Subgrid-scale model for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow water. Shallow Flows. Jirka and Uijttewaal (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 90 5809 700 5) and a proposed two-length scale approach. The first two models are considered to be a one-length scale models. A simulation without a subgrid scale model for the horizontal mixing has also been conducted. In all simulations, a quadratic friction model parameterizes the dissipation produced by the 3D-subdepth scale turbulence. The two-length scale concept uses a newly mixing length formulation for the quasi-2D turbulence and doesn't depend on the filter width in contrast to the one-length scale approach, in which the mixing length is function of the filter width. The outputs of the HLES-KULeuven module have been compared with the experimental data taken from Stelling, G.S., and Wang, L.X., (1984). Experiments and computations on separating flow in an expanding flume. Dept. Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Report 2-84.). The two-length scale approach has been validated with experimental data from SERC Flood Channel Facility at HR Wallingford. In general, there is a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It has
MEAN FLOW AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AROUND A 2-D ARRAY OF BUILDINGS IN A WIND TUNNEL
In order to predict the dispersion of harmful materials released in or near an urban environment, it is important to first understand the complex flow patterns which result from the interaction of the wind with buildings and, more commonly, clusters of buildings. Recent advanc...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parezanović, Vladimir; Monchaux, Romain; Cadot, Olivier
2015-01-01
A small control cylinder placed in a turbulent wake of a much larger 2 D bluff body can cause a significant increase in drag fluctuations. These fluctuations occur on timescales longer than the timescales of the vortex shedding. The critical positions of the control cylinder are highly localized. Ensemble averages of PIV acquisitions and pressure measurements at the base of the bluff body reveal a bistable wake regime. Long duration hot-wire measurements are used to characterize the states and the transition process. The results show that a stochastic process is responsible for the transitions between the two stable states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-11-01
Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).
Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.
There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P
Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido
2016-11-01
We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.
Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael
2014-05-01
Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
2016-06-16
Journal of Wind Engineering ELSEVIER and Industrial Aerodynamics 92 (2004) 117-158 www.elsevier.com/locate/jweia Simulation of mean flow and...detailed and comprehensive wind tunnel data set. Vertical profiles of the mean streamwise velocity and the turbulence kinetic energy are presented and...compared to those measured in the wind tunnel simulation. It is found that the performance of all the turbulence models investigated is generally
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C.; Chang, T.
2010-12-01
A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.
Zonal flow generation in parallel flow shear driven turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.
2017-03-01
Generation of zonal flow in parallel flow shear driven turbulence is discussed. Nonlinear dynamics is formulated by calculating energy transfer in the wave number space. It is shown that zonal flows can be generated (gain energy) from the primary mode which is driven by parallel flow shear. As a result, helical flow pattern can develop in turbulent plasmas. Our results imply that zonal flow can be generated in 3D parallel flow shear driven turbulence, which indicates that zonal flows are ubiquitous in turbulent plasmas, either 2D or 3D. Implications for turbulent momentum transport in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are discussed.
Turbulence modeling for separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1994-01-01
Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.
Transmission of acoustic waves through mixing layers and 2D isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juve, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Comte-Bellot, G.
Ray tracing and parabolic equation methods have been used to study the properties of acoustic waves transmitted through turbulent velocity fields. A numerical simulation permits individual realizations of the turbulent field, which then allow, if desired, an ensemble averaging of the fields. Two flows have been considered, 2D isotropic turbulence and a 2D mixing layer. The following complementary aspects are developed: the occurrence of caustics, the reinforced or weakened zones of the acoustic field, the eigenrays between a source and a receiver, and the associated travel times, variances, and scintillation index.
Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.
1995-01-01
There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.
Relative dispersion in 2D stochastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piterbarg, L. I.
We investigate the relative dispersion for two types of stochastic flows—Brownian flow (Kraichnan model) and a flow with memory (inertial particles). In the first case well-known asymptotics are rigorously derived for a self-similar spectrum of the velocity field by using a half-century-old Feller's theorem. Exact limits of the asymptotics and exact values for dimensionless constants are obtained. The second part of the paper addresses a relatively new object: the first-order Markov stochastic flow modelling inertial particle motion. Both local and non-local dynamics are investigated. In the first case an exact exponential asymptotic is obtained for the relative dispersion. In turn, two regimes are considered in the case of non-smooth forcing: weak and strong turbulence. For weak turbulence the obtained asymptotic of relative dispersion is similar to that of the Brownian flow. As for strong turbulence, an upper bound is obtained for the scaling of relative dispersion.
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.; Sieros, G.; Jost, E.; Lutz, T.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Barakos, G. N.; Colonia, S.; Baldacchino, D.; Baptista, C.; Ferreira, C.
2016-09-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar-turbulent transitional results only three out of seven provided results, and the agreement is generally lower than for the fully turbulent case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeromin, A.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Puczylowski, J.; Peinke, J.; Hölling, M.
2014-12-01
For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales.
Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel
2010-05-01
argue that now exactly such a reinterpretation of the aircraft data has been found (Lovejoy et al., 2009b). We argue that the debate has now been decisively resolved in favour of the SP approaches so that neither 2-D isotropic nor 3D isotropic turbulence - are relevant in the atmosphere. References: J.G. Charney, Geostrophic Turbulence, J. Atmos. Sci 28(1971), p. 1087. J. Cho and E. Lindborg, Horizontal velocity structure functions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere i: Observations, J. Geophys. Res. 106(2001), pp. 10223-10232. E. Dewan, Saturated-cascade similtude theory of gravity wave sepctra, J. Geophys. Res. 102(1997), pp. 29799-29817. R. Fjortoft, On the changes in the spectral distribution of kinetic energy in two dimensional, nondivergent flow, Tellus 7(1953), pp. 168-176. D. Fritts, T. Tsuda, T. Sato, S. Fukao and S. Kato, Observational evidence of a saturated gravity wave spectrum in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 45(1988), p. 1741. K.S. Gage and G.D. Nastrom, Theoretical Interpretation of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature observed by commercial aircraft during GASP, J. of the Atmos. Sci. 43(1986), pp. 729-740. C.S. Gardner, C.A. Hostetler and S.J. Franke, Gravity Wave models for the horizontal wave number spectra of atmospheric velocity and density flucutations, J. Geophys. Res. 98(1993), pp. 1035-1049. C.A. Hostetler and C.S. Gardner, Observations of horizontal and vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave motions in the stratosphere and mesosphere ove rthe mid-Pacific, J. Geophys. Res. 99(1994), pp. 1283-1302. A.N. Kolmogorov, Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible liquid for very large Reynolds numbers. (English translation: Proc. Roy. Soc. A434, 9-17, 1991), Proc. Acad. Sci. URSS., Geochem. Sect. 30(1941), pp. 299-303. R.H. Kraichnan, Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence, Physics of Fluids 10(1967), pp. 1417-1423. A. Lazarev, D. Schertzer, S. Lovejoy and
Simultaneous 2D Doppler backscattering from edge turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, David; Brunner, Kai; Freethy, Simon; Huang, Billy; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Vann, Roddy
2015-11-01
The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic (previously at MAST and now at NSTX-U) actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (80 degree beam width) and broadband (10-34.5 GHz) beam. It digitizes the phase and amplitude of the Doppler backscattered signal using a receiving array of eight antennas which can be focused in any direction post shot to an angular range of 6-24 degree FWHM. This allows Doppler BackScattering (DBS) experiments to be conducted in every direction within the field of view simultaneously. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. SAMI has measured the magnetic pitch angle in the edge for the first time using a backscattering diagnostic. This is possible with simultaneous 2D DBS because the maximum backscattered power is perpendicular to the turbulence and turbulence is elongated along the magnetic field. SAMI has also studied the effect of NBI and the L-H transition on turbulent velocity, and turbulence suppression in the edge during H-mode. Initial results from all of these studies will be presented. This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grants EP/K504178 and EP/H016732.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Turbulent flow through screens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1984-01-01
A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.
Turbulent Flow Computations in Ejectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogoi, A.; Siddesha, H.
2010-09-01
The paper presents computations in ejectors using in-house code NUMBERS. Computations are carried out in a 2D ejector and in a cylindrical ejector. Computations on the cylindrical ejector are done for various nozzle pressure ratios. The ejector flow is dominated by complex mixing of primary and secondary jets. The Spalart-Allmaras and Menter SST turbulence models are used. The results with the Menter SST model are superior to Spalart-Allmaras model at higher nozzle pressure ratios for the cylindrical ejector.
An investigation of DTNS2D for use as an incompressible turbulence modelling test-bed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.
1992-01-01
This paper documents an investigation of a two dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes solver for use as a test-bed for turbulence modelling. DTNS2D is the code under consideration for use at the Center for Modelling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT). This code was created by Gorski at the David Taylor Research Center and incorporates the pseudo compressibility method. Two laminar benchmark flows are used to measure the performance and implementation of the method. The classical solution of the Blasius boundary layer is used for validating the flat plate flow, while experimental data is incorporated in the validation of backward facing step flow. Velocity profiles, convergence histories, and reattachment lengths are used to quantify these calculations. The organization and adaptability of the code are also examined in light of the role as a numerical test-bed.
Turbulent nonreacting swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, J. I.
1984-06-01
Numerical results for incompressible confined swirling flows in a model combustor were obtained using the k-epsilon and k-l models of turbulence developed by Ramos (1980, 1981). Calculations were performed for a model combustor consisting of a 3.43-cm diameter inner pipe and a 14.5-cm diameter outer pipe. The outside diameter of the inner pipe is 3.86 cm. It is shown that the k-epsilon model does predict a recirculation zone for both coswirl and counterswirl flow conditions if suitable inlet conditions are used. Both turbulence models predict a nonexistent recirculation zone under coswirl conditions. The calculated mean axial and tangential velocity profiles are compared with the experimental data of Vu and Gouldin (1980).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarian, Alex
2003-07-01
HST and FUSE spectra of distant UV-bright sources reveal interstellar absorption lines of high stages of ionization {O VI, C IV, N V, Si IV} arising in many different astrophysical environments such as superbubbles, interstellar chimneys, high-velocity clouds, galaxy halos and cosmic filaments. Turbulence, always present in the magnetized ISM, must mix the hot { 10^6 K} gas with cooler gas within "turbulent mixing layers". Present theory, based on 1D steady-state flows, suggest the line ratios in these layers differ significantly from photoionized gas, radiative shocks, cooling zones, or conduction fronts. These models are use to infer mass and energy fluxes important to understanding the ISM. We propose to develop a suite of 3D time-dependent models that properly calculate turbulent mixing. We will produce synthetic UV absorption lines and optical emission lines directly relevant to HST observations that use GHRS, STIS, and eventually, COS. These models will allow us to explore the sensitivity of the spectral diagnostics to magnetic field strength, turbulence intensity, and relative velocity of the hot and cold gas. We will publish the resulting grid of spectral diagnostics and make them available through the Web.
Controllability of flow turbulence.
Guan, Shuguang; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H
2004-06-01
In this paper, we study the controllability of real-world flow turbulence governed by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, using strategies developed in chaos control. A case of control/synchronization of turbulent dynamics is observed when only one component of the velocity field vector is unidirectionally coupled to a target state, while the other component is uncoupled. Unlike previous results, it is shown that the dynamics of the whole velocity field cannot be completely controlled/synchronized to the target, even in the limit of long time and strong coupling strength. It is further revealed that the controlled component of the velocity field can be fully controlled/synchronized to the target, but the other component, which is not directly coupled to the target, can only be partially controlled/synchronized to the target. By extending an auxiliary method to distributed dynamic systems, the partial synchronization of two turbulent orbits in the present study can be categorized in the domain of generalized synchronization of spatiotemporal dynamics.
Plume dynamics in quasi-2D turbulent convection
Bizon, C.; Werne, J.; Predtechensky, A.A.; Julien, K.; McCormick, W.D.; Swift, J.B.; Swinney, H.L.
1997-03-01
We have studied turbulent convection in a vertical thin (Hele-Shaw) cell at very high Rayleigh numbers (up to 7{times}10{sup 4} times the value for convective onset) through experiment, simulation, and analysis. Experimentally, convection is driven by an imposed concentration gradient in an isothermal cell. Model equations treat the fields in two dimensions, with the reduced dimension exerting its influence through a linear wall friction. Linear stability analysis of these equations demonstrates that as the thickness of the cell tends to zero, the critical Rayleigh number and wave number for convective onset do not depend on the velocity conditions at the top and bottom boundaries (i.e., no-slip or stress-free). At finite cell thickness {delta}, however, solutions with different boundary conditions behave differently. We simulate the model equations numerically for both types of boundary conditions. Time sequences of the full concentration fields from experiment and simulation display a large number of solutal plumes that are born in thin concentration boundary layers, merge to form vertical channels, and sometimes split at their tips via a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Power spectra of the concentration field reveal scaling regions with slopes that depend on the Rayleigh number. We examine the scaling of nondimensional heat flux (the Nusselt number, Nu) and rms vertical velocity (the P{acute e}clet number, Pe) with the Rayleigh number (Ra{sup {asterisk}}) for the simulations. Both no-slip and stress-free solutions exhibit the scaling NuRa{sup {asterisk}}{approximately}Pe{sup 2} that we develop from simple arguments involving dynamics in the interior, away from cell boundaries. In addition, for stress-free solutions a second relation, Nu{approximately}{radical}(nPe), is dictated by stagnation-point flows occurring at the horizontal boundaries; n is the number of plumes per unit length. (Abstract Truncated)
Dust dynamics in 2D gravito-turbulent discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Ji-Ming; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Chiang, Eugene
2016-06-01
The dynamics of solid bodies in protoplanetary discs are subject to the properties of any underlying gas turbulence. Turbulence driven by disc self-gravity shows features distinct from those driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We study the dynamics of solids in gravito-turbulent discs with two-dimensional (in the disc plane), hybrid (particle and gas) simulations. Gravito-turbulent discs can exhibit stronger gravitational stirring than MRI-active discs, resulting in greater radial diffusion and larger eccentricities and relative speeds for large particles (those with dimensionless stopping times tstopΩ > 1, where Ω is the orbital frequency). The agglomeration of large particles into planetesimals by pairwise collisions is therefore disfavoured in gravito-turbulent discs. However, the relative speeds of intermediate-size particles (tstopΩ ˜ 1) are significantly reduced as such particles are collected by gas drag and gas gravity into coherent filament-like structures with densities high enough to trigger gravitational collapse. First-generation planetesimals may form via gravitational instability of dust in marginally gravitationally unstable gas discs.
Flow past 2-D Hemispherical Rigid Canopies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel
2013-11-01
The flow past a 2-dimensional rigid hemispherical shape is investigated using PIV. Flow field measurements and images were generated with the use of a Thermoflow® apparatus. Results of this study are compared to prior work (APS DFD 2012 Session E9.00003) which employed CFD to investigate the flow in the near wake of hemispherical parachutes. The various sized gaps/open areas were positioned at distinct locations. The work presented here is part of a larger research project to investigate flow fields in deceleration devices and parachutes. Understanding the pitch-stability of parachutes is essential for accurate design and implementation of these deceleration devices but they present a difficult system to analyze. The flexibility of the parachute fabric results in large variations in the parachute geometry leading to complex fluid-structure interactions. Such flow, combined with flow through gaps and open areas, has been postulated to shed alternating vortices causing pitching/oscillations of the canopy. The results presented provide some insight into which geometric features affect vortex shedding and may enable the redesign of the baseline parachute to minimize instabilities.
Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.
2017-02-01
Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-01-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Applications of URANS on predicting unsteady turbulent separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jinglei; Ma, Huiyang
2009-06-01
Accurate prediction of unsteady separated turbulent flows remains one of the toughest tasks and a practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, a 2D flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3,900 is numerically investigated by using the technique of unsteady RANS (URANS). Some typical linear and nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (LEVM and NLEVM) and a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) are evaluated. Numerical results have shown that a high-performance cubic NLEVM, such as CLS, are superior to the others in simulating turbulent separated flows with unsteady vortex shedding.
Distorted turbulence in axisymmetric flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1981-01-01
A solution to the rapid-distortion theory for small-scale turbulence in flow round an axisymmetric obstacle is derived. General formulae for velocity covariances and Eulerian time scales are obtained and are evaluated for the particular case of flow round a sphere. The large-scale limit for this flow is also discussed.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.
2015-12-01
In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.
Turbulence modeling for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1977-01-01
Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.
A new approach to highly resolved measurements of turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puczylowski, J.; Hölling, A.; Peinke, J.; Bhiladvala, R.; Hölling, M.
2015-05-01
In this paper we present the design and principle of a new anemometer, namely the 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA), which has been developed for highly resolved flow speed measurements of two components (2d) under laboratory conditions. We will explain the working principle and demonstrate the sensor’s performance by means of comparison measurements of wake turbulence with a commercial X-wire. In the past we have shown that the 2d-LCA is capable of being applied in liquid and particle-laden domains, but we also believe that other challenging areas of operation such as near-wall flows can become accessible.
Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.
1987-04-14
two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of
The effect of freestream turbulence on the wake of a 2D square prism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lander, Daniel; Letchford, Chris; Amitay, Michael; Kopp, Gregory
2015-11-01
The effect of freestream turbulence (FST) on a 2 D square prism is investigated at ReD = 5 . 0 ×104 using long duration Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV). Increasing the FST results in alterations to the flow field in the shear-layer and base regions and the origins of the apparent differences are discussed. The triple decomposition technique is employed to disintegrate changes attributable to the coherent and random components of the global wake stresses. In the presence of FST the vortex formation process is altered due to an increase reattachment time of the separating shear-layers on the trailing edge of the prism. This is accompanied by a transposition of the von-Kármán vorticies observed in the phase averaged flow field; a feature complementary to the narrowing and lengthening of the steady wake commonly observed in the literature. We wish to acknowledge financial support provided by the NSF under grant CMMI-1200987.
Transit times in turbulent flows.
Pécseli, H L; Trulsen, J
2010-04-01
Statistics of the motion of passively convected point particles in turbulent flows are studied. The database used is obtained by direct numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We estimate the probability distribution of the transit times of such particles through reference volumes with given forms and sizes. A selected position within the reference volume is moving with the local flow velocity, thus determining the motion of the entire surface. The transit time is defined as the interval between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the volume by the turbulent motions. Spherical as well as hemispherical surfaces are studied. Scale sizes in the inertial as well as in the viscous subranges of the turbulence are considered. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the transit times in terms of the basic properties of the turbulent flow and the geometry. In the present formulation, the results of the analysis are relevant for chemical reactions, but also for understanding details of the feeding rate of micro-organisms in turbulent waters, for instance.
Thermal stability effects on the separated flow over a steep 2-D hill
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W.; Porte-Agel, F.
2012-12-01
Transport of momentum and scalars in turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography has been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. Applications include but are not limited to weather forecasting, air pollution dispersion, aviation safety control, and wind energy project planning. Linear models have been well accepted to predict boundary-layer flows over topography with gentle slope. However, once the slope of the topography is sufficientlyo steep that flow separation occurs, linear models are not applicable. Modeling the turbulent transport of momentum and scalars in such flows has to be achieved through non-linear models, such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solvers and large-eddy simulations (LES). Dynamics of the separated boundary-layer flows over steep topography is affected by the shape and size of the topography, surface characteristics (e.g., roughness and temperature) and atmospheric thermal stability. Most wind-tunnel experiments of boundary-layer flows over idealized topography (e.g. 2-D or 3-D hills, axisymmetric bumps) do not take thermal stability effects into account due to difficulty of physical simulation. We conducted comprehensive experimental investigation of stably- and unstably- stratified boundary layers over a steep 2-D hill in the thermally-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. The 2-D model hill has a steepest slope of 0.73 and its shape follows a cosine square function: h=Hcos^2 (πx/L) for -L/2 ≤ x ≤ L/2 , where the maximum height H is 7 cm and the total width L is 15 cm. High-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) provides dynamic information of the separated shear layer, the recirculation zone and flow reattachment. Turbulent momentum and scalar (heat) fluxes were characterized up to the top of the thermal boundary layer using a triple-wire (cross-wire and cold-wire) anemometer. Results indicate that promoted and suppressed turbulence
Flow transitions in a 2D directional solidification model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larroude, Philippe; Ouazzani, Jalil; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1992-01-01
Flow transitions in a Two Dimensional (2D) model of crystal growth were examined using the Bridgman-Stockbarger me thod. Using a pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method, the governing equations yield solutions which exhibit a symmetry breaking flow tansition and oscillatory behavior indicative of a Hopf bifurcation at higher values of Ra. The results are discussed from fluid dynamic viewpoint, and broader implications for process models are also addressed.
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A.
1983-01-01
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows is discussed. Computational requirements for the direct simulaton of turbulence, simulation of arbitrary homogeneous flows, an expansion technique for wall bounded flows with application to pipe flow, and possibilities of flow representations or modeling techniques that allow the simulation of high Reynolds number flows with a relatively small number of dependent variables are included.
Transition to chaos in an open unforced 2D flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, Thomas H.; Vastano, John A.
1993-01-01
The present numerical study of unsteady, low Reynolds number flow past a 2D airfoil attempts to ascertain the bifurcation sequence leading from simple periodic to complex aperiodic flow with rising Reynolds number, as well as to characterize the degree of chaos present in the aperiodic flow and assess the role of numerics in the modification and control of the observed bifurcation scenario. The ARC2D Navier-Stokes code is used in an unsteady time-accurate mode for most of these computations. The system undergoes a period-doubling bifurcation to chaos as the Reynolds number is increased from 800 to 1600; its chaotic attractors are characterized by estimates of the fractal dimension and partial Liapunov exponent spectra.
Turbulent Flow Between Rotating Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih-I, Pai
1943-01-01
The turbulent air flow between rotating cylinders was investigated. The distributions of mean speed and of turbulence were measured in the gap between a rotating inner and a stationary outer cylinder. The measurements led to the conclusion that the turbulent flow in the gap cannot be considered two dimensional, but that a particular type of secondary motion takes place. It is shown that the experimentally found velocity distribution can be fully understood under the assumption that this secondary motion consists of three-dimensional ring-shape vortices. The vortices occur only in pairs, and their number and size depend on the speed of the rotating cylinder; the number was found to decrease with increasing speed. The secondary motion has an essential part in the transmission of the moment of momentum. In regions where the secondary motion is negligible, the momentum transfer follows the laws known for homologous turbulence. Ring-shape vortices are known to occur in the laminar flow between rotating cylinders, but it was hitherto unknown that they exist even at speeds that are several hundred times the critical limit.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
DNSLab: A gateway to turbulent flow simulation in Matlab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuorinen, V.; Keskinen, K.
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research is increasingly much focused towards computationally intensive, eddy resolving simulation techniques of turbulent flows such as large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, we present a compact educational software package called DNSLab, tailored for learning partial differential equations of turbulence from the perspective of DNS in Matlab environment. Based on educational experiences and course feedback from tens of engineering post-graduate students and industrial engineers, DNSLab can offer a major gateway to turbulence simulation with minimal prerequisites. Matlab implementation of two common fractional step projection methods is considered: the 2d Fourier pseudo-spectral method, and the 3d finite difference method with 2nd order spatial accuracy. Both methods are based on vectorization in Matlab and the slow for-loops are thus avoided. DNSLab is tested on two basic problems which we have noted to be of high educational value: 2d periodic array of decaying vortices, and 3d turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is possibly the first to investigate efficiency of a 3d turbulent, wall bounded flow in Matlab. The accuracy and efficiency of DNSLab is compared with a customized OpenFOAM solver called rk4projectionFoam. Based on our experiences and course feedback, the main contribution of DNSLab consists of the following features. (i) The very compact Matlab implementation of present Navier-Stokes solvers provides a gateway to efficient learning of both, physics of turbulent flows, and simulation of turbulence. (ii) Only relatively minor prerequisites on fluid dynamics and numerical methods are required for using DNSLab. (iii) In 2d, interactive results for turbulent flow cases can be obtained. Even for a 3d channel flow, the solver is fast enough for nearly interactive educational use. (iv) DNSLab is made openly available and thus contributing to
High-resolution 2D3V simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Califano, Francesco; Rincon, Francois; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank; Pegoraro, Francesco
2016-10-01
The understanding of the kinetic processes at play in plasma turbulence is a frontier problem in plasma physics and among the topics currently of most interest in space plasma research. Here we investigate the properties of turbulence from the end of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cascade to scales well below the ion gyroradius (i.e., the so-called ``dissipation'' or ``dispersion'' range) by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in a 2D3V phase-space (two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions). Different values of the plasma beta parameter typical of the solar wind (SW) are investigated. Several aspects of turbulence at small-scales emerging from the simulations are presented and discussed. Even within the limitations of the hybrid approach in 2D3V, a reasonable agreement with SW observations and with theory is found. Finally, we identify possible implications and questions related to SW turbulence which arise from this study. This research has been funded by European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No.277870 and by Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018. Simulations were performed on Fermi (CINECA, IT) and Hydra (MPCDF, DE).
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John
1989-01-01
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct simulation. The spot area is divided into two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. It is found that the flow structures inside the turbulent area have strong resemblance to those found in the fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The rms fluctuations and Reynolds stress are found to be higher in that area, and the shear-layer structures are similar to those observed in the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves.
Turbulent spots in hypervelocity flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jewell, Joseph S.; Leyva, Ivett A.; Shepherd, Joseph E.
2017-04-01
The turbulent spot propagation process in boundary layer flows of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and air/carbon dioxide mixtures in thermochemical nonequilibrium at high enthalpy is investigated. Experiments are performed in a hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel with a 5-degree half-angle axisymmetric cone instrumented with flush-mounted fast-response coaxial thermocouples. Time-resolved and spatially demarcated heat transfer traces are used to track the propagation of turbulent bursts within the mean flow, and convection rates at approximately 91, 74, and 63% of the boundary layer edge velocity, respectively, are observed for the leading edge, peak, and trailing edge of the spots. A simple model constructed with these spot propagation parameters is used to infer spot generation rates from observed transition onset to completion distance. Spot generation rates in air and nitrogen are estimated to be approximately twice the spot generation rates in air/carbon dioxide mixtures.
Aeroacoustics of subsonic turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Marvin E.
1987-01-01
Sound generation in turbulent shear flows is examined. The emphasis is on simultaneous calculation of the turbulent flow along with the resulting sound generation rather than the alternative acoustic analogy approach. The first part of the paper is concerned with solid surface interaction. The second part concentrates on the sound generated by turbulence interacting with itself.
Dynamical modeling of sub-grid scales in 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laval, Jean-Philippe; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Nazarenko, Sergey
2000-08-01
We develop a new numerical method which treats resolved and sub-grid scales as two different fluid components evolving according to their own dynamical equations. These two fluids are nonlinearly interacting and can be transformed one into another when their scale becomes comparable to the grid size. Equations describing the two-fluid dynamics were rigorously derived from Euler equations [B. Dubrulle, S. Nazarenko, Physica D 110 (1997) 123-138] and they do not involve any adjustable parameters. The main assumption of such a derivation is that the large-scale vortices are so strong that they advect the sub-grid scales as a passive scalar, and the interactions of small scales with small and intermediate scales can be neglected. As a test for our numerical method, we performed numerical simulations of 2D turbulence with a spectral gap, and we found a good agreement with analytical results obtained for this case by Nazarenko and Laval [Non-local 2D turbulence and passive scalars in Batchelor’s regime, J. Fluid Mech., in press]. We used the two-fluid method to study three typical problems in 2D dynamics of incompressible fluids: decaying turbulence, vortex merger and forced turbulence. The two-fluid simulations performed on at 128 2 and 256 2 resolution were compared with pseudo-spectral simulations using hyperviscosity performed at the same and at much higher resolution. This comparison shows that performance of the two-fluid method is much better than one of the pseudo-spectral method at the same resolution and comparable computational cost. The most significant improvement is observed in modeling of the small-scale component, so that effective inertial interval increases by about two decades compared to the high-resolution pseudo-spectral method. Using the two-fluid method, we demonstrated that the k-3 tail always exists for the energy spectrum, although its amplitude is slowly decreasing in decaying turbulence.
Confined Turbulent Swirling Recirculating Flow Predictions. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abujelala, M. T.
1984-01-01
Turbulent swirling flow, the STARPIC computer code, turbulence modeling of turbulent flows, the k-xi turbulence model and extensions, turbulence parameters deduction from swirling confined flow measurements, extension of the k-xi to confined swirling recirculating flows, and general predictions for confined turbulent swirling flow are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, E. M.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schur, N. A.; Zaitsev, D. K.; Smirnov, P. E.
2016-09-01
The contribution covers results of numerical study of air flow and heat transfer past a backward-facing step at the Reynolds number of 28,000. The numerical simulation was carried out under conditions of the experiments of Vogel&Eaton (1985), where nominally 2D fluid dynamics and heat transfer in a channel with expansion ratio of 1.25 was investigated. Two approaches were used for turbulence modelling. First, the Menter SST turbulence model was used to perform refined 2D and 3D RANS steady-state computations. The 3D analysis was undertaken to evaluate effects of boundary layers developing on the sidewalls of the experimental channel. Then, 3D time-dependent computations were carried out using the vortex-resolving IDDES method and applying the spanwise-periodicity conditions. Comparative computations were performed using an in-house finite-volume code SINF/Flag-S and the ANSYS Fluent. The codes produced practically identical RANS solutions, showing in particular a difference of 4% in the central-line peak Stanton number calculated in 2D and 3D cases. The IDDES results obtained with two codes are in a satisfactory agreement. Comparing with the experimental data, the IDDES produces the best agreement for the wall friction, whereas the RANS solutions show superiority in predictions of the local Stanton number distribution.
Turbulent flows near flat plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambe, R.; Imamura, T.; Doi, M.
1980-08-01
The method to study the effect of the plate moving in the homogeneous or isotropic turbulence is presented. The crucial point of this method is to solve the Orr-Sommerfeld like equation, which is satisfied by the kernel of the Wiener-Hermite expansion of the velocity field, under the inhomogeneous boundary condition. In the special case of constant mean flow, our method gives the same result as that of Hunt and Graham and succeeds in explaining the experimental results of Thomas and Hancock. The method is also applied to the case of nonuniform mean flow, where the shear effect comes up.
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Kerstein, A.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Water
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riveros, H. G.; Riveros-Rosas, D.
2010-01-01
There are many ways to visualize flow, either for laminar or turbulent flows. A very convincing way to show laminar and turbulent flows is by the perturbations on the surface of a beam of water coming out of a cylindrical tube. Photographs, taken with a flash, show the nature of the flow of water in pipes. They clearly show the difference between…
Turbulent Convection: Is 2D a good proxy of 3D?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
2000-01-01
Several authors have recently carried out 2D simulations of turbulent convection for both solar and massive stars. Fitting the 2D results with the MLT, they obtain that alpha(sub MLT) greater than 1 specifically, 1.4 less than alpha(sub MLT) less than 1.8. The authors further suggest that this methodology could be used to calibrate the MLT used in stellar evolutionary codes. We suggest the opposite viewpoint: the 2D results show that MLT is internally inconsistent because the resulting alpha(sub MLT) greater than 1 violates the MLT basic assumption that alpha(sub MLT) less than 1. When the 2D results are fitted with the CM model, alpha(sub CMT) less than 1, in accord with the basic tenet of the model. On the other hand, since both MLT and CM are local models, they should be replaced by the next generation of non-local, time dependent turbulence models which we discuss in some detail.
Formation of turbulence around flow singularities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1983-01-01
The formation of turbulence around singular points of a flow such as stagnation points, tangential jumps of velocity, are analyzed. It is proved that turbulence is inevitably generated by the rear stagnation point, but cannot be generated by the nose stagnation point of a streamlined body. Special attention is paid to an evolution of turbulence induced by a tangential jump of velocity. A qualitative analysis of a turbulent flow between two rotating concentric cylinders and around a streamlined cylinder is given.
Intermittent Turbulence and SOC Dynamics in a 2-D Driven Current-Sheet Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Vassiliasdis, D.; Baker, D. N.
2005-01-01
Borovsky et al. have shown that Earth's magnetotail plasma sheet is strongly turbulent. More recently, Borovsky and Funsten have shown that eddy turbulence dominates and have suggested that the eddy turbulence is driven by fast flows that act as jets in the plasma. Through basic considerations of energy and magnetic flux conservation, these fast flows are thought to be localized to small portions of the total plasma sheet and to be generated by magnetic flux reconnection that is similarly localized. Angelopoulos et al., using single spacecraft Geotail data, have shown that the plasma sheet turbulence exhibits signs of intermittence and Weygand et al., using four spacecraft Cluster data, have confirmed and expanded on this conclusion. Uritsky et al., using Polar UVI image data, have shown that the evolution of bright, nightside, UV auroral emission regions is consistent with many of the properties of systems in self-organized criticality (SOC). Klimas et al. have suggested that the auroral dynamics is a reflection of the dynamics of the fast flows in the plasma. sheet. Their hypothesis is that the transport of magnetic fludenergy through the magnetotail is enabled by scale-free avalanches of localized reconnection whose SOC dynamics are reflected in the auroral UV emission dynamics. A corollary of this hypothesis is that the strong, intermittent, eddy turbulence of the plasma sheet is closely related to its critical dynamics. The question then arises: Can in situ evidence for the SOC dynamics be found in the properties of the plasma sheet turbulence? A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model of the central plasma sheet has been developed that incorporates an idealized current-driven instability with a resistive MHD system. It has been shown that the model can evolve into SOC in a physically relevant parameter regime. Initial results from a study of intermittent turbulence in this model and the relationship of this turbulence to the model's known SOC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Jeong L.
1988-01-01
The purpose of the study is the evaluation of the numerical accuracy of FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics Analysis Package). Accordingly, four test problems in laminar and turbulent incompressible flows are selected and the computational results of these problems compared with other numerical solutions and/or experimental data. These problems include: (1) 2-D laminar flow inside a wall-driven cavity; (2) 2-D laminar flow over a backward-facing step; (3) 2-D turbulent flow over a backward-facing step; and (4) 2-D turbulent flow through a turn-around duct.
Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.
Capturing nonlocal effects in 2D granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamrin, Ken; Koval, Georg
2013-03-01
There is an industrial need, and a scientific desire, to produce a continuum model that can predict the flow of dense granular matter in an arbitrary geometry. A viscoplastic continuum approach, developed over recent years, has shown some ability to approximate steady flow and stress profiles in multiple inhomogeneous flow environments. However, the model incorrectly represents phenomena observed in the slow, creeping flow regime. As normalized flow-rate decreases, granular stresses are observed to become largely rate-independent and a dominating length-scale emerges in the mechanics. This talk attempts to account for these effects, in the simplified case of 2D, using the notion of nonlocal fluidity, which has proven successful in treating nonlocal effects in emulsions. The idea is to augment the local granular fluidity law with a diffusive second-order term scaled by the particle size, which spreads flowing zones accordingly. Below the yield stress, the local contribution vanishes and the fluidity becomes rate-independent, as we require. We implement the modified law in multiple geometries and validate its flow and stress predictions in multiple geometries compared against discrete particle simulations. In so doing, we demonstrate that the nonlocal relation proposed is satisfied universally in a seemingly geometry-independent fashion.
Mixing and reaction in the subsonic 2-D turbulent free shear layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frieler, Clifford Eugene
Several aspects of mixing and reaction in a turbulent two-dimensional shear layer have been studied. Experiments have been performed with reacting H2, F2, and NO in inert diluent gases. Sensing the heat release by these reactions, several aspects of the mixing process can be examined without the usual resolution limitations. For example, in contrast with direct measurements of composition, the amount of mixed fluid can be conservatively estimated with the results of the "flip" experiments. These have been performed over a range of density ratios, Reynolds numbers and heat release.The effects of initial conditions are of primary importance when comparisons to other studies are undertaken. Aspects as fundamental as growth rate of the turbulent region, or as obscure as the mixed fluid flux ratio depend strongly on the boundary conditions of this flow. These effects are examined in conjunction with those of Reynolds number and density ratio. For most cases studied here, tripping of the high speed boundary layer led to growth rate decreases. An exception was found for the case of high density ratio where the opposite effect was observed. This anomalous result occurred at conditions under which a new mode of instability has been shown to exist. Parallels exist between this unusual result and those of Batt in the uniform density case.An extensive study of the effects of density ratio on the mixing and reaction in the 2-D shear layer has been performed. Results indicate that several aspects of the mixing process are remarkably similar. Profiles of mixed fluid change little as the density ratio varies by a factor of 30. The integral amount of mixed fluid varies less than 6% for all density ratios examined. This insensitivity contrasts with that of the profiles of mixed fluid composition. While having very similar shapes the profiles are offset by an amount which depends very strongly upon the density ratio. The entrainment into the mixing layer has also been examined. Power
Turbulent Flow Past Spinning Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Carlucci, Pasquale; Thangam, Siva
2009-11-01
Flow past cylinders aligned along their axis where a base freely spins while attached to a non-spinning forebody is considered from a computational and experimental point of view. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. An anisotropic two-equation Reynolds-stress model that incorporates the effect of rotation-modified energy spectrum and swirl is used to perform computations for the flow past axially rotating cylinders. Both rigid cylinders as well as that of cylinders with free-spinning base are considered from a computational point of view. A subsonic wind tunnel with a forward-sting mounted spinning cylinder is used for experiments. Experiments are performed for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions. The experimental results of Carlucci & Thangam (2001) are used to benchmark flow over spinning cylinders. The data is extended to munitions spinning in the wake of other munitions. Applications involving the design of projectiles are discussed.
On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John
1991-01-01
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and r.m.s. fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary-layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.
On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John
1992-01-01
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plume Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a data base obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area, the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.
Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems
Kuhl, A.L.; Reichenbach, H.
1993-07-01
Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1989-01-01
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary layer flows, shock wave boundary layer interactions and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Mathematical Models Of Turbulence In Hypersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1991-01-01
Report discusses mathematical models of turbulence used in numerical simulations of complicated viscous, hypersonic flows. Includes survey of essential features of models and their statuses in applications.
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Dechant, Lawrence
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Multiple-scale turbulence modeling of free turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabris, G.; Harsha, P. T.
1981-01-01
As part of an investigation into the application of turbulence models to the computation of flows in advanced scramjet combustors, the multiple-scale turbulence model has been applied to a variety of flowfield predictions. The model appears to have a potential for improved predictions in a variety of areas relevant to combustor problems. This potential exists because of the partition of the turbulence energy spectrum that is the major feature of the model and which allows the turbulence energy dissipation rate to be out of phase with turbulent energy production. To establish the general reliability of the approach, it has been tested through comparison of predictions with experimental data. An appreciable overall improvement in the generality of the predictions is observed, as compared to those of the basic two-equation turbulence model. A Mach number-related correction is found to be necessary to satisfactorily predict the spreading rate of the supersonic jet and mixing layer.
Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for vortex tracking in 2D and 3D flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2014-11-01
Coherent structures are a key component of unsteady flows in shear layers. Improvement of experimental techniques has led to larger amounts of data and requires of automated procedures for vortex tracking. Many vortex criteria are Eulerian, and identify the structures by an instantaneous local swirling motion in the field, which are indicated by closed or spiral streamlines or pathlines in a reference frame. Alternatively, a Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis is a Lagrangian method based on the quantities calculated along fluid particle trajectories. In the current work, vortex detection is demonstrated on data from the simulation of two cases: a 2D flow with a flat plate undergoing a 45 ° pitch-up maneuver and a 3D wall-bounded turbulence channel flow. Vortices are visualized and tracked by their centers and boundaries using Γ1, the Q criterion, and LCS saddle points. In the cases of 2D flow, saddle points trace showed a rapid acceleration of the structure which indicates the shedding from the plate. For channel flow, saddle points trace shows that average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a function of wall-normal distance as the mean velocity profile, and leads to statistical quantities of vortex dynamics. Dr. Jeff Eldredge and his research group at UCLA are gratefully acknowledged for sharing the database of simulation for the current research. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0210.
Transonic Turbulent Flow Predictions With Two-Equation Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1996-01-01
Solutions of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two well-documented transonic turbulent flows are compared in detail with existing experimental data. While the boundary layer in the first case remains attached, a region of extensive flow separation has been observed in the second case. Two recently developed k-epsilon, two-equation, eddy-viscosity models are used to model the turbulence field. These models satisfy the realizability constraints of the Reynolds stresses. Comparisons with the measurements are made for the wall pressure distribution, the mean streamwise velocity profiles, and turbulent quantities. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the experimental data.
Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence
Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-08-01
Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R{sub {lambda}}{approx}100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in {ital k} space consistent with the k{sup {minus}3} spectrum of the Kraichnan{endash}Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Turbulence Modeling in Stratified Flows over Topography
2007-09-30
Details of the basic LES model can be found in Armenio and Sarkar [1]. To avoid the need to resolve the very small turbulent motions near the lower... Armenio and S. Sarkar. An investigation of stably stratified turbulent channel flow using large-eddy simulation. J. Fluid Mech., 459:1–42, 2002. [2...276, 1994. [12] J. Taylor, S. Sarkar, and V. Armenio . An investigation of stably stratified turbulent channel flow using large-eddy simulation. Phys
Review and assessment of turbulence models for hypersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Christopher J.; Blottner, Frederick G.
2006-10-01
Accurate aerodynamic prediction is critical for the design and optimization of hypersonic vehicles. Turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating for these systems. The first goal of this article is to update the previous comprehensive review of hypersonic shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction experiments published in 1991 by Settles and Dodson (Hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database. NASA CR 177577, 1991). In their review, Settles and Dodson developed a methodology for assessing experiments appropriate for turbulence model validation and critically surveyed the existing hypersonic experiments. We limit the scope of our current effort by considering only two-dimensional (2D)/axisymmetric flows in the hypersonic flow regime where calorically perfect gas models are appropriate. We extend the prior database of recommended hypersonic experiments (on four 2D and two 3D shock-interaction geometries) by adding three new geometries. The first two geometries, the flat plate/cylinder and the sharp cone, are canonical, zero-pressure gradient flows which are amenable to theory-based correlations, and these correlations are discussed in detail. The third geometry added is the 2D shock impinging on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer. The current 2D hypersonic database for shock-interaction flows thus consists of nine experiments on five different geometries. The second goal of this study is to review and assess the validation usage of various turbulence models on the existing experimental database. Here we limit the scope to one- and two-equation turbulence models where integration to the wall is used (i.e., we omit studies involving wall functions). A methodology for validating turbulence models is given, followed by an extensive evaluation of the turbulence models on the current hypersonic experimental database. A total of 18 one- and two-equation turbulence models are reviewed
2D properties of core turbulence on DIII-D and comparison to gyrokinetic simulations
Shafer, Morgan W; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Holland, Chris; White, A. E.; Schlossberg, D J
2012-01-01
Quantitative 2D characteristics of localized density fluctuations are presented over the range of 0.3 < r/a < 0.9 in L-mode plasmas on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. Broadband density fluctuations increase in amplitude from (n) over tilde/n < 0.5% in the deep core to (n) over tilde/n similar to 2.5% near the outer region. The observed Doppler-shift due to the E x B velocity matches well with the measured turbulence group and phase velocities (in toroidally rotating neutral beam heated plasmas). Turbulence decorrelation rates are found to be similar to 200 kHz at the edge and to decrease toward the core (0.45 < r/a < 0.9) where they approach the E x B shearing rate (similar to 50 kHz). Radial and poloidal correlation lengths are found to scale with the ion gyroradius and exhibit an asymmetric poloidally elongated eddy structure. The ensemble-averaged turbulent eddy structure changes its tilt with respect to the radial-poloidal coordinates in the core, consistent with an E x B shear mechanism. The 2D spatial correlation and wavenumber spectra [S(k(r); k(theta))] are presented and compared to nonlinear flux-tube GYRO simulations at two radii, r/a = 0.5 and r/a = 0.75, showing reasonable overall agreement, but the GYRO spectrum exhibits a peak at finite kr for r/a = 0.75 that is not observed experimentally; E x B shear may cause this discrepancy. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Gary D.
1990-01-01
Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.
SALE2D. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
Amsden, A.A.; Ruppel, H.M.; Hirt, C.W.
1981-06-01
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.
2-D/3-D ECE imaging data for validation of turbulence simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Minjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Park, Young-Seok; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Wang, Weixing; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.
2015-11-01
The 2-D/3-D KSTAR ECEI diagnostic can provide a local 2-D/3-D measurement of ECE intensity. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the ECEI data allows local estimation of frequency spectra S (f) , wavenumber spectra S (k) , wavernumber and frequency spectra S (k , f) , and bispectra b (f1 ,f2) of ECE intensity over the 2-D/3-D space, which can be used to validate turbulence simulations. However, the minimum detectable fluctuation amplitude and the maximum detectable wavenumber are limited by the temporal and spatial resolutions of the diagnostic system, respectively. Also, the finite measurement area of the diagnostic channel could introduce uncertainty in the spectra estimation. The limitations and accuracy of the ECEI estimated spectra have been tested by a synthetic ECEI diagnostic with the model and/or fluctuations calculated by GTS. Supported by the NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029881 and NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.
Numerical solution of inviscid and viscous laminar and turbulent flow around the airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slouka, Martin; Kozel, Karel
2016-03-01
This work deals with the 2D numerical solution of inviscid compressible flow and viscous compressible laminar and turbulent flow around the profile. In a case of turbulent flow algebraic Baldwin-Lomax model is used and compared with Wilcox k-omega model. Calculations are done for NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoil profile for the different angles of upstream flow. Numerical results are compared and discussed with experimental data.
Energy fluxes in turbulent separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mollicone, J.-P.; Battista, F.; Gualtieri, P.; Casciola, C. M.
2016-10-01
Turbulent separation in channel flow containing a curved wall is studied using a generalised form of Kolmogorov equation. The equation successfully accounts for inhomogeneous effects in both the physical and separation spaces. We investigate the scale-by-scale energy dynamics in turbulent separated flow induced by a curved wall. The scale and spatial fluxes are highly dependent on the shear layer dynamics and the recirculation bubble forming behind the lower curved wall. The intense energy produced in the shear layer is transferred to the recirculation region, sustaining the turbulent velocity fluctuations. The energy dynamics radically changes depending on the physical position inside the domain, resembling planar turbulent channel dynamics downstream.
Toward large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Haecheon
1993-01-01
The flow field over an airfoil contains several distinct flow characteristics, e.g. laminar, transitional, turbulent boundary layer flow, flow separation, unstable free shear layers, and a wake. This diversity of flow regimes taxes the presently available Reynolds averaged turbulence models. Such models are generally tuned to predict a particular flow regime, and adjustments are necessary for the prediction of a different flow regime. Similar difficulties are likely to emerge when the large eddy simulation technique is applied with the widely used Smagorinsky model. This model has not been successful in correctly representing different turbulent flow fields with a single universal constant and has an incorrect near-wall behavior. Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal, Lund & Moin have developed a new subgrid-scale model, the dynamic model, which is very promising in alleviating many of the persistent inadequacies of the Smagorinsky model: the model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model has been remarkably successful in prediction of several turbulent and transitional flows. We plan to simulate turbulent flow over a '2D' airfoil using the large eddy simulation technique. Our primary objective is to assess the performance of the newly developed dynamic subgrid-scale model for computation of complex flows about aircraft components and to compare the results with those obtained using the Reynolds average approach and experiments. The present computation represents the first application of large eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest and a key demonstration of the capabilities of the large eddy simulation technique.
Helicity fluctuations in incompressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Michael M.; Moin, Parviz
1987-01-01
Results from direct numerical simulations of several homogeneous flows and fully developed turbulent channel flow indicate that the probability distribution function (pdf) of relative helicity density exhibits at most a 20 percent deviation from a flat distribution. Isotropic flows exhibit a slight helical nature but the presence of mean strain in homogeneous turbulence suppresses helical behavior. All the homogeneous turbulent flows studied show no correlation between relative helicity density and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. The channel flow simulations indicate that, except for low-dissipation regions near the outer edge of the buffer layer, there is no tendency for the flow to be helical. The strong peaks in the relative helicity density pdf and the association of these peaks with regions of low dissipation found in previous simulations by Pelz et al.(1985) are not observed.
Controlling turbulent boundary layer separation using biologically inspired 2D transverse grooves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily; Afroz, Farhana
2013-11-01
It is theorized that the presence of grooves, such as the sinusoidal ones found on dolphin skin or the cavities that form between bristled shark skin scales, can lead to induced boundary layer mixing and result in the control of turbulent boundary layer separation. To test this hypothesis, a series of water tunnel experiments using DPIV studied the characteristics of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer whereby a rotating cylinder was used to induce an adverse pressure gradient and resulting flow separation. The experiments were repeated with the use of a plate covered with two types of grooves, rectangular and sinusoidal, with a spacing of 2 mm in size. Flow similarity of the cavity flow was preserved between the experiments and flow over bristled shark skin scales. Both geometries resulted in a reduction of flow separation as measured by backflow coefficient. In addition, Reynolds stress profiles showed that as the pressure gradient was increased, the sinusoidal geometry outperformed the rectangular grooves in terms of increased mixing close to the wall. The sinusoidal plate also generated a lower momentum deficit within the boundary layer which would indicate a smaller drag penalty. Support from NSF grant CBET 0932352 and a UA Graduate Council Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged.
Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.
López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier
2013-03-22
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.
Inverse Cascades Sustained by the Transfer Rate of Angular Momentum in a 3D Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier
2013-03-01
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.
Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, D. S.; Kim, John; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
1988-01-01
In wall-bounded shear flows the transition to turbulence through localized disturbances goes through a pattern starting with a development of shear layers. The localized normal velocity fluctuations induce normal vorticity through the lift-up effect. These shear layers become unstable to secondary disturbances, and if the amplitudes of the disturbances are large enough, a turbulent spot develops. Investigations of the spot in boundary layers has shown that the turbulent part of the spot is very similar to a fully developed boundary layer. Wygnanski et al. (1976) showed that the mean profile at the center-symmetry plane has a logarithmic region and Johansson et al. (1987) showed that both the higher-order statistics and flow structures in the spot were the same as in the corresponding fully developed flow. In what respects the turbulence inside the Poiseuille spot is similar to fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied. The numerically simulated spot is used, where the characteristics inside the spot are compared to those of the wave packet in the wingtip area. A recent experimental investigation of the velocity field associated with the Poiseuille spot by Klingmann et al. is used for comparison.
Sensitivity of flow evolution on turbulence structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Aashwin A.; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Duraisamy, Karthik
2016-09-01
Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes models represent the workhorse for studying turbulent flows in academia and in industry. Such single-point turbulence models have limitations in accounting for the influence of the nonlocal physics and flow history on turbulence evolution. In this context, we investigate the sensitivity inherent in such single-point models due to their characterization of the internal structure of homogeneous turbulent flows solely by the means of the Reynolds stresses. For a wide variety of mean flows under diverse conditions, we study the prediction intervals engendered due to this coarse-grained description. The nature of this variability and its dependence on parameters such as the mean flow topology, the initial Reynolds stress tensor, and the relative influence of linear contra nonlinear physics is identified, analyzed, and explicated.
Measurements of 2D turbulent spectra on a beta-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baroud, Charles N.; Plapp, Brendan B.; Swinney, Harry L.
2000-11-01
The existence of coherent structures and a β-plane can affect the scaling of energy in two-dimensional turbulence. We study an azimuthal turbulent jet in a rotating annular tank with a sloped bottom (β-plane). Rotation constrains the dynamics to be 2D. The velocity field is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry which allows us to track the time evolution of features such as waves or vortices. Our measurements of the energy spectra capture simultaneously an inverse energy cascade and a forward enstrophy cascade. The energy injection wavenumber ki is deduced from these spectra. Below the Rhines wavenumber (k_β = (β/2 u)^1/2), energy transfer is dominated by the dispersion of Rossby waves. By nonlinearly transforming our coordinates, we isolate the effects of long-lived vortices on the scaling of the spectra. We find that as a result of these coherent structures the exponent decreases below -3 for k>k_i, and it decreases below -5/3 for k
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
Turbulence models in pulsating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scotti, Alberto; Piomelli, Ugo
2001-11-01
We compare the performance of four low-Reynolds-number models for the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations applied to the flow in a channel driven by a pressure gradient oscillating around a non-zero mean. The models considered are the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model, the k-\\varepsilon model with the wall functions of Lam and Bremhorst, the k-ω^2 model of Saffman and Wilcox, and the k-\\varepsilon-v^2 model of Durbin. The results are compared with experiments, direct simulations and large-eddy simulations. The models give similar and reasonably accurate results as far as predicting the velocity profile in the channel as a function of the phase, and reproduce the observed behavior during part of the cycle. However, large differences exist between the models themselves, as well as with respect to the LES, at the level of the Reynolds shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. The k-\\varepsilon-v^2 model is overall superior to the other models considered.
Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana
2016-04-01
New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362
Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.
2016-11-01
Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.
Turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows
Sancho
2000-02-01
We show in the framework of the stochastic calculus the existence of turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows. Physically, these fluxes are related to the dependence of the phenomenological coefficients on the temperature and concentration variables.
Turbulence modelling of thermal plasma flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigeta, Masaya
2016-12-01
This article presents a discussion of the ideas for modelling turbulent thermal plasma flows, reviewing the challenges, efforts, and state-of-the-art simulations. Demonstrative simulations are also performed to present the importance of numerical methods as well as physical models to express turbulent features. A large eddy simulation has been applied to turbulent thermal plasma flows to treat time-dependent and 3D motions of multi-scale eddies. Sub-grid scale models to be used should be able to express not only turbulent but also laminar states because both states co-exist in and around thermal plasmas which have large variations of density as well as transport properties under low Mach-number conditions. Suitable solution algorithms and differencing schemes must be chosen and combined appropriately to capture multi-scale eddies and steep gradients of temperature and chemical species, which are turbulent features of thermal plasma flows with locally variable Reynolds and Mach numbers. Several simulations using different methods under different conditions show commonly that high-temperature plasma regions exhibit less turbulent structures, with only large eddies, whereas low-temperature regions tend to be more turbulent, with numerous small eddies. These numerical results agree with both theoretical insight and photographs that show the characteristics of eddies. Results also show that a turbulence transition of a thermal plasma jet through a generation-breakup process of eddies in a torch is dominated by fluid dynamic instability after ejection rather than non-uniform or unsteady phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Joseph H.
1998-01-01
This report details calculations for the McDonnell-Douglas 30P/30N and the NHLP-2D three-element highlift configurations. Calculations were performed with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code ISAAC to study the effects of various numerical issues on high lift predictions. These issues include the effect of numerical accuracy on the advection terms of the turbulence equations, Navier-Stokes versus the thin-layer Navier-Stokes approximation, an alternative formulation of the production term, and the performance of several turbulence models. The effect of the transition location on the NHLP-2D flow solution was investigated. Two empirical transition models were used to estimate the transition location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Joseph; Hong, Jiarong; Schultz, Michael
2009-11-01
PIV data obtained in the roughness sublayer of a turbulent channel flow is used for examining effects of spatial resolution on the magnitude, distribution, and trends of Reynolds stresses. Starting with a vector spacing of 63um (9-12 wall units), for roughness consisting of 0.45mm high pyramids at Reτ=3400-5418, spatial filtering of data causes major reduction in the magnitude of Reynolds stresses in the roughness sublayer. Although these reductions extend to well above the log layer, they increase with decreasing distance from the wall, especially for terms involving the wall-normal velocity fluctuation component, but also for the streamwise component. As expected, these effects increase with filter size, and are much higher for 2D filters in comparison to 1D ones. Consequently, trends of Reynolds stresses, and even mean flow profile vary significantly with filter properties. Spatial energy spectra and distributions of 2D swirling strength show the increasing role of small scale eddies on 2^nd order statistics as the wall is approached, which is attenuated by filtering.
Turbulent pipe flows subjected to temporal decelerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Wongwan; Lee, Jae Hwa
2016-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of temporally decelerating turbulent pipe flows were performed to examine effects of temporal decelerations on turbulence. The simulations were started with a fully developed turbulent pipe flow at a Reynolds number, ReD =24380, based on the pipe radius (R) and the laminar centerline velocity (Uc 0). Three different temporal decelerations were imposed to the initial flow with f= | d Ub / dt | =0.00127, 0.00625 and 0.025, where Ub is the bulk mean velocity. Comparison of Reynolds stresses and turbulent production terms with those for steady flow at a similar Reynolds number showed that turbulence is highly intensified with increasing f due to delay effects. Furthermore, inspection of the Reynolds shear stress profiles showed that strong second- and fourth-quadrant Reynolds shear stresses are greatly increased, while first- and third-quadrant components are also increased. Decomposition of streamwise Reynolds normal stress with streamwise cutoff wavelength (λx) 1 R revealed that the turbulence delay is dominantly originated from delay of strong large-scale turbulent structures in the outer layer, although small-scale motions throughout the wall layer adjusted more rapidly to the temporal decelerations. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).
Turbulent Mixing of Multiphase Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Y.-N.; Ferziger, J.; Ham, F. E.; Herrmann, M.
2003-01-01
Thus we conduct numerical simulations of multiphase fluids stirred by two-dimensional turbulence to assess the possibility of self-similar drop size distribution in turbulence. In our turbulence simulations, we also explore the non-diffusive limit, where molecular mobility for the interface is vanishing. Special care is needed to transport the non-diffusive interface. Numerically, we use the particle level set method to evolve the interface. Instead of using the usual methods to calculate the surface tension force from the level set function, we reconstruct the interface based on phase- field modeling, and calculate the continuum surface tension forcing from the reconstructed interface.
A turbulence model for pulsatile arterial flows.
Younis, B A; Berger, S A
2004-10-01
Difficulties in predicting the behavior of some high Reynolds number flows in the circulatory system stem in part from the severe requirements placed on the turbulence model chosen to close the time-averaged equations of fluid motion. In particular, the successful turbulence model is required to (a) correctly capture the "nonequilibrium" effects wrought by the interactions of the organized mean-flow unsteadiness with the random turbulence, (b) correctly reproduce the effects of the laminar-turbulent transitional behavior that occurs at various phases of the cardiac cycle, and (c) yield good predictions of the near-wall flow behavior in conditions where the universal logarithmic law of the wall is known to be not valid. These requirements are not immediately met by standard models of turbulence that have been developed largely with reference to data from steady, fully turbulent flows in approximate local equilibrium. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a turbulence model suited for use in arterial flows. The model is of the two-equation eddy-viscosity variety with dependent variables that are zero-valued at a solid wall and vary linearly with distance from it. The effects of transition are introduced by coupling this model to the local value of the intermittency and obtaining the latter from the solution of a modeled transport equation. Comparisons with measurements obtained in oscillatory transitional flows in circular tubes show that the model produces substantial improvements over existing closures. Further pulsatile-flow predictions, driven by a mean-flow wave form obtained in a diseased human carotid artery, indicate that the intermittency-modified model yields much reduced levels of wall shear stress compared to the original, unmodified model. This result, which is attributed to the rapid growth in the thickness of the viscous sublayer arising from the severe acceleration of systole, argues in favor of the use of the model for the
Mixing efficiency of turbulent stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, B. L.; Scotti, A. D.
2012-12-01
Small-scale mixing in the stratified interior of the ocean is a fundamental, but poorly characterized, controlling factor of the global Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The mixing efficiency in the ocean has typically been assumed to be 20%, which is used as a basis to estimate the required turbulent dissipation to support the ocean diapycnal buoyancy flux. In this talk, we use DNS datasets to calculate the mixing efficiency in different classes of stratified turbulent flows. In particular, we compare flows forced thermodynamically by production of Available Potential Energy (APE) at a boundary, such as horizontal convection (a simple model for an ocean forced by differential surface heating) and flows that are forced mechanically by surface stresses. The mixing efficiency is calculated based on the irreversible diapycnal flux of buoyancy (Winters and D'Asaro, 1996; Scotti et al., 2006) instead of the more customary turbulent buoyancy flux, thereby isolating mixing from reversible processes (e.g., internal waves). For mechanically-driven flows, profiles of mixing efficiency vs. buoyancy Reynolds number are in agreement with accepted values for stratified turbulent shear flows. However, for flows in which mixing is driven in part or fully by thermodynamic forcing and an excess of APE, DNS results show much higher values of the mixing efficiency, approaching unity for horizontal convection. Implications of these results for the energy budget of the MOC are discussed. Note: The DNS data sets of turbulent stratified channel flow are provided courtesy of M. Garcia-Villalba and J. C. del Alamo.
Turbulence Modulation and Particle Segregation in a Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fong, Kee Onn; Toloui, Mostafa; Amili, Omid; Hong, Jiarong; Coletti, Filippo
2016-11-01
Particle-laden flows are ubiquitous in biological, environmental, and engineering flows, but our understanding of the mechanism by which particles modulate turbulence is incomplete. Simulations involve a wide range of scales, and shall be corroborated by measurements that reconstruct the motion of both the continuous and dispersed phases. We present experimental observations on the interaction between inertial particles and turbulent flow through a vertical channel in two-way coupled regime. The working fluid is air laden with size-selected glass particles, which we investigate by planar particle image velocimetry and digital inline holography. Unlike most previous experiments, we focus on a regime in which particle segregation and turbulence modulation are both strong. PIV shows that turbulence modulation is especially pronounced near the wall, where particles accumulate by turbophoresis. The segregation, however, is much weaker than what suggested by one-way coupled simulations. Results from digital holography confirm the trends in particle concentration and velocities, and additionally provide information on the three-dimensional clustering. The findings are compared to previous investigations and discussed in the context of modeling strategies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dewan, E. M.
1986-01-01
The problem of how to empirically distinguish between velocity fluctuations due to turbulence and those due to atmospheric waves is addressed. The physical differences between waves and turbulence are reviewed. New theoretical ideas on the subject of bouyancy range turbulence are presented. A unique scale K sub B is given that allows one to differentiate between waves and turbulence for the special case of theta = 0 (i.e., horizontal propagating waves).
A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
1991-01-01
A two dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.
Drag of a turbulent boundary layer with transverse 2D circular rods on the wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruzzaman, Md; Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.; Talluru, K. M.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present the results of a turbulent boundary layer developing over a rod-roughened wall with a spacing of ( is the spacing between two adjacent roughness elements, and is the rod diameter). Static pressure measurements are taken around a single roughness element to accurately determine the friction velocity, and the error in the origin, , which are the two prominent issues that surround rough-wall boundary layers. In addition, velocity measurements are taken at several streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry to obtain from the momentum integral equation. Results showed that both methods give consistent values for , indicating that the contribution of the viscous drag over this rough wall is negligible. This supports the results of Perry et al. (J Fluid Mech 177:437-466, 1969) and Antonia and Luxton (J Fluid Mech 48(04):721-761, 1971) in a boundary layer and of Leonardi et al. (2003) in a channel flow but does not agree with those of Furuya et al. (J Fluids Eng 98(4):635-643, 1976). The results show that both and can be unambiguously measured on this particular rough wall. This paves the way for a proper comparison between the boundary layer developing over this wall and the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, James L.
2014-01-01
Examined is sensitivity of separation extent, wall pressure and heating to variation of primary input flow parameters, such as Mach and Reynolds numbers and shock strength, for 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer interactions obtained by Navier-Stokes methods using the SST turbulence model. Baseline parametric sensitivity response is provided in part by comparison with vetted experiments, and in part through updated correlations based on free interaction theory concepts. A recent database compilation of hypersonic 2D shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments extensively used in a prior related uncertainty analysis provides the foundation for this updated correlation approach, as well as for more conventional validation. The primary CFD method for this work is DPLR, one of NASA's real-gas aerothermodynamic production RANS codes. Comparisons are also made with CFL3D, one of NASA's mature perfect-gas RANS codes. Deficiencies in predicted separation response of RANS/SST solutions to parametric variations of test conditions are summarized, along with recommendations as to future turbulence approach.
Turbulent flow inside a solar concentrator receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramirez, Manuel; Ramos, Eduardo
2014-11-01
A solar concentrator receiver is a heat exchanger designed to absorb a beam of radiant heat coming from a field of heliostats. Inside the device, a slow forced flow generated bye an external pressure gradient is present, together with a natural convective a turbulent flow produced by the large temperature gradients due to intense heating. We present a model of this device based on the numerical solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. We consider heating conditions that lead to turbulence convective flow. For this season, a large eddy simulation model is incorporated. The results are potentially useful for the design of solar concentrator receivers.
Transition to turbulence in pulsating pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hof, Bjorn; Warnecke, Sascha; Xu, Duo
2013-11-01
We report an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a pulsating pipe flow the most important example of pulsating flows is the cardiovascular system where the onset of fluctuations and turbulence can be a possible cause for various diseases such as the formation of aneurysms. The present study is limited to a straight rigid pipe, sinusoidal modulation of the flow rate and a Newtonian fluid. The dimensionless parameters (Womersley and Reynolds numbers) were chosen to include the parameter range encountered in larger arteries. We observe that at large frequencies the critical point for the onset of turbulence remains completely unaffected by pulsation for all amplitudes investigated (up to 40%). However for smaller frequencies (Womersley numbers below 10) the critical point considerably increases. Furthermore we investigate how the transition scenario is affected for a fixed frequency and increasing amplitudes (approaching oscillatory flow).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Takuya; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko
2002-11-01
We have been engaged in the development of multi-scale adaptive simulation technique for incompressible turbulent flow. This is designed as that important scale components in the flow field are detected automatically by lifting wavelet and solved selectively. In conventional incompressible scheme, it is very common to solve Poisson equation of pressure to meet the divergence free constraints of incompressible flow. It may be not impossible to solve the Poisson eq. in the adaptive way, but this is very troublesome because it requires generation of control volume at each time step. We gave an eye on weakly compressible model proposed by Bao(2001). This model was derived from zero Mach limit asymptotic analysis of compressible Navier-Stokes eq. and does not need to solve the Poisson eq. at all. But it is relatively new and it requires demonstration study before the combination with the adaptation by wavelet. In present study, 2-D and 3-D Backstep flow were selected as test problems and applicability to turbulent flow is verified in detail. Besides, combination of adaptation by wavelet with weakly compressible model towards the adaptive turbulence simulation is discussed.
Turbulent Flow over Rough Turbine Airfoils.
1985-08-01
SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Turbine blades ’ vanes ; surface roughness...turbulent boundary layer over rough turbine vanes or blades is developed. A new formulation of the mixing length model, expressed in the velocity-space...A-163 005 TURBULENT FLOW OVER ROUGH TURBINE AIRFOILS (U) OHIO 1/ STATE UNIV RESEARCH FOUNDATION COLUMBUS L S HAN AUG B5 OSURF-76357/?i4467 AFWL-TR-95
Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows
1993-07-15
investigations of turbulent mixing, chemical reaction and combustion processes in turbulent, subsonic and supersonic flows. The program was comprised of...34) n•4I Abstract The purpose of this research is to conduct fundamental investigations of tur- bulent mixing, chemical reaction and combustion processes ...Another issue to consider is that different data- processing used on the different sets of data might result in differences between sets of data. To this end
Liquid infused surfaces in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Matthew; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Jacobi, Ian; Samaha, Mohamed; Wexler, Jason; Shang, Jessica; Rosenberg, Brian; Hellström, Leo; Fan, Yuyang; Wang, Karen; Lee, Kevin; Hultmark, Marcus
2014-11-01
A turbulent channel flow facility is used to measure the drag reduction capabilities and dynamic behavior of liquid-infused micro-patterned surfaces. Liquid infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust alternative to traditional air-cushion-based superhydrophobic surfaces. The mobile liquid lubricant creates a surface slip with the outer turbulent shear flow as well as an energetic sink to dampen turbulent fluctuations. Micro-manufactured surfaces can be mounted flush in the channel and exposed to turbulent flows. Two configurations are possible, both capable of producing laminar and turbulent flows. The first configuration allows detailed investigation of the infused liquid layer and the other allows well resolved pressure gradient measurements. Both of the configurations have high aspect ratios 15-45:1. Drag reduction for a variety of liquid-infused surface architectures is quantified by measuring pressure drop in the channel. Flow in the oil film is simultaneously visualized using fluorescent dye. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).
Marine particle aggregate breakup in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rau, Matthew; Ackleson, Steven; Smith, Geoffrey
2016-11-01
The dynamics of marine particle aggregate formation and breakup due to turbulence is studied experimentally. Aggregates of clay particles, initially in a quiescent aggregation tank, are subjected to fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers of up to 25,000. This flow arrangement simulates the exposure of marine aggregates in coastal waters to a sudden turbulent event. Particle size distributions are measured by in-situ sampling of the small-angle forward volume scattering function and the volume concentration of the suspended particulate matter is quantified through light attenuation measurements. Results are compared to measurements conducted under laminar and turbulent flow conditions. At low shear rates, larger sized particles indicate that aggregation initially governs the particle dynamics. Breakup is observed when large aggregates are exposed to the highest levels of shear in the experiment. Models describing the aggregation and breakup rates of marine particles due to turbulence are evaluated with the population balance equation and results from the simulation and experiment are compared. Additional model development will more accurately describe aggregation dynamics for remote sensing applications in turbulent marine environments.
Numerical investigation of turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Kim, J.
1981-01-01
Fully developed turbulent channel flow was simulated numerically at Reynolds number 13800, based on centerline velocity and channel halt width. The large-scale flow field was obtained by directly integrating the filtered, three dimensional, time dependent, Navier-Stokes equations. The small-scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC IV computer with up to 516,096 grid points. The computed flow field was used to study the statistical properties of the flow as well as its time dependent features. The agreement of the computed mean velocity profile, turbulence statistics, and detailed flow structures with experimental data is good. The resolvable portion of the statistical correlations appearing in the Reynolds stress equations are calculated. Particular attention is given to the examination of the flow structure in the vicinity of the wall.
Transition to turbulence in pulsating pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Duo; Warnecke, Sascha; Hof, Bjoern; Avila, Marc
2014-11-01
We report an experimental investigation of the transition to turbulence in a pulsating pipe flow. This flow is a prototype of various pulsating flows in both nature and engineering, such as in the cardiovascular system where the onset of turbulence is often possibly related to various diseases (e.g., the formation of aneurysms). The experiments are carried out in a straight rigid pipe using water with a sinusoidal modulation of the flow rate. The governing parameters, Reynolds number, Womersley number α (dimensionless pulsating frequency) and the pulsating amplitude A, cover a wide range 3 < α < 23 and 0 < A < 1 . To characterize the transition to turbulence, we determine how the characteristic lifetime of turbulent spots (/puffs) are affected by the pulsation. While at high pulsation frequencies (α > 12) lifetimes of turbulent spots are entirely unaffected by the pulsation, at lower frequencies they are substantially affected. With decreasing frequency much larger Reynolds numbers are needed to obtain spots of the same characteristic lifetime. Hence at low frequency transition is delayed significantly. In addition the effect of the pulsation amplitude on the transition delay is quantified. Duo Xu would like to acknowledge the support from Humboldt Foundation.
Reconnection and small-scale fields in 2D-3V hybrid-kinetic driven turbulence simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.
2017-02-01
The understanding of the fundamental properties of turbulence in collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind, is a frontier problem in plasma physics. In particular, the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasmas and its interplay with a fully-developed turbulent state is still a matter of great debate. Here we investigate the properties of small-scale electromagnetic fluctuations and the role of fast magnetic reconnection in the development of a quasi-steady turbulent state by means of 2D-3V high-resolution Vlasov–Maxwell simulations. At the largest scales turbulence is fed by external random forcing. We show that large-scale turbulent motions establish a -5/3 spectrum at {k}\\perp {d}i< 1 and, at the same time, feed the formation of current sheets where magnetic reconnection occurs. As a result coherent magnetic structures are generated which, together with the rise of the associated small-scale non-ideal electric field, mediate the transition between the inertial and the subproton-scale spectrum. A mechanism that boosts the magnetic reconnection process is identified, making the generation of coherent structures rapid enough to be competitive with wave mode interactions and leading to the formation of a fully-developed turbulent spectrum across the so-called ion break.
Spectral simulations of reacting turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman
1991-01-01
Spectral methods for simulating flows are reviewed, emphasizing their recent applications to reacting flow problems. Various classifications of spectral methods and their convergence properties are described and the 'spectral element' method is presented, highlighting its flexibility in dealing with complex flow geometries. The applications considered include chemical reactions in homogeneous turbulence, temporally evolving mixing layers, variable-density simulations, nonequilibrium chemistry, and spatially evolving mixing layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.; Brown, James L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.
2013-01-01
A database compilation of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments is provided. The experiments selected for the database are either 2D or axisymmetric, and include both compression corner and impinging type SWTBL interactions. The strength of the interactions range from attached to incipient separation to fully separated flows. The experiments were chosen based on criterion to ensure quality of the datasets, to be relevant to NASA's missions and to be useful for validation and uncertainty assessment of CFD Navier-Stokes predictive methods, both now and in the future. An emphasis on datasets selected was on surface pressures and surface heating throughout the interaction, but include some wall shear stress distributions and flowfield profiles. Included, for selected cases, are example CFD grids and setup information, along with surface pressure and wall heating results from simulations using current NASA real-gas Navier-Stokes codes by which future CFD investigators can compare and evaluate physics modeling improvements and validation and uncertainty assessments of future CFD code developments. The experimental database is presented tabulated in the Appendices describing each experiment. The database is also provided in computer-readable ASCII files located on a companion DVD.
Improvement of a 2D numerical model of lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimine, Y.
2013-12-01
I propose an improved procedure that reduces an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in two-dimensional simulations based on Ishihara et al. (in Lava Flows and Domes, Fink, JH eds., 1990). The numerical model for lava flow simulations proposed by Ishihara et al. (1990) is based on two-dimensional shallow water model combined with a constitutive equation for a Bingham fluid. It is simple but useful because it properly reproduces distributions of actual lava flows. Thus, it has been regarded as one of pioneer work of numerical simulations of lava flows and it is still now widely used in practical hazard prediction map for civil defense officials in Japan. However, the model include an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of DEM because the model separately assigns the condition for the lava flow to stop due to yield stress for each of two orthogonal axes of rectangular calculating grid based on DEM. This procedure brings a diamond-shaped distribution as shown in Fig. 1 when calculating a lava flow supplied from a point source on a virtual flat plane although the distribution should be circle-shaped. To improve the drawback, I proposed a modified procedure that uses the absolute value of yield stress derived from both components of two orthogonal directions of the slope steepness to assign the condition for lava flows to stop. This brings a better result as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1. (a) Contour plots calculated with the original model of Ishihara et al. (1990). (b) Contour plots calculated with a proposed model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. R.
1983-01-01
A turbulent boundary layer flow analysis of the momentum and thermal flow fields near the forward stagnation point due to a circular cylinder in turbulent cross flow is presented. Turbulence modeling length scale, anisotropic turbulence initial profiles and boundary conditions were identified as functions of the cross flow turbulence intensity and the boundary layer flow far field velocity. These parameters were used in a numerical computational procedure to calculate the mean velocity, mean temperature, and turbulence double correlation profiles within the flow field. The effects of the cross flow turbulence on the stagnation region momentum and thermal flow fields were investigated. This analysis predicted the existing measurements of the stagnation region mean velocity and surface heat transfer rate with cross flow Reynolds number and turbulence intensity less than 250,000 and 0.05, respectively.
Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Procedure for Real Fluids
2006-05-17
flow in system lines, networks , and volumes. This new procedure has been implemented in both Matlab/Simulink® and Fortran95 . A variety of...as well as Fortran95 to allow for application on a wide variety of computer platforms. The computational efficiency of the various numerical... network are presented to demonstrate the capability of the current techniques and the unsteady flow physics that can occur in system lines. 15. SUBJECT
Turbulent flow separation in three-dimensional asymmetric diffusers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeyapaul, Elbert
2011-12-01
Turbulent three-dimensional flow separation is more complicated than 2-D. The physics of the flow is not well understood. Turbulent flow separation is nearly independent of the Reynolds number, and separation in 3-D occurs at singular points and along convergence lines emanating from these points. Most of the engineering turbulence research is driven by the need to gain knowledge of the flow field that can be used to improve modeling predictions. This work is motivated by the need for a detailed study of 3-D separation in asymmetric diffusers, to understand the separation phenomena using eddy-resolving simulation methods, assess the predictability of existing RANS turbulence models and propose modeling improvements. The Cherry diffuser has been used as a benchmark. All existing linear eddy-viscosity RANS models k--o SST,k--epsilon and v2- f fail in predicting such flows, predicting separation on the wrong side. The geometry has a doubly-sloped wall, with the other two walls orthogonal to each other and aligned with the diffuser inlet giving the diffuser an asymmetry. The top and side flare angles are different and this gives rise to different pressure gradient in each transverse direction. Eddyresolving simulations using the Scale adaptive simulation (SAS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method have been used to predict separation in benchmark diffuser and validated. A series of diffusers with the same configuration have been generated, each having the same streamwise pressure gradient and parametrized only by the inlet aspect ratio. The RANS models were put to test and the flow physics explored using SAS-generated flow field. The RANS model indicate a transition in separation surface from top sloped wall to the side sloped wall at an inlet aspect ratio much lower than observed in LES results. This over-sensitivity of RANS models to transverse pressure gradients is due to lack of anisotropy in the linear Reynolds stress formulation. The complexity of the flow
Mathematical Models Of Turbulence In Transonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
Predictions of several models compared with measurements of well-documented flow. Report reviews performances of variety of mathematical models of turbulence in transonic flow. Predictions of models compared with measurements of flow in wind tunnel along outside of cylinder having axisymmetric bump of circular-arc cross section in meridional plane. Review part of continuing effort to calibrate and verify computer codes for prediction of transonic flows about airfoils. Johnson-and-King model proved superior in predicting transonic flow over bumpy cylinder.
Periodic Wake Effects on Turbulent Juncture Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatino, Daniel; Smith, Charles
2000-11-01
The horseshoe vortex (HV) that develops in juncture geometries with a turbulent approach flow has been shown to exhibit a periodic behavior that correlates with the bursting frequency of the impinging turbulent boundary layer. To examine the additional complication of impinging blade wakes on such juncture flows, as encountered in turbomachinery environments, periodic wakes were systematically introduced upstream of a simple turbulent endwall juncture flow. The influence of the wakes was examined via a study of the instantaneous endwall surface heat transfer behavior, established using an experimental liquid crystal technique in a water channel. Although it is possible to eliminate the periodic HV behavior using periodic wakes of high frequency (relative to the HV frequency) or strong turbulence intensity, the periodic character of the undisturbed HV remains evident at or below moderate wake frequency and turbulence levels. A parametric assessment of the results suggests that the periodic wake effects encountered for a real gas turbine cascade would not eliminate the HV periodicity. The significance of this residual HV periodicity on the endwall surface heat transfer will be discussed.
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 2; Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one oberves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.
Turbulence and modeling in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
A review is made of the performance of a variety of turbulence models in the evaluation of a particular well documented transonic flow. This is done to supplement a previous attempt to calibrate and verify transonic airfoil codes by including many more turbulence models than used in the earlier work and applying the calculations to an experiment that did not suffer from uncertainties in angle of attack and was free of wind tunnel interference. It is found from this work, as well as in the earlier study, that the Johnson-King turbulence model is superior for transonic flows over simple aerodynamic surfaces, including moderate separation. It is also shown that some field equation models with wall function boundary conditions can be competitive with it.
Heat and mass transfer in turbulent flows with several recirculated flow eddies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baake, E.; Nacke, B.; Jakovics, A.; Umbrashko, A.
2001-06-01
Numerical modeling of the concentration and temperature distribution in axial symmetrical systems with several recirculated flow eddies, which is based on various 2D stationary k-ɛ models and commercial codes, e.g. ANSYS and FLUENT, leads to results, which are significantly different from experimental data. Therefore additional user-defined subroutines were included in the commercial program code to improve the turbulent heat and mass transfer in the zone between the recirculated flow eddies. In addition transient 3D calculations were performed to investigate scientifically the flow dynamics. Figs 9, Refs 8.
2D VARIABLY SATURATED FLOWS: PHYSICAL SCALING AND BAYESIAN ESTIMATION
A novel dimensionless formulation for water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is presented. It shows that scaling physical systems requires conservation of the ratio between capillary forces and gravity forces. A direct result of this finding is that for two phys...
On conditional sampling for turbulent flow studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, F. C.
1974-01-01
The conditional sampling technique is analyzed as a weighted time average for turbulent flow. The various conditional averages are obtained by using different types of weighting functions. A second averaging relation is obtained between the conventional averages and the conditional averages. A few examples are given in which simplified expressions are used.
Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balachandar, S.
2015-11-01
Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.
Optimal feedback control of turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bewley, Thomas; Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger; Moin, Parviz
1993-01-01
Feedback control equations were developed and tested for computing wall normal control velocities to control turbulent flow in a channel with the objective of reducing drag. The technique used is the minimization of a 'cost functional' which is constructed to represent some balance of the drag integrated over the wall and the net control effort. A distribution of wall velocities is found which minimizes this cost functional some time shortly in the future based on current observations of the flow near the wall. Preliminary direct numerical simulations of the scheme applied to turbulent channel flow indicates it provides approximately 17 percent drag reduction. The mechanism apparent when the scheme is applied to a simplified flow situation is also discussed.
Representativeness of 2D models to simulate 3D unstable variable density flow in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knorr, Bastian; Xie, Yueqing; Stumpp, Christine; Maloszewski, Piotr; Simmons, Craig T.
2016-11-01
Variable density flow in porous media has been studied primarily using numerical models because it is a semi-chaotic and transient process. Most of these studies have been 2D, owing to the computational restrictions on 3D simulations, and the ability to observe variable density flow in 2D experimentation. However, it is recognised that variable density flow is a three-dimensional process. A 3D system may cause weaker variable density flow than a 2D system due to stronger dispersion, but may also result in bigger fingers and hence stronger variable density flow because of more space for fingers to coalesce. This study aimed to determine the representativeness of 2D modelling to simulate 3D variable density flow. 3D homogeneous sand column experiments were conducted at three different water flow velocities with three different bromide tracer solutions mixed with methanol resulting in different density ratios. Both 2D axisymmetric and 3D numerical simulations were performed to reproduce experimental data. Experimental results showed that the magnitude of variable density flow increases with decreasing flow rates and decreasing density ratios. The shapes of the observed breakthrough curves differed significantly from those produced by 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. Compared to 2D simulations, the onset of instabilities was delayed but the growth was more pronounced in 3D simulations. Despite this difference, both 2D axisymmetric and 3D models successfully simulated mass recovery with high efficiency (between 77% and 99%). This study indicates that 2D simulations are sufficient to understand integrated features of variable density flow in homogeneous sand column experiments.
Clogging and Intermittent Flow in a 2D Hopper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordstrom, Kerstin; Thackray, Emma
2016-11-01
We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening and by adding external forcing to the top of the flowing pile. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. We are therefore able to correlate local forces with rearrangements within the system, and characterize the evolution of this interplay on the approach to the clogging transition.
A 2D flow visualization user study using explicit flow synthesis and implicit task design.
Liu, Zhanping; Cai, Shangshu; Swan, J Edward; Moorhead, Robert J; Martin, Joel P; Jankun-Kelly, T J
2012-05-01
This paper presents a 2D flow visualization user study that we conducted using new methodologies to increase the objectiveness. We evaluated grid-based variable-size arrows, evenly spaced streamlines, and line integral convolution (LIC) variants (basic, oriented, and enhanced versions) coupled with a colorwheel and/or rainbow color map, which are representative of many geometry-based and texture-based techniques. To reduce data-related bias, template-based explicit flow synthesis was used to create a wide variety of symmetric flows with similar topological complexity. To suppress task-related bias, pattern-based implicit task design was employed, addressing critical point recognition, critical point classification, and symmetric pattern categorization. In addition, variable-duration and fixed-duration measurement schemes were utilized for lightweight precision-critical and heavyweight judgment intensive flow analysis tasks, respectively, to record visualization effectiveness. We eliminated outliers and used the Ryan REGWQ post-hoc homogeneous subset tests in statistical analysis to obtain reliable findings. Our study shows that a texture-based dense representation with accentuated flow streaks, such as enhanced LIC, enables intuitive perception of the flow, while a geometry-based integral representation with uniform density control, such as evenly spaced streamlines, may exploit visual interpolation to facilitate mental reconstruction of the flow. It is also shown that inappropriate color mapping (e.g., colorwheel) may add distractions to a flow representation.
Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Procedure for Real Fluids (PREPRINT)
2006-05-17
modeling paradigm, an existing user community across many disciplines, and commercially-funded code development and maintenance. A Fortran95 code...Matlab/Simulink® as well as Fortran95 to allow for application on a wide variety of computer platforms. The computational efficiency of the various...pipe network are presented to demonstrate the capability of the current techniques and the unsteady flow physics that can occur in system lines
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Champney, Joelle M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles.
Turbulence dynamics in unsteady atmospheric flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momen, Mostafa; Bou-Zeid, Elie
2016-11-01
Unsteady pressure-gradient forcing in geophysical flows challenges the quasi-steady state assumption, and can strongly impact the mean wind and higher-order turbulence statistics. Under such conditions, it is essential to understand when turbulence is in quasi-equilibrium, and what are the implications of unsteadiness on flow characteristics. The present study focuses on the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where pressure gradient, Coriolis, buoyancy, and friction forces interact. We perform a suite of LES with variable pressure-gradient. The results indicate that the dynamics are mainly controlled by the relative magnitudes of three time scales: Tinertial, Tturbulence, and Tforcing. It is shown that when Tf Tt , the turbulence is no longer in a quasi-equilibrium state due to highly complex mean-turbulence interactions; consequently, the log-law and turbulence closures are no longer valid in these conditions. However, for longer and, surprisingly, for shorter forcing times, quasi-equilibrium is maintained. Varying the pressure gradient in the presence of surface buoyancy fluxes primarily influences the buoyant destruction in the stable ABLs, while under unstable conditions it mainly influences the transport terms. NSF-PDM under AGS-10266362. Cooperative Institute for Climate Science, NOAA-Princeton University under NA08OAR4320752. Simulations performed at NCAR, and Della server at Princeton University.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H.
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
A procedure which solves the governing boundary layer equations within Keller's box method was developed for calculating unsteady laminar flows with flow reversal. This method is extended to turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal. Test cases are used to investigate the proposition that unsteady turbulent boundary layers also remain free of singularities. Turbulent flow calculations are performed. The governing equations for both models are solved. As in laminar flows, the unsteady turbulent boundary layers are free from singularities, but there is a clear indication of rapid thickening of the boundary layer with increasing flow reversal. Predictions of both turbulence models are the same for all practical purposes.
Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, Chester E.
1999-01-01
In order to expand the predictive capability of single-point turbulence closure models to account for the early-stage transition regime, a methodology for the formulation and calibration of model equations for the ensemble-averaged disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate is presented. First the decay of laminar disturbances and turbulence in mean shear-free flows is studied. In laminar flows, such disturbances are linear superpositions of modes governed by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In turbulent flows, disturbances are described through transport equations for representative mean quantities. The link between a description based on a deterministic evolution equation and a probability based mean transport equation is established. Because an uncertainty in initial conditions exists in the laminar as well as the turbulent regime, a probability distribution must be defined even in the laminar case. Using this probability distribution, it is shown that the exponential decay of the linear modes in the laminar regime can be related to a power law decay of both the (ensemble) mean disturbance kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. The evolution of these mean disturbance quantities is then described by transport equations similar to those for the corresponding turbulent decaying flow. Second, homogeneous shear flow, where disturbances can be described by rapid distortion theory (RDT), is studied. The relationship between RDT and linear stability theory is exploited in order to obtain a closed set of modeled equations. The linear disturbance equations are solved directly so that the numerical simulation yields a database from which the closure coefficients in the ensemble-averaged disturbance equations can be determined.
Turbulent Poiseuille & Couette flows at high Re
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Myoungkyu; Moser, Robert D.
2016-11-01
We present the results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of high Re turbulent Poiseuille and Couette flows. Couette flow has been simulated with a streamwise (x) domain that is 100 πδ long at Reynolds number up to Reτ 500 . In addition Poiseuille flow simulations up to Reτ 5200 were performed. In Couette flow, extremely large scale motions, which are approximately 50 πδ long in the x-direction with very strong intensity, have been observed. In this presentation we will focus on a comparison between these two flows in terms of the vorticity-velocity co-spectra, which are interesting because of the relationship between the Reynolds stress and the velocity-vorticity correlation (∂y =
Flow Solver for Incompressible 2-D Drive Cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalb, Virginia L.
2008-01-01
This software solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. The code uses second-order finite differencing on a staggered grid using the Chorin projection method. The resulting intermediate Poisson equation is efficiently solved using the fast Fourier transform. Time stepping is done using fourth-order Runge-Kutta for stability at high Reynolds numbers. Features include check-pointing, periodic field snapshots, ongoing reporting of kinetic energy and changes between time steps, time histories at selected points, and optional streakline generation.
Patterns of the turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prigent, Arnaud; Talioua, Abdessamad; Mutabazi, Innocent
2016-11-01
We are interested in the study of the transition to turbulence in the Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. Once the geometry is fixed, the flow is controlled by the inner and outer Reynolds numbers and present a large variety of flow regimes. In counter-rotation, the transition is characterized by a succession of more or less turbulent flow regimes: intermittency with turbulent spots, spiral turbulence, featureless turbulence. For larger values of the inner Reynolds number, turbulent Taylor roll re-emerge from the featureless turbulence and remain for very large values of the Reynolds numbers. Bifurcations between different turbulent rolls states are even observed in the ultimate turbulence regime. Nevertheless the transition from the featureless turbulence to the turbulent rolls still requires a detailed study and the mechanism which causes and sustains turbulent spots or turbulent spirals remains unknown. In this study we present new experimental information on the organization of the flow for the different regimes with turbulence. The experiments are conducted in a Taylor-Couette flow with η = 0 . 8 . Stereo-Particle Image Velocimetry measurements and visualizations of the different flow regimes are realized and discussed. This work was supported by the ANR TRANSFLOW - ANR-13-BS09-0025.
High Reynolds number turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Rongrong
Fully developed turbulent pipe is studied in this thesis. Streamwise and wall-normal turbulence components are measured using a crossed hot-wire probe. In the process, a new calibration method for the crossed hot-wire probe is developed, and the binormal cooling error for hot-wire measurement, which is caused by cooling in the direction normal to the hot-wire measurement plane, is studied and found to be the major error contributor for both mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements using a crossed-wire probe. The new calibration scheme utilizes the fact that the total stress in a fully developed turbulent pipe flow is defined by the streamwise pressure gradient, so directional sensibility calibration could be done by recording the crossed hot-wire signals against a known shear stress distribution. This information, when combined with mean velocity calibration against a Pitot tube measurement, provide a full calibration for crossed hot-wire probes. The new calibration method is especially convenient for pipe and channel flow measurements. For other measurements, the calibration could be done by using a simple pipe apparatus as the calibration device. Streamwise and wall-normal turbulence components are measured over a Reynolds number range from 1.1 x 105 to 9.8 x 10 6. Similarity arguments are studied for turbulence intensity and spectra. The most relevant physical assumption for the 'similarity' is Townsend's distinction between 'active' and 'inactive' motions. Perry's attached eddy hypothesis, which is based on Townsend's work, offers a more detailed physical model and provides extensive quantitative prediction, is also reviewed and discussed in the context of these new measurements. For the wall-normal turbulence intensity, a constant region in u'rms is found for the region 200 ≤ y+ ≤ 0.1R+ in inner and outer scaling for Reynolds numbers up to 1.0 x 106. An increase in u'rms is observed closer to the wall at about y + ˜ 100, and is suggestive of
A variational principle for turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stern, M. E.
1980-11-01
A general control theory is proposed to select the realized stationary state whenever the equations of motion are densely nonunique (degenerate). For the turbulent flow in a pipe with given pressure gradient, the theory implies that the discharge is an extremum. Quantitative results, such as von Karman's constant, emerge when this variational principle is combined with inequalities pertaining to the mean field. The control theory is also applied to fully turbulent thermal convection, and a variational principle for this problem is obtained which is also consistent with measurements.
Optical monitor for observing turbulent flow
Albrecht, Georg F.; Moore, Thomas R.
1992-01-01
The present invention provides an apparatus and method for non-invasively monitoring turbulent fluid flows including anisotropic flows. The present invention uses an optical technique to filter out the rays travelling in a straight line, while transmitting rays with turbulence induced fluctuations in time. The output is two dimensional, and can provide data regarding the spectral intensity distribution, or a view of the turbulence in real time. The optical monitor of the present invention comprises a laser that produces a coherent output beam that is directed through a fluid flow, which phase-modulates the beam. The beam is applied to a temporal filter that filters out the rays in the beam that are straight, while substantially transmitting the fluctuating, turbulence-induced rays. The temporal filter includes a lens and a photorefractive crystal such as BaTiO.sub.3 that is positioned in the converging section of the beam near the focal plane. An imaging system is used to observe the filtered beam. The imaging system may take a photograph, or it may include a real time camera that is connected to a computer. The present invention may be used for many purposes including research and design in aeronautics, hydrodynamics, and combustion.
Turbulent Heat Transfer in Ribbed Pipe Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2012-11-01
From the view point of heat transfer control, surface roughness is one of the popular ways adopted for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. Such a surface roughness is often modeled with a rib. In the current investigation, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically-mounted ribs at Reτ=700, Pr=0.71, and p / k =2, 4, and 8. Here, p and k represent the pitch and rib height, respectively. The rib height is fixed as one tenth of the pipe radius. The profiles of mean velocity components, mean temperature, root-mean-squares (rms) of temperature fluctuation are presented at the selected streamwise locations. In comparison with the smooth-pipe case at the same Re and Pr, the effects of the ribs are clearly identified, leading to overall enhancement of turbulent heat transfer in terms of Nu. The budget of temperature variance is presented in the form of contours. The results of an Octant analysis are also given to elucidate the dominant events. Our LES results shed light on a complete understanding of the heat-transfer mechanisms in turbulent ribbed-pipe flow which has numerous applications in engineering. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012013019).
Liquid Infused Surfaces in Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Matthew; Liu, Ying; Stone, Howard; Hultmark, Marcus
2016-11-01
Liquid infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust method for turbulent drag reduction. These surfaces consist of functionalized roughness elements wetted with a liquid lubricant that is immiscible with external fluids. The presence of the lubricant creates mobile, fluid-fluid interfaces, each of which can support a localized slip. Collectively, these interfaces yield a finite slip velocity at the effective surface, which has been demonstrated to reduce skin friction drag in turbulent flows. Retention of the lubricant layer is critical to maintaining the drag reduction effect. A turbulent channel-flow facility is used to characterize the drag reduction and robustness of various liquid infused surfaces. Micro-manufactured surfaces are mounted flush in the channel and exposed to turbulent flows. The retention of fluorescent lubricants and pressure drop are monitored to characterize the effects of surface geometry and lubricant properties. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim) and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Turbulence production in stratified Ekman flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkhinini, Nadia; Dubos, Thomas; Drobinski, Philippe
2010-05-01
Although a stable stratification should suppress vertical motions and turbulence, significant turbulence is observed in nocturnal or polar atmospheric boundary layers (ABLs), and often presents a high degree of instationarity or intermittency. In this work we use the Ekman flow as a prototype flow to explore possible dynamical mechanisms generating this turbulence. The linear instability of neutral and stratified Ekman flow has been studied theoretically and experimentally (Lilly, 1966 ; Brown, 1972). The fastest growing infinitesimal perturbations equilibrate nonlinearly in the form of longitudinal roll vortices which are close analogues of circulations found in neutral and weakly convective ABLs (Brown, 1970 ; Young, 2002). Therefore a secondary instability mechanism must be invoked for three-dimensional (3D) turbulence to be generated. Through such a mechanism, which is known to exist in the neutral case (Dubos et al., 2008), infinitesimal 3D perturbations to the equilibrated rolls grow and eventually lead to turbulence through nonlinear interactions. Vortices and stratified shear flows present various types of secondary instability (Godeferd et al., 2001 ; Peltier and Caulfield, 2003). We perform the secondary stability analysis of stratified Ekman boundary layer rolls for a few values of the Reynolds, Richardson and Prandtl numbers. For this, we first compute the equilibrated rolls and discuss their structure. Especially their exists a range of intermediate Richardson numbers for which locally unstable stratification is present in the vortex core. This feature provides a potential mechanism and energy source for the secondary instability. The energetics of the growth of three-dimensional perturbations are discussed for a few representative values of the control parameters.
Multiscale equations for strongly stratified turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chini, Greg; Rocha, Cesar; Julien, Keith; Caulfield, Colm-Cille
2016-11-01
Strongly stratified turbulent shear flows are of fundamental importance owing to their widespread occurrence and their impact on diabatic mixing, yet direct numerical simulations of such flows remain challenging. Here, a reduced, multiscale description of turbulent shear flows in the presence of strong stable density stratification is derived via asymptotic analysis of the governing Boussinesq equations. The analysis explicitly recognizes the occurrence of dynamics on disparate spatiotemoporal scales, and yields simplified partial differential equations governing the coupled evolution of slowly-evolving small aspect-ratio ('pancake') modes and isotropic, strongly non-hydrostatic stratified-shear (e.g. Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability modes. The reduced model is formally valid in the physically-relevant regime in which the aspect-ratio of the pancake structures tends to zero in direct proportion to the horizontal Froude number. Relative to the full Boussinesq equations, the model offers both computational and conceptual advantages.
Turbulent diamagnetism in flowing liquid sodium.
Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Parada, C A; Taylor, N Z; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B
2007-04-20
The nature of Ohm's law is examined in a turbulent flow of liquid sodium. A magnetic field is applied to the flowing sodium, and the resulting magnetic field is measured. The mean velocity field of the sodium is also measured in an identical-scale water model of the experiment. These two fields are used to determine the terms in Ohm's law, indicating the presence of currents driven by a turbulent electromotive force. These currents result in a diamagnetic effect, generating magnetic field in opposition to the dominant fields of the experiment. The magnitude of the fluctuation-driven magnetic field is comparable to that of the field induced by the sodium's mean flow.
Relaminarisation of fully turbulent flow in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuehnen, Jakob; Hof, Bjoern
2014-11-01
Drag reduction still remains one of the most alluring applications of turbulence control. We will show that flattening the streamwise velocity profile in pipes can force turbulent flow to decay and become laminar. Two different experimental control schemes are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. Both control schemes act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. Since, in a smooth straight pipe, the flow remains laminar from that position a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 5 can be accomplished. We will present measurements with high-speed particle image velocimetry, measurements of the pressure drop and videos of the development of the flow during relaminarisation. The guiding fundamental principle behind our approach to control the velocity profile will be explained and discussed.
Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.
2013-01-01
The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.
On stability and turbulence of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heisenberg, Werner
1951-01-01
This investigation is divided into two parts, the treatment of the stability problem of fluid flows on the one hand, and that of the turbulent motion on the other. The first part summarizes all previous investigations under a unified point of view, that is, sets up as generally as possible the conditions under which a profile possesses unstable or stable characteristics, and indicates the methods for solution of the stability equation for any arbitrary velocity profile and for calculation of the critical Reynolds number for unstable profiles. In the second part, under certain greatly idealizing assumptions, differential equations for the turbulent motions are derived and from them qualitative information about several properties of the turbulent velocity distribution is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boukenkoul, M. A.; Li, F. C.; Aounallah, M.
2017-03-01
The present study aims to investigate numerically the flow control possibility using a synthetic jet actuation over a bi-dimensional NACA0015 airfoil manoeuvring at a highly turbulent flow (8.9e105 Reynolds to chord number). The 2-D flow behaviour was computed using the ANSYS Fluent commercial code. The so-called Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stocks (RANS) approach has been tested for one (Spalat-Allmaras S-A) and two (K-ε) transport equations for the turbulence modelling. Both present a weakness to predict the stall angle effectively. The S-A lift coefficient slope seems to be the closest to the experimental data. The synthetic jet control exhibits an extraordinary lift coefficient enhancement at high Angles Of Attack (AOA) but seems to be less obvious at low AOA, where the flow is still attached. A synthetic jet of a Strouhal (St = 2) and momentum (Cμ of 0.56%), delays the stall onset from 15 to 19deg with enhancing the lift coefficient by 40%. The actual work has been enriched by studying the effect of the jet’s frequency and momentum on the lift temporal signal. Also, the interaction between the mean flow and the synthetic jet structures topology was undertaken.
Scalewise investigation of two-phase flow turbulence in upward turbulent bubbly pipe flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin
2015-11-01
In the present study, the two-phase flow turbulence in upward turbulent bubbly pipe flows (at the Reynolds number of 5300) is invesgitated, especially focusing on the changes in flow structures with bubbles depending on the length scales. For the scalewise investigation, we perform the wavelet multi-resolution analysis on the velocity fields at three streamwise locations, measured with high-speed two-phase particle image velocimetry technology. While we intentaionlly introduce asymmetrically distributed bubbles at the pipe inlet, the mean volume void fraction is varied from from 0.3% to 1.86% and the considered mean bubble diameter is roughly maintained at 3.8 mm. With the present condition, turbulence enhancement is achieived for most cases but the turbulent suppression is also captured near the wall for the smallest void fraction case. Comparing the scalewise energy contribution, it is understood that the flow structures with length scales between bubble radius and bubble wake size are enhanced due to bubbles, resulting in the turbulence enhancement. On the other hand, flow structure with smaller length scales (mostly existing near the wall) may decrease depending on the bubble condition, which may be one of the explanations in turbulence suppression with bubbles. Supported by the NRF grant funded by the Korea government (NRF-2012M2A8A4055647) via SNU-IAMD.
The 2D and 3D hypersonic flows with unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thareja, Rajiv
1993-01-01
Viewgraphs on 2D and 3D hypersonic flows with unstructured meshes are presented. Topics covered include: mesh generation, mesh refinement, shock-shock interaction, velocity contours, mesh movement, vehicle bottom surface, and adapted meshes.
Global regularity and uniqueness of weak solution for the 2-D liquid crystal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Zhifei
We prove the global existence and regularity of weak solution for the 2-D liquid crystal flows with the large initial velocity. The uniqueness of weak solution is also proved by using the Littlewood-Paley analysis.
An experimental study of turbulent flow in attachment jet combustors by LDV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun; Wu, Cheng-Kang
1993-12-01
Flame stabilization in attachment jet combustors is based on the existence of the high temperature recirculation zone, provided by the Coanda effect of an attachment jet. The single attachment jet in a rectangular channel is a fundamental form of this type of flow. In this paper, the detailed characteristics of turbulent flow of a single attachment jet were experimentally studied by using a 2-D LDV. The flowfield consists of a forward flow and two reverse flows. The forward one is composed of a curved and a straight section. The curved section resembles a bent turbulent free jet, and the straight part is basically a section of turbulent wall jet. A turbulent counter-gradient transport region exists at the curved section. According to the results, this kind of combustor should have a large sudden enlargement ratio and not too narrow in width.
Studies in Transition and Time Varying Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, Chester E.
2004-01-01
The research focused on two areas: (a) the dynamics of forced turbulent flows and (b) time filtered Large Eddy Simulations (TLES). The dynamics of turbulent flows arising from external forcing of the turbulence are poorly understood. In particular, here are many unanswered questions relating the basic dynamical balances and the existence or nonexistence of statistical equilibrium of forced turbulent flows. The research used direct numerical simulations to explore these questions. The properties of the temporally filtered Navier-Stokes equations were also studied.
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows.
Vedovoto, João M; Serfaty, Ricardo; Da Silveira Neto, Aristeu
2015-01-01
The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solutions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.
Viscosity stratified fluids in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soldati, Alfredo; Ahmadi, Somayeh; Roccon, Alessio; Zonta, Francesco
2016-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study the turbulent Poiseuille flow of two immiscible liquid layers inside a rectangular channel. A thin liquid layer (fluid 1) flows on top of a thick liquid layer (fluid 2), such that their thickness ratio is h1 /h2 = 1 / 9 . The two liquid layers have the same density but different viscosities (viscosity-stratified fluids). In particular, we consider three different values of the viscosity ratio λ =ν1 /ν2 : λ = 1 , λ = 0 . 875 and λ = 0 . 75 . Numerical Simulations are based on a Phase Field method to describe the interaction between the two liquid layers. Compared with the case of a single phase flow, the presence of a liquid-liquid interface produces a remarkable turbulence modulation inside the channel, since a significant proportion of the kinetic energy is subtracted from the mean flow and converted into work to deform the interface. This induces a strong turbulence reduction in the proximity of the interface and causes a substantial increase of the volume-flowrate. These effects become more pronounced with decreasing λ.
Spatial Convergence of Three Dimensional Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Anderson, W. Kyle
2016-01-01
Finite-volume and finite-element schemes, both implemented within the FUN3D flow solver, are evaluated for several test cases described on the Turbulence-Modeling Resource (TMR) web site. The cases include subsonic flow over a hemisphere cylinder, subsonic flow over a swept bump configuration, and supersonic flow in a square duct. The finite- volume and finite-element schemes are both used to obtain solutions for the first two cases, whereas only the finite-volume scheme is used for the supersonic duct. For the hemisphere cylinder, finite-element solutions obtained on tetrahedral meshes are compared with finite- volume solutions on mixed-element meshes. For the swept bump, finite-volume solutions have been obtained for both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes and are compared with finite-element solutions obtained on tetrahedral meshes. For the hemisphere cylinder and the swept bump, solutions are obtained on a series of meshes with varying grid density and comparisons are made between drag coefficients, pressure distributions, velocity profiles, and profiles of the turbulence working variable. The square duct shows small variation due to element type or the spatial accuracy of turbulence model convection. It is demonstrated that the finite-element scheme on tetrahedral meshes yields similar accuracy as the finite- volume scheme on mixed-element and hexahedral grids, and demonstrates less sensitivity to the mesh topology (biased tetrahedral grids) than the finite-volume scheme.
Generalized Wall Function for Complex Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Chen, Kuo-Huey
2000-01-01
A generalized wall function was proposed by Shih et al., (1999). It accounts the effect of pressure gradients on the flow near the wall. Theory shows that the effect of pressure gradients on the flow in the inertial sublayer is very significant and the standard wall function should be replaced by a generalized wall function. Since the theory is also valid for boundary layer flows toward separation, the generalized wall function may be applied to complex turbulent flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation and recirculation. This paper is to verify the generalized wall function with numerical simulations for boundary layer flows with various adverse and favorable pressure gradients, including flows about to separate. Furthermore, a general procedure of implementation of the generalized wall function for National Combustion Code (NCC) is described, it can be applied to both structured and unstructured CFD codes.
Turbulent Flow Past Projectiles: A Computational Investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Pasquale; Thangam, Siva
2010-11-01
Projectiles with free spinning bases are often used for smart munitions to provide effective control, stability and terminal guidance. Computational investigations are performed for flow past cylinders aligned along their axis where a base freely spins while attached to and separated at various distances from a non-spinning fore-body. The energy spectrum is modified to incorporate the effects of swirl and rotation using a parametric characterization of the model coefficients. An efficient finite-volume algorithm is used to solve the time-averaged equations of motion and energy along with the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation. Computations are performed for both rigid cylinders as well as cylinders with free-spinning bases. Experimental data for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions obtained from subsonic wind tunnel with sting-mounted spinning cylinders is used for validating the computational findings.
Vortex statistics in turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsas, José Hugo; Augusto Moriconi, Luca Roberto
2016-11-01
In order to address the role of coherent structures in wall bounded turbulence, we study the statistics of morphological and kinematic properties of vortices, such as circulation, radius and height distributions. To accomplish that, we introduce a novel vortex identification method named as "vorticity curvature criterion" which is based on the local properties of the vorticity field. We furthermore employ a background subtraction procedure to remove shearing background effects expected to be present in the topology of the streamwise/wall-normal plane flow configurations. We discuss, through a comparative study of performance with the usual swirling strength criterion, and extending the previous analyses to the detection of coherent structures in the spanwise/wall normal planes, isotropization issues for the paradigmatic case of numerical turbulent channel flows. We acknowledge the funding from CNPq, CAPES and Faperj.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, J. L.; Simpson, R. L.
1997-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques were used to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over a range of low Reynolds numbers. The goals of this research were (1) an increased understanding of the flow physics in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers,(2) to observe and quantify differences between 2D and 3D TBL flow structures, and (3) to document Reynolds number effects for 3D TBLs. The LDV data have provided results detailing the turbulence structure of the 2D and 3D TBLs. These results include mean Reynolds stress distributions, flow skewing results, and U and V spectra. Effects of Reynolds number for the 3D flow were also examined. Comparison to results with the same 3D flow geometry but at a significantly higher Reynolds number provided unique insight into the structure of 3D TBLs. While the 3D mean and fluctuating velocities were found to be highly dependent on Reynolds number, a previously defined shear stress parameter was discovered to be invariant with Reynolds number. The hydrogen bubble technique was used as a flow visualization tool to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D TBLs. Both the quantitative and qualitative results displayed larger turbulent fluctuations with more highly concentrated vorticity regions for the 2D flow.
Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John
2014-05-01
This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.
Wall-layer eruptions in turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, J. D. A.
1989-01-01
The near-wall region of a turbulent flow is investigated in the limit of large Reynolds numbers. When low-speed streaks are present, the governing equations are shown to be of the boundary-layer type. Physical processes leading to local breakdown and a strong interaction with the outer region are considered. It is argued that convected vortices, predominantly of the hairpin type, will provoke eruptions and regenerative interactions with the outer region.
Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow.
Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John
2014-05-01
This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.
Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow
Kashiwa, B.
1987-10-01
Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of kappa-epsilon modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy kappa, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation epsilon, for each material. Hence a set of kappa and epsilon equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both kappa and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a pipe.
The Aeroacoustics of Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.
2008-01-01
Aerodynamic noise prediction has been an important and challenging research area since James Lighthill first introduced his Acoustic Analogy Approach over fifty years ago. This talk attempts to provide a unified framework for the subsequent theoretical developments in this field. It assumes that there is no single approach that is optimal in all situations and uses the framework as a basis for discussing the strengths weaknesses of the various approaches to this topic. But the emphasis here will be on the important problem of predicting the noise from high speed air jets. Specific results will presented for round jets in the 0.5 to 1.4 Mach number range and compared with experimental data taken on the Glenn SHAR rig. It is demonstrated that nonparallel mean flow effects play an important role in predicting the noise at the supersonic Mach numbers. The results explain the failure of previous attempts based on the parallel flow Lilley model (which has served as the foundation for most jet noise analyses during past two decades).
Turbulent Mixing Parameterizations for Oceanic Flows and Student Support
2014-09-30
projects is to formulate robust turbulence parameterizations that are applicable for a wide range of oceanic flow conditions. OBJECTIVES The...primary objectives of these projects are to bridge the gap between parameterizations/models for small-scale turbulent mixing developed from fundamental...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Turbulent Mixing Parameterizations for Oceanic Flows
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Taulbee, D. B.; Madnia, C. K.; Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Adumitroaie, V.; James, S.
1999-01-01
The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop and implement a new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. (2) To develop algebraic turbulence closures for statistical description of chemically reacting turbulent flows.
Turbulence characteristics of an axisymmetric reacting flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, R. D.; Stevenson, W. H.; Thompson, H. D.
1984-01-01
Turbulent sudden expansion flows are of significant theoretical and practical importance. Such flows have been the subject of extensive analytical and experimental study for decades, but many issues are still unresolved. Detailed information on reacting sudden expansion flows is very limited, since suitable measurement techniques have only been available in recent years. The present study of reacting flow in an axisymmetric sudden expansion was initiated under NASA support in December 1983. It is an extension of a reacting flow program which has been carried out with Air Force support under Contract F33615-81-K-2003. Since the present effort has just begun, results are not yet available. Therefore a brief overview of results from the Air Force program will be presented to indicate the basis for the work to be carried out.
Waves in Turbulent Stably Stratified Shear Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobitz, F. G.; Rogers, M. M.; Ferziger, J. H.; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Two approaches for the identification of internal gravity waves in sheared and unsheared homogeneous stratified turbulence are investigated. First, the phase angle between the vertical velocity and density fluctuations is considered. It was found, however, that a continuous distribution of the phase angle is present in weakly and strongly stratified flow. Second, a projection onto the solution of the linearized inviscid equations of motion of unsheared stratified flow is investigated. It was found that a solution of the fully nonlinear viscous Navier-Stokes equations can be represented by the linearized inviscid solution. The projection yields a decomposition into vertical wave modes and horizontal vortical modes.
A Baroclinic Model of turbulent dusty flows
Kuhl, A.L.
1992-04-01
The problem considered here is the numerical simulation of the turbulent dusty flow induced by explosions over soil surfaces. Some of the unresolved issues are: (1) how much dust is scoured from such surfaces; (2) where does the dust go in the boundary layer; (3) what is the dusty boundary layer height versus time; (4) what are the dusty boundary layer profiles; (5) how much of the dust mass becomes entrained into the dust stem; and (6) where does the dust go in the buoyant cloud? The author proposes a Baroclinic Model for flows with large density variations that actually calculates the turbulent mixing and transport of dust on an adaptive grid. The model is based on the following idealizations: (1) a loose dust bed; (2) an instantaneous shock fluidization of the dust layer; (3) the dust and air are in local equilibrium (so air viscosity enforces the no-slip condition); (4) the dust-air mixture is treated as a continuum dense fluid with zero viscosity; and (5) the turbulent mixing is dominated by baroclinically-generated vorticity. These assumptions lead to an inviscid set of conservation laws for the mixture, which are solved by means of a high-order Godunov algorithm for gasdynamics. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is used to capture the turbulent mixing processes on the grid. One of the unique characteristics of these flows is that mixing occurs because vorticity is produced by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. A number of examples are presented to illustrate these baroclinic effects including shock interactions with dense-gas layers and dust beds, and dusty wall jets of airblast precursors. The conclusion of these studies is that dusty boundary layers grow because of mass entrainment from the fluidized bed (and not because of viscous wall drag) as proven by the Mass Integral Equation.
Two-Dimensional Turbulent Separated Flow. Volume 1
1985-06-01
of detached turbulent boundary layers, even when the sign of U is changed to account for mean backflows. Thus, earlier researchers, such as Kuhn and...Turbulent Shear Layer," Third Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, pp. 16.23-16.29. Hillier, R., Latour , M.E.M.P., and Cherry, N.J. (1983), "Unsteady...344. Kuhn , G.D. and Nielsen, J.N. (1971), "An Analytical Method for Calculating Turbulent Separated Flows Due to Adverse Pressure Gradients
Fluctuating Pressure Data from 2-D Nozzle Cold Flow Tests (Dual Bell)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nesman, Tomas E.
2001-01-01
Rocket engines nozzle performance changes as a vehicle climbs through the atmosphere. An altitude compensating nozzle, ACN, is intended to improve on a fixed geometry bell nozzle that performs at optimum at only one trajectory point. In addition to nozzle performance, nozzle transient loads are an important consideration. Any nozzle experiences large transient toads when shocks pass through the nozzle at start and shutdown. Additional transient toads will occur at transitional flow conditions. The objectives of cold flow nozzle testing at MSFC are CFD benchmark / calibration and Unsteady flow / sideloads. Initial testing performed with 2-D inserts to 14" transonic wind tunnel. Recent review of 2-D data in preparation for nozzle test facility 3-D testing. This presentation shows fluctuating pressure data and some observations from 2-D dual-bell nozzle cold flow tests.
Grid Convergence for Turbulent Flows(Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Schwoppe, Axel
2015-01-01
A detailed grid convergence study has been conducted to establish accurate reference solutions corresponding to the one-equation linear eddy-viscosity Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for two dimensional turbulent flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat plate. The study involved three widely used codes, CFL3D (NASA), FUN3D (NASA), and TAU (DLR), and families of uniformly refined structured grids that differ in the grid density patterns. Solutions computed by different codes on different grid families appear to converge to the same continuous limit, but exhibit different convergence characteristics. The grid resolution in the vicinity of geometric singularities, such as a sharp trailing edge, is found to be the major factor affecting accuracy and convergence of discrete solutions, more prominent than differences in discretization schemes and/or grid elements. The results reported for these relatively simple turbulent flows demonstrate that CFL3D, FUN3D, and TAU solutions are very accurate on the finest grids used in the study, but even those grids are not sufficient to conclusively establish an asymptotic convergence order.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.
2011-01-01
This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simonich, J. C.
1989-01-01
Prediction of helicopter main rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence was analyzed. The analysis combines several different models that describe the fluid mechanics of the turbulence and the ingestion process. Two models, atmospheric turbulence, and mean flow and turbulence contraction were covered. The third model, covered in a separate report, describes the rotor acoustic mode. The method incorporates the atmospheric turbulence model and a rapid distortion turbulence contraction description to determine the statistics of the anisotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. The analytical basis for a module was provided which was incorporated in NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer were modeled including effects of atmospheric stability length, wind speed, and altitude. The turbulence distortion process is modeled as a deformation of vortex filaments (which represent the turbulence field) by a mean flow field due to the rotor inflow.
Elastically bound particle in a turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsson, Kristjan; Prosperetti, Andrea
2011-11-01
The results of a direct numerical simulation of the behavior of a finite-size spherical particle subject to a linear elastic force in a turbulent flow are described. The turbulence is obtained by a physical space linear forcing due to Lundgren (see also Rosales and Meneveau, PoF 2005). The fluid-particle interaction is simulated by means of the Physalis method which permits the accurate calculation of hydrodynamic forces and couples acting on the particle using a fixed Cartesian grid. We vary the particle size with respect to the integral length scale along with the spring constant and therefore the natural frequency of the oscillator. Some results of a similar calculation with torsional springs and a fixed particle center will also be described. Funding provided by the IMPACT institute, the Netherlands.
Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1979-01-01
The conceptual foundation underlying Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is summarized, and the numerical methods developed for simulation of the time-developing turbulent mixing layer and turbulent plane Poiseuille flow are discussed. Computational results show that the average Reynolds stress profile nearly attains the equilibrium shape which balances the downstream mean pressure gradient in the regions away from the walls. In the vicinity of the walls, viscous stresses are shown to be significant; together with the Reynolds stresses, these stresses balance the mean pressure gradient. It is stressed that the subgrid scale contribution to the total Reynolds stress is significant only in the vicinity of the walls. The continued development of LES is urged.
Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Oleg V. Vasilyev
2008-06-12
Although turbulent flows are common in the world around us, a solution to the fundamental equations that govern turbulence still eludes the scientific community. Turbulence has often been called one of the last unsolved problem in classical physics, yet it is clear that the need to accurately predict the effect of turbulent flows impacts virtually every field of science and engineering. As an example, a critical step in making modern computational tools useful in designing aircraft is to be able to accurately predict the lift, drag, and other aerodynamic characteristics in numerical simulations in a reasonable amount of time. Simulations that take months to years to complete are much less useful to the design cycle. Much work has been done toward this goal (Lee-Rausch et al. 2003, Jameson 2003) and as cost effective accurate tools for simulating turbulent flows evolve, we will all benefit from new scientific and engineering breakthroughs. The problem of simulating high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows of engineering and scientific interest would have been solved with the advent of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques if unlimited computing power, memory, and time could be applied to each particular problem. Yet, given the current and near future computational resources that exist and a reasonable limit on the amount of time an engineer or scientist can wait for a result, the DNS technique will not be useful for more than 'unit' problems for the foreseeable future (Moin & Kim 1997, Jimenez & Moin 1991). The high computational cost for the DNS of three dimensional turbulent flows results from the fact that they have eddies of significant energy in a range of scales from the characteristic length scale of the flow all the way down to the Kolmogorov length scale. The actual cost of doing a three dimensional DNS scales as Re{sup 9/4} due to the large disparity in scales that need to be fully resolved. State-of-the-art DNS calculations of isotropic turbulence
Structure of 2-D and 3-D Turbulent Boundary Layers with Sparsely Distributed Roughness Elements
2005-06-28
straight orientation. Stations U, 6, mm 6", mm 0, mm Ree k+ k/6 1 25.98 58.565 12.70 7.65 11997 58.5 0.0130 2 25.36 54.56 12.65 7.52 11518 60.4 0.0139 3...a flat plate boundary layer transition. Engineering Turbulence Modeling and Experiments - 4, W. Rodi and D. Laurence (Eds.), Elsevier Science Ltd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Ehab; Hatch, D. R.; Morrison, P. J.; Horton, W.
2016-09-01
Progress in understanding the coupling between plasma instabilities in the equatorial electrojet based on a unified fluid model is reported. Simulations with parameters set to various ionospheric background conditions revealed properties of the gradient-drift and Farley-Buneman instabilities. Notably, sharper density gradients increase linear growth rates at all scales, whereas variations in cross-field E × B drift velocity only affect small-scale instabilities. A formalism defining turbulent fluctuation energy for the system is introduced, and the turbulence is analyzed within this framework. This exercise serves as a useful verification test of the numerical simulations and also elucidates the physics underlying the ionospheric turbulence. Various physical mechanisms involved in the energetics are categorized as sources, sinks, nonlinear transfer, and cross-field coupling. The physics of the nonlinear transfer terms is studied to identify their roles in producing energy cascades, which explain the generation of small-scale structures that are stable in the linear regime. The theory of two-step energy cascading to generate the 3 m plasma irregularities in the equatorial electrojet is verified for the first time in the fluid regime. In addition, the nonlinearity of the system allows the possibility of an inverse energy cascade, potentially responsible for generating large-scale plasma structures at the top of the electrojet as found in different rocket and radar observations.
Turbulence Effects of Axial Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, C.; Chamorro, L. P.; Neary, V. S.; Morton, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
Axial flow hydrokinetic turbines provide a method for extracting the kinetic energy available in unidirectional (river), bidirectional (tidal) and marine currents; however, a deep understanding of the wake dynamics, momentum recovery, geomorphologic effects, and ecological interaction with these hydrokinetic turbines is required to guarantee their economical and environmental viability. The St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) at the University of Minnesota (UMN) has performed physical modeling experiments using a 1:10 scale axial flow tidal turbine in the SAFL Main Channel, a 2.75m x 1.8m x 80m open channel test facility. A sophisticated control system allows synchronous measurements of turbine torque and rotational speed along with high resolution 3-D velocity measurements within the channel. Using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), high resolution 3-D velocity profile data were collected up to 15 turbine diameters downstream of the turbine location. These data provide valuable information on the wake characteristics (turbulence, Reynolds stresses, etc.) resulting from a rotating axial flow hydrokinetic machine. Regions of high turbulence and shear zones that persist in the near wake regions are delineated along with the velocity deficit and momentum recovery within the wake downstream of the device. Synchronous ADV data shed light on the rotational and meandering characteristics of the wake and its potential impacts on the local geomorphology and hydrodynamic environment. This dataset on single hydrokinetic turbine flow characteristics is the basis for further work on the optimal arrangement and performance environment for arrays of similar hydrokinetic devices.
Organized motions underlying turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waleffe, F.
1990-01-01
The objective of this project is to determine the nature and significance of the organized motions underlying turbulent shear flow. There is considerable experimental evidence for the existence of such motions. In particular, one consistently observes longitudinal streaks with a spacing of about 100 in wall units in the near-wall region of wall-bounded shear flows. Recently, an analysis based on the direct resonance mechanism has predicted the appearance of streaks with precisely such a spacing. Also, the minimum channel simulations of Jimenez and Moin have given a strong dynamical significance to that spanwise length scale. They have shown that turbulent-like flows can not be maintained when the spanwise wavelength of the motion is constrained to be less than about that critical number. A critical review of the direct resonance ideas and the non-linear theory of Benney and Gustavsson is presented first. It is shown how this leads to the later mean flow-first harmonic theory of Benney. Finally, we note that a different type of analysis has led to the prediction streaks with a similar spacing. This latter approach consists of looking for optimum fields and directly provides deep insights into why a particular structure or a particular scale should be preferred.
Effect of Inhomogeneous Flow on K-H Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasquez, Gabriela; Lin, Dong; Sen, Sudip; Scale, Wayne; Petulante, Nelson
2017-01-01
We study the effect of inhomogeneous flow on the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and turbulence. The inhomogeneous flow includes both flow shear and flow curvature. The effect of flow curvature (second radial derivative of flow) is shown to have significant effect in controlling the turbulence level contrary to the usual prediction that flow shear (first radial derivative of flow) alone controls the turbulence level. The detail result of this simulation will be reported. Work in this work is supported by the DOE grant DE-SC0016397.
Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.
1998-01-01
-stream flow. The lateral curvature of the wing/strat causes the oncoming turbulent layer to skew about am axis (x-axis) parallel to the plane (xz-plane) of the mean shear. This is the principle mechanism for the generation of secondary flow. Such skew-induced secondary flows are slow to be attenuated by Reynolds stresses. Additional contribution to the generation of secondary flow comes from anisotropies in Reynolds stresses. Upstream of the strut, the mean-vorticity is directed span wise (along the y-direction). The presence of secondary flow in the vicinity of the strut causes the vorticity to stretch around the obstacle in a horse-shoe shape, with each leg having a vorticity of the opposite sense. The blockage effect of the strut imposes a severe adverse pressure gradient on the oncoming turbulent shear layer, causing boundary layer separation ahead of the leading edge, resulting in a vortex that rolls up and flows downstream into the juncture region. The separation vortices trailing in the wake of the wing can alter the lift or drag characteristics of the surfaces downstream of the wing-body juncture. Likewise, on submarines, the wake flow behind the appendage can degrade the performance of the propeller located downstream. The complex nature of this flow is caused by the presence of all six components of Reynolds stresses. Devenport and Simpson report that in the vicinity of the horse-shoe vortex there is intense recirculation with turbulent stresses being much larger than those normally observed in turbulent flows. These features contribute to making this flow a challenge to predict numerically. Some of the past studies provide useful insights into this flow that would guide our numerical efforts. In measurements reported by Shabaka and Bradshaw, the eddy viscosity tensor is seen to be non-isotropic and has negative components in certain regions. In an effort to evaluate the closure assumptions of various turbulence models, Devenport and Simpson used their own extensive
Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow
Richard W. Johnson
2012-09-01
A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.
Turbulent statistics and flow structures in spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gai, Jie; Xia, Zhenhua; Cai, Qingdong; Chen, Shiyi
2016-09-01
A series of direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating turbulent plane Couette flows at a Reynolds number of 1300 with rotation numbers Ro between 0 and 0.9 is carried out to investigate the effects of anticyclonic rotation on turbulent statistics and flow structures. Several typical turbulent statistics are presented, including the mean shear rate at the centerline, the wall-friction Reynolds number, and volume-averaged kinetic energies with respect to the secondary flow field, turbulent field, and total fluctuation field. Our results show that the rotation changes these quantities in different manners. Volume-averaged balance equations for kinetic energy are analyzed and it turns out that the interaction term acts as a kinetic energy bridge that transfers energy from the secondary flow to the turbulent fluctuations. Several typical flow regimes are identified based on the correlation functions across the whole channel and flow visualizations. The two-dimensional roll cells are observed at weak rotation Ro=0.01 , where alternant clustering of vortices appears. Three-dimensional roll cells emerge around Ro≈0.02 , where the clustering of vortices shows the meandering and bifurcating behavior. For moderate rotation 0.07 ≲Ro≲0.36 , well-organized structures are observed, where the herringbonelike vortices are clustered between streaks from the top view of three-dimensional flow visualization and form annuluses. More importantly, the vortices are rather confined to one side of the walls when Ro≤0.02 and are inclined from the bottom to upper walls when Ro≥0.07 .
A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainer, Andreas
1988-01-01
A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn-Woernle, Lisa; Dijkstra, Henk A.; van der Woerd, Hans J.
2013-04-01
Constraints on values of biological parameters by observed turbulence in a quasi-2D phytoplankton model of the North Atlantic Session and Session Number: Scaling and complex Physical and Biogeophysical Processes in the Atmosphere, Ocean and climate (NP3.1) Preferred Mode of Presentation: Oral Lisa Hahn-Woernle¹, Henk A. Dijkstra¹ & Hans J. van der Woerd² 1. Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands. 2. Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. During the STRATIPHYT cruises in Summer 2009 and Spring 2011 in-situ plankton and nutrient concentrations as well as upper-ocean turbulence characteristics were measured from Las Palmas to Reykjavik [1,2]. The measurements agree with previous findings that the incoming light intensity and the stratification of the upper ocean set important conditions for the initiation of the phytoplankton bloom close to the surface and also for a possible shift to a deep chlorophyll maximum below the mixed layer. These strong characteristic spatial patterns and temporal cycles of phytoplankton surface concentration are also observed in satellite images of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Northern Atlantic. To understand the meridional depth (upper 200 m) variation of the phytoplankton distributions, a quasi-2D phytoplankton model was used. The results indicate that with the given profiles of the turbulent vertical mixing coefficient, only a very limited interval for the biological model parameters leads to the observed depth of the phytoplankton maximum. [1] E. Jurado, H. van der Woerd and H. A. Dijkstra, Microstructure measurements along a quasi-meridional transect in the North Atlantic, J. Geophysical Res. Oceans, 117, C04016, doi:10.1029/2011JC007137, (2012). [2] E. Jurado, H. A. Dijkstra and H. van der Woerd, Microstructure observations during the spring 2011 STRATIPHYT-II cruise in the
Turbulence measurements in high-speed flows by resonant fluoresence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, R. B.
1982-01-01
Both mean flow and turbulence measurements were investigated using the resonant Doppler velocimeter in a Mach 3.2 nitrogen flow. Data are presented showing velocity, temperature and pressure measured point by point across the flow field. This data is compared with conventional pitot and temperature surveys. Turbulence was induced by a small metal tab in the flow and observed by both hot wire and RDV techniques. Photographs of the flow field demonstrate the utility of the RDV for quantitative flow field visualization.
Minimal flow units for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandi, P.
2016-08-01
We present direct numerical simulations of two minimal flow units (MFUs) to investigate the differences between inviscid and viscous simulations, and the different behavior of the evolution for conducting fluids. In these circumstances the introduction of the Lorentz force in the momentum equation produces different scenarios. The Taylor-Green vortex, in the past, was an MFU widely considered for both conducting and non-conducting fluids. The simulations were performed by pseudo-spectral numerical methods; these are repeated here by using a finite difference second-order accurate, energy-conserving scheme for ν =0. Having observed that this initial condition could be inefficient for capturing the eventual occurrence of a finite time singularity a potentially more efficient MFU consisting of two interacting Lamb dipoles was considered. It was found that the two flows have a different time evolution in the vortical dominated stage. In this stage, turbulent structures of different size are generated leading to spectra, in the inviscid conditions, with a {k}-3 range. In real conditions the viscosity produces smaller scales characteristic of fully developed turbulence with energy spectra with well defined exponential and inertial ranges. In the presence of non-conducting conditions the passive vector behaves as the vorticity. The evolution is different in the presence of conducting conditions. Although the time evolution is different, both flows lead to spectra in Kolmogorov units with the same shape at high and intermediate wave numbers.
Probability density functions in turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dinavahi, Surya P. G.
1992-01-01
The probability density functions (pdf's) of the fluctuating velocity components, as well as their first and second derivatives, are calculated using data from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulent channel flow. It is observed that, beyond the buffer region, the pdf of each of these quantities is independent of the distance from the channel wall. It is further observed that, beyond the buffer region, the pdf's for all the first derivatives collapse onto a single universal curve and those of the second derivatives also collapse onto another universal curve, irrespective of the distance from the wall. The kinetic-energy dissipation rate exhibits log normal behavior.
Some Basic Laws of Isotropic Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loitsianskii, L. G.
1945-01-01
An Investigation is made of the diffusion of artificially produced turbulence behind screens or other turbulence producers. The method is based on the author's concept of disturbance moment as a certain theoretically well-founded measure of turbulent disturbances.
Large-eddy simulation of unidirectional turbulent flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
We performed large eddy simulation of the flow over a series of two- and three-dimensional dune geometries at laboratory scale using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. First, we studied the flow over a standard 2D transverse dune geometry, then bedform three-dimensionality was imposed. Finally, we investigated the turbulent flow over barchan dunes. The results are validated by comparison with simulations and experiments for the 2D dune case, while the results of the 3D dunes are validated qualitatively against experiments. The flow over transverse dunes separates at the dune crest, generating a shear layer that plays a crucial role in the transport of momentum and energy, as well as the generation of coherent structures. Spanwise vortices are generated in the separated shear; as they are advected, they undergo lateral instabilities and develop into horseshoe-like structures and finally reach the surface. The ejection that occurs between the legs of the vortex creates the upwelling and downdrafting events on the free surface known as "boils". The three-dimensional separation of flow at the crestline alters the distribution of wall pressure, which may cause secondary flow across the stream. The mean flow is characterized by a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, with core radii of the order of the flow depth. Staggering the crestlines alters the secondary motion; two pairs of streamwise vortices appear (a strong one, centred about the lobe, and a weaker one, coming from the previous dune, centred around the saddle). The flow over barchan dunes presents significant differences to that over transverse dunes. The flow near the bed, upstream of the dune, diverges from the centerline plane; the flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest and reattaches on the bed. Away from the centerline plane and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is routed towards the horns and leaves
Quasi-steady turbulence modeling of unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Reda R.; Mobark, Amin
1991-01-01
This article describes the results of numerical simulations of oscillating wall-bounded developing flows. The full phase-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved. The application of quasi-steady turbulence modeling to unsteady flows is demonstrated using an unsteady version of the k-epsilon model. The effects of unsteadiness on the mean flow and turbulence are studied. Critical evaluation of the applicability of the quasi-steady approach to turbulence modeling is presented. Suggestions are given for the future efforts in turbulence modeling of unsteady flows.
Turbulent and Mesoscale Flow in Stable Conditions
2007-11-02
turbulence. The upside-down regime is generally temporary as downward transport of turbulence energy leads to full coupling with the ground surface. This...advection of turbulent patches explain about 25% of the variance of the turbulence energy at the main tower. This advective influence does not include...near the surface because of either horizontal advection or downward propagation of the turbulent events. Evaluation of the turbulence energy budget
Spiral small-scale structures in compressible turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Thomas; Politano, Hélène; Pouquet, Annick; LarchevÊque, Michèle
We extend the spiral vortex solution of Lundgren 1982 to compressible turbulent flows following a perfect gas law. Lundgren's model links the dynamical and spectral properties of incompressible flows, providing a k-5/3 Kolmogorov spectrum. A similar compressible spatio-temporal transformation is now derived, reducing the dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) vortices stretched by an axisymmetric incompressible strain into a 2D compressible vortex dynamics. It enables to write the 3D spectra of the incompressible and compressible square velocities u{s2/and u
A turbulence model for buoyant flows based on vorticity generation.
Domino, Stefan Paul; Nicolette, Vernon F.; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tieszen, Sheldon R.; Black, Amalia Rebecca
2005-10-01
A turbulence model for buoyant flows has been developed in the context of a k-{var_epsilon} turbulence modeling approach. A production term is added to the turbulent kinetic energy equation based on dimensional reasoning using an appropriate time scale for buoyancy-induced turbulence taken from the vorticity conservation equation. The resulting turbulence model is calibrated against far field helium-air spread rate data, and validated with near source, strongly buoyant helium plume data sets. This model is more numerically stable and gives better predictions over a much broader range of mesh densities than the standard k-{var_epsilon} model for these strongly buoyant flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Shihe; Le Quéré, Patrick
2012-06-01
Following our previous two-dimensional (2D) studies of flows in differentially heated cavities filled with air, we studied the stability of 2D natural convection flows in these cavities with respect to 3D periodic perturbations. The basis of the numerical methods is a time-stepping code using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method and the direct Uzawa method for velocity-pressure coupling. Newton's iteration, Arnoldi's method and the continuation method have been used in order to, respectively, compute the 2D steady-state base solution, estimate the leading eigenmodes of the Jacobian and perform linear stability analysis. Differentially heated air-filled cavities of aspect ratios from 1 to 7 were investigated. Neutral curves (Rayleigh number versus wave number) have been obtained. It turned out that only for aspect ratio 7, 3D stationary instability occurs at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers than the onset of 2D time-dependent flow and that for other aspect ratios 3D instability always takes place before 2D time-dependent flows. 3D unstable modes are stationary and anti-centro-symmetric. 3D nonlinear simulations revealed that the corresponding pitchfork bifurcations are supercritical and that 3D instability leads only to weak flow in the third direction. Further 3D computations are also performed at higher Rayleigh number in order to understand the effects of the weak 3D fluid motion on the onset of time-dependent flow. 3D flow structures are responsible for the onset of time-dependent flow for aspect ratios 1, 2 and 3, while for larger aspect ratios they do not alter the transition scenario, which was observed in the 2D cases and that vertical boundary layers become unstable to traveling waves.
MODELING STRATEGIES FOR UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOWS IN THE LOWER PLENUM OF THE VHTR
Richard W. Johnson
2006-09-01
Validation simulations are presented for turbulent flow in a staggered tube bank, geometry similar to that in the lower plenum of a block very high temperature reactor. Steady 2D RANS predictions are compared to unsteady 2D RANS results and experiment. The unsteady calculations account for the fact that nonturbulent fluctuations (due to vortex-shedding) are present in the flow. The unsteady computations are shown to predict the mean variables and the total shear stress quite well. Previous workers have presented results that indicated that 3D simulations were necessary to obtain reasonable results. Best practices are based on requirements for the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering.
Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald
2014-11-01
Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.
Turbulence Modeling for Unsteady Transonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Levy, L. L., Jr.; Seegmiller, H. L.
1980-01-01
Conditionally sampled, ensemble-averaged velocity measurements, made with a laser velocimeter, were taken in the flowfield over the rear half of an 18% thick circular arc airfoil at zero incidence tested at M = 0.76 and at a Reynolds number based on chord of 11 x 10(exp 6). Data for one cycle of periodic unsteady flow having a reduced frequency f of 0.49 are analyzed. A series of compression waves, which develop in the early stages of the cycle, strengthen and coalesce into a strong shock wave that moves toward the airfoil leading edge. A thick shear layer forms downstream of the shock wave. The kinetic energy and shear stresses increase dramatically, reach a maximum when dissipation and diffusion of the turbulence exceed production, and then decrease substantially. The response lime of the turbulence to the changes brought about by the shock-wave passage upstream depends on the shock-wave strength and position in the boundary layer. The cycle completes itself when the shock wave passes the midchord, weakens, and the shear layer collapses. Remarkably good comparisons are found with computations that employ the time-dependent Reynolds averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations using an algebraic eddy viscosity model, developed for steady flows.
Drag reduction in turbulent MHD pipe flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlandi, P.
1996-01-01
This is a preliminary study devoted to verifying whether or not direct simulations of turbulent Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) flows in liquid metals reproduce experimental observations of drag reduction. Two different cases have been simulated by a finite difference scheme which is second order accurate in space and time. In the first case, an external azimuthal magnetic field is imposed. In this case, the magnetic field acts on the mean axial velocity and complete laminarization of the flow at N(sub a) = 30 has been achieved. In the second case, an axial magnetic field is imposed which affects only fluctuating velocities, and thus the action is less efficient. This second case is more practical, but comparison between numerical and experimental results is only qualitative.
Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles
2017-01-01
Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned and built. From a fluid mechanics perspective, wind farms encompass turbulent flow phenomena occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest to understanding mean power extraction and fluctuations in wind farms are the scales ranging from 1 to 10 m that comprise the wakes behind individual wind turbines, to motions reaching 100 m to kilometers in scale, inherently associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. In this review, we summarize current understanding of these flow phenomena (particularly mean and second-order statistics) through field studies, wind tunnel experiments, large-eddy simulations, and analytical modeling, emphasizing the most relevant features for wind farm design and operation.
Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmed, S.; Tannehill, J. C.
1990-01-01
A new nonequilibrium turbulence closure model has been developed for computing wall bounded two-dimensional turbulent flows. This two-layer eddy viscosity model was motivated by the success of the Johnson-King model in separated flow regions. The influence of history effects are described by an ordinary differential equation developed from the turbulent kinetic energy equation. The performance of the present model has been evaluated by solving the flow around three airfoils using the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Excellent results were obtained for both attached and separated turbulent flows about the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Integrated Technology A 153W airfoil. Based on the comparison of the numerical solutions with the available experimental data, it is concluded that the new nonequilibrium turbulence model accurately captures the history effects of convection and diffusion on turbulence.
Optimal Controller for Turbulent Flow Over an Airfoil
2006-05-17
and multiple-output ( MIMO ) setting. This is an issue since turbulent flow is a distributed system and some standard techniques developed for lumped...directions follow. 7.1 Flow Simulation An efficient computational code for the simulation of turbulent separated flow utilizing massively parallel...LES interface 84 for massively separated flows, especially those whose separation point is set by geometry, than for wall-bounded channel flows
Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oberlack, M.
1996-01-01
The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.
Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow
Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.
2014-12-09
In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ∼ 1.
The decay of turbulence in rotating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teitelbaum, Tomas; Mininni, Pablo D.
2011-06-01
We present a parametric space study of the decay of turbulence in rotating flows combining direct numerical simulations, large eddy simulations, and phenomenological theory. Several cases are considered: (1) the effect of varying the characteristic scale of the initial conditions when compared with the size of the box, to mimic "bounded" and "unbounded" flows; (2) the effect of helicity (correlation between the velocity and vorticity); (3) the effect of Rossby and Reynolds numbers; and (4) the effect of anisotropy in the initial conditions. Initial conditions include the Taylor-Green vortex, the Arn'old-Beltrami-Childress flow, and random flows with large-scale energy spectrum proportional to k4. The decay laws obtained in the simulations for the energy, helicity, and enstrophy in each case can be explained with phenomenological arguments that consider separate decays for two-dimensional and three-dimensional modes and that take into account the role of helicity and rotation in slowing down the energy decay. The time evolution of the energy spectrum and development of anisotropies in the simulations are also discussed. Finally, the effect of rotation and helicity in the skewness and kurtosis of the flow is considered.
Parallelized CCHE2D flow model with CUDA Fortran on Graphics Process Units
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This paper presents the CCHE2D implicit flow model parallelized using CUDA Fortran programming technique on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). A parallelized implicit Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver using Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) algorithm on GPU is developed and tested. This solve...
Evaluation of 2D shallow-water model for spillway flow with a complex geometry
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Although the two-dimensional (2D) shallow water model is formulated based on several assumptions such as hydrostatic pressure distribution and vertical velocity is negligible, as a simple alternative to the complex 3D model, it has been used to compute water flows in which these assumptions may be ...
Non Lyapunov stability of a constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana
2017-01-01
Different types of stabilities (global, local) and instabilities (global absolute, local convective) of the constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow are analyzed in a particular phase space of continuously differentiable functions, endowed with the usual algebraic operations and the topology generated by the uniform convergence on the plane. For this purpose the Euler equations linearized at the constant flow are used. The Lyapunov stability analysis was presented in [1] and this paper is a continuation of [1].
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Louis F.
1990-01-01
Investigations of one- and two-dimensional (1- or 2-D) simulations of Stirling machines centered around experimental data generated by the U. of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) are covered. This rig was used to investigate oscillating flows about a zero mean with emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions in tubes. The Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) and in particular, its heater, were the subjects of the simulations. The heater was treated as a 1- or 2-D entity in an otherwise 1-D system. The 2-D flow effects impacted the transient flow predictions in the heater itself but did not have a major impact on overall system performance. Information propagation effects may be a significant issue in the simulation (if not the performance) of high-frequency, high-pressure Stirling machines. This was investigated further by comparing a simulation against an experimentally validated analytic solution for the fluid dynamics of a transmission line. The applicability of the pressure-linking algorithm for compressible flows may be limited by characteristic number (defined as flow path information traverses per cycle); this warrants further study. Lastly the METR was simulated in 1- and 2-D. A two-parameter k-w foldback function turbulence model was developed and tested against a limited set of METR experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.
1991-01-01
The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.
Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component
Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J
2014-11-25
Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.
BOOK REVIEW: Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cambon, C.
2004-10-01
This is a handbook for a computational approach to reacting flows, including background material on statistical mechanics. In this sense, the title is somewhat misleading with respect to other books dedicated to the statistical theory of turbulence (e.g. Monin and Yaglom). In the present book, emphasis is placed on modelling (engineering closures) for computational fluid dynamics. The probabilistic (pdf) approach is applied to the local scalar field, motivated first by the nonlinearity of chemical source terms which appear in the transport equations of reacting species. The probabilistic and stochastic approaches are also used for the velocity field and particle position; nevertheless they are essentially limited to Lagrangian models for a local vector, with only single-point statistics, as for the scalar. Accordingly, conventional techniques, such as single-point closures for RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subgrid-scale models for LES (large-eddy simulations), are described and in some cases reformulated using underlying Langevin models and filtered pdfs. Even if the theoretical approach to turbulence is not discussed in general, the essentials of probabilistic and stochastic-processes methods are described, with a useful reminder concerning statistics at the molecular level. The book comprises 7 chapters. Chapter 1 briefly states the goals and contents, with a very clear synoptic scheme on page 2. Chapter 2 presents definitions and examples of pdfs and related statistical moments. Chapter 3 deals with stochastic processes, pdf transport equations, from Kramer-Moyal to Fokker-Planck (for Markov processes), and moments equations. Stochastic differential equations are introduced and their relationship to pdfs described. This chapter ends with a discussion of stochastic modelling. The equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics are addressed in chapter 4. Classical conservation equations (mass, velocity, internal energy) are derived from their
Studies in Forced and Time Varying Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, Chester E.
2005-01-01
The reasearch focused on two areas; (a) the dynamics of forced turbulent flows and (b) time filtered Large Eddy Simulations (TLES). The dynamics of turbulent flows arising from external forcing of the turbulence are poorly understood. In particular, here are many unanswered questions relating the basic dynamical balances and the existence or nonexistence of statistical equilibrium of forced turbulent flows. This research used rapid distortion theory and direct numerical simulations to explore these questions. The properties of the temporally filtered Navier-Stokes equations were also studied.
Experimental determination of the correlation properties of plasma turbulence using 2D BES systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, M. F. J.; Field, A. R.; van Wyk, F.; Ghim, Y.-c.; Schekochihin, A. A.; the MAST Team
2017-04-01
A procedure is presented to map from the spatial correlation parameters of a turbulent density field (the radial and binormal correlation lengths and wavenumbers, and the fluctuation amplitude) to correlation parameters that would be measured by a beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic. The inverse mapping is also derived, which results in resolution criteria for recovering correct correlation parameters, depending on the spatial response of the instrument quantified in terms of point-spread functions (PSFs). Thus, a procedure is presented that allows for a systematic comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This procedure is illustrated using the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak BES system and the validity of the underlying assumptions is tested on fluctuating density fields generated by direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code GS2. The measurement of the correlation time, by means of the cross-correlation time-delay method, is also investigated and is shown to be sensitive to the fluctuating radial component of velocity, as well as to small variations in the spatial properties of the PSFs.
Soap film as a 2D system: Diffusion and flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric
2014-03-01
We use microrheology to measure the 2D (interfacial) viscosity of soap films. Microrheology uses the diffusivity of tracer particles suspended in the soap film to infer viscosity. Our tracer particles are colloids of diameters d = 0.10 and 0.18 microns. We measure the interfacial viscosity of soap films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 3 microns. The thickness of these films is measured using the infrared absorbance of the water based soap films. From film thickness, viscosity of the fluid used to make the film and particle diffusivity, we can infer the interfacial viscosity due to the surfactant layers at the film/air interfaces. We find positive constant interfacial viscosities for thin films (h/d < 5), within error. For thicker films, we find negative viscosities, indicating 3D effects begin to play a role, as air stresses become less important. The transition from 2D to 3D properties as a function of h/d is sharp at about h/d=6. Additionally, we measure larger length scale flow fields from correlated particle motions and find good agreement with what is expected from the theory of 2D fluids for all our films. In conclusion, single particle diffusion shows a sharp transition away from 2D like behavior as h/d increases, but the long-range flow fields still act as 2D.
Turbulence measurements in shock induced flow using hot wire anemometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartung, Lin C.; Duffy, Robert E.; Trolier, James W.
1988-01-01
Heat transfer measurements over various geometric shapes have been made by immersing models in shock-induced flows. The heat transfer to a body is strongly dependent on the turbulence level of the stream. The interpretation of such heat transfer measurements requires a knowledge of the turbulence intensity. Turbulence intensity measurements, using hot-wire anemometry, have been successfully carried out in shock-induced flows. The experimental procedures for making such measurements and the techniques required are discussed.
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Taulbee, D. B.; Madnia, C. K.; Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Adumitroaie, V.; James, S.
1999-01-01
The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop and implement a new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. (2) To develop algebraic turbulence closures for statistical description of chemically reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed the third year of Phase III of this research. This is the Final Report of our activities on this research sponsored by the NASA LaRC.
A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kollmann, W.
1992-01-01
The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.
On laminar-turbulent transition in nanofluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzey, D. V.; Zhigarev, V. A.; Pryazhnikov, M. I.
2016-09-01
The paper presents experimental data on the laminar-turbulent transition in the nanofluid flow in the pipe. The transition in the flows of such fluids is shown to have lower Reynolds numbers than in the base fluid. The degree of the flow destabilization increases with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles and a decrease in their size. On the other hand, in the turbulent flow regime, the presence of particles in the flow leads to the suppression of smallscale turbulent fluctuations. The correlation of the measured viscosity coefficient of considered nanofluids is presented.
Free turbulent shear flows. Volume 2: Summary of data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birch, S. F.
1973-01-01
The proceedings of a conference on free turbulent shear flows are presented. Objectives of the conference are as follows: (1) collect and process data for a variety of free mixing problems, (2) assess present theoretical capability for predicting mean velocity, concentration, and temperature distributions in free turbulent flows, (3) identify and recommend experimental studies to advance knowledge of free shear flows, and (4) increase understanding of basic turbulent mixing process for application to free shear flows. Examples of specific cases of jet flow are included.
The minimal flow unit in complex turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, A.; Biringen, S.
2016-12-01
Direct numerical simulations of spanwise-rotating periodic turbulent channel flow were conducted for three rotation numbers: Rob = 0, 0.2, and 0.5 at a Reynolds number of 8000 based on laminar centerline mean velocity. An additional simulation was conducted at a Reynolds number of 27 000 and rotation number Rob = 0.2 to study higher-Reynolds number effects. In order to determine the proper computational box size for a minimal flow unit (MFU) at Rob = 0.5, spanwise arrays of Taylor-Gortler vortices in the highly turbulent pressure region were examined and complete realization of the vortices was demonstrated to be necessary for accurate MFU turbulence statistics requiring a minimum spanwise domain length Lz = π. An equivalent MFU model produced similar results for Rob = 0.2 but demonstrated decreased accuracy for the higher-Reynolds number simulation. Analysis of pressure statistics also showed that the MFU model could accurately approximate mean pressure but not fluctuating pressure distributions across the channel. For higher-order statistics in the pressure region with rotation, the MFU model demonstrated good agreement with the full simulations. In the suction region, the MFU model with rotation failed to capture intermittent extreme-amplitude fluctuations, resulting in poor accuracy for higher-order statistics.
Statistical growths of turbulent structures in a pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Junsun; Sung, Hyung Jin
2016-11-01
The streamwise and spanwise (or azimuthal) growths of turbulent coherent structures in a turbulent pipe flow (Reτ = 3008) are explored. Two-point correlation and 1-D pre-multiplied energy spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations are obtained to analyze the statistical growths of the streamwise and spanwise structures. The streamwise and spanwise length scales linearly grow along the wall-normal distance and the relationship between both length scales is shown to be linear, which support the attached eddy hypothesis. Furthermore, the statistical scalings of the coherent structures are demonstrated and compared to 2-D pre-multiplied energy spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. Finally, the relationship between the streamwise and spanwise structures is analyzed by using the POD based on the translational invariance method (Duggleby et al. 2009). Several representative energetic modes are observed. The combinations of the energetic modes are used to examine the behaviors of the large- and very-large-scale motions. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and partially supported by KISTI under the Strategic Supercomputing Support Program.
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1993-01-01
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows is proposed. It is assumed that turbulent eddy shocklets are formed primarily by the 'collisions' of large energetic eddies. The extra straining of the large eddy, due to their interactions with shocklets, enhances the energy cascade to smaller eddies. Model transport equations are developed for the turbulent kinetic energies and the energy transfer rates of the different scale. The turbulent eddy viscosity is determined by the total turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of energy transfer from the large scale to the small scale, which is different from the energy dissipation rate. The model coefficients in the modeled turbulent transport equations depend on the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy of the large scale to that of the small scale, which renders the model more adaptive to the characteristics of individual flow. The model is tested against compressible free shear layers. The results agree satisfactorily with measurements.
A depth-averaged 2-D model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, Alejandro; Wu, Weiming; Beck, Tanya M.
2016-11-01
A depth-averaged 2-D model has been developed to simulate unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in coastal waters. The current motion is computed by solving the phase-averaged 2-D shallow water flow equations reformulated in terms of total-flux velocity, accounting for the effects of wave radiation stresses and general diffusion or mixing induced by current, waves, and wave breaking. The cross-shore boundary conditions are specified by assuming fully developed longshore current and wave setup that are determined using the reduced 1-D momentum equations. A 2-D wave spectral transformation model is used to calculate the wave height, period, direction, and radiation stresses, and a surface wave roller model is adopted to consider the effects of surface roller on the nearshore currents. The nonequilibrium transport of nonuniform total-load sediment is simulated, considering sediment entrainment by current and waves, the lag of sediment transport relative to the flow, and the hiding and exposure effect of nonuniform bed material. The flow and sediment transport equations are solved using an implicit finite volume method on a variety of meshes including nonuniform rectangular, telescoping (quadtree) rectangular, and hybrid triangular/quadrilateral meshes. The flow and wave models are integrated through a carefully designed steering process. The model has been tested in three field cases, showing generally good performance.
Survey of Turbulence Models for the Computation of Turbulent Jet Flow and Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nallasamy, N.
1999-01-01
The report presents an overview of jet noise computation utilizing the computational fluid dynamic solution of the turbulent jet flow field. The jet flow solution obtained with an appropriate turbulence model provides the turbulence characteristics needed for the computation of jet mixing noise. A brief account of turbulence models that are relevant for the jet noise computation is presented. The jet flow solutions that have been directly used to calculate jet noise are first reviewed. Then, the turbulent jet flow studies that compute the turbulence characteristics that may be used for noise calculations are summarized. In particular, flow solutions obtained with the k-e model, algebraic Reynolds stress model, and Reynolds stress transport equation model are reviewed. Since, the small scale jet mixing noise predictions can be improved by utilizing anisotropic turbulence characteristics, turbulence models that can provide the Reynolds stress components must now be considered for jet flow computations. In this regard, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are good candidates. Reynolds stress transport models involve more modeling and computational effort and time compared to algebraic stress models. Hence, it is recommended that an algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) be implemented in flow solvers to compute the Reynolds stress components.
Five layers in a turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jinyoung; Ahn, Junsun; Sung, Hyung Jin
2016-11-01
The scaling laws governing the five layers of the mean velocity distribution of a turbulent pipe flow were characterized using the available DNS data (Reτ = 544 , 934, 3008). Excluding the very near-wall and core regions, the buffer, meso- and log layers were identified by examining the streamwise mean momentum equation and the net force spectra. The (outer) log layer was located in the overlap region where the viscous force was negligible. Another (inner) log layer was observed in the buffer layer, in which the viscous force was directly counterbalanced by the turbulent inertia. A meso-layer between the buffer and outer log layers was found to feature viscous effects. The acceleration force of the large-scale motions (LSMs) penetrated the outer log layer at higher Reynolds numbers, as observed in the net force spectra. The acceleration force of the LSMs became strong and was counterbalanced by the deceleration force of the small-scale motions (SSMs), indicating that the inner and outer length scales contributed equally to the meso-layer. The outer log layer was established by forming an extended connection link between the meso- and outer layers. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and partially supported by KISTI under the Strategic Supercomputing Support Program.
Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Landing-Edge Slat. Part 2; 2D Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Jenkins, Luther N.
2004-01-01
In our previous computational studies of a generic high-lift configuration, quasi-laminar (as opposed to fully turbulent) treatment of the slat cove region proved to be an effective approach for capturing the unsteady dynamics of the cove flow field. Combined with acoustic propagation via Ffowes Williams and Hawkings formulation, the quasi-laminar simulations captured some important features of the slat cove noise measured with microphone array techniques. However. a direct assessment of the computed cove flow field was not feasible due to the unavailability of off-surface flow measurements. To remedy this shortcoming, we have undertaken a combined experiment and computational study aimed at characterizing the flow structures and fluid mechanical processes within the slat cove region. Part I of this paper outlines the experimental aspects of this investigation focused on the 30P30N high-lift configuration; the present paper describes the accompanying computational results including a comparison between computation and experiment at various angles of attack. Even through predictions of the time-averaged flow field agree well with the measured data, the study indicates the need for further refinement of the zonal turbulence approach in order to capture the full dynamics of the cove's fluctuating flow field.
Turbulent flow evaluation of the venous needle during hemodialysis.
Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Huynh, Thanh N; Brott, B C; Ito, Y; Cheng, C H; Shih, A M; Allon, M; Anayiotos, Andreas S
2005-12-01
Arteriovenous (AV) grafts and fistulas used for hemodialysis frequently develop intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous anastomosis of the graft, leading to flow-limiting stenosis, and ultimately to graft failure due to thrombosis. Although the high AV access blood flow has been implicated in the pathogenesis of graft stenosis, the potential role of needle turbulence during hemodialysis is relatively unexplored. High turbulent stresses from the needle jet that reach the venous anastomosis may contribute to endothelial denudation and vessel wall injury. This may trigger the molecular and cellular cascade involving platelet activation and IH, leading to eventual graft failure. In an in-vitro graft/needle model dye injection flow visualization was used for qualitative study of flow patterns, whereas laser Doppler velocimetry was used to compare the levels of turbulence at the venous anastomosis in the presence and absence of a venous needle jet. Considerably higher turbulence was observed downstream of the venous needle, in comparison to graft flow alone without the needle. While turbulent RMS remained around 0.1 m/s for the graft flow alone, turbulent RMS fluctuations downstream of the needle soared to 0.4-0.7 m/s at 2 cm from the tip of the needle and maintained values higher than 0.1 m/s up to 7-8 cm downstream. Turbulent intensities were 5-6 times greater in the presence of the needle, in comparison with graft flow alone. Since hemodialysis patients are exposed to needle turbulence for four hours three times a week, the role of post-venous needle turbulence may be important in the pathogenesis of AV graft complications. A better understanding of the role of needle turbulence in the mechanisms of AV graft failure may lead to improved design of AV grafts and venous needles associated with reduced turbulence, and to pharmacological interventions that attenuate IH and graft failure resulting from turbulence.
Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.
2014-12-01
Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.
Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S.
2009-09-01
A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector.
Turbulent flows and intermittency in laboratory experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmet, F.; Antonia, R. A.; Danaila, L.
2001-10-01
In turbulent flows, the transfer of energy from large to small scales is strongly intermittent, in contradiction with Kolmogorov's (Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30 (1941) 299; hereafter K41) assumptions. The statistical properties associated with these energy transfer fluctuations at a given scale r have been widely studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically over the last 30 years or so. Such fluctuations are also encountered in various Planetary and Space Science domains. The present paper presents a review of laboratory experiments which clearly display the fractal nature of the (spatial or temporal) energy distribution at scale r, the departures from the K41 predictions being generally quantified through high-order moments of velocity increments.
Asymptotic scaling in turbulent pipe flow.
McKeon, B J; Morrison, J F
2007-03-15
The streamwise velocity component in turbulent pipe flow is assessed to determine whether it exhibits asymptotic behaviour that is indicative of high Reynolds numbers. The asymptotic behaviour of both the mean velocity (in the form of the log law) and that of the second moment of the streamwise component of velocity in the outer and overlap regions is consistent with the development of spectral regions which indicate inertial scaling. It is shown that an 'inertial sublayer' in physical space may be considered as a spatial analogue of the inertial subrange in the velocity spectrum and such behaviour only appears for Reynolds numbers R+>5 x 10(3), approximately, much higher than was generally thought.
Plankton blooms induced by turbulent flows.
Reigada, R; Hillary, R M; Bees, M A; Sancho, J M; Sagués, F
2003-01-01
Plankton play an important role in the ecology of the ocean and the climate because of their participation in the global carbon cycle at the base of the food chain. However, damaging plankton blooms can sometimes occur and are initially characterized by sudden transient increases in the phytoplankton population. They are thought to be driven by several effects, such as seasonal variations in temperature and salinity, and nutrient mixing. Furthermore, phytoplankton and zooplankton have different buoyancy properties, leading to a differential response in turbulent environments. In this paper, we investigate this effect in a model of advected plankton dynamics. We find that, over a range of parameter values, flows of marine species subjected to inertial/viscous forces naturally lead to patchiness and, in turn, periodically sustained plankton blooms. PMID:12737667
Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows
Paul, P.H.
1993-12-01
Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.
Bubble-induced turbulence study in homogeneous turbulent flow using DNS approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jinyong; Bolotnov, Igor
2015-11-01
The effect of a single bubble on the energy transfer to a homogeneous turbulent flow using DNS approach is investigated for various conditions. The single-phase turbulence is numerically generated by pressure-gradient driven uniform flow through a fully resolved turbulence generating grid. The turbulent intensity measured is uniform normal to the flow direction. The decay rate of the turbulent kinetic energy is validated against analytical power law. The collected instantaneous velocity is used as inflow condition for single-bubble simulations to study the bubble-induced turbulence (BIT). In interface-resolved two-phase simulation the bubble is kept at fixed positions by using a proportional-integral-derivative controller. This simulation set allows estimating the turbulent kinetic energy before and after the bubble, quantifying the BIT. Effects of bubble deformability, velocity and turbulent intensity are separately studied. We observe that for a nearly spherical bubble, the bubble-induced turbulence is positive, increasing the level of turbulent kinetic energy in the liquid phase. BIT is influenced by the other studied parameters and the presented work will contribute to the closure BIT model development in multiphase computational fluid dynamics modeling. The work is supported by NSF-CBET-Fluid Dynamics, Award #1333993.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
2001-01-01
Turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is a very important quantity for turbulence modeling and the budget of this quantity in its transport equation can provide insight into the flow physics. Turbulence kinetic energy budget measurements were conducted for a symmetric turbulent wake flow subjected to constant zero, favorable and adverse pressure gradients in year-three of research effort. The purpose of this study is to clarify the flow physics issues underlying the demonstrated influence of pressure gradient on wake development and provide experimental support for turbulence modeling. To ensure the reliability of these notoriously difficult measurements, the experimental procedure was carefully designed on the basis of an uncertainty analysis. Four different approaches, based on an isotropic turbulence assumption, a locally axisymmetric homogeneous turbulence assumption, a semi-isotropy assumption and a forced balance of the TKE equation, were applied for the estimate of the dissipation term. The pressure transport term is obtained from a forced balance of the turbulence kinetic energy equation. This report will present the results of the turbulence kinetic energy budget measurement and discuss their implication on the development of strained turbulent wakes.
An experimental study of flow separation over a flat plate with 2D transverse grooves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Emily Michelle
Nature has long been an inspiration for research in engineering. In particular, the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow, which appear on many aquatic biological surfaces, have been well documented and implemented in practical engineering applications. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with grooves that run perpendicular to the flow of water over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus controlling boundary layer separation over the dolphin's skin. Similarly, sharks are covered with scales that are flexible at the base and capable of bristling, forming grooves running transverse to the flow. It is theorized that the scales bristle when encountering a reversing flow, thereby trapping vortices between the scales and, similarly, delaying boundary layer separation. In an attempt to test this hypothesis and study these affects, a spinning cylinder was used in a water tunnel to induce separation over a flat plate with 2 mm, rectangular transverse grooves and sinusoidal grooves of similar scaling. The results were compared to tripped, turbulent boundary layer separation occurring over a flat plate without grooves using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The strength of the adverse pressure gradient was varied, and the observed delay in flow separation and other affects upon the boundary layer are discussed.
Effect of Turbulence Models on Two Massively-Separated Benchmark Flow Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2003-01-01
Two massively-separated flow cases (the 2-D hill and the 3-D Ahmed body) were computed with several different turbulence models in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code CFL3D as part of participation in a turbulence modeling workshop held in Poitiers, France in October, 2002. Overall, results were disappointing, but were consistent with results from other RANS codes and other turbulence models at the workshop. For the 2-D hill case, those turbulence models that predicted separation location accurately ended up yielding a too-long separation extent downstream. The one model that predicted a shorter separation extent in better agreement with LES data did so only by coincidence: its prediction of earlier reattachment was due to a too-late prediction of the separation location. For the Ahmed body, two slant angles were computed, and CFD performed fairly well for one of the cases (the larger slant angle). Both turbulence models tested in this case were very similar to each other. For the smaller slant angle, CFD predicted massive separation, whereas the experiment showed reattachment about half-way down the center of the face. These test cases serve as reminders that state- of-the-art CFD is currently not a reliable predictor of massively-separated flow physics, and that further validation studies in this area would be beneficial.
The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
1994-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.
On the initiation of surface waves by turbulent shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira, M. A. C.; Belcher, S. E.
2006-02-01
An analytical model is developed for the initial stage of surface wave generation at an air-water interface by a turbulent shear flow in either the air or in the water. The model treats the problem of wave growth departing from a flat interface and is relevant for small waves whose forcing is dominated by turbulent pressure fluctuations. The wave growth is predicted using the linearised and inviscid equations of motion, essentially following Phillips [Phillips, O.M., 1957. On the generation of waves by turbulent wind. J. Fluid Mech. 2, 417-445], but the pressure fluctuations that generate the waves are treated as unsteady and related to the turbulent velocity field using the rapid-distortion treatment of Durbin [Durbin, P.A., 1978. Rapid distortion theory of turbulent flows. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge]. This model, which assumes a constant mean shear rate Γ, can be viewed as the simplest representation of an oceanic or atmospheric boundary layer. For turbulent flows in the air and in the water producing pressure fluctuations of similar magnitude, the waves generated by turbulence in the water are found to be considerably steeper than those generated by turbulence in the air. For resonant waves, this is shown to be due to the shorter decorrelation time of turbulent pressure in the air (estimated as ∝ 1/ Γ), because of the higher shear rate existing in the air flow, and due to the smaller length scale of the turbulence in the water. Non-resonant waves generated by turbulence in the water, although being somewhat gentler, are still steeper than resonant waves generated by turbulence in the air. Hence, it is suggested that turbulence in the water may have a more important role than previously thought in the initiation of the surface waves that are subsequently amplified by feedback instability mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zentgraf, Florian; Baum, Elias; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas; Peterson, Brian
2016-04-01
Planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tomographic PIV (TPIV) measurements are utilized to analyze turbulent statistical theory quantities and the instantaneous turbulence within a single-cylinder optical engine. Measurements are performed during the intake and mid-compression stroke at 800 and 1500 RPM. TPIV facilitates the evaluation of spatially resolved Reynolds stress tensor (RST) distributions, anisotropic Reynolds stress invariants, and instantaneous turbulent vortical structures. The RST analysis describes distributions of individual velocity fluctuation components that arise from unsteady turbulent flow behavior as well as cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV). A conditional analysis, for which instantaneous PIV images are sampled by their tumble center location, reveals that CCV and turbulence have similar contributions to RST distributions at the mean tumble center, but turbulence is dominant in regions peripheral to the tumble center. Analysis of the anisotropic Reynolds stress invariants reveals the spatial distribution of axisymmetric expansion, axisymmetric contraction, and 3D isotropy within the cylinder. Findings indicate that the mid-compression flow exhibits a higher tendency toward 3D isotropy than the intake flow. A novel post-processing algorithm is utilized to classify the geometry of instantaneous turbulent vortical structures and evaluate their frequency of occurrence within the cylinder. Findings are coupled with statistical theory quantities to provide a comprehensive understanding of the distribution of turbulent velocity components, the distribution of anisotropic states of turbulence, and compare the turbulent vortical flow distribution that is theoretically expected to what is experimentally observed. The analyses reveal requisites of important turbulent flow quantities and discern their sensitivity to the local flow topography and engine operation.
A comparative 2D modeling of debris-flow propagation and outcomes for end-users
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettella, F.; Bertoldi, G.; Pozza, E.; McArdell, B. W.; D'Agostino, V.
2012-04-01
In Alpine regions gravity-driven natural hazards, in particular debris flows, endanger settlements and human life. Mitigation strategies based on hazard maps are necessary tools for land planning. These maps can be made more precise by using numerical models to forecasting the inundated areas after a careful setting of those 'key parameters' (K-P) which directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface. Several physically based 2D models are available for practitioners and governmental agencies, but the selection criteria of model type and of the related K-P remain flexible and partly subjective. This remark has driven us to investigate how different models simulate different types of debris flows (from granular to muddy debris flows, going through intermediate types), in particular when the flow is influenced by the presence of deposition basins. Two commercial 2D physical models (RAMMS and FLO-2D) have been tested for five well-documented debris flows events from five Italian catchments were different geology and flow dynamics are observed: 1) a viscous debris flow occurred in 2009 in a catchment with a metamorphic geology (Gadria torrent, Bolzano Province); 2) the 2009 granular debris flow in an granitic geological setting (Rio Dosson, Trento Province); 3-4) two events occurred in the 'rio Val del Lago' and 'rio Molinara' (Trento Province) in 2010 where porphyritic lithology prevails (intermediate granular debris flow); 5) the Rotolon torrent (Vicenza Province) 2009 debris flow containing sedimentary rocks enclosed in an abundant clay-rich matrix (intermediate viscous case). Event volumes range from 5.000 to 50.000 cubic meters. The Gadria, Rotolon and Val del Lago events are also influenced by artificial retention basins. Case study simulations allowed delineation of some practical end-user suggestions and good practices in order to guide the model choice and the K-P setting, particularly related to different flow dynamics. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laizet, Sylvain; Lamballais, Eric; Vassilicos, J. Christos
2015-11-01
Incompact3d is a high-order flow solver dedicated to Direct and Large Eddy Simulations (DNS/LES) using High Performance Computing (HPC) systems which isdevoted to turbulent flows at the interface between academic research and upstream industrial R&D. It is originating from the University of Poitiers (France) and was developed there as well as, more recently, in the Turbulence, Mixing and Flow Control Group at Imperial College London (UK). This high-order flow solver can reconcile accuracy, efficiency, versatility and scalability using a simple Cartesian mesh and up to one million computational cores. The three key ingredients of this successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systemswill be given in this talkfollowed by various applications such as fractal-generated turbulence, gravity currents in an open basin, impinging jets on a heated plate and a micro-jet device to control a turbulent jet.
Turbulence Measurements of Separate Flow Nozzles with Mixing Enhancement Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2002-01-01
Comparison of turbulence data taken in three separate flow nozzles, two with mixing enhancement features on their core nozzle, shows how the mixing enhancement features modify turbulence to reduce jet noise. The three nozzles measured were the baseline axisymmetric nozzle 3BB, the alternating chevron nozzle, 3A12B, with 6-fold symmetry, and the flipper tab nozzle 3T24B also with 6-fold symmetry. The data presented show the differences in turbulence characteristics produced by the geometric differences in the nozzles, with emphasis on those characteristics of interest in jet noise. Among the significant findings: the enhanced mixing devices reduce turbulence in the jet mixing region while increasing it in the fan/core shear layer, the ratios of turbulence components are significantly altered by the mixing devices, and the integral lengthscales do not conform to any turbulence model yet proposed. These findings should provide guidance for modeling the statistical properties of turbulence to improve jet noise prediction.
Spiral vortices in compressible turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, T.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Larchevêque, M.
2001-07-01
We extend the spiral vortex solution of Lundgren [Phys. Fluids 25, 2193 (1982)] to compressible turbulent flows with a perfect gas. This model links the dynamical and the spectral properties of incompressible flows, providing a k-5/3 Kolmogorov energy spectrum. In so doing, a compressible spatiotemporal transformation is derived, reducing the dynamics of three-dimensional vortices, stretched by an axisymmetric incompressible strain, into a two-dimensional compressible vortex dynamics. It enables us to write the three-dimensional spectra of the incompressible and compressible square velocities in terms of, respectively, the two-dimensional spectra of the enstrophy and of the square velocity divergence, by the use of a temporal integration. Numerical results are presented from decaying direct simulations performed with 5122 grid points; initially, the rms Mach number is 0.23, with local values up to 0.9, the Reynolds number is 700, and the ratio between compressible and incompressible square velocities is 0.1. A k-5/3 inertial behavior is seen to result from the dynamical evolution for both the compressible and incompressible three-dimensional spectra.
Advanced Combustion Modeling for Complex Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ham, Frank Stanford
2005-01-01
The next generation of aircraft engines will need to pass stricter efficiency and emission tests. NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has set an ambitious goal of 70% reduction of NO(x) emissions and a 15% increase in fuel efficiency of aircraft engines. We will demonstrate the state-of-the-art combustion tools developed a t Stanford's Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) as part of this program. In the last decade, CTR has spear-headed a multi-physics-based combustion modeling program. Key technologies have been transferred to the aerospace industry and are currently being used for engine simulations. In this demo, we will showcase the next-generation combustion modeling tools that integrate a very high level of detailed physics into advanced flow simulation codes. Combustor flows involve multi-phase physics with liquid fuel jet breakup, evaporation, and eventual combustion. Individual components of the simulation are verified against complex test cases and show excellent agreement with experimental data.
Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.
1984-01-01
Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.
Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.
1983-01-01
A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.
A compressible Navier-Stokes code for turbulent flow modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, T. J.
1984-01-01
An implicit, finite volume code for solving two dimensional, compressible turbulent flows is described. Second order upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations is used to enhance stability and accuracy. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency. Several zero and two equation turbulence models are incorporated to study their impact on overall flow modeling accuracy. Applications to external and internal flows are discussed.
The turbulence characteristics of a separated flow with combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Richard D.; Stevenson, Warren H.; Thompson, H. Doyle
1988-01-01
The effects of combustion on the turbulent structure of a flow and vice versa were studied by making simultaneous two-component laser velocimeter measurements in the turbulent flow field following an axisymmetric sudden expansion with and without combustion. Mean axial and radial velocities and Reynolds stresses were measured. In addition, simultaneous time resolved temperature measurements were made in the reacting flow using fast response thermocouples. Velocity-temperature correlations were formed from the velocity and temperature measurements.
The Density Distribution in Turbulent Bistable Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo
2013-03-01
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n <~ 0.6 cm-3), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ~0.2 to ~5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n >~ 7.1 cm-3) goes from ~1.1 to ~16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.
THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS
Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo E-mail: jskim@kasi.re.kr
2013-03-01
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function ({Sigma}-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n {approx}< 0.6 cm{sup -3}), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from {approx}0.2 to {approx}5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n {approx}> 7.1 cm{sup -3}) goes from {approx}1.1 to {approx}16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the {Sigma}-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.
Generation of Turbulent Inflow Conditions for Pipe Flow via an Annular Ribbed Turbulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moallemi, Nima; Brinkerhoff, Joshua
2016-11-01
The generation of turbulent inflow conditions adds significant computational expense to direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent pipe flows. Typical approaches involve introducing boxes of isotropic turbulence to the velocity field at the inlet of the pipe. In the present study, an alternative method is proposed that incurs a lower computational cost and allows the anisotropy observed in pipe turbulence to be physically captured. The method is based on a periodic DNS of a ribbed turbulator upstream of the inlet boundary of the pipe. The Reynolds number based on the bulk velocity and pipe diameter is 5300 and the blockage ratio (BR) is 0.06 based on the rib height and pipe diameter. The pitch ratio is defined as the ratio of rib streamwise spacing to rib height and is varied between 1.7 and 5.0. The generation of turbulent flow structures downstream of the ribbed turbulator are identified and discussed. Suitability of this method for accurate representation of turbulent inflow conditions is assessed through comparison of the turbulent mean properties, fluctuations, Reynolds stress profiles, and spectra with published pipe flow DNS studies. The DNS results achieve excellent agreement with the numerical and experimental data available in the literature.
Onset of turbulent mean dynamics in boundary layer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamman, Curtis; Sayadi, Taraneh; Moin, Parviz
2012-11-01
Statistical properties of turbulence in low Reynolds number boundary layers are compared. Certain properties are shown to approach an asymptotic state resembling higher Reynolds number flow much earlier during transition than previously thought. This incipient turbulence is less stochastic and more organized than developed turbulence farther downstream, but the mean dynamics and production mechanisms are remarkably similar. The onset of turbulence in our recent simulations is also similar to that observed in the bypass transition of Wu & Moin where continuous freestream turbulence, rather than small-amplitude linear waves, triggers transition. For these inflow disturbances, self-sustaining turbulence occurs rapidly after laminar flow breakdown without requiring a significant development length nor significant randomization. Slight disagreements with FST-induced bypass transition are observed that correlate with the extra strain a turbulent freestream would impose upon the near-wall dynamics. Nevertheless, the turbulence statistics are similar shortly after the skin-friction overshoot independent of upstream receptivity. This early onset of deterministic turbulence provides support for reduced-order modeling of turbulent boundary layers based on non-linear stability mechanisms.
Direct simulations of turbulent flow using finite-difference schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Moin, Parviz
1989-01-01
A high-order accurate finite-difference approach is presented for calculating incompressible turbulent flow. The methods used include a kinetic energy conserving central difference scheme and an upwind difference scheme. The methods are evaluated in test cases for the evolution of small-amplitude disturbances and fully developed turbulent channel flow. It is suggested that the finite-difference approach can be applied to complex geometries more easilty than highly accurate spectral methods. It is concluded that the upwind scheme is a good candidate for direct simulations of turbulent flows over complex geometries.
Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields
Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.
1998-08-01
We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }
Forecasting Fluid Flows Using the Geometry of Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suri, Balachandra; Tithof, Jeffrey; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Schatz, Michael F.
2017-03-01
The existence and dynamical role of particular unstable solutions (exact coherent structures) of the Navier-Stokes equation is revealed in laboratory studies of weak turbulence in a thin, electromagnetically driven fluid layer. We find that the dynamics exhibit clear signatures of numerous unstable equilibrium solutions, which are computed using a combination of flow measurements from the experiment and fully resolved numerical simulations. We demonstrate the dynamical importance of these solutions by showing that turbulent flows visit their state space neighborhoods repeatedly. Furthermore, we find that the unstable manifold associated with one such unstable equilibrium predicts the evolution of turbulent flow in both experiment and simulation for a considerable period of time.
Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.
1982-01-01
Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28577
Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.
1982-01-01
Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included.
Interaction between mean flow and turbulence in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falkovich, Gregory
2016-07-01
This short note is written to call attention to an analytic approach to the interaction of developed turbulence with mean flows of simple geometry (jets and vortices). It is instructive to compare cases in two and three dimensions and see why the former are solvable and the latter are not (yet). We present the analytical solutions for two-dimensional mean flows generated by an inverse turbulent cascade on a sphere and in planar domains of different aspect ratios. These solutions are obtained in the limit of small friction when the flow is strong while turbulence can be considered weak and treated perturbatively. I then discuss when these simple solutions can be realized and when more complicated flows may appear instead. The next step of describing turbulence statistics inside a flow and directions of possible future progress are briefly discussed at the end.
A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.
1995-01-01
A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.
LAMINAR TRANSITIONAL AND TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS FOR COMPRESSIBLE AXISYMMETRIC FLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.
1994-01-01
This is a finite-difference program for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to a fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094/7044 Direct Couple System. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and was developed in 1974.
Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.
2014-08-01
It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.
Flow-noise and turbulence in two tidal channels.
Bassett, Christopher; Thomson, Jim; Dahl, Peter H; Polagye, Brian
2014-04-01
Flow-noise resulting from oceanic turbulence and interactions with pressure-sensitive transducers can interfere with ambient noise measurements. This noise source is particularly important in low-frequency measurements (f < 100 Hz) and in highly turbulent environments such as tidal channels. This work presents measurements made in the Chacao Channel, Chile, and in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, WA. In both environments, peak currents exceed 3 m/s and pressure spectral densities attributed to flow-noise are observed at frequencies up to 500 Hz. At 20 Hz, flow-noise exceeds mean slack noise levels by more than 50 dB. Two semi-empirical flow-noise models are developed and applied to predict flow-noise at frequencies from 20 to 500 Hz using measurements of current velocity and turbulence. The first model directly applies mean velocity and turbulence spectra while the second model relies on scaling arguments that relate turbulent dissipation to the mean velocity. Both models, based on prior formulations for infrasonic (f < 20 Hz) flow-noise, agree well with observations in Chacao Channel. In Admiralty Inlet, good agreement is shown only with the model that applies mean velocity and turbulence spectra, as the measured turbulence violates the scaling assumption in the second model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Hürlimann, M.
2009-04-01
Debris flows are present in every country where a combination of high mountains and flash floods exists. In the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, at the Pyrenees, sporadic debris events occur. We selected two different events. The first one was triggered at La Guingueta by the big exceptional flood event that produced many debris flows in 1982 which were spread all over the Catalonian Pyrenees. The second, more local event occurred in 2000 at the mountain Montserrat at the Pre-litoral mountain chain. We present here some results of the FLATModel, entirely developed at the Research Group in Sediment Transport of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering Department (GITS-UPC). The 2D FLATModel is a Finite Volume method that uses the Godunov scheme. Some numerical arranges have been made to analyze the entrainment process during the events, the Stop & Go phenomena and the final deposit of the material. The material rheology implemented is the Voellmy approach, because it acts very well evaluating the frictional and turbulent behavior. The FLATModel uses a GIS environment that facilitates the data analysis as the comparison between field and numerical data. The two events present two different characteristics, one is practically a one dimensional problem of 1400 m in length and the other has a more two dimensional behavior that forms a big fan.
Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in nonrotating shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.
2017-03-01
From numerical simulations, we show that nonrotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers.
Model-free simulations of turbulent reactive flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman
1989-01-01
The current computational methods for solving transport equations of turbulent reacting single-phase flows are critically reviewed, with primary attention given to those methods that lead to model-free simulations. In particular, consideration is given to direct numerical simulations using spectral (Galerkin) and pseudospectral (collocation) methods, spectral element methods, and Lagrangian methods. The discussion also covers large eddy simulations and turbulence modeling.
Similarity of organized structures in turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, Parviz
1990-01-01
Recent analysis of databases generated by direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulent shear flows have revealed the presence of coherent structures similar to those in turbulent boundary layers. In this paper these findings and tentative conclusions on their significance are discussed.
Towards large eddy and direct simulation of complex turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Recent advances in the methodology for direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows and some of the current applications are reviewed. It is argued that high-order finite difference schemes yield solutions with comparable accuracy to the spectral methods with the same number of degrees of freedom. The effects of random inflow conditions on the downstream evolution of turbulence are discussed.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
Zombie Turbulence and More in Stratified Couette Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcus, Philip; Barranco, Joe; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang
2016-11-01
Zombie turbulence occurs in rotating, shearing vertically-stratified flows such as stratified Couette flows. The turbulence is triggered by a neutrally-stable eigenmode with a critical layer receptive to finite-amplitude perturbations. Once excited, the critical layer becomes a vortex layer pair that rolls up into discrete vortices. Those vortices excite new critical layers, and the process repeats ad infinitum. When the vortex amplitudes become sufficiently large, the flow becomes turbulent. Although possessing a mid-range energy spectrum with E (k) k - 5 / 3 , the turbulence is non-Kolmogorov, highly anisotropic, and with large turbulent, but coherent, structures that retain the length scales of the spacing between the critical layers. The motivation for this study is protoplanetary disks (PPDs) where new stars form. In the PPD the Brunt-Vaisala frequency N increases as a function of distance from the midplane where it is zero. We cannot trigger the initial finite amplitude instability where N is small (close to the midplane). However, computations in PPDs and Couette flows show that zombie turbulence forms where N is large, and then a new type of turbulence, that is neither zombie nor Kolmogorov turbulence, fills in the remainder of the domain even where N = 0 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Caixi; Tang, Shuai; Shen, Lian; Dong, Yuhong
2017-03-01
The dynamic and thermal performance of particle-laden turbulent flow is investigated via direction numerical simulation combined with the Lagrangian point-particle tracking under the condition of two-way coupling, with a focus on the contributions of particle feedback effect to momentum and heat transfer of turbulence. We take into account the effects of particles on flow drag and Nusselt number and explore the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement in particle-laden turbulent flows. The effects of particles on momentum and heat transfer are analyzed, and the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement for the prototypical case of particle-laden turbulent channel flows is addressed. We present results of turbulence modification and heat transfer in turbulent particle-laden channel flow, which shows the heat transfer reduction when large inertial particles with low specific heat capacity are added to the flow. However, we also found an enhancement of the heat transfer and a small reduction of the flow drag when particles with high specific heat capacity are involved. The present results show that particles, which are active agents, interact not only with the velocity field, but also the temperature field and can cause a dissimilarity in momentum and heat transport. This demonstrates that the possibility to increase heat transfer and suppress friction drag can be achieved with addition of particles with different thermal properties.
Crossing turbulent boundaries: interfacial flux in environmental flows.
Grant, Stanley B; Marusic, Ivan
2011-09-01
Advances in the visualization and prediction of turbulence are shedding new light on mass transfer in the turbulent boundary layer. These discoveries have important implications for many topics in environmental science and engineering, from the transport of earth-warming CO2 across the sea-air interface, to nutrient processing and sediment erosion in rivers, lakes, and the ocean, to pollutant removal in water and wastewater treatment systems. In this article we outline current understanding of turbulent boundary layer flows, with particular focus on coherent turbulence and its impact on mass transport across the sediment-water interface in marine and freshwater systems.
Toward a Turbulence Constitutive Relation for Rotating Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ristorcelli, J. R.
1996-01-01
In rapidly rotating turbulent flows the largest scales of the motion are in approximate geostrophic balance. Single-point turbulence closures, in general, cannot attain a geostrophic balance. This article addresses and resolves the possibility of constitutive relation procedures for single-point second order closures for a specific class of rotating or stratified flows. Physical situations in which the geostrophic balance is attained are described. Closely related issues of frame-indifference, horizontal nondivergence, Taylor-Proudman theorem and two-dimensionality are, in the context of both the instantaneous and averaged equations, discussed. It is shown, in the absence of vortex stretching along the axis of rotation, that turbulence is frame-indifferent. A derivation and discussion of a geostrophic constraint which the prognostic equations for second-order statistics must satisfy for turbulence approaching a frame-indifferent limit is given. These flow situations, which include rotating and nonrotating stratified flows, are slowly evolving flows in which the constitutive relation procedures are useful. A nonlinear non-constant coefficient representation for the rapid-pressure strain covariance appearing in the Reynolds stress and heat flux equations consistent with the geostrophic balance is described. The rapid-pressure strain model coefficients are not constants determined by numerical optimization but are functions of the state of the turbulence as parameterized by the Reynolds stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes. The functions are valid for all states of the turbulence attaining their limiting values only when a limit state is achieved. These issues are relevant to strongly vortical flows as well as flows such as the planetary boundary layers, in which there is a transition from a three-dimensional shear driven turbulence to a geostrophic or horizontal turbulence.
Flow visualization of turbulent boundary layer structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Head, M. R.; Bandyopadhyay, P.
1980-01-01
The results from flow visualization experiments performed using an argon-ion laser to illuminate longitudinal and transverse sections of the smoke filled boundary layer in zero pressure gradient are discussed. Most of the experiments were confined to the range 600 Re sub theta 10,000. Results indicate that the boundary layer consists almost exclusively of vortex loops or hairpins, some of which may extend through the complete boundary layer thickness and all of which are inclined at a more or less constant characteristic angle of approximately 45 deg to the wall. Since the cross-stream dimensions of the hairpins appear to scale roughly with the wall variables U sub tau and nu, while their length is limited only by the boundary layer thickness, there are very large scale effects on the turbulence structure. At high Reynolds numbers (Re sub theta = 10,000) there is little evidence of large-scale coherent motions, other than a slow overturning of random agglomerations of the hairpins just mentioned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedro, J. B.; Báez Vidal, A.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Pérez Segarra, C. D.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
The objective of the present work is to validate the compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models implemented in the in house parallel unstructured CFD code TermoFluids. Our research team has implemented and tested several LES models over the past years for the incompressible regimen. In order to be able to solve complex turbulent compressible flows, the models are revisited and modified if necessary. In addition, the performance of the implemented hybrid advection scheme is an issue of interest for the numerical simulation of turbulent compressible flows. The models are tested in the well known turbulent channel flow problem at different compressible regimens.
Structures and scaling laws of turbulent Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberlack, Martin; Avsarkisov, Victor; Hoyas, Sergio; Rosteck, Andreas; Garcia-Galache, Jose P.; Frank, Andy
2014-11-01
We conducted a set of large scale DNS of turbulent Couette flow with the two key objectives: (i) to better understand large scale coherent structures and (ii) to validate new Lie symmetry based turbulent scaling laws for the mean velocity and higher order moments. Though frequently reported in the literature large scale structures pose a serious constraint on our ability to conduct DNS of turbulent Couette flow as the largest structures grow with increasing Re#, while at the same time Kolmogorov scale decreases. Other than for the turbulent Poiseuille flow a too small box is immediately visible in low order statistics such as the mean and limited our DNS to Reτ = 550 . At the same time we observed that scaling of the mean is peculiar as it involves a certain statistical symmetry which has never been observed for any other parallel wall-bounded turbulent shear flow. Symmetries such as Galilean group lie at the heart of fluid dynamics, while for turbulence statistics due to the multi-point correlation equations (MPCE) additional statistical symmetries are admitted. Most important, symmetries are the essential to construct exact solutions to the MPCE, which with the new above-mentioned special statistical symmetry led to a new turbulent scaling law for the Couette flow. DFG Grant No; KH 257/2-1.
Connecting exact coherent states to turbulent dynamics in channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.
2015-11-01
The discovery of nonlinear traveling wave solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations or exact coherent states has greatly advanced the understanding of the nature of turbulent shear flows. These solutions are unstable saddle points in state space, while the time evolution of a turbulent flow is a dynamical trajectory wandering around them. In this regard, it is of interest to investigate how closely the turbulent trajectories approach these invariant states. Here, we present connections between turbulent trajectories and one intriguing solution family in channel flow. A state space visualization of turbulent trajectories is presented in a three-dimensional space. The lifetime of the trajectories is well represented by closeness to two distinct solutions resembling in many ways the active and hibernating phases of minimal channel turbulence (Xi & Graham PRL 2010). The connections are then examined by comparing mean profiles and flow structures. More importantly, the connections are confirmed by calculating the L2 distance between the trajectories and the traveling waves. Lastly, paths of an intermittent bursting phenomenon are identified in state space and the relationship between bursting paths and the traveling waves or hibernating turbulence is further discussed. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through grant FA9550-15-1-0062 (Flow Interactions and Control Program).
Turbulence comes in bursts in stably stratified flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rorai, C.; Mininni, P. D.; Pouquet, A.
2014-04-01
There is a clear distinction between simple laminar and complex turbulent fluids; however, in some cases, as for the nocturnal planetary boundary layer, a stable and well-ordered flow can develop intense and sporadic bursts of turbulent activity that disappear slowly in time. This phenomenon is ill understood and poorly modeled and yet it is central to our understanding of weather and climate dynamics. We present here data from direct numerical simulations of stratified turbulence on grids of 20483 points that display the somewhat paradoxical result of measurably stronger events for more stable flows, not only in the temperature and vertical velocity derivatives as commonplace in turbulence, but also in the amplitude of the fields themselves, contrary to what happens for homogenous isotropic turbulent flows. A flow visualization suggests that the extreme values take place in Kelvin-Helmoltz overturning events and fronts that develop in the field variables. These results are confirmed by the analysis of a simple model that we present. The model takes into consideration only the vertical velocity and temperature fluctuations and their vertical derivatives. It indicates that in stably stratified turbulence, the stronger bursts can occur when the flow is expected to be more stable. The bursts are generated by a rapid nonlinear amplification of energy stored in waves and are associated with energetic interchanges between vertical velocity and temperature (or density) fluctuations in a range of parameters corresponding to the well-known saturation regime of stratified turbulence.
Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow.
Petersson, Sven; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Gårdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts; Ebbers, Tino
2010-10-01
Phase contrast MRI is a powerful tool for the assessment of blood flow. However, especially in the highly complex and turbulent flow that accompanies many cardiovascular diseases, phase contrast MRI may suffer from artifacts. Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow could increase our understanding of phase contrast MRI artifacts in turbulent flows and facilitate the development of phase contrast MRI methods for the assessment of turbulent blood flow. We present a method for the simulation of phase contrast MRI measurements of turbulent flow. The method uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which spin particle trajectories are computed from time-resolved large eddy simulations. The Bloch equations are solved for each spin for a frame of reference moving along the spins trajectory. The method was validated by comparison with phase contrast MRI measurements of velocity and intravoxel velocity standard deviation (IVSD) on a flow phantom consisting of a straight rigid pipe with a stenosis. Turbulence related artifacts, such as signal drop and ghosting, could be recognized in the measurements as well as in the simulations. The velocity and the IVSD obtained from the magnitude of the phase contrast MRI simulations agreed well with the measurements.
TRENT2D WG: a smart web infrastructure for debris-flow modelling and hazard assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zorzi, Nadia; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zugliani, Daniel; Rizzi, Alessandro; Piffer, Stefano
2016-04-01
Mountain regions are naturally exposed to geomorphic flows, which involve large amounts of sediments and induce significant morphological modifications. The physical complexity of this class of phenomena represents a challenging issue for modelling, leading to elaborate theoretical frameworks and sophisticated numerical techniques. In general, geomorphic-flows models proved to be valid tools in hazard assessment and management. However, model complexity seems to represent one of the main obstacles to the diffusion of advanced modelling tools between practitioners and stakeholders, although the UE Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) requires risk management and assessment to be based on "best practices and best available technologies". Furthermore, several cutting-edge models are not particularly user-friendly and multiple stand-alone software are needed to pre- and post-process modelling data. For all these reasons, users often resort to quicker and rougher approaches, leading possibly to unreliable results. Therefore, some effort seems to be necessary to overcome these drawbacks, with the purpose of supporting and encouraging a widespread diffusion of the most reliable, although sophisticated, modelling tools. With this aim, this work presents TRENT2D WG, a new smart modelling solution for the state-of-the-art model TRENT2D (Armanini et al., 2009, Rosatti and Begnudelli, 2013), which simulates debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows adopting a two-phase description over a mobile bed. TRENT2D WG is a web infrastructure joining advantages offered by the software-delivering model SaaS (Software as a Service) and by WebGIS technology and hosting a complete and user-friendly working environment for modelling. In order to develop TRENT2D WG, the model TRENT2D was converted into a service and exposed on a cloud server, transferring computational burdens from the user hardware to a high-performing server and reducing computational time. Then, the system was equipped with an
Field Evaluation of a Novel 2D Preferential Flow Snowpack Hydrology Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leroux, N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Kinar, N. J.
2015-12-01
Accurate estimation of snowmelt flux is of primary importance for runoff hydrograph prediction, which is used for water management and flood forecasting. Lateral flows and preferential flow pathways in porous media flow have proven critical for improving soil and groundwater flow models, but though many physically-based layered snowmelt models have been developed, only 1D matrix flow is accounted for in these models. Therefore, there is a need for snowmelt models that include these processes so as to examine the potential to improve snowmelt hydrological modelling. A 2D model is proposed that enables an improved understanding of energy and water flows within deep heterogeneous snowpacks, including those on slopes. A dual pathway theory is presented that simulates the formation of preferential flow paths, vertical and lateral water flows through the snow matrix and flow fingers, internal energy fluxes, melt, wet snow metamorphism, and internal refreezing. The dual pathway model utilizes an explicit finite volume method to solve for the energy and water flux equations over a non-orthogonal grid. It was run and evaluated using in-situ data collected from snowpit - accessed gravimetric, thermometric, photographic, and dielectric observations and novel non-invasive acoustic observations of layering, temperature, flowpath geometry, density and wetness at the Fortress Mountain Snow Laboratory, Alberta, Canada. The melt of a natural snowpack was artificially generated after detailed observation of snowpack initial conditions such as snow layer properties, temperature, and liquid water content. Snowpack ablation and liquid water content distribution over time were then measured and used for model parameterization and validation. Energy available at the snow surface and soil slope angle were set as mondel inputs. Model verification was based on snowpack property evolution. The heterogeneous flow model can be an important tool to help understand snowmelt flow processes, how
Turbulent Channel Flow Measurements Using Matched Hot-Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estejab, Baraheh; Bailey, Sean
2011-11-01
We present an experimental study conducted in a turbulent channel flow facility using hot-wire probes with both constant and varying viscous-scaled wire length. The objectives of the study were threefold: first, to validate the flow produced by the channel flow facility; second, to investigate the validity of recently proposed spatial filtering corrections for Reynolds stress profiles; and third, to extend the investigation of the near-wall peak Reynolds number dependence in turbulent pipe flow conducted by Hultmark, Bailey and Smits (see J. Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 649, pp. 103-113). We found that in channel flow, unlike in the pipe flow experiments, the near-wall peak exhibited the same Reynolds number dependence observed in turbulent boundary layer studies and channel flow DNS. Since the same measurement techniques and procedures were used in the current study as used in the pipe flow study, this demonstrated that the near-wall Reynolds number independence observed in the pipe study was not due to error introduced by measurement methodology. Furthermore, comparison of results from wires of different length verified that spatial filtering corrections work in channel flow as well as pipe and boundary layer flows. Corrected results were in good agreement with channel flow DNS, thus verifying that the flow in the facility approximates one-dimensional turbulent Poiseuille flow.
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes, F.; dela Resma, M.; Ferrer, P.; Realino, V.; Aquino, D. T.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.
2013-12-01
From November 14 to December 3, 2004, Luzon Island was ravaged by 4 successive typhoons: Typhoon Mufia, Tropical Storm Merbok, Tropical Depression Winnie, and Super Typhoon Nanmadol. Tropical Depression Winnie was the most destructive of the four when it triggered landslides on November 29 that devastated the municipalities of Infanta, General Nakar, and Real in Quezon Province, southeast Luzon. Winnie formed east of Central Luzon on November 27 before it moved west-northwestward over southeastern Luzon on November 29. A total of 1,068 lives were lost and more than USD 170 million worth of damages to crops and infrastructure were incurred from the landslides triggered by Typhoon Winnie on November 29 and the flooding caused by the 4 typhoons. FLO-2D, a flood routing software for generating flood and debris flow hazard maps, was utilized to simulate the debris flows that could potentially affect the study area. Based from the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, the cumulative rainfall from typhoon Winnie on November 29 which was approximately 342 mm over a 9-hour period was classified within a 100-year return period. The Infanta station of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was no longer able to measure the amount of rainfall after this period because the rain gauge in that station was washed away by floods. Rainfall data with a 100-year return period was simulated over the watersheds delineated from a SAR-derived digital elevation model. The resulting debris flow hazard map was compared with results from field investigation and previous studies made on the landslide event. The simulation identified 22 barangays (villages) with a total of 45,155 people at risk of turbulent flow and flooding.
Turbulent Dynamics of a Hydraulic Jump in two dimensions: Soap film flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larkin, Jason; Goldburg, Walter; Tran, Tuan; Chakraborty, Pinaki; Goia, Gustavo
2008-11-01
A hydraulic jump is an abrupt and (usually) turbulent transition frequently observed in open channel flows. By using an appropriately defined Froude number Fr, the abrupt flow transition is marked by a change from supercritical to subcritical flow. In open channels this results in fast moving flow slowing rapidly and piling up like the formation of a shockwave. The Froude number is Fr=V/Vc, where V is the flow speed and Vc is the relevant wave speed. If the initial speed of the flow is below the relevant critical wave speed (Fr<1), then no jump is formed. For Fr > 1, we study the effects of a hydraulic jump in a two dimensional (2-D) flowing soap film. The relevant wave speed, Vc, is the speed of elastic Marangoni waves from surface tension. The jump manifests itself as a sudden thickening of the film in the flow direction and the generation of turbulence in the vicinity of the jump. Properties of the turbulence, including energy spectra, near the thickening transition are reported.
A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows
2011-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows...would be to improve the predictive skill of the Navy numerical models for submesoscale transport in the ocean. OBJECTIVES My main objective...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows
2008-09-01
Technology, 160:119– 150, 2000. [32] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. C. Mongia . Large eddy simulations of a gas turbine combustor flow. Combustion Science and...structures and shock induced heating can trigger ignition, combustion and turbulent flame propagation. In this research, a new and an efficient...Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows Suresh Menon and Franklin Génin Computational Combustion Laboratory School of Aerospace
Coherent Structure-Reflective Turbulent Viscous Flow Modeling.
1987-09-07
REFLECTIVE TURBULENT VISCOUS FLOW MODELING PREPARED FOR: SELECTED Dr. James M. McMichael D Program Manager * Aerospace Sciences AFOSRINA or c...ceesM -=t ilb: t, j Dist ,,el- d I . ... " . . .. .a .1-I i1 - i | i Executive Summary The research reported upon here addresses several elements of the...here, an SBIR study of turbulence in hypersonic flow was initiated for AFOSR, the fruits of which now support an advanced R& D effort at Eglin AFB. 9 0
Stabilizing effects on 2D channel flow due to longitudinal wall oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atobe, Takashi
2017-01-01
Stabilizing effect of longitudinal wall oscillation on two dimensional channel flow is analytically investigated. Model flow considered here is constituted of a superposition of the plane Poiseuille flow and the Stokes layer. The two walls are periodically oscillated in phase. Since the present system has a periodicity, the Floquet method is employed for the stability analysis. For this, a partial difference equation with a periodic function is derived from the time dependent version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The parameters governing the present system are the Reynolds number Re, the period Ω and amplitude Uw of the wall oscillation. Depending on the parameters, it is found that the 2D Tollmein-Shlichtin (TS) modes can be stabilized by the wall oscillation. Furthermore there are some case that 2D TS modes are more stabilized than the oblique TS mode. These results suggest that the oblique TS mode can appear earlier than the TS mode contrary to the Squire's Theorem.
2D application of a friction-limited model for debris flow propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaboyedoff, M.; Demierre, J.; Rudaz, B.
2012-04-01
Debris flows are each year responsible of severe infrastructure damages and human losses. Accurate simulation of this phenomenon allows for prevention of risks related to such events and can help for a sustainable territorial planning. A simple and intuitive 2-D debris flow model is developed using MatLab. It is based on the coupling of a mass point motion along the slope and the flattening of a volume linked to this mass point. Three main parameters have to be tuned in order to obtain a realistic prediction: the basal friction angle, the flattening coefficient and the debris flow maximum velocity. The model enables to simulate the location of the debris as a function of time and thus predict an important parameter of debris flow events, the runout distance. This tool allows for rapid calculations and has the advantage to use parameters that are easily assessable, such as the thickness of the debris flow deposit. The model is applied and compared to a debris flow event that occurred in Switzerland (Fully, VS) in October 2000. Following heavy rainfall and a hydroelectric pipe failure, a morainic deposit failed and propagated as a debris flow, reaching human-occupied areas (vineyards and roads). The event is well documented, with the initiation point, the flow velocity and runout distance known. A good agreement is found between the model prediction and the data from the debris flow event described above. This shows that the developed simple model can be an efficient tool to predict important debris flow characteristics, such as the runout distance. A further development would be to implement a 3-D model based on this approach
Transport Of Passive Scalars In A Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, John; Moin, Parviz
1990-01-01
Computer simulation of transport of passive scalars in turbulent channel flow described in report. Shows flow structures and statistical properties. As used here, "passive scalars" means scalar quantities like fluctuations in temperature or concentrations of contaminants that do not disturb flow appreciably. Examples include transport of heat in heat exchangers, gas turbines, and nuclear reactors and dispersal of pollution in atmosphere.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Seonghyeon; Je, Jongdoo; Choi, Haecheon
2002-01-01
The main objectives of this study are to suggest a proper boundary condition at the interface between a permeable block and turbulent channel flow and to investigate the characteristics of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls. The boundary condition suggested is an extended version of that applied to laminar channel flow by Beavers & Joseph (1967) and describes the behaviour of slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the permeable block and turbulent channel flow. With the proposed boundary condition, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow that is bounded by the permeable wall are performed and significant skin-friction reductions at the permeable wall are obtained with modification of overall flow structures. The viscous sublayer thickness is decreased and the near-wall vortical structures are significantly weakened by the permeable wall. The permeable wall also reduces the turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, and pressure and vorticity fluctuations throughout the channel except very near the wall. The increase of some turbulence quantities there is due to the slip-velocity fluctuations at the wall. The boundary condition proposed for the permeable wall is validated by comparing solutions with those obtained from a separate direct numerical simulation using both the Brinkman equation for the interior of a permeable block and the Navier Stokes equation for the main channel bounded by a permeable block.
The turbulent flow generated by inhomogeneous multiscale grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shaokai; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Graham, J. Michael R.; Vassilicos, John Christos
2015-11-01
A group of inhomogeneous multiscale grids have been designed and tested in a low speed wind tunnel in an attempt to generate bespoke turbulent shear flows. Cross-wire anemometry measurements were performed in different planes parallel to the grid and at various streamwise locations to study turbulence development behind each of the different geometry grids. Two spatially separated single hot wires were also used to measure transverse integral length scale at selected locations. Results are compared to previous studies of shearless mixing layer grids and fractal grids, including mean flow profiles and turbulence statistics.
SPH modelling of depth‐limited turbulent open channel flows over rough boundaries
Kazemi, Ehsan; Nichols, Andrew; Tait, Simon
2016-01-01
Summary A numerical model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is developed to simulate depth‐limited turbulent open channel flows over hydraulically rough beds. The 2D Lagrangian form of the Navier–Stokes equations is solved, in which a drag‐based formulation is used based on an effective roughness zone near the bed to account for the roughness effect of bed spheres and an improved sub‐particle‐scale model is applied to account for the effect of turbulence. The sub‐particle‐scale model is constructed based on the mixing‐length assumption rather than the standard Smagorinsky approach to compute the eddy‐viscosity. A robust in/out‐flow boundary technique is also proposed to achieve stable uniform flow conditions at the inlet and outlet boundaries where the flow characteristics are unknown. The model is applied to simulate uniform open channel flows over a rough bed composed of regular spheres and validated by experimental velocity data. To investigate the influence of the bed roughness on different flow conditions, data from 12 experimental tests with different bed slopes and uniform water depths are simulated, and a good agreement has been observed between the model and experimental results of the streamwise velocity and turbulent shear stress. This shows that both the roughness effect and flow turbulence should be addressed in order to simulate the correct mechanisms of turbulent flow over a rough bed boundary and that the presented smoothed particle hydrodynamics model accomplishes this successfully. © 2016 The Authors International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28066121
Lyapunov stability of a spatially developing constant 2D gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Szabo, Robert
2017-01-01
The well posedness of the perturbation propagation problem and the Lyapunov stability of a spatially developing constant 2D gas flow is analyzed in a particular infinite dimensional phase space. The elements of the phase space are continuously differentiable functions, the algebraic operations are usual and the topology is that generated by the uniform convergence. The well posedness of the propagation problem as well the Lyapunov stability with respect to the instantaneous and with respect to source produced permanent time harmonic perturbations is investigated. Some of the obtained results are completely different from those reported in the literature.
Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks
Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.
2010-07-07
Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E × B shear. The ITG turbulence driven “intrinsic” torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by “intrinsic” torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a “flow pinch” in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam
2017-02-01
Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of
ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.
McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon
2005-01-01
This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.
Numerical Simulation of the turbulent flow around a wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auerswald, Torsten; Bange, Jens
2014-05-01
In this talk the simulation of turbulent flow around a 3D-wing will be presented. For the simulations the compressible flow model TAU is used which is developed by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The model domain consists of two grids which are communicating with each other by using the chimera technique. The primary grid is the unstructured body-fitted grid that contains the wing and the secondary grid is a cartesian grid upstream of the wing on which the turbulent flow is simulated. During the simulation the cartesian grid is moved towards the wing and in a short distance in front of the wing the grid is stopped and the turbulent flow is passed to the primary grid where it can interact with the wing. Since, the earth surface is not simulated there is no source for atmospheric turbulence in the model. That means that the simulation has to be initialised with an already turbulent wind field. For this purpose a synthetic turbulence generator is used that takes the statistics of measurement data from the atmospheric boundary layer and generates a three-dimensional wind field with the same statistics. The statistics used as input comprise the energy spectrum, the correlation matrix and the variances. In the future it is planned to improve the turbulence generator to also consider coherent structures of the turbulent flow. With this simulation strategy it is possible to simulate the flight of a wing through realistic atmospheric boundary layer turbulence in different weather situations and investigate the effects of the turbulence on the wing. Especially during flights with high angle of attack and at low altitudes it is of interest to investigate how the angle of stall is influenced by the turbulent flow and which scales of the turbulence have an significant effect on the lift and drag produced by the wing. The talk will cover the simulation strategy with TAU and the generation of the synthetic turbulent wind fields based on measurements. Furthermore, results from
Turbulence-chemistry interactions in reacting flows
Barlow, R.S.; Carter, C.D.
1993-12-01
Interactions between turbulence and chemistry in nonpremixed flames are investigated through multiscalar measurements. Simultaneous point measurements of major species, NO, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction are obtained by combining spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). NO and OH fluorescence signals are converted to quantitative concentrations by applying shot-to-shot corrections for local variations of the Boltzmann fraction and collisional quenching rate. These measurements of instantaneous thermochemical states in turbulent flames provide insights into the fundamental nature of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The measurements also constitute a unique data base for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models. Experimental work during the past year has focused on three areas: (1) investigation of the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent combustion: (2) experiments on the effects of Halon CF{sub 3}Br, a fire retardant, on the structure of turbulent flames of CH{sub 4} and CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; and (3) experiments on NO formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames.
MRI Based Diagnostics for Temperature Measurements in Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burton, Lauren Sascha; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.
2014-11-01
Accurate modeling of the thermal diffusion in the complex turbulent flows related to cooling high temperature gas turbine blades is critical to optimize the performance and predict the lifetime of the blades. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques for temperature measurement in simple but related flows are being developed in an effort to obtain full field thermal measurements to better understand diffusion processes and support the development of more accurate computational models in these flows. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) utilizes the temperature dependence of the hydrogen proton resonant frequency (PRF) in water. MRT is now routinely used to measure tissue temperatures during medical procedures, and a few previous studies have made velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent pipe flows. In this study, MRT is applied to the flow of a heated single hole film cooling jet (Reynolds number 3000) inclined at 30 degrees injected into a cold developing turbulent channel flow (Reynolds number 25,000 based on bulk velocity and channel height.) The jet fluid temperature is 30 degrees Celsius above the temperature in the channel. The temperature measurements compare well to previously published results for measured passive scalar concentration in the same flow although the temperature measurements show higher uncertainties of 5--10 % of the temperature difference. Techniques for reducing this uncertainty will be presented as well as procedures for applying MRT to quantify the turbulent heat transfer coefficient in turbulent internal flows.
Quasi-explicit algebraic turbulence closures for compressible reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adumitroaie, Virgil
A consistent and complete set of quasi-explicit algebraic closures for turbulent reacting flows is proposed as approximate solutions to the full second order moment equations. Quasi-explicit algebraic scalar flux models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows are derived from a hierarchy of second-order moment closures. The mathematical procedure is based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and is an extension of the scheme developed by Taulbee (1992). Several closures for the pressure-scalar gradient correlations are considered and explicit algebraic relations are provided for the velocity-scalar correlations in both non-reacting and reacting flows. In the latter, the role of the Damkohler number is exhibited in isothermal turbulent flows with nonpremixed reactants. The relationship between these closures and traditional models based on the linear gradient diffusion approximation is theoretically established. The results of model predictions are assessed via comparison with available laboratory data in turbulent jet flows. The development of the quasi-explicit algebraic models for Reynolds stresses, temperature fluxes and reacting scalar fluxes is extended to high-speed turbulent reacting flows under a density weighted average formalism. New closures are proposed for the pressure-strain and the pressure-scalar gradient correlations. These accommodate compressibility corrections subject to the magnitude of the turbulent Mach number, the density gradient, the pressure gradient and the mean dilatation effects. Non-reacting and reacting flows with heat release are considered. In the latter, a second-order irreversible chemical reactions in turbulent flows with initially segregated reactants is considered. The models are tested in simple compressible free-shear flows. Comparisons are made between the full second order moment computations and the algebraic closure predictions. For a mixing layer, experimental data are used to validate the predicted results.
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
Aeroacoustic prediction of turbulent free shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodony, Daniel Joseph
2005-12-01
For many people living in the immediate vicinity of an active airport the noise of jet aircraft flying overhead can be a nuisance, if not worse. Airports, which are held accountable for the noise they produce, and upcoming international noise limits are pressuring the major airframe and jet engine manufacturers to bring quieter aircraft into service. However, component designers need a predictive tool that can estimate the sound generated by a new configuration. Current noise prediction techniques are almost entirely based on previously collected experimental data and are applicable only to evolutionary, not revolutionary, changes in the basic design. Physical models of final candidate designs must still be built and tested before a single design is selected. By focusing on the noise produced in the jet engine exhaust at take-off conditions, the prediction of sound generated by turbulent flows is addressed. The technique of large-eddy simulation is used to calculate directly the radiated sound produced by jets at different operating conditions. Predicted noise spectra agree with measurements for frequencies up to, and slightly beyond, the peak frequency. Higher frequencies are missed, however, due to the limited resolution of the simulations. Two methods of estimating the 'missing' noise are discussed. In the first a subgrid scale noise model, analogous to a subgrid scale closure model, is proposed. In the second method the governing equations are expressed in a wavelet basis from which simplified time-dependent equations for the subgrid scale fluctuations can be derived. These equations are inexpensively integrated to yield estimates of the subgrid scale fluctuations with proper space-time dynamics.
Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.
Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-04-01
Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Turbulent water flow over rough bed - part I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Książek, Leszek; Bartnik, Wojciech; Rumian, Jacek; Zagórowski, Paweł
2011-12-01
Restitution of diadromic fish requires restoration of ecological continuity of watercourses, e.g. by building fish ladders. Directions for fish ladders require that ichthyofauna is granted accurate conditions of water flow. To describe them, average values are used, that do not convey e.g. turbulence intensity or its spatial differentiation. The paper presents results of research on the turbulent water flow over the rough bed. The measurements were carried out with high sampling frequency probe for three velocity components. Bed configuration, distribution of average velocities and turbulence intensity were defined. The range of bed influence for the discussed water flow conditions was ascertained to reach the maximum of about 0.25 of height and decline at 0.35. The lowest turbulence and relatively lowest velocities near the bed may promote successive stages of ichthyofauna development.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
An assessment and application of turbulence models for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, T. J.; Viegas, J. R.; Huang, P. G.; Rubesin, M. W.
1990-01-01
The current approach to the Accurate Computation of Complex high-speed flows is to solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using finite difference methods. An integral part of this approach consists of development and applications of mathematical turbulence models which are necessary in predicting the aerothermodynamic loads on the vehicle and the performance of the propulsion plant. Computations of several high speed turbulent flows using various turbulence models are described and the models are evaluated by comparing computations with the results of experimental measurements. The cases investigated include flows over insulated and cooled flat plates with Mach numbers ranging from 2 to 8 and wall temperature ratios ranging from 0.2 to 1.0. The turbulence models investigated include zero-equation, two-equation, and Reynolds-stress transport models.
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simonich, J. C.; Caplin, B.
1989-01-01
A users manual for a computer program for predicting atmospheric turbulence and mean flow and turbulence contraction as part of a noise prediction scheme for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion noise in helicopters is described. Included are descriptions of the various program modules and subroutines, their function, programming structure, and the required input and output variables. This routine is incorporated as one module of NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program.
Evolution of vortices in 2D boundary layer and in the Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zametaev, Vladimir B.; Gorbushin, Anton R.
2016-10-01
A 2D incompressible laminar boundary layer and the Couette flow having the low velocity fluctuations are considered using asymptotic methods at high Reynolds number. Two classes of solutions for the first order inviscid perturbations have been derived. The integral-differential equation with initial data describing evolution of vortices in time have been solved numerically. It was found that the discontinuities are formed in a smooth solution for a vertical velocity component with the time increase. This first type solution explains instability mechanism in the Couette flow. The second class of solutions contains a singularity at the boundary layer bottom which reminds a source-sink with a variable intensity. The singularity can absorb the fluid from the main part of the boundary layer and eject it back with a possibly "new" vorticity.
An Integrative Model of Excitation Driven Fluid Flow in a 2D Uterine Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggio, Charles; Fauci, Lisa; Chrispell, John
2009-11-01
We present a model of intra-uterine fluid flow in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus by inducing peristalsis in a 2D channel. This is an integrative multiscale computational model that takes as input fluid viscosity, passive tissue properties of the uterine channel and a prescribed wave of membrane depolarization. This voltage pulse is coupled to a model of calcium dynamics inside a uterine smooth muscle cell, which in turn drives a kinetic model of myosin phosphorylation governing contractile muscle forces. Using the immersed boundary method, these muscle forces are communicated to a fluid domain to simulate the contractions which occur in a human uterus. An analysis of the effects of model parameters on the flow properties and emergent geometry of the peristaltic channel will be presented.
Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels
2016-04-01
Describing interactions between surface and subsurface flow processes is important to adequately define water flow in natural systems. Since overland flow generation is highly influenced by rainfall and infiltration, both highly spatially heterogeneous processes, overland flow is unsteady and varies spatially. The prediction of overland flow needs to include an appropriate description of the interactions between the surface and subsurface flow. Coupling surface and subsurface water flow is a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed during the last few years, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. A new approach by Weill et al. (2009) to couple overland flow and subsurface flow based on a generalized Richards equation was implemented into the well-known subsurface flow model HYDRUS-2D (Šimůnek et al., 2011). This approach utilizes the one-dimensional diffusion wave equation to model overland flow. The diffusion wave model is integrated in HYDRUS-2D by replacing the terms of the Richards equation in a pre-defined runoff layer by terms defining the diffusion wave equation. Using this approach, pressure and flux continuity along the interface between both flow domains is provided. This direct coupling approach provides a strong coupling of both systems based on the definition of a single global system matrix to numerically solve the coupled flow problem. The advantage of the direct coupling approach, compared to the loosely coupled approach, is supposed to be a higher robustness, when many convergence problems can be avoided (Takizawa et al., 2014). The HYDRUS-2D implementation was verified using a) different test cases, including a direct comparison with the results of Weill et al. (2009), b) an analytical solution of the kinematic wave equation, and c) the results of a benchmark test of Maxwell et al. (2014), that included several known coupled surface subsurface flow models. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects
Numerical and experimental study of gas flows in 2D and 3D microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaohui; Huang, Chihyung; Alexeenko, Alina; Sullivan, John
2008-02-01
In the experiments conducted at Purdue, the air flow in rectangular cross-section microchannels was investigated using pressure sensitive paint. The high resolution pressure measurements were obtained for inlet-to-outlet pressure ratios from 1.76 to 20 with the outlet Knudsen numbers in the range from 0.003 to 0.4 based on the hydraulic diameter of 151.7 µm and the length-to-height ratio of about 50. In the slip flow regime, the air flow was simulated by the 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip and slip boundary conditions. For various pressure ratios, the entrance flow development, compressibility and rarefaction effects were observed in both experiments and numerical simulations. It was found that the accurate modeling of gas flows in finite-length channels requires the inlet and outlet reservoirs to be included in computations. Effects of entrance geometry on the friction factor were studied for 3D cases. In both experiments and numerical modeling, significant pressure drop was found starting at the inlet chamber. The numerical modeling also predicted an apparent temperature drop at the channel exit.
Quasi-simultaneous interaction method for solving 2D boundary layer flows over plates and airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2012-11-01
This paper studies unsteady 2D boundary layer flows over dented plates and a NACA 0012 airfoil. An inviscid flow is assumed to exist outside the boundary layer and is solved iteratively with the boundary layer flow together with the interaction method until a matching solution is achieved. Hereto a quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied, in which the integral boundary layer equations are solved together with an interaction-law equation. The interaction-law equation is an approximation of the external flow and based on thin-airfoil theory. It is an algebraic relation between the velocity and displacement thickness. The interaction-law equation ensures that the eigenvalues of the system of equations do not have a sign change and that no singularities occur. Three numerical schemes are used to solve the boundary layer flow with the interaction method. These are: a standard scheme, a splitting method and a characteristics solver. All schemes use a finite difference discretization. The three schemes yield comparable results for the simulations carried out. The standard scheme is deviating most from the splitting and characteristics solvers. The results show that the eigenvalues remain positive, even in separation. As expected, the addition of the interaction-law equation prevents a sign change of the eigenvalues. The quasi-simultaneous interaction scheme is applicable to the three numerical schemes tested.
Self-Organization in 2D Traffic Flow Model with Jam-Avoiding Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatani, Takashi
1995-04-01
A stochastic cellular automaton (CA) model is presented to investigate the traffic jam by self-organization in the two-dimensional (2D) traffic flow. The CA model is the extended version of the 2D asymmetric exclusion model to take into account jam-avoiding drive. Each site contains either a car moving to the up, a car moving to the right, or is empty. A up car can shift right with probability p ja if it is blocked ahead by other cars. It is shown that the three phases (the low-density phase, the intermediate-density phase and the high-density phase) appear in the traffic flow. The intermediate-density phase is characterized by the right moving of up cars. The jamming transition to the high-density jamming phase occurs with higher density of cars than that without jam-avoiding drive. The jamming transition point p 2c increases with the shifting probability p ja. In the deterministic limit of p ja=1, it is found that a new jamming transition occurs from the low-density synchronized-shifting phase to the high-density moving phase with increasing density of cars. In the synchronized-shifting phase, all up cars do not move to the up but shift to the right by synchronizing with the move of right cars. We show that the jam-avoiding drive has an important effect on the dynamical jamming transition.
A data assimilation methodology for reconstructing turbulent flows around aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Akira; Ueno, Genta; Obayashi, Shigeru
2015-02-01
This paper proposes a new approach for the study of complex turbulent flows of aeronautics that integrates experimental fluid dynamics (EFD), employing methods such as wind tunnel experiments, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by using a data assimilation technique. The approach aims at representing complex turbulent flows more properly than conventional EFD and CFD approaches by estimating the proper angle of attack, the proper Mach number, and the proper turbulent viscosity, which are the three uncertainty factors in EFD and CFD. To this end, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF), a sequential advanced data assimilation method, is employed for the estimation and applied to transonic flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil (two-dimensional flow) and transonic flows around the ONERA M6 wing (three-dimensional flow). The results computed using the angles of attack, Mach numbers, and turbulent viscosities estimated by the ETKF diminish the discrepancies between the results of standard computations and experiments. These findings show the effectiveness of this approach, which combines EFD and CFD using data assimilation to represent complex turbulent flows.
The structure of the vorticity field in homogeneous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Michael M.; Moin, Parviz
1987-01-01
The structures of the vorticity fields in several homogeneous irrotational straining flows and a homogeneous turbulent shear flow were examined using a database generated by direct numerical simulation of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In all cases, strong evidence was found for the presence of coherent vortical structures. The initially isotropic vorticity fields were rapidly affected by imposed mean strain and the rotational component of mean shear and developed accordingly. In the homogeneous turbulent shear-flow cases, the roll-up of mean vorticity into characteristic hairpin vortices was clearly observed, supporting the view that hairpin vortices are an important vortical structure in all turbulent shear flows; the absence of mean shear in the homogeneous irrotational straining flows precludes the presence of hairpin-like vortices.
Subcritical transition to turbulence in plane channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.
1980-01-01
A linear three dimensional mechanism for the transition of plane Poiseuille flows to turbulence is presented which provides good agreement with experimental observations. The mechanism is based on the evolution of states within a band of quasi-equilibria which slowly approach the stable upper branch solutions for the evolution of flow energy but which are strongly unstable to infinitesimal three-dimensional disturbances. Numerical simulation has shown that if two-dimensional flow persists long enough for the three-dimensional perturbations to attain finite amplitude, the resulting three dimensional flow quickly develops a turbulent character with nonperiodic behavior, and thus transition can be predicted from knowledge of the initial two- and three-dimensional energies and time scales. The mechanism predicts transition to turbulence at Reynolds numbers greater than 1000, as observed in experiments, and implies higher threshold three-dimensional energies in plane Couette flow.
An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.
1973-01-01
Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.
Multiscale modeling of turbulent channel flow over porous walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yogaraj, Sudhakar; Lacis, Ugis; Bagheri, Shervin
2016-11-01
We perform direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent flow through a channel coated with a porous material. The Navier-stokes equations governing the fluid domain and the Darcy equations of the porous medium are coupled using an iterative partitioned scheme. At the interface between the two media, boundary conditions derived using a multiscale homogenization approach are enforced. The main feature of this approach is that the anisotropic micro-structural pore features are directly taken into consideration to derive the constitutive coefficients of the porous media as well as of the interface. The focus of the present work is to study the influence of micro-structure pore geometry on the dynamics of turbulent flows. Detailed turbulence statistics and instantaneous flow field are presented. For comparison, flow through impermeable channel flows are included. Supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant agreement No 708281.
Space-Time Correlations and Dynamic Coupling in Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guowei; Jin, Guodong; Yang, Yue
2017-01-01
Space-time correlation is a staple method for investigating the dynamic coupling of spatial and temporal scales of motion in turbulent flows. In this article, we review the space-time correlation models in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian frames of reference, which include the random sweeping and local straining models for isotropic and homogeneous turbulence, Taylor's frozen-flow model and the elliptic approximation model for turbulent shear flows, and the linear-wave propagation model and swept-wave model for compressible turbulence. We then focus on how space-time correlations are used to develop time-accurate turbulence models for the large-eddy simulation of turbulence-generated noise and particle-laden turbulence. We briefly discuss their applications to two-point closures for Kolmogorov's universal scaling of energy spectra and to the reconstruction of space-time energy spectra from a subset of spatial and temporal signals in experimental measurements. Finally, we summarize the current understanding of space-time correlations and conclude with future issues for the field.
Controlling a Linear Process in Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Junwoo; Kim, John
1999-11-01
Recent studies have shown that controllers developed based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in reducing the viscous drag in turbulent boundary layers, suggesting that the essential dynamics of near-wall turbulence may well be approximated by the linearized model. Of particular interest is the linear process due to the coupling term between the wall-normal velocity and wall-normal vorticity terms in the linearized Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, which enhances non-normality of the linearized system. This linear process is investigated through numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow. It is shown that the linear coupling term plays an important role in fully turbulent -- and hence, nonlinear -- flows. Near-wall turbulence is shown to decay in the absence of the linear coupling term. The fact that the coupling term plays an essential role in maintaining near-wall turbulence suggests that an effective control algorithm for the drag reduction in turbulent flows should be aimed at reducing the effect of the coupling term in the wall region. Designing a control algorithm that directly accounts for the coupling term in a cost to be minimized will be discussed.
A new anemometer for 2D atmospheric flow measurements in rough environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisselmann, Hendrik; Hoelling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim
2010-11-01
One major downside of cup anemometry is the different response time for increasing and decreasing wind speeds, causing a systematic over-estimation of the mean wind speed under turbulent conditions. Especially under harsh environmental conditions like in offshore operation, the measuring principle leads to a wear of bearings causing a de-calibration over time and the requirement of regular maintenance. Therefore, we propose the newly developed sphere anemometer as a simple and robust alternative without any moving parts. The sphere anemometer consists of a flexible tube with a sphere mounted on top of it. The drag force acting on the sphere and its support causes a deflection, which is measured by means of a light pointer. Via calibration, this allows for simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction using only one sensor. In our contribution, we introduce the anemometer's setup and it's optimization towards offshore application. Additionally, experimental results obtained from wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows are presented. Measurements under real wind conditions are compared to those of state-of-the-art wind speed sensors, such as cup and ultrasonic anemometers.
A shallow water model for magnetohydrodynamic flows with turbulent Hartmann layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pothérat, Alban; Schweitzer, Jean-Philippe
2011-05-01
We establish a shallow water model for flows of electrically conducting fluids in homogeneous static magnetic fields that are confined between two parallel planes where turbulent Hartmann layers are present. This is achieved by modelling the wall shear stress in these layers using Prandtl's mixing length model, as did by Alboussière and Lingwood [Phys. Fluids 12(6), 1535 (2000)]. The idea for this new model arose from the failure of previous shallow water models that assumed a laminar Hartmann layer to recover the correct amount of dissipation found in some regimes of the MATUR experiment. This experiment, conducted by Messadek and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 456, 137 (2002)], consisted of a thin layer of mercury electrically driven in differential rotation in a transverse magnetic field. Numerical simulations of our new model in the configuration of this experiment allowed us to recover experimental values of both the global angular momentum and the local velocity up to a few percent when the Hartmann layer was in a sufficiently well developed turbulent state. We thus provide an evidence that the unexplained level of dissipation observed in MATUR in these specific regimes was caused by turbulence in the Hartmann layers. A parametric analysis of the flow, made possible by the simplicity of our model, also revealed that turbulent friction in the Hartmann layer prevented quasi-2D turbulence from becoming more intense and limited the size of the large scales.
The 2005 Vazcun Valley Lahar: Evaluation of the TITAN2D Two-Phase Flow Model Using an Actual Event.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, R.; Stinton, A. J.; Sheridan, M. F.
2005-12-01
TITAN2D is a depth-averaged, thin-layer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, suitable for simulating a variety of geophysical mass flows. TITAN2D output data include pile thickness and flow momentum at each time step for all cells traversed by the flow during the simulation. From this the flow limit, run-out path, pile velocity, deposit thickness, and travel time can be calculated. Results can be visualized in the open source GRASS GIS software or with the built-in TITAN2D viewer. A new two-phase TITAN2D version allows simulation of flows containing various mixtures of water and solids. The purpose of this study is to compare simulations by the two-phase flow version of TITAN2D with an actual event. The chosen natural flow is a small ash-rich lahar (volume approximately 60,000 m3) that occurred on 12 February 2005 in the Vazcún Valley, located on the north-east flank of Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador. Lahars and pyroclastic flows along this valley could potentially threaten the 20,000 inhabitants living in and near the city of Baños. A variety of data sources exist for this lahar, including: pre- and post-event meter-scale topography, and photographic, video, seismic and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) records from during the event. These data permit detailed comparisons between the dynamics of the actual lahar and those of the TITAN2D simulated flow. In particular, detailed comparisons are made between run-up heights, flow velocity, inundation area, and deposit area and thickness. Simulations utilize a variety of data derived from field observations such as lahar volume, solid to pore-fluid ratio and pre-event topography. TITAN2D is important in modeling lahars because it allows assessment of the impact of the flows on buildings and infrastructure lifelines located near drainages that descend from volcanoes.
An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi
2002-01-01
In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
Numerical modeling of turbulent flow in a channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dai, Y. W.; Ghoniem, A. F.; Sherman, F. S.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1983-01-01
Two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flow in a channel with a backward-facing step was studied numerically by Chorin's Random Vortex Method (RVM), an algorithm capable of tracing the action of elementary turbulent eddies and their cumulative effects without imposing any restrictions upon their motions. The step occurs in one side of a channel with otherwise flat, parallel walls; its height equals 1/3, 1/4 or 1/5 the width of the channel downstream. The main objective was to investigate the behavior of the large-scale turbulent eddies in a flow and the flow characteristics in the separated shear layer, the reattached zone, and the rebuilding boundary layer after reattachment. The unsteady vorticity field and the distribution of time-averaged turbulent statistics were obtained. The effects of expansion step height and initial boundary layer state were also studied. Comparisons were made with the available experimental results. The agreement is satisfactory in the velocity profiles and in the reattachment length, and fairly good in the turbulence profiles. Also a mechanism of the development of the reattaching turbulent flow was suggested by the numerical results.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Tuan; Chakraborty, Pinaki; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Prescott, Alisia; Kellay, Hamid; Goldburg, Walter; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Gioia, Gustavo
2010-06-01
There is a missing link between the macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. The turbulent spectrum is a power law of exponent α (the `spectral exponent') that gives the characteristic velocity of a turbulent fluctuation (or `eddy') of size s as a function of s (ref. 1). Here we seek the missing link by comparing the frictional drag in soap-film flows, where α=3 (refs 9, 10), and in pipe flows, where α=5/3 (refs 11, 12). For moderate values of the Reynolds number Re, we find experimentally that in soap-film flows the frictional drag scales as Re-1/2, whereas in pipe flows the frictional drag scales as Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a new theory, in which the frictional drag is explicitly linked to the turbulent spectrum.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.
2010-11-01
There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent α= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where α= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where α= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of α by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-α)/(1+α).
Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada
2015-12-01
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a
Turbulence and transition modeling for high-speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, David C.
1993-01-01
Research conducted during the past three and a half years aimed at developing and testing a turbulence/transition model applicable to high-speed turbulent flows is summarized. The first two years of the project focused on fully turbulent flows, while emphasis shifted to boundary-layer development in the transition region during the final year and a half. A brief summary of research accomplished during the first three years is included and publications that describe research results in greater detail are cited. Research conducted during the final six months of the period of performance is summarized. The primary results of the last six months of the project are elimination of the k-omega model's sensitivity to the freestream value of omega and development of a method for triggering transition at a specified location, independent of the freestream turbulence level.
Numerical analysis of turbulent coaxial flow with internal heat generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, A.; Weinstein, H.
1981-01-01
A computational method with which to obtain a physical understanding of the turbulent field of two coaxial jets entering an axisymmetric chamber is developed. Even the laminar field of this flow is quite complicated. This is due to the many different domains which exist in the field especially in the entrance region. Physically, three regions may be identified: the wall region, the initial region near the axis of symmetry and the mixing region. Advancing downstream, these regions change relative size with the ratio of the two jets' mass fluxes as the main parameter. The turbulent field of these flows is much more complicated due to the difference in the effective transport coefficients and turbulence level from region to region. However, being aware beforehand of the complications and the different regions of this field, the appropriate turbulence model and numerical scheme can be adjusted to treat the problem.
Influence of initial mean helicity on homogeneous turbulent shear flow.
Jacobitz, Frank G; Schneider, Kai; Bos, Wouter J T; Farge, Marie
2011-11-01
Helicity statistics are studied in homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Initial mean helicity is imposed on an isotropic turbulence field using a decomposition of the flow into complex-valued helical waves. The initial decay of the turbulent kinetic energy is weakened in the presence of strong mean helicity, consistent with an analytic analysis of the spectral tensor of velocity correlations. While exponential growth of the mean turbulent kinetic energy is obtained, the mean helicity decays. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of helicity are skewed and show that the imposed mean helicity prevails throughout the simulations. A wavelet-based scale-dependent analysis shows a trend to two dimensionalization for large scales of motion and a preference for helical motion at small scales. The magnitude of the skewness of the PDFs decreases for smaller scales. Joint PDFs indicate a strong correlation of the signs of both, helicity and superhelicity, for all cases. This correlation supports the conjecture that superhelicity dissipates helicity.
Modeling Rotating Turbulent Flows with the Body Force Potential Model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Perot, Blair
2000-11-01
Like a Reynolds Stress Transport equation model, the turbulent potential model has an explicit Coriolis acceleration term that appears in the model that accounts for rotation effects. In this work the additional secondary effects that system rotation has on the dissipation rate, return-to-isotropy, and fast pressure strain terms are also included in the model. The resulting model is tested in the context of rotating isotropic turbulence, rotating homogeneous shear flow, rotating channel flow, and swirling pipe flow. Many of the model changes are applicable to Reynolds stress transport equation models. All model modifications are frame indifferent.
Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2006-04-01
The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.
An improved near-wall treatment for turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Gharbi, Najla; Absi, Rafik; Benzaoui, Ahmed; Bennacer, Rachid
2011-01-01
The success of predictions of wall-bounded turbulent flows requires an accurate description of the flow in the near-wall region. This article presents a comparative study between different near-wall treatments and presents an improved method. The study is applied to fully developed plane channel flow (i.e. the flow between two infinitely large plates). Simulations were performed using Fluent. Near-wall treatments available in Fluent were tested: standard wall functions, non-equilibrium wall function and enhanced wall treatment. A user defined function (UDF), based on an analytical profile for the turbulent kinetic energy (Absi, R., 2008. Analytical solutions for the modeled k-equation. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 75 (4), 044501), is developed and implemented. Predicted turbulent kinetic energy profiles are presented and validated by DNS data.
Modeling turbulence in flows with a strong rotational component
Burgess, D.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.
1993-11-01
We consider the effectiveness of various turbulence models in flows with a strong rotational component. To evaluate the models, we implement them into a one-dimensional test code and make comparisons with experimental data for swirling flow in a cylinder. The K - {epsilon} type turbulence models do poorly in predicting the experimental results. However, we find that the incorporation of a Reynolds stress evolution equation gives good agreement with the experimentally measured mean flow. Modeling the pressure-strain correlation tensor correctly is the key for obtaining good results. A combination of Launder`s basic model together with Yakhot`s dissipation rate equation {sup 3} works best in predicting both the mean flow and the turbulence intensity.
Coherent vorticity extraction in turbulent channel flow using anisotropic wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Sakurai, Teluo; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Morishita, Koji; Ishihara, Takashi
2014-11-01
We examine the role of coherent vorticity in a turbulent channel flow. DNS data computed at friction-velocity based Reynolds number 320 is analyzed. The vorticity is decomposed using three-dimensional anisotropic orthogonal wavelets. Thresholding of the wavelet coefficients allows to extract the coherent vorticity, corresponding to few strong wavelet coefficients. It retains the vortex tubes of the turbulent flow. Turbulent statistics, e.g., energy, enstrophy and energy spectra, are close to those of the total flow. The nonlinear energy budgets are also found to be well preserved. The remaining incoherent part, represented by the large majority of the weak coefficients, corresponds to a structureless, i.e., a noise-like background flow.
Stretching in a model of a turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Shukurov, Anvar
2009-03-01
Using a multi-scaled, chaotic flow known as the KS model of turbulence [J.C.H. Fung, J.C.R. Hunt, A. Malik, R.J. Perkins, Kinematic simulation of homogeneous turbulence by unsteady random fourier modes, J. Fluid Mech. 236 (1992) 281-318], we investigate the dependence of Lyapunov exponents on various characteristics of the flow. We show that the KS model yields a power law relation between the Reynolds number and the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which is similar to that for a turbulent flow with the same energy spectrum. Our results show that the Lyapunov exponents are sensitive to the advection of small eddies by large eddies, which can be explained by considering the Lagrangian correlation time of the smallest scales. We also relate the number of stagnation points within a flow to the maximum Lyapunov exponent, and suggest a linear dependence between the two characteristics.
On explicit algebraic stress models for complex turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models. This represents a generalization of the model derived by Pope who based his analysis on the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model restricted to two-dimensional turbulent flows in an inertial frame. The relationship between the new models and traditional algebraic stress models -- as well as anistropic eddy visosity models -- is theoretically established. The need for regularization is demonstrated in an effort to explain why traditional algebraic stress models have failed in complex flows. It is also shown that these explicit algebraic stress models can shed new light on what second-order closure models predict for the equilibrium states of homogeneous turbulent flows and can serve as a useful alternative in practical computations.
Statistical parameters of thermally driven turbulent anabatic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilel, Roni; Liberzon, Dan
2016-11-01
Field measurements of thermally driven turbulent anabatic flow over a moderate slope are reported. A collocated hot-films-sonic anemometer (Combo) obtained the finer scales of the flow by implementing a Neural Networks based in-situ calibration technique. Eight days of continuous measurements of the wind and temperature fluctuations reviled a diurnal pattern of unstable stratification that forced development of highly turbulent unidirectional up slope flow. Empirical fits of important turbulence statistics were obtained from velocity fluctuations' time series alongside fully resolved spectra of velocity field components and characteristic length scales. TKE and TI showed linear dependence on Re, while velocity derivative skewness and dissipation rates indicated the anisotropic nature of the flow. Empirical fits of normalized velocity fluctuations power density spectra were derived as spectral shapes exhibited high level of similarity. Bursting phenomenon was detected at 15% of the total time. Frequency of occurrence, spectral characteristics and possible generation mechanism are discussed. BSF Grant #2014075.
Turbulence Model Selection for Low Reynolds Number Flows
2016-01-01
One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil’s surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail. PMID:27104354
Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.
1991-01-01
A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.
On Identifying the Sound Sources in a Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.
2008-01-01
A space-time filtering approach is used to divide an unbounded turbulent flow into its radiating and non-radiating components. The result is then used to clarify a number of issues including the possibility of identifying the sources of the sound in such flows. It is also used to investigate the efficacy of some of the more recent computational approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toro, J. P.
2014-12-01
The present work includes the study of the mean flow and turbulent statistics in the non-aerated zone of a stepped spillway by using the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations with closures provided by the k-e , and RNG (Renormalization Group) k-e models in 2D. Numerical results obtained with the OpenFOAM (Open source Field Operation And Manipulation) toolbox, are compared with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental measurements of Amador (Amador 2005; Amador et al., 2006). We conclude that the numerical simulations thoroughly reproduce the experimental measurements of the averaged velocity flow field, and the turbulent statistics.
The structure of turbulent channel flow with passive scalar transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guezennec, Y.; Stretch, D.; Kim, J.
1990-01-01
The simulation of turbulent channel flow, with various passive markers, was examined to investigate the local mechanisms of passive scalar transport. We found significant differences between the local transport of heat and momentum, even when the molecular and turbulent Prandtl numbers are of order one. These discrepancies can be attributed to the role of the pressure. We also found that the heat is a poor marker of the vorticity field outside of the near wall region and that scalar transport over significant distances results from the aggregate effect of many turbulent eddies.
Compressibility Corrections to Closure Approximations for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Cloutman, L D
2003-02-01
We summarize some modifications to the usual closure approximations for statistical models of turbulence that are necessary for use with compressible fluids at all Mach numbers. We concentrate here on the gradient-flu approximation for the turbulent heat flux, on the buoyancy production of turbulence kinetic energy, and on a modification of the Smagorinsky model to include buoyancy. In all cases, there are pressure gradient terms that do not appear in the incompressible models and are usually omitted in compressible-flow models. Omission of these terms allows unphysical rates of entropy change.
STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW
Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi
2015-03-10
Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds.
Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flames in Hypersonic Flows
2015-09-01
environments, the turbulence properties, particularly near the Kolmogorov limit, needs to be quantified at upstream and downstream of shockwaves ...thermal energy producing the scramjet thrust. The shockwaves and flames significantly affect fluid/flow properties to alter turbulence properties...the inlet upper lip on the internal surface is 6° or 12° (interchangeable) to produce an incident shockwave into the model scramjet; both the inlets
Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi
2007-01-01
The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.
Effect of synthetic roughness on a turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combariza, Javier; Ramirez-Pastran, Jesus; Duque-Daza, Carlos
2015-11-01
A turbulent channel flow featuring single step synthetic roughness at the bottom wall was examined using numerical experiments. An incompressible flow solver using LES as turbulence model was employed to study some turbulence variables as well as Q-criterion coherent structures. Roughness was attained by inserting a small step, stretching along the channel spanwise direction in the bottom wall. Three different values for the step width were used. Correlations between the steps width and skin-friction coefficients are calculated. Coherent structures using the Q-Criterion are constructed using different threshold values. By examining the evolution of the Q-structures, the effect of the perturbation is characterized in the near-wall region. Consistency between skin-friction coefficients and Q-structures evolution trends is observed in each case. Comparison between some of the TKE terms in the modified channel flow and those in a smooth channel flow, allow to identify the effect of the the synthetic roughness on the turbulent behaviour. Finally, a simple description of the overall effect of the presence of the perturbation on the turbulent flow is brought about by associating the Q-structures with the strong recirculation zones formed in the near-wall region close to the steps.
2D Biotope Mapping Using Combined LIDAR, Topographic Survey And Segmented 1D Flow Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Milan, D. J.
2009-12-01
Reach averaged habitat availability models such as PHABSIM are limited due principally to their failure to adequately map hydraulic habitat distribution at a representative scale. A lack of morphologic data, represented in the form of sparse geometric cross-sections fails to generate the necessary detail. Advances in data collection, improved spatial modelling algorithms and the advent of cross-section based segmentation routines in 1D hydraulic models provides the opportunity to revisit the issue of hydraulic habitat mapping and modelling. This paper presents a combined technique for habitat characterisation at the sub-bar scale is presented for the River Rede, Northumberland, UK. Terrestrial LIDAR data of floodplain, banks and exposed bar surfaces at an average 0.05 m spacing are combined with sparser total station survey data of submerged morphologic features. These data are interpolated to create a uniform DEM grid at 0.2 m spacing (adequate to detect the smallest variation in hydraulic habitat in this system). The data grid were then imported into the HECRAS 1D hydraulic model to generate a 2 m spaced series of cross-sections along a 220 m sinuous single thread reach exhibiting pool - riffle point-bar morphology. The hydraulic segmentation routine then generated estimates of depth averaged flow velocity, flow depth and sub unit discharge for 40 sub-divisions of the flow width for a series of flows from 0.5 m3s-1 up to bankfull flow of approximately 9 m3s-1. The resultant hydraulic data were exported in the project coordinate system and plotted to reveal the 2D pattern of hydraulic biotopes present across the range of flows modelled. The results reveal broadly realistic patterns consistent with previous empirical studies and compare well with LIDAR based biotope maps. Analysis of the temporal pattern of biotope change indicates that biotope diversity and complexity is at a maximum at lower flows and across shallower area (riffles) and that these dominate the
Refined turbulence models for simulation of IC-engine cylinder flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavuz, Ibrahim
2000-11-01
-bowl configuration are thoroughly investigated using a fine 2-D axisymmetric grid and a 3-D grid. Next, the flow dynamics during the intake stroke has been examined using a full 3-D configuration of an engine with valves and a typical bowl. The results show that a significant portion of the inertial sub-range in the energy spectra can be resolved using a moderately fine grid with about 300,000 vertices. The calculated spectra display about the same energy content up to f ≈ 104 Hz, which is on the same order of maximum frequency resolved in typical experiments. It is shown via the LES technique, that significant turbulence is likely to be generated by a carefully designed bowl; and that the more energetic intake turbulence generated during the intake stroke decays rapidly during the compression stroke.
High-speed tomographic PIV and OH PLIF measurements in turbulent reactive flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coriton, Bruno; Steinberg, Adam M.; Frank, Jonathan H.
2014-06-01
High-speed tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV) is demonstrated in turbulent reactive flows at acquisition rates ranging from 10 to 16 kHz. The 10-kHz TPIV measurements are combined with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH to mark the high-temperature reaction zone of the flame. Simultaneous TPIV/OH PLIF measurements are applied to the stabilization region of a weakly turbulent lifted dimethyl ether (DME)/air jet flame ( Re D = 7,600) and the mixing layer of a turbulent partially premixed DME/air jet flame ( Re D = 29,300). In the lifted jet flame, vortical structures exhibit time-dependent morphological changes and eventually dissipate as they approach the flame. In the near field of the turbulent jet flame, dynamics of localized extinction are captured as coherent structures with high compressive strain rates interact with the reaction zone and subsequently break apart. The principal axis of compressive strain has a strong preferential orientation at 45° with respect to the jet axis. The three-dimensional velocity field measurements are used to evaluate biases in two-dimensional (2D) measurements of compressive strain rates in a turbulent jet flame. The biases in the 2D measurements primarily stem from out-of-plane orientation of the principal axis of compressive strain. Comparisons with a constant density turbulent non-reactive jet ( Re D = 22,600) show that the jet flame has larger coherent structures that are confined near the reaction zone. Data from the non-reactive jet are also used to evaluate effects of noise, bias, and spatial averaging on measurements of the velocity and velocity gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucciarelli, T.
2012-12-01
A new methodology for the solution of irrotational 2D flow problems in domains with strongly unstructured meshes is presented. A fractional time step procedure is applied to the original governing equations, solving consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive corrective system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system, of the order of the number of computational cells. A MArching in Space and Time (MAST) approach is applied for the solution of the convective prediction step. The major advantages of the model, as well as its ability to maintain the solution monotonicity even in strongly irregular meshes, are briefly described. The algorithm is applied to the solution of diffusive shallow water equations in a simple domain.
Computation of nozzle flow fields using the PARC2D Navier-Stokes code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Frank G.
1986-01-01
Supersonic nozzles which operate at low Reynolds numbers and have large expansion ratios have very thick boundary layers at their exit. This leads to a very strong viscous/inviscid interaction upon the flow within the nozzle and the traditional nozzle design techniques which correct the inviscid core with a boundary layer displacement do not accurately predict the nozzle exit conditions. A full Navier-Stokes code (PARC2D) was used to compute the nozzle flow field. Grids were generated using the interactive grid generator code TBGG. All computations were made on the NASA MSFC CRAY X-MP computer. Comparison was made between the computations and in-house wall pressure measurements for CO2 flow through a conical nozzle having an area ratio of 40. Satisfactory agreement existed between the computations and measurements for a stagnation pressure of 29.4 psia and stagnation temperature of 1060 R. However, agreement did not exist at a stagnation pressure of 7.4 psia. Several reasons for the lack of agreement are possible. The computational code assumed a constant gas gamma whereas gamma for CO2 varied from 1.22 in the plenum chamber to 1.38 at the nozzle exit. Finally, it is possible that condensation occurred during the expansion at the lower stagnation pressure.
2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team
2016-10-01
The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, C. (Editor); Chin, J. H. (Editor); Homsy, G. M. (Editor)
1991-01-01
Consideration is given to the impulse response of a laminar boundary layer and receptivity; numerical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow; large eddy simulation of turbulent wake flow; a viscous model and loss calculation of a multisplitter cascade; vortex initiation during dynamic stall of an airfoil; a numerical analysis of isothermal flow in a combustion chamber; and compressible flow calculations with a two-equation turbulence model and unstructured grids. Attention is also given to a 2D calculation of a buoyant flow around a burning sphere, a fast multigrid method for 3D turbulent incompressible flows, a streaming flow induced by an oscillating cascade of circular cylinders, an algebraic multigrid scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes; and nonlinear coupled multigrid solutions to thermal problems employing different nodal grid arrangements and convective transport approximations.
Turbulence modeling for non-equilibrium flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1993-01-01
Two projects are reported. The first is the development and testing of an eddy viscosity transport model. This project also is a starting point for our work on developing computational tools for solving turbulence models in complex geometries. The second project is a stochastic analysis of the realizability of Reynolds stress transport models.
Direct numerical simulation of a 2D-stented aortic heart valve at physiological flow rates.
Dimakopoulos, Y; Bogaerds, A C B; Anderson, P D; Hulsen, M A; Baaijens, F P T
2012-01-01
We study the nonlinear interaction of an aortic heart valve, composed of hyperelastic corrugated leaflets of finite density attached to a stented vessel under physiological flow conditions. In our numerical simulations, we use a 2D idealised representation of this arrangement. Blood flow is caused by a time-varying pressure gradient that mimics that of the aortic valve and corresponds to a peak Reynolds number equal to 4050. Here, we fully account for the shear-thinning behaviour of the blood and large deformations and contact between the leaflets by solving the momentum and mass balances for blood and leaflets. The mixed finite element/Galerkin method along with linear discontinuous Lagrange multipliers for coupling the fluid and elastic domains is adopted. Moreover, a series of challenging numerical issues such as the finite length of the computational domain and the conditions that should be imposed on its inflow/outflow boundaries, the accurate time integration of the parabolic and hyperbolic momentum equations, the contact between the leaflets and the non-conforming mesh refinement in part of the domain are successfully resolved. Calculations for the velocity and the shear stress fields of the blood reveal that boundary layers appear on both sides of a leaflet. The one along the ventricular side transfers blood with high momentum from the core region of the vessel to the annulus or the sinusoidal expansion, causing the continuous development of flow instabilities. At peak systole, vortices are convected in the flow direction along the annulus of the vessel, whereas during the closure stage of the valve, an extremely large vortex develops in each half of the flow domain.
A friction to flow constitutive law and its application to a 2-D modeling of earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Noda, Hiroyuki
2014-11-01
Establishment of a constitutive law from friction to high-temperature plastic flow has long been a challenging task for solving problems such as modeling earthquakes and plate interactions. Here we propose an empirical constitutive law that describes this transitional behavior using only friction and flow parameters, with good agreements with experimental data on halite shear zones. The law predicts steady state and transient behaviors, including the dependence of the shear resistance of fault on slip rate, effective normal stress, and temperature. It also predicts a change in velocity weakening to velocity strengthening with increasing temperature, similar to the changes recognized for quartz and granite gouge under hydrothermal conditions. A slight deviation from the steady state friction law due to the involvement of plastic deformation can cause a large change in the velocity dependence. We solved seismic cycles of a fault across the lithosphere with the law using a 2-D spectral boundary integral equation method, revealing dynamic rupture extending into the aseismic zone and rich evolution of interseismic creep including slow slip prior to earthquakes. Seismic slip followed by creep is consistent with natural pseudotachylytes overprinted with mylonitic deformation. Overall fault behaviors during earthquake cycles are insensitive to transient flow parameters. The friction-to-flow law merges "Christmas tree" strength profiles of the lithosphere and rate dependency fault models used for earthquake modeling on a unified basis. Strength profiles were drawn assuming a strain rate for the flow regime, but we emphasize that stress distribution evolves reflecting the fault behavior. A fault zone model was updated based on the earthquake modeling.
Evaluation of subgrid-scale turbulence models using a fully simulated turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, R. A.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1977-01-01
An exact turbulent flow field was calculated on a three-dimensional grid with 64 points on a side. The flow simulates grid-generated turbulence from wind tunnel experiments. In this simulation, the grid spacing is small enough to include essentially all of the viscous energy dissipation, and the box is large enough to contain the largest eddy in the flow. The method is limited to low-turbulence Reynolds numbers, in our case R sub lambda = 36.6. To complete the calculation using a reasonable amount of computer time with reasonable accuracy, a third-order time-integration scheme was developed which runs at about the same speed as a simple first-order scheme. It obtains this accuracy by saving the velocity field and its first-time derivative at each time step. Fourth-order accurate space-differencing is used.
Computation of three-dimensional turbulent shear flows in corners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorski, J. J.; Govindan, T. R.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1983-07-01
A numerical technique developed for the solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations using a 'space marching' algorithm has been used to predict a complex, three-dimensional, turbulent flow. The scheme has been designed to calculate flows with a dominant flow direction, in three-dimensional geometries, and has been used successfully to predict laminar flows. This paper is concerned with the extension of this technique to calculate turbulent flows in the corner region of a wing-body junction using both algebraic eddy viscosity and K-epsilon turbulence models. Effects of different boundary conditions for the streamwise velocity, at a solid boundary, used in many turbulent flow computations are also considered. In the flow cases computed using a 'slip' boundary condition at solid boundaries, the K-epsilon model showed on distinct advantages over the simpler algebraic eddy viscosity model. However, the K-epsilon model provided much better results for the cases computed with the more realistic 'no slip' conditions.
Velocity Measurements of Turbulent Wake Flow Over a Circular Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Chang-Lung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Keh-Chin; Wang, Muh-Rong
2016-06-01
There are two general concerns in the velocity measurements of turbulence. One is the temporal characteristics which governs the turbulent mixing process. Turbulence is rotational and is characterized by high levels of fluctuating vorticity. In order to obtain the information of vorticity dynamics, the spatial characteristics is the other concern. These varying needs can be satisfied by using a variety of diagnostic techniques such as invasive physical probes and non-invasive optical instruments. Probe techniques for the turbulent measurements are inherently simple and less expensive than optical methods. However, the presence of a physical probe may alter the flow field, and velocity measurements usually become questionable when probing recirculation zones. The non-invasive optical methods are mostly made of the foreign particles (or seeding) instead of the fluid flow and are, thus, of indirect method. The difference between the velocities of fluid and foreign particles is always an issue to be discussed particularly in the measurements of complicated turbulent flows. Velocity measurements of the turbulent wake flow over a circular cylinder will be made by using two invasive instruments, namely, a cross-type hot-wire anemometry (HWA) and a split-fiber hot-film anemometry (HFA), and a non-invasive optical instrument, namely, particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this study. Comparison results show that all three employed diagnostic techniques yield similar measurements in the mean velocity while somewhat deviated results in the root-mean-squared velocity, particularly for the PIV measurements. It is demonstrated that HFA possesses more capability than HWA in the flow measurements of wake flow. Wake width is determined in terms of either the flatness factor or shear-induced vorticity. It is demonstrated that flow data obtained with the three employed diagnostic techniques are capable of yielding accurate determination of wake width.
Research on complex turbulent flows at the UW (overall effort)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gessner, F. B.
1987-01-01
Development of a pressure-strain model, an algebraic stress model, and wall functions appropriate for flows with spanwise variations in the local wall shear stress are accomplished. Furthermore, a hot-wire measurement technique was also developed for determining the local mean velocity and Reynolds stresses in a complex flow. Experiments were performed on supersonic and subsonic turbulent flow in a square duct, flow about a strut-endwall, flow within a transition duct, and on co-flowing annular jets with swirl. All results are presented in a viewgraph format.
Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Fazle
1991-03-01
The goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique, Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV), which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical numerical simulations of combusting flows.
Ignition of hydrogen/air mixing layer in turbulent flows
Im, H.G.; Chen, J.H.; Law, C.K.
1998-03-01
Autoignition of a scalar hydrogen/air mixing layer in homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation. An initial counterflow of unmixed nitrogen-diluted hydrogen and heated air is perturbed by two-dimensional homogeneous turbulence. The temperature of the heated air stream is chosen to be 1,100 K which is substantially higher than the crossover temperature at which the rates of the chain branching and termination reactions become equal. Three different turbulence intensities are tested in order to assess the effect of the characteristic flow time on the ignition delay. For each condition, a simulation without heat release is also performed. The ignition delay determined with and without heat release is shown to be almost identical up to the point of ignition for all of the turbulence intensities tested, and the predicted ignition delays agree well within a consistent error band. It is also observed that the ignition kernel always occurs where hydrogen is focused, and the peak concentration of HO{sub 2} is aligned well with the scalar dissipation rate. The dependence of the ignition delay on turbulence intensity is found to be nonmonotonic. For weak to moderate turbulence the ignition is facilitated by turbulence via enhanced mixing, while for stronger turbulence, whose timescale is substantially smaller than the ignition delay, the ignition is retarded due to excessive scalar dissipation, and hence diffusive loss, at the ignition location. However, for the wide range of initial turbulence fields studied, the variation in ignition delay due to the corresponding variation in turbulence intensity appears to be quite small.
Lyapunov Exponents and Covariant Vectors for Turbulent Flow Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Murman, Scott; Fernandez, Pablo; Wang, Qiqi
2016-11-01
As computational power increases, engineers are beginning to use scale-resolving turbulent flow simulations for applications in which jets, wakes, and separation dominate. However, the chaotic dynamics exhibited by scale-resolving simulations poses problems for the conventional sensitivity analysis and stability analysis approaches that are vital for design and control. Lyapunov analysis is used to study the chaotic behavior of dynamical systems, including flow simulations. Lyapunov exponents are the growth or a decay rate of specific flow field perturbations called the Lyapunov covariant vectors. Recently, the authors have used Lyapunov analysis to study the breakdown in conventional sensitivity analysis and the cost of new shadowing-based sensitivity analysis. The current work reviews Lyapunov analysis and presents new results for a DNS of turbulent channel flow, wall-modeled channel flow, and a DNS of a low pressure turbine blade. Additionally, the implications of these Lyapunov analyses for computing sensitivities of these flow simulations will be discussed.
Optical propagation through a homogeneous turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truman, C. Randall; Lee, Moon J.
1988-01-01
Effects of organized turbulent structures on the propagation of an optical beam in a homogeneous shear flow were studied. A passive-scalar field in a computed turbulent shear flow is used to represent index-of-refraction fluctuations, and phase errors induced in a coherent optical beam by turbulent fluctuations are computed. The organized vortical structures produce a scalar distribution with elongated regions of intense fluctuations which have an inclination with respect to the mean flow similar to that of the characteristic hairpin eddies. It is found that r.m.s. phase error is minimized by propagating approximately normal to the inclined vortical structures. Two-point correlations of vorticity and scalar fluctuation suggest that the regions of intense scalar fluctuation are produced primarily by the hairpin eddies.
Prediction of High-Lift Flows using Turbulent Closure Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Ying, Susan X.; Bertelrud, Arild
1997-01-01
The flow over two different multi-element airfoil configurations is computed using linear eddy viscosity turbulence models and a nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model. A subset of recently-measured transition locations using hot film on a McDonnell Douglas configuration is presented, and the effect of transition location on the computed solutions is explored. Deficiencies in wake profile computations are found to be attributable in large part to poor boundary layer prediction on the generating element, and not necessarily inadequate turbulence modeling in the wake. Using measured transition locations for the main element improves the prediction of its boundary layer thickness, skin friction, and wake profile shape. However, using measured transition locations on the slat still yields poor slat wake predictions. The computation of the slat flow field represents a key roadblock to successful predictions of multi-element flows. In general, the nonlinear explicit algebraic stress turbulence model gives very similar results to the linear eddy viscosity models.
On the freestream matching condition for stagnation point turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, C. G.
1989-01-01
The problem of plane stagnation point flow with freestream turbulence is examined from a basic theoretical standpoint. It is argued that the singularity which arises from the standard kappa-epsilon model is not due to a defect in the model but results from the use of an inconsistent freestream boundary condition. The inconsistency lies in the implementation of a production equals dissipation equilibrium hypothesis in conjunction with a freestream mean velocity field that corresponds to homogeneous plane strain - a turbulent flow which does not reach such a simple equilibrium. Consequently, the adjustment that has been made in the constants of the epsilon-transport equation to eliminate this singularity is not self-consistent since it is tantamount to artificially imposing an equilibrium structure on a turbulent flow which is known not to have one.
Turbulent patterns in wall-bounded flows: A Turing instability?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manneville, Paul
2012-06-01
In their way to/from turbulence, plane wall-bounded flows display an interesting transitional regime where laminar and turbulent oblique bands alternate, the origin of which is still mysterious. In line with Barkley's recent work about the pipe flow transition involving reaction-diffusion concepts, we consider plane Couette flow in the same perspective and transform Waleffe's classical four-variable model of self-sustaining process into a reaction-diffusion model. We show that, upon fulfillment of a condition on the relative diffusivities of its variables, the featureless turbulent regime becomes unstable against patterning as the result of a Turing instability. A reduced two-variable model helps us to delineate the appropriate region of parameter space. An intrinsic status is therefore given to the pattern's wavelength for the first time. Virtues and limitations of the model are discussed, calling for a microscopic support of the phenomenological approach.
Subcritical Transition to Turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo; Klotz, Lukasz
2016-11-01
We study the subcritical transition to turbulence in the plane Couette-Poiseuille shear flow with zero mean advection velocity. Our experimental configuration consists on one moving wall of the test section (the second one remains stationary), which acts like a driving force for the flow, imposing linear streamwise velocity profile (Couette) and adverse pressure gradient in the streamwise direction (Poiseuille) at the same time. This flow, which had only been studied theoretically up to now, is always linearly stable. The transition to turbulence is forced by a very well controlled finite-size perturbation by injection, into the test section, of a water jet during a very short time. Using PIV technique, we characterized quantitatively the initial development of the triggered turbulent spot and compared its energy evolution with the theoretical predictions of the transient growth theory. In addition, we show results concerning the importance of nonlinearities, when waviness of streaks in streamwise direction induced self-sustained process in the turbulent spot. We also measured precisely the large-scale flow which is generated around the turbulent spot and studied its strength as a function of the Reynolds number.
Lubricant retention for liquid infused surfaces exposed to turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Matthew; Hultmark, Marcus
2015-11-01
Liquid infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust alternative to traditional, air-filled superhydrophobic surfaces. The mobility of the liquid lubricant facilitates a surface slip with the outer turbulent shear flow. However, shear driven drainage in turbulent flow has been found to be a primary failure mechanism for such surfaces, resulting in loss of lubricant and the associated slip effect. A turbulent channel flow facility is used to characterize shear-driven drainage behavior of liquid infused micro-patterned surfaces. Micro-manufactured surfaces can be mounted flush in the channel and exposed to turbulent flows. The retention of fluorescent lubricants is monitored to characterize how surface geometry and lubricant properties affect the steady state retention length. Results are compared with theoretical predictions and experiments for lubricant retention in laminar microchannels, where the shear driven drainage is balanced by a Laplace pressure gradient, to determine the additional drainage induced by turbulent fluctuations. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).
Turbulent flow in a 180 deg bend: Modeling and computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
1989-01-01
A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was presented which yields accurate predictions of the kinetic energy near the wall. The model is validated with the experimental channel flow data of Kreplin and Eckelmann. The predictions are also compared with earlier results from direct simulation of turbulent channel flow. The model is especially useful for internal flows where the inflow boundary condition of epsilon is not easily prescribed. The model partly derives from some observations based on earlier direct simulation results of near-wall turbulence. The low Reynolds number turbulence model together with an existing curvature correction appropriate to spinning cylinder flows was used to simulate the flow in a U-bend with the same radius of curvature as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turn-Around Duct (TAD). The present computations indicate a space varying curvature correction parameter as opposed to a constant parameter as used in the spinning cylinder flows. Comparison with limited available experimental data is made. The comparison is favorable, but detailed experimental data is needed to further improve the curvature model.
Laser velocimetry in turbulent flow fields - Particle response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bachalo, W. D.; Rudoff, R.; Houser, M. J.
1987-01-01
Measurements of the particle response in a decelerating flow and a highly turbulent two-phase flow were obtained. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity served to quantify the particle response to the prevailing flow field. In the case of a flow incident upon a cylinder, the particle lag for a range of size classes was recorded. Results were also obtained in the flow generated by an atomizer operating on the leeward side of a flat disk bluff body in a coflowing air stream. Measurements of the mean axial, mean radial, and rms velocities and angles of trajectories were obtained for representative particle size classes. The air velocity and turbulence intensity were inferred from the seed particles on the order of one micrometer in diameter. Particles 9 micrometers and larger showed significant differences with respect to the gas phase mean velocity and turbulence intensity even at low velocities. In two-phase flows, reliable measurements of the continuous phase velocity and turbulence parameters requires the simultaneous measurement of particle size as a means for rejecting readings from large particles from the velocity pdf's.
Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations
Zhong, Xiaolin
2012-12-13
In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.
Final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.
1984-01-01
This paper involves a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow at a Reynolds number of 1500. Three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two- and three-dimensional finite-amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32 x 51 x 32 grid. Solutions indicate the existence of structures similar to those observed in the laboratory and characteristics of the various stages of transition that lead to final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a upside-down-V-shaped vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the primary elements of transition. Details of the resulting flow field after breakdown indicate the evolution of streaklike formations found in turbulent flows. Although the flow field does approach a steady state (turbulent channel flow), the introduction of subgrid-scale terms seems necessary to obtain fully developed turbulence statistics.
Analysis of homogeneous turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A. D.; Hill, J. C.; Mahalingam, S.; Ferziger, J. H.
1988-01-01
Full turbulence simulations at low Reynolds numbers were made for the single-step, irreversible, bimolecular reaction between non-premixed reactants in isochoric, decaying homogeneous turbulence. Various initial conditions for the scalar field were used in the simulations to control the initial scalar dissipation length scale, and simulations were also made for temperature-dependent reaction rates and for non-stoichiometric and unequal diffusivity conditions. Joint probability density functions (pdf's), conditional pdf's, and various statistical quantities appearing in the moment equations were computed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that compressive strain-rate correlates better than other dynamical quantities with local reaction rate, and the locations of peak reaction rates seem to be insensitive to the scalar field initial conditions.
Interaction of monopoles, dipoles, and turbulence with a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques Rosas Fernandes, V. H.; Kamp, L. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.
2016-09-01
Direct numerical simulations have been conducted to examine the evolution of eddies in the presence of large-scale shear flows. The numerical experiments consist of initial-value-problems in which monopolar and dipolar vortices as well as driven turbulence are superposed on a plane Couette or Poiseuille flow in a periodic two-dimensional channel. The evolution of the flow has been examined for different shear rates of the background flow and different widths of the channel. Results found for retro-grade and pro-grade monopolar vortices are consistent with those found in the literature. Boundary layer vorticity, however, can significantly modify the straining and erosion of monopolar vortices normally seen for unbounded domains. Dipolar vortices are shown to be much more robust coherent structures in a large-scale shear flow than monopolar eddies. An analytical model for their trajectories, which are determined by self-advection and advection and rotation by the shear flow, is presented. Turbulent kinetic energy is effectively suppressed by the shearing action of the background flow provided that the shear is linear (Couette flow) and of sufficient strength. Nonlinear shear as present in the Poiseuille flow seems to even increase the turbulence strength especially for high shear rates.
On the nature of magnetic turbulence in rotating, shearing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, Justin; Lesur, Geoffroy; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2016-03-01
The local properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in rotating, shearing flows are studied in the framework of a shearing-box model. Based on numerical simulations, we propose that the MRI-driven turbulence comprises two components: the large-scale shear-aligned strong magnetic field and the small-scale fluctuations resembling magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The energy spectrum of the large-scale component is close to k-2, whereas the spectrum of the small-scale component agrees with the spectrum of strong MHD turbulence k-3/2. While the spectrum of the fluctuations is universal, the outer-scale characteristics of the turbulence are not; they depend on the parameters of the system, such as the net magnetic flux. However, there is remarkable universality among the allowed turbulent states - their intensity v0 and their outer scale λ0 satisfy the balance condition v0/λ0 ˜ dΩ/dln r, where dΩ/dln r is the local orbital shearing rate of the flow. Finally, we find no sustained dynamo action in the Pm = 1 zero net-flux case for Reynolds numbers as high as 45 000, casting doubts on the existence of an MRI dynamo in the Pm ≤ 1 regime.
Direct simulation of compressible turbulence in a shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1991-01-01
Compressibility effects on the turbulence in homogeneous shear flow are investigated. The growth of the turbulent kinetic energy was found to decrease with increasing Mach number: a phenomenon which is similar to the reduction of turbulent velocity intensities observed in experiments on supersonic free shear layers. An examination of the turbulent energy budget shows that both the compressible dissipation and the pressure-dilatation contribute to the decrease in the growth of kinetic energy. The pressure-dilatation is predominantly negative in homogeneous shear flow, in contrast to its predominantly positive behavior in isotropic turbulence. The different signs of the pressure-dilatation are explained by theoretical consideration of the equations for the pressure variance and density variance. Previously, the following results were obtained for isotropic turbulence: (1) the normalized compressible dissipation is of O(M(sub t)(exp 2)); and (2) there is approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energies associated with the fluctuating compressible mode. Both of these results were substantiated in the case of homogeneous shear. The dilatation field is significantly more skewed and intermittent than the vorticity field. Strong compressions seem to be more likely than strong expansions.
A crossed hot-wire technique for complex turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a crossed hot-wire technique for the measurement of all components of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, and triple products in a complex turbulent flow. The accuracy of various assumptions usually implicit in the use of crossed hot-wire anemometers is examined. It is shown that significant errors can result in flow with gradients in mean velocity or Reynolds stress, but that a first-order correction for these errors can be made using available data. It is also shown how corrections can be made for high turbulence levels using available data.
Aerodynamic Design on Unstructured Grids for Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. Kyle; Bonhaus, Daryl L.
1997-01-01
An aerodynamic design algorithm for turbulent flows using unstructured grids is described. The current approach uses adjoint (costate) variables for obtaining derivatives of the cost function. The solution of the adjoint equations is obtained using an implicit formulation in which the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations when solving for the costate variables. The accuracy of the derivatives is demonstrated by comparison with finite-difference gradients and a few example computations are shown. In addition, a user interface is described which significantly reduces the time required for setting up the design problems. Recommendations on directions of further research into the Navier Stokes design process are made.
Thermochemical Nonequilibrium 2D Modeling of Nitrogen Inductively Coupled Plasma Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Minghao; Yusuke, Takahashi; Hisashi, Kihara; Ken-ichi, Abe; Kazuhiko, Yamada; Takashi, Abe; Satoshi, Miyatani
2015-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of thermochemical nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flows inside a 10-kW inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel (ICPWT) were carried out with nitrogen as the working gas. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with magnetic vector potential equations were solved. A four-temperature model including an improved electron-vibration relaxation time was used to model the internal energy exchange between electron and heavy particles. The third-order accuracy electron transport properties (3rd AETP) were applied to the simulations. A hybrid chemical kinetic model was adopted to model the chemical nonequilibrium process. The flow characteristics such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, effects of Lorentz force were made clear through the present study. It was clarified that the thermal nonequilibrium model played an important role in properly predicting the temperature field. The prediction accuracy can be improved by applying the 3rd AETP to the simulation for this ICPWT. supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 23560954), sponsored by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Kinematics of velocity and vorticity correlations in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, P. S.
1983-08-01
The kinematic problem of calculating second-order velocity moments from given values of the vorticity covariance is examined. Integral representation formulas for second-order velocity moments in terms of the two-point vorticity correlation tensor are derived. The special relationships existing between velocity moments in isotropic turbulence are expressed in terms of the integral formulas yielding several kinematic constraints on the two-point vorticity correlation tensor in isotropic turbulence. Numerical evaluation of these constraints suggests that a Gaussian curve may be the only form of the longitudinal velocity correlation coefficient which is consistent with the requirement of isotropy. It is shown that if this is the case, then a family of exact solutions to the decay of isotropic turbulence may be obtained which contains Batchelor's final period solution as a special case. In addition, the computed results suggest a method of approximating the integral representation formulas in general turbulent shear flows.
Vapor core turbulence in annular two-phase flow
Trabold, T.A.; Kumar, R.
1998-06-01
This paper reports a new technique to measure vapor turbulence in two-phase flows using hot-film anemometry. Continuous vapor turbulence measurements along with local void fraction, droplet frequency, droplet velocity and droplet diameter were measured in a thin, vertical duct. By first eliminating the portion of the output voltage signal resulting from the interaction of dispersed liquid droplets with the HFA sensor, the discrete voltage samples associated with the vapor phase were separately analyzed. The data revealed that, over the range of liquid droplet sizes and concentrations encountered, the presence of the droplet field acts to enhance vapor turbulence. In addition, there is evidence that vapor turbulence is significantly influenced by the wall-bounded liquid film. The present results are qualitatively consistent with the limited data available in the open literature.
Kinematics of velocity and vorticity correlations in turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernard, P. S.
1983-01-01
The kinematic problem of calculating second-order velocity moments from given values of the vorticity covariance is examined. Integral representation formulas for second-order velocity moments in terms of the two-point vorticity correlation tensor are derived. The special relationships existing between velocity moments in isotropic turbulence are expressed in terms of the integral formulas yielding several kinematic constraints on the two-point vorticity correlation tensor in isotropic turbulence. Numerical evaluation of these constraints suggests that a Gaussian curve may be the only form of the longitudinal velocity correlation coefficient which is consistent with the requirement of isotropy. It is shown that if this is the case, then a family of exact solutions to the decay of isotropic turbulence may be obtained which contains Batchelor's final period solution as a special case. In addition, the computed results suggest a method of approximating the integral representation formulas in general turbulent shear flows.
Turbulence-radiation interactions in a particle-laden flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankel, Ari; Pouransari, Hadi; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali
2014-11-01
Turbulent fluctuations in a radiatively participating medium can significantly alter the mean heat transfer characteristics in a manner that current RANS models cannot accurately capture. While turbulence-radiation interaction has been studied extensively in traditional combustion systems, such interactions have not yet been studied in the context of particle-laden flows. This work is motivated by applications in particle-based solar receivers in which external radiation is primarily absorbed by a dispersed phase and conductively exchanged with the carrier fluid. Direct numerical simulations of turbulence with Lagrangian particles subject to a collimated radiation source are performed with a flux-limited diffusion approximation to radiative transfer. The dependence of the turbulence-radiation interaction statistics on the particle Stokes number will be demonstrated. Supported by PSAAP II.
PIV experiments in rough-wall, laminar-to-turbulent, oscillatory boundary-layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Mier, Jose M.; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Bateman, Allen; Garcia, Marcelo H.
2014-01-01
Exploratory measurements of oscillatory boundary layers were conducted over a smooth and two different rough beds spanning the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes using a multi-camera 2D-PIV system in a small oscillatory-flow tunnel (Admiraal et al. in J Hydraul Res 44(4):437-450, 2006). Results show how the phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity is better defined when the integral of the momentum equation is used to estimate the bed shear stress. Observed differences in bed shear stress and phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity are highly sensitive to the definition of the bed position ( y = b). The underestimation of turbulent stresses close to the wall is found to explain such differences when using the addition of Reynolds and viscous stresses to define both the bed shear stress and the phase lag. Regardless of the flow regime, in all experiments, boundary-layer thickness reached its maximum value at a phase near the flow reversal at the wall. Friction factors in smooth walls are better estimated using a theoretical equation first proposed by Batchelor (An introduction to fluid dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967) while the more recent empirical predictor of Pedocchi and Garcia (J Hydraul Res 47(4):438-444, 2009a) was found to be appropriate for estimating friction coefficients in the laminar-to-turbulent transition regime.
Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong
2017-04-01
Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7 × 50.0 × 14.4 mm3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. R.
1988-01-01
The present analyses of boundary layer flow and turbulence transport attempt to characterize the influence of freestream turbulence on the surface heat-transfer rate and stagnation point region skin friction of a circular cross-section cylinder in turbulent flow. The Reynolds stress-transport equations and k-epsilon two-equation turbulence modeling are used, yielding time-averaged turbulence double-correlations, mean-flow properties, surface heat-transfer rate, and skin-friction with freestream isotropic turbulence. A comparison of analytical results with experimental data indicates that large Reynolds normal stresses are induced at the boundary layer edge by the kinetic energy of the turbulence.
An experimental facility for the visual study of turbulent flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brodkey, R. S.; Hershey, H. C.; Corino, E. R.
1971-01-01
An experimental technique which allows visual observations of the wall area in turbulent pipe flow is described in detail. It requires neither the introduction of any injection or measuring device into the flow nor the presence of a two-phase flow or of a non-Newtonian fluid. The technique involves suspending solid MgO particles of colloidal size in trichloroethylene and photographing their motions near the wall with a high speed movie camera moving with the flow. Trichloroethylene was chosen in order to eliminate the index of refraction problem in a curved wall. Evaluation of the technique including a discussion of limitations is included. Also the technique is compared with previous methods of visual observations of turbulent flow.
Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel
Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.
1999-07-01
The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.
Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Hypersonic Flows
1987-07-01
XtSTART TRW WEDGE SURFACERe4/" WEDGE SHOCK 0l 103, TRIPLE PLATE SHOCK UPSTREAM,- POINT I• / tFLUENCE SHOCK "JET" -PLATE BOUNDARY.,.) • -:3•< ......LAYER...particularly for turbulent interacting flows, an analysis of the characteristic scale lengths, like that employed in triple deck theory, should be performed...constant A wavelength of light •= extent of 2-D field traversed by light waves , 0 tref = relative change in density between the reference point and the
Jet vortex generators for turbulent flow separation control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selby, Gregory; Lin, J.; Howard, F.
1990-01-01
A parametric study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low speed turbulent flow over a two dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow separation control can be accomplished with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed).
Jet vortex generators for turbulent flow separation control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selby, G.; Lin, J.; Howard, F.
1990-01-01
A parametric study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulent flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow separation control can be accomplished with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed).
Model-Based Predictive Control of Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellogg, Steven M.; Collis, S. Scott
1999-11-01
In recent simulations of optimal turbulence control, the time horizon over which the control is determined matches the time horizon over which the flow is advanced. A popular workhorse of the controls community, Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC), suggests using longer predictive horizons than advancement windows. Including additional time information in the optimization may generate improved controls. When the advancement horizon is smaller than the predictive horizon, part of the optimization and resulting control are discarded. Although this inherent inefficiency may be justified by improved control predictions, it has hampered prior investigations of MBPC for turbulent flow due to the expense associated with optimal control based on Direct Numerical Simulation. The current approach overcomes this by using our optimal control formulation based on Large Eddy Simulation. This presentation summarizes the results of optimal control simulations for turbulent channel flow using various ratios of advancement and predictive horizons. These results provide clues as to the roles of foresight, control history, cost functional, and turbulence structures for optimal control of wall-bounded turbulence.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a Ribbed Pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2011-11-01
Turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically wall-mounted ribs has been investigated by large eddy simulation with a dynamic subgrid-scale model. The value of Re considered is 98,000, based on hydraulic diameter and mean bulk velocity. An immersed boundary method was employed to implement the ribs in the computational domain. The spacing of the ribs is the key parameter to produce the d-type, intermediate and k-type roughness flows. The mean velocity profiles and turbulent intensities obtained from the present LES are in good agreement with the experimental measurements currently available. Turbulence statistics, including budgets of the Reynolds stresses, were computed, and analyzed to elucidate turbulence structures, especially around the ribs. In particular, effects of the ribs are identified by comparing the turbulence structures with those of smooth pipe flow. The present investigation is relevant to the erosion/corrosion that often occurs around a protruding roughness in a pipe system. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).
Flow and Turbulence Over an Oyster Reef Bank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Styles, R.
2006-12-01
In December of 2005, measurements of flow and turbulence were collected on opposite sides of a subtidal channel in the North Inlet/Winyah Bay National Estuary Research Reserve. One bank included an extensive cover of oyster reefs and the other was a mixture of fine sands and mud. The purpose was to examine the differences in flow and turbulence structure in a similar flow regime but with greatly varying roughness environments. Peak along channel velocities were higher on the mud bank side of the channel. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses components were generally greater over the oyster reef, but maximum values were sometimes highest over the sand/mud bank. Turbulence quantities were also anisotropic at both sites. During early flood, the lateral circulation was consistent with flow around a bend, with weak flow directed towards the inside of the bank at the bottom. The lateral circulation reversed direction during mid flood even though the current was still in the same direction. Implications describing the interaction between bed morphology and oyster reefs will be discussed.
The minimal flow unit in near-wall turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jimeez, Javier; Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of unsteady channel flow were performed at low to moderate Reynolds numbers on computational boxes chosen small enough so that the flow consists of a doubly periodic (in x and z) array of identical structures. The goal is to isolate the basic flow unit, to study its morphology and dynamics, and to evaluate its contribution to turbulence in fully developed channels. For boxes wider than approximately 100 wall units in the spanwise direction, the flow is turbulent, and the low-order turbulence statistics are in good agreement with experiments in the near-wall region. For a narrow range of widths below that threshold, the flow near only one wall remains turbulent, but its statistics are still in fairly good agreement with experimental data when scaled with the local wall stress. For narrower boxes only laminar solutions are found. In all cases, the elementary box contains a single low-velocity streak, consisting of a longitudinal strip on which a thin layer of spanwise vorticity is lifted away from the wall.
Reference Solutions for Benchmark Turbulent Flows in Three Dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Pandya, Mohagna J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2016-01-01
A grid convergence study is performed to establish benchmark solutions for turbulent flows in three dimensions (3D) in support of turbulence-model verification campaign at the Turbulence Modeling Resource (TMR) website. The three benchmark cases are subsonic flows around a 3D bump and a hemisphere-cylinder configuration and a supersonic internal flow through a square duct. Reference solutions are computed for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using a linear eddy-viscosity model for the external flows and a nonlinear eddy-viscosity model based on a quadratic constitutive relation for the internal flow. The study involves three widely-used practical computational fluid dynamics codes developed and supported at NASA Langley Research Center: FUN3D, USM3D, and CFL3D. Reference steady-state solutions computed with these three codes on families of consistently refined grids are presented. Grid-to-grid and code-to-code variations are described in detail.
Characteristics of turbulent boundary layer flow over algal biofilm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Elizabeth; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Steppe, Cecily; Flack, Karen; Reidenbach, Matthew
2015-11-01
Algal biofilms are an important fouling community on ship hulls, with severe economic consequences due to drag-induced increases in fuel use and cleaning costs. Here, we characterize the boundary layer flow structure in turbulent flow over diatomaceous slime, a type of biofilm. Diatomaceous slime composed of three species of diatoms commonly found on ship hulls was grown on acrylic test plates under shear stress. The slime averages 1.6 mm in thickness and has a high density of streamers, which are flexible elongated growths with a length on the order of 1- 2 mm located at the top of the biofilm that interact with the flow. Fouled acrylic plates were placed in a water tunnel facility specialized for detailed turbulent boundary layer measurements. High resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data are analyzed for mean velocity profile as well as local turbulent stresses and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, dissipation and transport. Quadrant analysis is used to characterize the impact of the instantaneous events of Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the flow. To investigate the coherence of the large-scale motion in the flow two-point correlation analysis is employed. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.
Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.
2010-12-01
Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.
Effects of roughness on density-weighted particle statistics in turbulent channel flows
Milici, Barbara
2015-12-31
The distribution of inertial particles in turbulent flows is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the coherent turbulent structures which develop in the carrier flow field. In wall-bounded flows, these turbulent structures, which control the turbulent regeneration cycles, are strongly affected by the roughness of the wall, nevertheless its effects on the particle transport in two-phase turbulent flows has been still poorly investigated. The issue is discussed here by addressing DNS combined with LPT to obtain statistics of velocity and preferential accumulation of a dilute dispersion of heavy particles in a turbulent channel flow, bounded by irregular two-dimensional rough surfaces, in the one-way coupling regime.
Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin
2016-04-01
The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first
The Turbulent Flow in Diffusers of Small Divergence Angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gourzhienko, G. A.
1947-01-01
The turbulent flow in a conical diffuser represents the type of turbulent boundary layer with positive longitudinal pressure gradient. In contrast to the boundary layer problem, however, it is not necessary that the pressure distribution along the limits of the boundary layer(along the axis of the diffuser) be given, since this distribution can be obtained from the computation. This circumstance, together with the greater simplicity of the problem as a whole, provides a useful basis for the study of the extension of the results of semiempirical theories to the case of motion with a positive pressure gradient. In the first part of the paper,formulas are derived for the computation of the velocity and.pressure distributions in the turbulent flow along, and at right angles to, the axis of a diffuser of small cone angle. The problem is solved.
The sensory basis of rheotaxis in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elder, John P.
Rheotaxis is a robust, multisensory behavior with many potential benefits for fish and other aquatic animals, yet the influence of different fluvial conditions on rheotactic performance and its sensory basis is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the role that vision and the lateral line play in the rheotactic behavior of a stream-dwelling species (Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus) under both rectilinear and turbulent flow conditions. Turbulence enhanced overall rheotactic strength and lowered the flow speed at which rheotaxis was initiated; this effect did not depend on the availability of either visual or lateral line information. Compared to fish without access to visual information, fish with access to visual information exhibited increased levels of positional stability and as a result, increased levels of rheotactic accuracy. No disruption in rheotactic performance was found when the lateral line was disabled, suggesting that this sensory system is not necessary for either rheotaxis or turbulence detection under the conditions of this study.
A study of turbulent flow with sensitivity analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwyer, H. A.; Peterson, T.
1980-07-01
In this paper a new type of analysis is introduced that can be used in numerical fluid mechanics. The method is known as sensitivity analysis and it has been widely used in the field of automatic control theory. Sensitivity analysis addresses in a systematic way to the question of 'how' the solution to an equation will change due to variations in the equation's parameters and boundary conditions. An important application is turbulent flow where there exists a large uncertainty in the models used for closure. In the present work the analysis is applied to the three-dimensional planetary boundary layer equations, and sensitivity equations are generated for various parameters in turbulence model. The solution of these equations with the proper techniques leads to considerable insight into the flow field and its dependence on turbulence parameters. Also, the analysis allows for unique decompositions of the parameter dependence and is efficient.
Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows
1989-06-01
liquid mixing layer", J. Fluid Mech. 17C, 83-112. 69 LUNDGREN , T. S. [1982] "Strained Spiral Vortex Model for Turbulent Fine Structure", Phy.- Fluids 25(12...diffusion geometry is one of sheets rolled up around vortex filaments, as assumed by Lundgren (1982,1985), then the vorticity axis Is normal to the maximum...the development of efficient algorithms for vortex dynamics calculations. We should note that this effort is part of a larger effort at the Graduate
Free-Stream Boundaries of Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corrsin, Stanley; Kistler, Alan L
1955-01-01
Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.
Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, Brenda E.
An extensive qualitative and quantitative study of Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence in the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model is presented. This includes details of two generation mechanisms of the zonal flows, evidence of the nonlocal nature of this turbulence and of the energy exchange between the small and large scales. The modulational instability study shows that for strong primary waves the most unstable modes are perpendicular to the primary wave, which corresponds to the generation of a zonal flow if the primary wave is purely meridional. For weak waves, the maximum growth occurs for off-zonal modulations that are close to being in three-wave resonance with the primary wave. Nonlinear jet pinching is observed for all nonlinearity levels but the subsequent dynamics differ between strong and weak primary waves. The jets of the former further roll up into Karman-like vortex streets and saturate, while for the latter, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet and a dominant primary wave. A critical level of nonlinearity is defined which separates the two regimes. Some of these characteristics are captured by truncated models. Numerical proof of the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence is presented. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively-well conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjortoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the wellknown drift wave - zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation
Coupling of turbulent and non-turbulent flow regimes within pyroclastic density currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim R.; Dufek, Josef; Cronin, Shane J.; Valentine, Greg A.; Moebis, Anja
2016-10-01
Volcanic eruptions are at their most deadly when pyroclastic density currents sweep across landscapes to devastate everything in their path. The internal dynamics underpinning these hazards cannot be directly observed. Here we present a quantitative view inside pyroclastic density currents by synthesizing their natural flow behaviour in large-scale experiments. The experiments trace flow dynamics from initiation to deposition, and can explain the sequence and evolution of real-world deposits. We show that, inside pyroclastic density currents, the long-hypothesized non-turbulent underflow and fully turbulent ash-cloud regions are linked through a hitherto unrecognized middle zone of intermediate turbulence and concentration. Bounded by abrupt jumps in turbulence, the middle zone couples underflow and ash-cloud regions kinematically. Inside this zone, strong feedback between gas and particle phases leads to the formation of mesoscale turbulence clusters. These extremely fast-settling dendritic structures dictate the internal stratification and evolution of pyroclastic density currents and allow the underflows to grow significantly during runout. Our experiments reveal how the underflow and ash-cloud regions are dynamically related--insights that are relevant to the forecasting of pyroclastic density current behaviour in volcanic hazard models.
RANS turbulence model form uncertainty quantification for wind engineering flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorle, Catherine; Zeoli, Stephanie; Bricteux, Laurent
2016-11-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations with linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are commonly used for modeling wind engineering flows, but the use of the results for critical design decisions is hindered by the limited capability of the models to correctly predict bluff body flows. A turbulence model form uncertainty quantification (UQ) method to define confidence intervals for the results could remove this limitation, and promising results were obtained in a previous study of the flow in downtown Oklahoma City. The objective of the present study is to further investigate the validity of these results by considering the simplified test case of the flow around a wall-mounted cube. DNS data is used to determine: 1. whether the marker, which identifies regions that deviate from parallel shear flow, is a good indicator for the regions where the turbulence model fails, and 2. which Reynolds stress perturbations, in terms of the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor, can capture the uncertainty in the flow field. A comparison of confidence intervals obtained with the UQ method and the DNS solution indicates that the uncertainty in the velocity field can be captured correctly in a large portion of the flow field.
Temporal and spatial intermittencies within channel flow turbulence near transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Anubhav; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.
2017-02-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of plane Poiseuille flow are performed in an extended domain at friction Reynolds numbers ranging from 70 to 100. In minimal domains, turbulence in this Reynolds number range displays substantial intermittency that is associated with chaotic movement of turbulent trajectories between lower and upper branch invariant solutions known as exact coherent states (ECS). The present work aims to address the relationship between temporal dynamics in minimal channels and spatiotemporal dynamics in extended domains. Both temporal and spatial analyses of the turbulent velocity fields are performed, the latter using image analysis methods. These analyses partition the flow characteristics into low-, intermediate- and high-drag classes; we present the differences between flows fields in these classes in terms of simple quantities like mean velocity, wall shear stress, and flow structures. The temporal and spatial analysis methods, although completely independent of one another, yield very similar results for both low- and high-drag regions. In particular, the conditional mean profiles in regions of low drag closely resemble those found in low-drag temporal intervals in the minimal channel. Finally, we address the possibility of similarities between turbulence and exact coherent states in two ways: (1) comparing wall shear stress in localized patches the size of minimal channels in large domains with those in actual minimal channel and (2) comparing conditional mean velocity profiles during low-drag events with mean profiles from lower branch ECS. These analyses show that both the local near-wall flow structure in the low-drag patches of the large domain and the conditional mean profiles in the region y+≲30 resemble those of a lower branch minimal domain ECS. In summary, the results presented here suggest that spatiotemporal intermittency in transitional channel flow turbulence is related to temporal intermittency, and by extension to the
A generic model for transport in turbulent shear flows
Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-Jin
2011-05-15
Turbulence regulation by large-scale shear flows is crucial for a predictive modeling of transport in plasma. In this paper the suppression of turbulent transport by large-scale flows is studied numerically by measuring the turbulent diffusion D{sub t} and scalar amplitude
Turbulence modeling for non-equilibrium flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1995-01-01
The work performed during this year has involved further assessment and extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model, and initiation of work on scalar transport. The latter is introduced by the contribution of Y. Shabany to this volume. Flexible, computationally tractable models are needed for engineering CFD. As computational technology has progressed, the ability and need to use elaborate turbulence closure models has increased. The objective of our work is to explore and develop new analytical frameworks that might extend the applicability of the modeling techniques. In past years the development of a method for near-wall modeling was described. The method has been implemented into a CFD code and its viability has been demonstrated by various test cases. Further tests are reported herein. Non-equilibrium near-wall models are needed for some heat transfer applications. Scalar transport seems generally to be more sensitive to non-equilibrium effects than is momentum transport. For some applications turbulence anisotropy plays a role and an estimate of the full Reynolds stress tensor is needed. We have begun work on scalar transport per se, but in this brief I will only report on an extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model to predict the Reynolds stress tensor.
Streamwise mean flow and turbulent intensity profiles in turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vassilicos, John Christos; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Stanislas, Michel; Imperial-Lille Collaboration
2015-11-01
The Townsend-Perry attached eddy spectral model predicts that theintegral length-scale varies very slowly with distance to the wall inthe intermediate layer. The only way for the integral length scale'svariation to be more realistic while keeping with the Townsend-Perryattached eddy spectrum is to add a new wavenumber range to the modelat wavenumbers smaller than that spectrum. This necessary additionalso accounts for the high Reynolds number outer peak of the turbulentkinetic energy in the intermediate layer. An analytic expression isobtained for this outer peak in agreement with extremely high Reynoldsnumber data by Hultmark, Vallikivi, Bailey & Smits (2012,2013). Townsend's (1976) production-dissipation balance and thefinding of Dallas, Vassilicos & Hewitt (2009) that, in theintermediate layer, the eddy turnover time scales with skin frictionvelocity and distance to the wall implies that the mean flow gradienthas an outer peak at the same location as the turbulent kineticenergy. This is seen in the data of Hultmark, Vallikivi, Bailey Smits (2012, 2013). The same approach also predicts that the mean flowgradient has a logarithmic decay at distances to the wall larger thanthe position of the outer peak. This qualitative prediction is alsosupported by the aforementioned data.
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES) methods for computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed the first year of Phase 3 of this research.
Direct numerical simulation of curved turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.
1984-01-01
Low Reynolds number, mildly curved, turbulent channel flow has been simulated numerically without subgrid scale models. A new spectral numerical method developed for this problem was used, and the computations were performed with 2 million degrees of freedom. A variety of statistical and structural information has been extracted from the computed flow fields. These include mean velocity, turbulence stresses, velocity skewness, and flatness factors, space time correlations and spectra, all the terms in the Reynolds stress balance equations, and contour and vector plots of instantaneous velocity fields. The effects of curvature on this flow were determined by comparing the concave and convex sides of the channel. The observed effects are consistent with experimental observations for mild curvature. The most significant difference in the turbulence statistics between the concave and convex sides was in the Reynolds shear stress. This was accompanied by significant differences in the terms of the Reynolds shear stress balance equations. In addition, it was found that stationary Taylor-Gortler vortices were present and that they had a significant effect on the flow by contributing to the mean Reynolds shear stress, and by affecting the underlying turbulence.
Stabililty and laminarisation of turbulent rotating channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallin, S.; Grundestam, O.; Johansson, A. V.
The influence of moderate rotation rate on turbulent channel flow is that the turbulence is suppressed on the stable side and augmented on the unstable side because of the Coriolis force. With increasing rotation rate the turbulent region becomes restricted to a decreasing zone near the unstable wall. For the rotation number, Ro > 3 (normalized by bulk velocity and channel height) inviscid linear theory yields a stable laminar flow [1] and a recent DNS study [2] indicates that the turbulent flow laminarizes for Ro below 3. The critical Ro has been identified by a standard text-book linear stability analysis of rotating laminar channel flow including the viscous effects. The Reynolds number, Re = 10800 based on the bulk velocity and channel half height, is the same as in the recent DNS [2]. The most unstable mode consists of tilted slightly oblique streamwise vortices with a critical rotation number of Ro c = 2.805 and streamwise and spanwise wave numbers of α = 2.7 and β = 19 respectivelly. Steady streamwise roll-cells are slightly more stable.
Direct Finite-Difference Simulations Of Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Report discusses use of upwind-biased finite-difference numerical-integration scheme to simulate evolution of small disturbances and fully developed turbulence in three-dimensional flow of viscous, incompressible fluid in channel. Involves use of computational grid sufficiently fine to resolve motion of fluid at all relevant length scales.
Computation of turbulent flows-state-of-the-art, 1970
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1972-01-01
The state-of-the-art of turbulent flow computation is surveyed. The formulations were generalized to increase the range of their applicability, and the excitement of current debate on equation models was brought into the review. Some new ideas on the modeling of the pressure-strain term in the Reynolds stress equations are also suggested.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows around airfoil and wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marx, Yves P.
1990-01-01
During the last years the simulation of compressible viscous flows has received much attention. While the numerical methods were improved drastically, a satisfactory modeling of the Reynolds stresses is still missing. In this paper, after a short description of the numerical procedure used for solving the Reynolds equations, experiments with a promising simple turbulence model are discussed.
Turbulent flow and sand transport over a cobble bed
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The turbulence structure of flow over rough beds and its interaction with fine sediments in the bed are important for efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored...
Roughness Effects on Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flack, Karen
2013-11-01
The importance of surface roughness is well known for wall-bounded flows. Roughness typically increases drag in turbulent boundary layers due to pressure forces on the roughness elements. While rough-wall flows are ubiquitous in engineering practice, the issues of modeling the roughness in computations and accurately predicting the increase in frictional drag remain elusive goals. In this talk, the effect of roughness on the mean flow, turbulence statistics, and turbulence structure will be discussed. In particular, rough-wall flows will be examined in light of Townsend's Reynolds number similarity hypothesis, which states that the turbulent motions in the outer layer are independent of surface roughness when the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. Additionally, the presentation will include recent work on the estimation of frictional drag due to surface roughness. Detailed experiments have been performed in the transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. This research is part of an effort to determine the relevant predictive scales based solely on the roughness topography. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.
Thermal analysis of turbulent flow of a supercritical fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamane, E.
1979-01-01
The influence of the large variation of thermodynamics and transport properties near the pseudocritical temperature on the heat transfer coefficient of supercritical fluid in turbulent flow was studied. The formation of the characteristics peak in the heat transfer coefficient vs. bulk temperature curve is described, and the necessity of the fluid element at pseudocritical temperature located in the buffer layer is discussed.
The effect of opposing unsteady vorticity on turbulent wall flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, W. L.
1985-01-01
A cylinder and a thin plate were placed close together in a flow adjacent to a wall to study the effects on the turbulent boundary layer. Different spacings of the cylinder and plate within the shear flow were investigated to assess the possibility of lowering the production of fluctuating vorticity in the boundary layer by generating a fluctuating vorticity of opposite sign. Streakline photographs visualized changes in the flow induced by alterations in the cylinder/plate separation distance, the flow velocity and the angle of attack of the thin plate. Drag data were also acquired with varying thicknesses of the thin plate and diameters of the cylinder. Downstream skin friction reductions were obtained with the production of unsteady control vortices with a low turbulence boundary layer. Up to 4 percent drag reduction was also observed when the cylinder was sufficiently far from the wall.
Turbulent flow computations in complex geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, A. D.; Clarke, D. S.; Jones, I. P.; Simcox, S.; Wilkes, N. S.
The nonstaggered-grid Navier-Stokes algorithm of Rhie and Chow (1983) and its implementation in the FLOW3D code (Burns et al., 1987) are described, with a focus on their application to problems involving complex geometries. Results for the flow in a tile-lined burner and for the flow over an automobile model are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail, and the advantages of supercomputer vectorization of the code are considered.
Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, C. P.
1986-06-01
This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.
Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1986-01-01
This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziazi, R. M.; Liburdy, J.; Apte, S.; Wood, B. D.
2015-12-01
The sequential transient regime of the flow through randomly packed porous media has been observed experimentally from steady inertial to turbulent flow. Considering the inherent constraints in visualization and measurements in porous media, the characterization has been performed using time resolved PIV in a randomly packed ordered array of spheres with uniform size. The size of the spheres are 15 mm and the pore Reynolds numbers are set to be 300, 500, and 900. The test bed has a cross-section of 70×70 mm and a height of 15mm. In addition to the difficult accessibility to the interrogation window, the challenges of visualizing the flow in this porous structure is matching of refractive indices of the fluid and solid phase as slight mismatches have been shown to cause significant tracking errors. The 2-D velocity field has been captured at discrete planar locations along the optical axis through the test bed to study the physics and statistics of the flow. Variations occur in the imaging magnification, and if not taken into consideration may lead to increased error. This study addresses three forms of error in PIV as they pertain to porous media flow: tracking error, bias error due to displacement gradients and perspective error. The bias error due to displacement gradients was evaluated from correlation peak width. Direct Numerical Simulation is also being performed to investigate the transitional and turbulent flow in porous media in detail.
Numerical Instability in a 2D Gyrokinetic Code Caused by Divergent E × B Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byers, J. A.; Dimits, A. M.; Matsuda, Y.; Langdon, A. B.
1994-12-01
In this paper, a numerical instability first observed in a 2D electrostatic gyrokinetic code is described. The instability should also be present in some form in many versons of particle-in-cell simulation codes that employ guiding center drifts. A perturbation analysis of the instability is given and its results agree quantitatively with the observations from the gyrokinetic code in all respects. The basic mechanism is a false divergence of the E × B flow caused by the interpolation between the grid and the particles as coupled with the specific numerical method for calculating E - ∇φ. Stability or instability depends in detail on the specific choice of particle interpolation method and field method. One common interpolation method, subtracted dipole, is stable. Other commonly used interpolation methods, linear and quadratic, are unstable when combined with a finite difference for the electric field. Linear and quadratic interpolation can be rendered stable if combined with another method for the electric field, the analytic differential of the interpolated potential.
Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.
2009-05-01
Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).
Viscoelastic polymer flows and elastic turbulence in three-dimensional porous structures.
Mitchell, Jonathan; Lyons, Kyle; Howe, Andrew M; Clarke, Andrew
2016-01-14
Viscoelastic polymer solutions flowing through reservoir rocks have been found to improve oil displacement efficiency when the aqueous-phase shear-rate exceeds a critical value. A possible mechanism for this enhanced recovery is elastic turbulence that causes breakup and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia. Here, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion measurements in a novel way to detect increased motion of disconnected oil ganglia. The data are acquired directly from a three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous structure (sandstone) when viscoelastic fluctuations are expected to be present in the continuous phase. The measured increase in motion of trapped ganglia provides unequivocal evidence of fluctuations in the flowing phase in a fully complex 3D system. This work provides direct evidence of elastic turbulence in a realistic reservoir rock - a measurement that cannot be readily achieved by conventional laboratory methods. We support the NMR data with optical microscopy studies of fluctuating ganglia in simple two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic networks, with consistent apparent rheological behaviour of the aqueous phase, to provide conclusive evidence of elastic turbulence in the 3D structure and hence validate the proposed flow-fluctuation mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.
A restricted nonlinear-dynamics model for turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Jiménez, Javier; Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.; Nikolaidis, Marios A.; Constantinou, Navid C.
2014-11-01
The dynamics of the formation of very-large scale structure in turbulent plane Poiseuille flow is studied by restricting the nonlinearity in the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations to interactions between the streamwise-averaged flow and perturbations. Using comparisons with DNS, we show that this restricted nonlinear dynamics (RNL) supports essentially realistic turbulence at Reτ = 900 , despite the naturally occurring severe reduction in the set of streamwise wavenumbers supporting the turbulence. Using statistical diagnostics we verify that there are similar self-sustaining processes (SSP) underlying turbulence in the RNL and in the NS dynamics, separate manifestations of which operate in the buffer and outer layers. In the buffer layer, the SSP supports the familiar roll-streak mechanism of wall-bounded turbulence, while the outer-layer streaks in the RNL are probably the streamwise elongated structures referred to as VLSI. It is argued that the formation of the roll-streak structure is a universal mechanism that can be fruitfully studied in the minimal dynamics of RNL. Funded by Multiflow project of the ERC, Navid Constantinou acknowledges the support of the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation. Brian Farrell was supported by NSF AGS-1246929.
Performance of turbulence models for transonic flows in a diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yangwei; Wu, Jianuo; Lu, Lipeng
2016-09-01
Eight turbulence models frequently used in aerodynamics have been employed in the detailed numerical investigations for transonic flows in the Sajben diffuser, to assess the predictive capabilities of the turbulence models for shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI) in internal flows. The eight turbulence models include: the Spalart-Allmaras model, the standard k - 𝜀 model, the RNG k - 𝜀 model, the realizable k - 𝜀 model, the standard k - ω model, the SST k - ω model, the v2¯ - f model and the Reynolds stress model. The performance of the different turbulence models adopted has been systematically assessed by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictive performance becomes worse as the shock wave becomes stronger. The v2¯ - f model and the SST k - ω model perform much better than other models, and the SST k - ω model predicts a little better than the v2¯ - f model for pressure on walls and velocity profile, whereas the v2¯ - f model predicts a little better than the SST k - ω model for separation location, reattachment location and separation length for strong shock case.
Unsteady Turbulent Flows in Channels with Parallel or Diverging Walls
1991-04-01
2.5 sec to infinity,although the largest period studied was 132 sec.The time period was repeatable within 0.1%. The flow loop provided very stable and...Turbulent Flow in a Pipe" PCH PhyslcoChemical Hydrodynamics, 10.N" 5/6, 585 40 HOUDEVILLE R., JULLIEN J.E., COUSTEIX J., 1984 "Mesure du Frottement Paridtal
Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1989-01-01
Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.
Computation of turbulent incompressible wing-body junction flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burke, R. W.
1989-01-01
A three-dimensional incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver is presently used in conjunction with a mixing-length turbulence model to characterize the flow around a wing that is mounted on a flat plate, in a wind tunnel, as well as the flow around a support strut within a turnaround duct. Good agreement is found between predicted and observed values of flat-plate static pressure, horseshoe vortex system size, and mean flow velocities in the case of the wing; the case of the strut in a duct is noted to exhibit many of the same overall flow features as the wing/plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marandet, Y.; Nace, N.; Valentinuzzi, M.; Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Genesio, P.; Mellet, N.
2016-11-01
Plasma material interactions on the first wall of future tokamaks such as ITER and DEMO are likely to play an important role, because of turbulent radial transport. The latter results to a large extent from the radial propagation of plasma filaments through a tenuous background. In such a situation, mean field descriptions (on which transport codes rely) become questionable. First wall sputtering is of particular interest, especially in a full W machine, since it has been shown experimentally that first wall sources control core contamination. In ITER, beryllium sources will be one of the important actors in determining the fuel retention level through codeposition. In this work, we study the effect of turbulent fluctuations on mean sputtering yields and fluxes, relying on a new version of the TOKAM-2D code which includes ion temperature fluctuations. We show that fluctuations enhance sputtering at sub-threshold impact energies, by more than an order of magnitude when fluctuation levels are of order unity.
Higher-level simulations of turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferziger, J. H.
1981-01-01
The fundamentals of large eddy simulation are considered and the approaches to it are compared. Subgrid scale models and the development of models for the Reynolds-averaged equations are discussed as well as the use of full simulation in testing these models. Numerical methods used in simulating large eddies, the simulation of homogeneous flows, and results from full and large scale eddy simulations of such flows are examined. Free shear flows are considered with emphasis on the mixing layer and wake simulation. Wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and recent work on the boundary layer are also discussed. Applications of large eddy simulation and full simulation in meteorological and environmental contexts are included along with a look at the direction in which work is proceeding and what can be expected from higher-level simulation in the future.
Numerical simulation of particle laden coaxial turbulent jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza
2010-11-01
The study of coaxial turbulent particle laden jets has been of interest due to its importance in many applications such as industrial burners, and mixing devices. The addition of the second phase to the continuous phase jet can change the already complicated flow pattern and turbulent characteristics of the jets. Albeit the vast research efforts that have been devoted to understand such phenomena, demand for detailed investigation of particle laden flows remains an active area of research. The advent of laser diagnostics has helped to quantify the myriad details of the jet flow fields in more details. In parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide additional information by further investigating such flows with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this work, numerical simulations results are presented for the flow and turbulent characteristics of a coaxial jet with and without the dispersed phase. The results are compared with the experimental data measured using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry diagnostic technique. The key objective of this work is to undermine the flow field details that are difficult if not impossible to measure.
Transport of micro-bubbles in turbulent shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualtieri, P.; Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.
2015-12-01
The dynamics of micro-bubbles, which are typical in many industrial applications, is addressed by means the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of two prototypal flows, namely a homogeneous shear flow and a fully developed pipe flows. This preliminary study has a two-fold purpose. The homogenous turbulent shear flow is useful to characterize the bubble dynamics in terms of their eventual clustering properties which is expected to be controlled by the Stokes number. The time history of the fluid pressure experienced by the bubbles during their evolution is recorded and successively employed to force the Rayleigh-Plesset equation [1]. The ensuing data are used to address a posteriori the bubble diameter statistics in view of bubble collapse induced by strong and intermittent turbulent pressure fluctuations. The turbulent pipe flow simulations serve to address the bubble dynamics in wall bounded flows. Here the bubbles are observed to accumulate in the near-wall region with different intensity depending on the bubble dimensions.
Turbulence modeling in supersonic combusting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1991-01-01
To support the National Aerospace Plane project, the RPLUS3D CFD code has been developed at NASA Lewis. The code has the ability to solve three-dimensional flowfields with finite rate combustion of hydrogen and air. The combustion processes of the hydrogen-air system are simulated by an 18-reaction path, 8-species chemical kinetic mechanism. The code uses a Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition numerical algorithm as its basis, making it a very efficient and robust code. Except for the Jacobian matrix for the implicit chemistry source terms, there is no inversion of a matrix even though it uses a fully implicit numerical algorithm. A k-epsilon (two equation) turbulence model is incorporated into the RPLUS3D code.
Contaminant dispersal in bounded turbulent shear flow
Wallace, J.M.; Bernard, P.S.; Chiang, K.F.; Ong, L.
1995-12-31
The dispersion of smoke downstream of a line source at the wall and at y{sup +} = 30 in a turbulent boundary layer has been predicted with a non-local model of the scalar fluxes {bar u}c and {bar v}c. The predicted plume from the wall source has been compared to high Schmidt number experimental measurements using a combination of hot-wire anemometry to obtain velocity component data synchronously with concentration data obtained optically. The predicted plumes from the source at y{sup +} = 30 and at the wall also have been compared to a low Schmidt number direct numerical simulation. Near the source, the non-local flux models give considerably better predictions than models which account solely for mean gradient transport. At a sufficient distance downstream the gradient models gives reasonably good predictions.
Schramm-Loewner (SLE) analysis of quasi two-dimensional turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalabard, Simon
2012-02-01
Quasi two-dimensional turbulence can be observed in several cases: for example, in the laboratory using liquid soap films, or as the result of a strong imposed rotation as obtained in three-dimensional large direct numerical simulations. We study and contrast SLE properties of such flows, in the former case in the inverse cascade of energy to large scale, and in the latter in the direct cascade of energy to small scales in the presence of a fully-helical forcing. We thus examine the geometric properties of these quasi 2D regimes in the context of stochastic geometry, as was done for the 2D inverse cascade by Bernard et al. (2006). We show that in both cases the data is compatible with self-similarity and with SLE behaviors, whose different diffusivities can be heuristically determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhary, R.; Thomas, B. G.; Vanka, S. P.
2012-06-01
Static electromagnetic braking (EMBr) fields affect greatly the turbulent flow pattern in steel continuous casting, which leads to potential benefits such as decreasing flow instability, surface defects, and inclusion entrapment if applied correctly. To gain a fundamental understanding of how EMBr affects transient turbulent flow, the current work applies large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the effect of three EMBr ruler brake configurations on transient turbulent flow through the bifurcated nozzle and mold of a liquid-metal GaInSn model of a typical steel slab-casting process, but with deep nozzle submergence and insulated walls with no solidifying shell. The LES calculations are performed using an in-house graphic-processing-unit-based computational-fluid-dynamics code (LES-CU-FLOW) on a mesh of ~7 million brick cells. The LES model is validated first via ultrasonic velocimetry measurements in this system. It is then applied to quantify the mean and instantaneous flow structures, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its budgets, and proper orthogonal modes of four cases. Positioning the strongest part of the ruler magnetic field over the nozzle bottom suppresses turbulence in this region, thus reducing nozzle well swirl and its alternation. This process leads to strong and focused jets entering the mold cavity making large-scale and low-frequency (<0.02 Hz) flow variations in the mold with detrimental surface velocity variations. Lowering the ruler below nozzle deflects the jets upward, leading to faster surface velocities than the other cases. The double-ruler and no-EMBr cases have the most stable flow. The magnetic field generates large-scale vortical structures tending toward two-dimensional (2-D) turbulence. To avoid detrimental large-scale, low-frequency flow variations, it is recommended to avoid strong magnetic fields across the nozzle well and port regions.
Turbulent-like laminar flows sustained and controlled by multiscale electromagnetic forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hascoet, Erwan; Rossi, Lionel; Christos Vassilicos, John
2006-11-01
We perform DNS of electromagnetically fractal-forced and Rayleigh-damped 2D flows and compare the results with a recent laboratory experiment of a similarly forced quais-2D thin layer of brine (JFM (2006) vol. 558 p. 207). We determine a range of DNS parameters where the multiscale streamline topology is the same as in the laboratory. It is possible to vary flow intensity whilst keeping multiscale flow topology constant. Our simulations show broad band power law energy spectra E(k)˜k^-p. When the fractal distribution of magnets is as in the laboratory experiment then p 2.5 in agreement with the experiment. When the fractal distribution of magnets is changed, then p is found to vary linearly with Df, the fractal dimension of the magnet set up. Hence, fractal control of the energy spectrum is possible. The multiscale flow imposed by the fractal electromagnetic forcing resembles a deterministic β-model of turbulence which also predicts a linear relation between p and the fractal dimension of the multiscale flow. In both cases, p increases as the fractal dimension decreases. In the power-law range the Rayleigh damping balances the fractal forcing's energy input rate scale by scale. The small difference between the two equals the interscale energy transfer function which is severely depleted. The energy flux oscillates between positive and negative values and the wavenumbers where it cancels are a direct reflection of the multiscale stagnation point structure of the flow.
The modal and flow velocity corrections of microphone turbulence screens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davy, J. L.
2007-09-01
Microphone turbulence screens are used to suppress turbulent pressure fluctuations when measuring the acoustic pressure inside a duct with flow. They consist of a long tube with a slit covered with porous material, and thus are also called sampling tubes. Because they are not omnidirectional, it is necessary to calculate corrections when higher-order modes are propagating in the duct. In order to calculate these corrections it is necessary to know the directivity of the microphone turbulence screen, the propagation direction and energy of the duct modes and the flow velocity of the air in the duct. This paper derives a theoretical formula for the directivity of a microphone turbulence screen. It shows that this theoretical formula agrees better with experimental directivity data than the previously used empirical directivity formula. Because the empirical directivity formula is not a function of the flow velocity, previous research has separated the modal correction from the flow velocity correction. It is shown that it is not theoretically valid to separate the corrections, and that doing so can lead to large errors at high frequencies in the outlet duct. A new method of calculating the modal correction with flow is presented. This method uses a statistical room acoustics approach in contrast to the deterministic numerical approach of the older method. The new method requires much less computing. It is shown that the new method agrees fairly well with the old method for modal corrections without flow. The new method is compared with experimental measurements of the combined modal and flow velocity corrections. Although the trend is the same, the experimental results are higher than the theoretical results in the mid frequency range. The new method agrees reasonably well with the corrections given in ISO 5136:2003.
Direction of scalar transport in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.
2011-11-01
The concept of reverse diffusion, introduced by Corrsin to describe the motion of particles as they move towards a location in the flow field, is fundamental to the understanding of mixing. In this work, direct numerical simulations in conjunction with the tracking of scalar markers are utilized in infinitely long channels to study the principal direction of transport of heat (or mass) for both forwards and backwards single particle dispersion. The viscous sub-layer, the transition region (between the viscous sub-layer and the logarithmic region), and the logarithmic region of a Poiseuille flow and a plane Couette flow channel are studied. Fluctuating velocities of scalar markers captured in these regions are used to obtain the full autocorrelation coefficient tensor forwards and backwards with time. The highest eigenvalue of the velocity correlation coefficient tensor quantifies the highest amount of turbulent heat transport, while the corresponding eigenvector points to the main direction of transport. Different Prandtl number, Pr, fluids are simulated for the two types of flow. It is found that the highest eigenvalues are higher in the case of backwards dispersion compared to the case of forwards dispersion for any Pr, in both flow cases. The principal direction for backwards and forwards dispersion is different than for forwards dispersion, for all Pr, and in all flow regions for both flows. Fluids with lower Pr behave different than the higher Pr fluids because of increased molecular diffusion effects. The current study also establishes an interesting analogy of turbulent dispersion to optics defining the turbulent dispersive ratio, a parameter that can be used to identify the differences in the direction of turbulent heat transport between forwards and backwards dispersion. A spectral analysis of the auto-correlation coefficient for both forwards and backwards dispersion shows a universal behavior with slope of -1 at intermediate frequencies.
An Implicit 2-D Shallow Water Flow Model on Unstructured Quadtree Rectangular Mesh
2011-01-01
Hanson, H.; Wamsley, T., and Zundel, A. K., 2006. Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model CMS- M2D : Version 3.0, Report 2: Sediment...Militello, A.; Reed, C.W.; Zundel, A.K. and Kraus, N.C., 2004. Two-dimensional depth-averaged circulation model M2D : Version 2.0, Report 1, Technical
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghorashi, Bahman
1995-01-01
This report includes copies of relevant publications, including conference proceedings, resulting from studies funded by NAG3-1010. Topics include flow visualization, LDV (laser doppler velocimeter), straight and curved simulations, and kinetics modeling of nitrogen oxides, including a turbulent mixing model for O2 and a maximum mixedness model.
Quinlan, Nathan J; Dooley, Patrick N
2007-08-01
Viscous shear stress and Reynolds stress are often used to predict hemolysis and thrombosis due to flow-induced stress on blood elements in cardiovascular devices. These macroscopic stresses are distinct from the true stress on an individual cell, which is determined by the local microscale flow field. In this paper the flow-induced stress on blood cells is calculated for laminar and turbulent flow, using simplified models for cells and for turbulent eddies. The model is applied to estimate shear stress on red blood cells in flow through a prosthetic heart valve, using the energy spectral density measured by Liu et al. [J. Biomech. Eng. 122:118-124, 2000]. Results show that in laminar flow, the maximum stress on a cell is approximately equal to the macroscopic viscous shear stress. In turbulent flow through a prosthetic heart valve, the estimated root mean square of flow-induced stress on a cell is at least an order of magnitude less than the Reynolds stress. The results support the hypothesis that smaller turbulent eddies cause higher stress on cells. However, the stress due to an eddy depends on the velocity scale of the eddy as well as its length scale. For the heart valve flow investigated, turbulence contributes to flow-induced stress on cells almost equally across a broad range of the frequency spectrum. The model suggests that Reynolds stress alone is not an adequate predictor of cell damage in turbulent flow, and highlights the importance of the energy spectral density.
On the turbulence-particles interaction in turbulent two-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.
1986-01-01
A mathematically simple two-equation turbulence model for two-phase flows has been developed to take into account the extra energy dissipation due to the presence of the particles with the carrier phase. The transport equations of mass, momentum, and kinetic energy and its dissipation rate of the carrier phase using an Eulerian formulation are presented. The Lagrangian approach is used to solve for the particles using the Monte Carlo technique. These equations are solved numerically using a finite difference technique to predict a turbulent round gaseous jet laden with solid particles. The predicted mean and turbulence quantities of the carrier and dispersed phases are in good agreement with the recent experimental data.
Heat transfer in internal turbulent flows using the PDF method
Mazumder, S.; Modest, M.F.
1996-12-31
One of the strengths of the velocity-composition joint probability density function (PDF) method lies in its ability to predict scalar fields for reactive turbulent flows. The application of PDF methods to internal flows necessitates appropriate description of near-wall effects, namely, molecular transport, production of turbulence by inhomogeneities, and dissipation of the scalar fluctuations by viscosity. A Lagrangian transport equation has been derived for transport of energy, whereby convection is treated exactly. The temperature fluctuations are modeled by a modified version of a deterministic model, which was originally developed for homogeneous turbulence. The thermal wall-functions were used to incorporate these modifications. The resultant modeled Lagrangian energy transport equation is solved simultaneously with the hydrodynamic equations, for the test case of a thermally developing two-dimensional channel flow (parallel plate geometry). The model has been tested for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. Results obtained have been compared to {kappa}-{epsilon} and algebraic Reynolds stress model (ARSM) finite-volume calculations. Apart from the differences due to turbulence models, it was observed that the finite-volume calculations suffered numerical diffusion, which was completely eliminated in the Lagrangian PDF approach.
Implicit solution of three-dimensional internal turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michelassi, V.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Martelli, F.
1991-01-01
The scalar form of the approximate factorization method was used to develop a new code for the solution of three dimensional internal laminar and turbulent compressible flows. The Navier-Stokes equations in their Reynolds-averaged form were iterated in time until a steady solution was reached. Evidence was given to the implicit and explicit artificial damping schemes that proved to be particularly efficient in speeding up convergence and enhancing the algorithm robustness. A conservative treatment of these terms at the domain boundaries was proposed in order to avoid undesired mass and/or momentum artificial fluxes. Turbulence effects were accounted for by the zero-equation Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the q-omega two-equation model. The flow in a developing S-duct was then solved in the laminar regime in a Reynolds number (Re) of 790 and in the turbulent regime at Re equals 40,000 by using the Baldwin-Lomax model. The Stanitz elbow was then solved by using an invicid version of the same code at M sub inlet equals 0.4. Grid dependence and convergence rate were investigated, showing that for this solver the implicit damping scheme may play a critical role for convergence characteristics. The same flow at Re equals 2.5 times 10(exp 6) was solved with the Baldwin-Lomax and the q-omega models. Both approaches show satisfactory agreement with experiments, although the q-omega model was slightly more accurate.
Spectral kinetic energy transfer in turbulent premixed reacting flows.
Towery, C A Z; Poludnenko, A Y; Urzay, J; O'Brien, J; Ihme, M; Hamlington, P E
2016-05-01
Spectral kinetic energy transfer by advective processes in turbulent premixed reacting flows is examined using data from a direct numerical simulation of a statistically planar turbulent premixed flame. Two-dimensional turbulence kinetic-energy spectra conditioned on the planar-averaged reactant mass fraction are computed through the flame brush and variations in the spectra are connected to terms in the spectral kinetic energy transport equation. Conditional kinetic energy spectra show that turbulent small-scale motions are suppressed in the burnt combustion products, while the energy content of the mean flow increases. An analysis of spectral kinetic energy transfer further indicates that, contrary to the net down-scale transfer of energy found in the unburnt reactants, advective processes transfer energy from small to large scales in the flame brush close to the products. Triadic interactions calculated through the flame brush show that this net up-scale transfer of energy occurs primarily at spatial scales near the laminar flame thermal width. The present results thus indicate that advective processes in premixed reacting flows contribute to energy backscatter near the scale of the flame.
Behavior of local dissipation scales in turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Sean; Hultmark, Marcus; Schumacher, Joerg; Yakhot, Victor; Smits, Alexander
2010-11-01
Classically, dissipation of turbulence has been thought to occur around the Kolmogorov scales. However, the Kolmogorov scales are prescribed using mean dissipation rate, whereas dissipation is spatially intermittent. It therefore seems natural to instead describe dissipation using a continuum of local length scales rather than a single scale. By connecting a local dissipation scale η to the velocity increment across this scale δuη, it is possible to derive a probability density function (PDF) of η which show how the dissipation is contained in scales larger and smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Here we present a comparison between measured PDFs in turbulent pipe flow, the analytically derived PDF, and PDFs determined from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It was found that there is good general agreement between experiment, simulation and theory amongst both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, pointing to universality in the dissipation scales amongst different flows. It was also found that the PDFs are invariant with distance from the wall except for a region very near the wall (y^+<80), where dissipation was found to occur at increasingly larger length scales as the wall is approached.
Navier-Stokes computation of compressible turbulent flows with a second order closure, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haminh, Hieu; Kollmann, Wolfgang; Vandromme, Dany
1990-01-01
A second order closure turbulence model for compressible flows is developed and implemented in a 2D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver. From the beginning where a kappa-epsilon turbulence model was implemented in the bidiagonal implicit method of MACCORMACK (referred to as the MAC3 code) to the final stage of implementing a full second order closure in the efficient line Gauss-Seidel algorithm, numerous work was done, individually and collectively. Besides the collaboration itself, the final product of this work is a second order closure derived from the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model to account for near wall effects, which has been called FRAME model, which stands for FRench-AMerican-Effort. During the reporting period, two different problems were worked out. The first was to provide Ames researchers with a reliable compressible boundary layer code including a wide collection of turbulence models for quick testing of new terms, both in two equations and in second order closure (LRR and FRAME). The second topic was to complete the implementation of the FRAME model in the MAC5 code. The work related to these two different contributions is reported. dilatation in presence of stron shocks. This work, which has been conducted during a work at the Center for Turbulence Research with Zeman aimed also to cros-check earlier assumptions by Rubesin and Vandromme.
Turbulent Flow over Small Amplitude Solid Waves
1984-01-01
Reynolds number, the skin friction and the shape factor are invariant with flow direction and therefore constitute one of the simplest flows in which...existing equipment in one of two ways. The facility could be redesigned so as to increase the range of friction velocities attainable by a factor of four...advantage of not damaging the plexi - glass while removing the excess platinum. Once the electrodes were flush, the surface was sanded down with
The dimension of attractors underlying periodic turbulent Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keefe, Laurence; Moin, Parviz; Kim, John
1992-01-01
A lower bound on the Liapunov dimenison, D-lambda, of the attractor underlying turbulent, periodic Poiseuille flow at a pressure-gradient Reynolds number of 3200 is calculated, on the basis of a coarse-grained (16x33x8) numerical solution, to be approximately 352. Comparison of Liapunov exponent spectra from this and a higher-resolution (16x33x16) simulation on the same spatial domain shows these spectra to have a universal shape when properly scaled. On the basis of these scaling properties, and a partial exponent spectrum from a still higher-resolution (32x33x32) simulation, it is argued that the actual dimension of the attractor underlying motion of the given computational domain is approximately 780. It is suggested that this periodic turbulent shear flow is deterministic chaos, and that a strange attractor does underly solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in such flows.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows
Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.
2002-07-01
This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.
Management and control of unsteady and turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagib, Hassan M.; Acharya, Mukund; Corke, Thomas C.; Reisenthel, Patrick H.; Wark, Candace E.
1988-06-01
Progress in four areas of research has been achieved during the first year: (1) controlled transitioning boundary layers; phase coupled plane TS waves and oblique waves are used to study various types of transition including detuned modes, (2) turbulent boundary layer structure and control; the structures responsible for the turbulence production in high Reynolds number boundary layers have been documented and manipulated, (3) management of unsteady and three-dimensional flows; flows over airfoils, axisymmetric forebodies, vortex-wing interactions, and wing-body junctions, are examined with and without passive and active flow manipulators including zero-mass base bleed, (4) scanning laser anemometry; a technique capable of mapping the flowfield in a plane has been developed.
Tumbling of Small Axisymmetric Particles in Random and Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustavsson, K.; Einarsson, J.; Mehlig, B.
2014-01-01
We analyze the tumbling of small nonspherical, axisymmetric particles in random and turbulent flows. We compute the orientational dynamics in terms of a perturbation expansion in the Kubo number, and obtain the tumbling rate in terms of Lagrangian correlation functions. These capture preferential sampling of the fluid gradients, which in turn can give rise to differences in the tumbling rates of disks and rods. We show that this is a weak effect in Gaussian random flows. But in turbulent flows persistent regions of high vorticity cause disks to tumble much faster than rods, as observed in direct numerical simulations [S. Parsa, E. Calzavarini, F. Toschi, and G. A. Voth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 134501 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.134501]. For larger particles (at finite Stokes numbers), rotational and translational inertia affects the tumbling rate and the angle at which particles collide, due to the formation of rotational caustics.
Computation of supersonic turbulent flow past a spinning cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, R. K.
1982-01-01
Computational results are presented for supersonic laminar and turbulent flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flowfield resulting from spinning motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, crossflow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, crossflow separation, and vortex structure. The Magnus force and moments are also computed. Comparisons are made with other analyses based on boundary-layer equations. For certain laminar flow conditions, an anomaly is discovered in the displacement thickness contribution to the Magnus force when compared with boundary-layer results. For turbulent flow, at small angles of attack, good agreement is obtained with the experimental data and other theoretical results.
Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow at Large Reynolds Numbers*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babkin, V. A.
2016-09-01
The problem of the steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid in the clearance between two coaxial infinite circular cylinders of radii R1 and R2, caused by the rotation of the inner cylinder of radius R1 under the conditions where the outer cylinder of radius R2 is immovable, i.e., the problem of a Taylor-Couette flow, was solved numerically within the framework of the model of a near-wall anisotropic turbulence with regard for the action of the centrifugal forces on the near-wall vortex structures determining the character of the flow between the cylinders. The profiles of the angular velocities of the fluid flowing along the radius of the clearance between the cylinders in the regime of completely developed turbulence were determined by numerical integration of the equation of motion of this fluid. The results of calculations of the flow between the cylinders at R1/R2 = 0.716 and Re = 105, 106, and 2·106 were compared with known solutions of the problem being considered and corresponding experimental data.
Discovery about temperature fluctuations in turbulent air flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1985-02-01
The law of spatial fluctuations of temperature in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of air in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a air flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average temperature. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The temperature field forms as a result of the mixing of the air. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in temperatures of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of temperatures are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.
On streak spacing in wall-bounded turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, James M.; Kim, John J.
1993-01-01
The present study is a continuation of the examination by Hamilton et al. of the regeneration mechanisms of near-wall turbulence and an attempt to investigate the conjecture of Waleffe et al. The basis of this study is an extension of the 'minimal channel' approach of Jimenez and Moin that emphasizes the near-wall region and reduces the complexity of the turbulent flow by considering a plane Couette flow of near minimum Reynolds number and stream-wise and span-wise extent. Reduction of the flow Reynolds number to the minimum value which will allow turbulence to be sustained has the effect of reducing the ratio of the largest scales to the smallest scales or, equivalently, of causing the near-wall region to fill more of the area between the channel walls. A plane Couette flow was chosen for study since this type of flow has a mean shear of a single sign, and at low Reynolds numbers, the two wall regions are found to share a single set of structures.
Streamline segment scaling behavior in a turbulent wavy channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubbert, A.; Hennig, F.; Klaas, M.; Pitsch, H.; Schröder, W.; Peters, N.
2017-02-01
A turbulent flow in a wavy channel was investigated by tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurements and direct numerical simulations. To analyze the turbulent structures and their scaling behavior in a flow undergoing favorable and adverse pressure gradients, the streamline segmentation method proposed by Wang (J Fluid Mech 648:183-203, 2010) was employed. This method yields joint statistical information about velocity fluctuations and length scale distributions of non-overlapping structures within the flow. In particular, the joint statistical properties are notably influenced by the pressure distribution. Previous findings from flat channel flows and synthetic turbulence simulations concerning the normalized segment length distribution could be reproduced and therefore appear to be largely universal. However, the mean streamline segment length of accelerating and decelerating segments varies within one wavelength typically elongating segments of the type which corresponds to the local mean flow. Furthermore, the local pressure gradient was found to significantly impact local joint streamline segmentation statistics as a main influence on their inherent asymmetry.
Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.
Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin
2016-01-01
Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by
Behaviour of a rimmed elliptical inclusion in 2D slow incompressible viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancktelow, N. S.
2012-04-01
The shape preferred orientation of natural populations of inclusions (or "porphyroclasts") is often inconsistent with predictions from established analytical theory for inclusions with coherent boundaries (e.g., Pennacchioni et al. 2001). A totally incoherent or slipping interface can explain observed stable back-rotated (or antithetic) orientations but not the observed cut-off axial ratio, below which inclusions still rotate. However, this behaviour is reproduced by a rimmed inclusion with a rim viscosity that is not infinitely weak but still weaker than the matrix (e.g., Schmid and Podladchikov 2005; Johnson et al. 2009). In this study, finite-element numerical modelling (FEM) is employed to investigate this system in 2D over a very wide parameter space, from a viscosity ratio (relative to the matrix) of the inclusion from 106 to 1, the rim from 10-6 to 1, the axial ratio from 1.00025 to 20, and the rim thickness from 5% to 20%. Theoretical consideration of a concentric elliptical inclusion and ellipse reduces the number of scalar values to be determined to fully characterize the system to two: one for the rate of stretch of the inclusion and one for the rate of rotation. From these two values, the rotation and stretching rate can be calculated for any orientation and 2D background flow field. For effectively rigid particles, the cut-off axial ratio between rotation and stabilization is determined by the remaining two parameters, namely the rim viscosity and the thickness, with low rim viscosity or thick rims promoting stabilization. The shape fabric of a population of particles in a high strain shear zone, presented as a typical Rf/φ plot, can be forward modelled using an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) approach. Because the rim does not remain elliptical to high strain, this method cannot accurately model the behaviour of individual inclusions. However, a statistical approach, allowing variation in rim viscosity, which is also a proxy for
Strange attractors in weakly turbulent Couette-Taylor flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandstater, A.; Swinney, Harry L.
1987-01-01
An experiment is conducted on the transition from quasi-periodic to weakly turbulent flow of a fluid contained between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and the outer cylinder at rest. Power spectra, phase-space portraits, and circle maps obtained from velocity time-series data indicate that the nonperiodic behavior observed is deterministic, that is, it is described by strange attractors. Various problems that arise in computing the dimension of strange attractors constructed from experimental data are discussed and it is shown that these problems impose severe requirements on the quantity and accuracy of data necessary for determining dimensions greater than about 5. In the present experiment the attractor dimension increases from 2 at the onset of turbulence to about 4 at a Reynolds number 50-percent above the onset of turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Rodney O.; Vie, Aymeric; Laurent, Frederique; Chalons, Christophe; Massot, Marc
2012-11-01
Numerous applications involve a disperse phase carried by a gaseous flow. To simulate such flows, one can resort to a number density function (NDF) governed a kinetic equation. Traditionally, Lagrangian Monte-Carlo methods are used to solve for the NDF, but are expensive as the number of numerical particles needed must be large to control statistical errors. Moreover, such methods are not well adapted to high-performance computing because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity of the NDF. To overcome these issues, Eulerian methods can be used to solve for the moments of the NDF resulting in an unclosed Eulerian system of hyperbolic conservation laws. To obtain closure, in this work a multivariate bi-Gaussian quadrature is used, which can account for particle trajectory crossing (PTC) over a large range of Stokes numbers. This closure uses up to four quadrature points in 2-D velocity phase space to capture large-scale PTC, and an anisotropic Gaussian distribution around each quadrature point to model small-scale PTC. Simulations of 2-D particle-laden isotropic turbulence at different Stokes numbers are employed to validate the Eulerian models against results from the Lagrangian approach. Good agreement is found for the number density fields over the entire range of Stokes numbers tested. Research carried out at the Center for Turbulence Research 2012 Summer Program.