CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code
Dreyer, K.A.
1985-05-01
CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.
Two-dimensional discrete Ginzburg-Landau solitons
Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos
2007-10-15
We study the two-dimensional discrete Ginzburg-Landau equation. In the linear limit, the dispersion and gain curves as well as the diffraction pattern are determined analytically. In the nonlinear case, families of two-dimensional discrete solitons are found numerically as well as approximately in the high-confinement limit. The instability dynamics are analyzed by direct simulations.
Separable two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.; Poirson, Allen
1986-01-01
Bracewell has proposed the Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) as a substitute for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), particularly as a means of convolution. Here, it is shown that the most natural extension of the DHT to two dimensions fails to be separate in the two dimensions, and is therefore inefficient. An alternative separable form is considered, corresponding convolution theorem is derived. That the DHT is unlikely to provide faster convolution than the DFT is also discussed.
Dragging two-dimensional discrete solitons by moving linear defects
Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-07-15
We study the mobility of small-amplitude solitons attached to moving defects which drag the solitons across a two-dimensional (2D) discrete nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. Findings are compared to the situation when a free small-amplitude 2D discrete soliton is kicked in a uniform lattice. In agreement with previously known results, after a period of transient motion the free soliton transforms into a localized mode pinned by the Peierls-Nabarro potential, irrespective of the initial velocity. However, the soliton attached to the moving defect can be dragged over an indefinitely long distance (including routes with abrupt turns and circular trajectories) virtually without losses, provided that the dragging velocity is smaller than a certain critical value. Collisions between solitons dragged by two defects in opposite directions are studied too. If the velocity is small enough, the collision leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking, featuring fusion of two solitons into a single one, which remains attached to either of the two defects.
Ring Correlations in Two-Dimensional (2D) Random Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M. F.
Amorphous materials can be characterized by their ring structure. Recently, two experimental groups imaged bilayers of vitreous silica at atomic resolution which provides a direct access to the ring structure of a 2D glass. It has been shown that experimental samples have various ring statistics, obey Aboav-Weaire law and have a distinct area law. In this work, we study correlations between rings as a function of their size and topological separation. We show that correlation is medium-range and vanishes when the separation is about three rings apart. We also present a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law.
Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids
Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S.
2005-08-01
Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays.
Kovrigin, Evgenii L.
2014-01-01
The Fluorescence2D is free software that allows analysis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectra obtained using the accelerated “triangular” acquisition schemes. The software is a combination of Python and MATLAB-based programs that perform conversion of the triangular data, display of the two-dimensional spectra, extraction of 1D slices at different wavelengths, and output in various graphic formats. PMID:24984078
A discrete simulation of 2-D fluid flow on TERASYS
Mullins, P.G.; Krolak, P.D.
1995-12-01
A discrete simulation of two-dimensional (2-D) fluid flow, on a recently designed novel architecture called TERASYS is presented. The simulation uses a cellular automaton approach, implemented in a new language called data-parallel bit C (dbC). A performance comparison between our implementation on TERASYS and an implementation on the Connection Machine is discussed. We comment briefly on the suitability of the TERASYS system for modeling fluid flow using cellular automata.
Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-01-15
We study the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) localized modes in the nonlinear lattice described by the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation, including a local linear or nonlinear defect. Discrete solitons pinned to the defects are investigated by means of the numerical continuation from the anticontinuum limit and also using the variational approximation, which features a good agreement for strongly localized modes. The models with the time-modulated strengths of the linear or nonlinear defect are considered too. In that case, one can temporarily shift the critical norm, below which localized 2D modes cannot exist, to a level above the norm of the given soliton, which triggers the irreversible delocalization transition.
Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations
Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (1) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (2) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code.
Two-dimensional HID light source radiative transfer using discrete ordinates method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghrib, Basma; Bouaoun, Mohamed; Elloumi, Hatem
2016-08-01
This paper shows the implementation of the Discrete Ordinates Method for handling radiation problems in High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Therefore, we start with presenting this rigorous method for treatment of radiation transfer in a two-dimensional, axisymmetric HID lamp. Furthermore, the finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the Radiative Transfer Equation. The atom and electron densities were calculated using temperature profiles established by a 2D semi-implicit finite-element scheme for the solution of conservation equations relative to energy, momentum, and mass. Spectral intensities as a function of position and direction are first calculated, and then axial and radial radiative fluxes are evaluated as well as the net emission coefficient. The results are given for a HID mercury lamp on a line-by-line basis. A particular attention is paid on the 253.7 nm resonance and 546.1 nm green lines.
Singularity confinement and chaos in two-dimensional discrete systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanki, Masataka; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji
2016-06-01
We present a quasi-integrable two-dimensional lattice equation: i.e., a partial difference equation which satisfies a test for integrability, singularity confinement, although it has a chaotic aspect in the sense that the degrees of its iterates exhibit exponential growth. By systematic reduction to one-dimensional systems, it gives a hierarchy of ordinary difference equations with confined singularities, but with positive algebraic entropy including a generalized form of the Hietarinta–Viallet mapping. We believe that this is the first example of such quasi-integrable equations defined over a two-dimensional lattice.
Mimetic discretization of two-dimensional magnetic diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Reynolds, James; Nelson, Eric
2013-08-01
In case of non-constant resistivity, cylindrical coordinates, and highly distorted polygonal meshes, a consistent discretization of the magnetic diffusion equations requires new discretization tools based on a discrete vector and tensor calculus. We developed a new discretization method using the mimetic finite difference framework. It is second-order accurate on arbitrary polygonal meshes and a consistent calculation of the Joule heating is intrinsic within it. The second-order convergence rates in L2 and L1 norms were verified with numerical experiments.
Two-dimensional potential double layers and discrete auroras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kan, J. R.; Lee, L. C.; Akasofu, S.-I.
1979-01-01
This paper is concerned with the formation of the acceleration region for electrons which produce the visible auroral arc and with the formation of the inverted V precipitation region. The former is embedded in the latter, and both are associated with field-aligned current sheets carried by plasma sheet electrons. It is shown that an electron current sheet driven from the plasma sheet into the ionosphere leads to the formation of a two-dimensional potential double layer. For a current sheet of a thickness less than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the field-aligned potential drop is distributed over a length much greater than the Debye length. For a current sheet of a thickness much greater than the proton gyrodiameter solutions are obtained in which the potential drop is confined to a distance on the order of the Debye length. The electric field in the two-dimensional double-layer model is the zeroth-order field inherent to the current sheet configuration, in contrast to those models in which the electric field is attributed to the first-order field due to current instabilities or turbulences. The maximum potential in the two-dimensional double-layer models is on the order of the thermal energy of plasma sheet protons, which ranges from 1 to 10 keV.
A separable two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, A. B.; Poirson, A.
1985-01-01
Bracewell has proposed the Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) as a substitute for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), particularly as a means of convolution. Here, it is shown that the most natural extension of the DHT to two dimensions fails to be separate in the two dimensions, and is therefore inefficient. An alternative separable form is considered, corresponding convolution theorem is derived. That the DHT is unlikely to provide faster convolution than the DFT is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chao; Yao, Kan; Li, Fang
2009-06-01
Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently. We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries. Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated. It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary. At most positions, the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors. An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified. Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects, the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.
BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.
2016-02-01
We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).
Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.
Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang
2015-09-01
Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity. PMID:26258593
Hallquist, J.O.
1982-02-01
This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are
Two dimensional spectroscopy of Liquids in THz-domain: THz analogue of 2D Raman spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okumura, K.; Tanimura, Y.
1998-03-01
After the initial proposal(Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9496 (1993)), the two dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the liquid phase has been received a considerable attention. Both experimental and theoretical activity of this field has been quite high. Since we have two controllable delay times, we can obtain more information than the lower-order experiments such as OKE. The new information includes that on heterogeneous distribution in liquids. Recently, it is found that the coupling between the modes in liquids can be investigated by the technique, both experimentally and theoretically(A. Tokmakoff, M.J. Lang, D.S. Larsen, G.R. Fleming, V. Chernyak, and S. Mukamel, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press))^,(K. Okumura and Y. Tanimura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 278, 175 (1997)) In this talk, we will emphasize that we can perform the THz analogue of the 2D Raman spectroscopy if the THz short-pulse laser becomes available, which may not be in the far future. Theoretically, we can formulate this novel THz spectroscopy on the same footing as the 2D Raman spectroscopy. We will clarify new aspects of this technique comparing with the 2D Raman spectroscopy--- the reason it worth trying the tough experiment. See
Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis for spectroscopic imaging data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Sato, Hidetoshi; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao
2014-07-01
A series of data analysis techniques, including multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy and kernel analysis, were used to demonstrate how these techniques can sort out convoluted information content underlying spectroscopic imaging data. A set of Raman spectra of polymer blends consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were collected under varying spatial coordinates and subjected to multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis and kernel analysis by using the coordinates as perturbation variables. Cross-peaks appearing in asynchronous correlation spectra indicated that the change in the spectral intensity of the free Cdbnd O band of the PMMA band occurs before that of the Cdbnd O⋯Hsbnd O band arising from the molecular interaction between PMMA and PEG. Kernel matrices, generated by carrying out 2D correlation analysis on principal component analysis (PCA) score images, revealed subtle but important discrepancy between the patterns of the images, providing additional interpretation to the PCA in an intuitively understandable manner. Consequently, the results provided apparent spectroscopic evidence that PMMA and PEG in the blends are partially miscible at the molecular level, allowing the PMMAs to respond to the perturbations in different manner.
Fractal surface synthesis based on two dimensional discrete Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chao; Gao, Chenghui; Huang, Jianmeng
2013-11-01
The discrete Fourier transform(DFT) is used for fractional Brownian motion(FBM) surface synthesis in tribology(i.e., contact, sliding, and sealing, etc). However, the relationship between fractal parameters(fractal dimension and scale factor) and traditional parameters, the influence of fractal parameters on surface appearance, have not been deeply discussed yet. These lead to some kind of difficulty to ensure the synthesized surfaces with ideal fractal characteristic, required traditional parameters and geometric appearance. A quantitative relationship between fractal parameters and the root mean square deviation of surface ( Sq) is derived based on the energy conservation property between the space and frequency domain of DFT. Under the stability assumption, the power spectrum of a FBM surface is composed of concentric circles strictly, a series of FBM surfaces with prescribed Sq could be synthesized with given fractal dimension, scale factor, and sampling numbers, but the ten-point height( Sz), the skewness( Ssk) and the kurtosis( Sku) are still in random, where the probability distributions of Sz and Ssk are approximately normal distribution. Furthermore, by iterative searching, a surface with desired Abbott-Firestone curve could be obtained among those surfaces. An intuitive explanation for the influence of fractal dimension and scale factor on surface appearance is obtained by discussing the effects on the ratio of energy between high and low frequency components. Based on the relationship between Sq and surface energy, a filtering method of surface with controllable Sq is proposed. The proposed research ensures the synthesized surfaces possess ideal FBM properties with prescribed Sq, offers a method for selecting desired Abbott-Firestone curve of synthesized fractal surfaces, and makes it possible to control the Sq of surfaces after filtering.
Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyer, Venkit
1995-01-01
This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.
Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao
2016-05-01
We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.
Two-dimensional discrete solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Gligoric, Goran; Stepic, Milutin; Hadzievski, Ljupco; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Malomed, Boris A.
2010-01-15
We analyze the formation and dynamics of bright unstaggered solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, which features the interplay of contact (collisional) and long-range dipole-dipole (DD) interactions between atoms. The condensate is assumed to be trapped in a strong optical-lattice potential in the disk's plane, hence it may be approximated by a two-dimensional (2D) discrete model, which includes the on-site nonlinearity and cubic long-range (DD) interactions between sites of the lattice. We consider two such models, which differ by the form of the on-site nonlinearity, represented by the usual cubic term, or more accurate nonpolynomial one, derived from the underlying three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Similar results are obtained for both models. The analysis is focused on the effects of the DD interaction on fundamental localized modes in the lattice (2D discrete solitons). The repulsive isotropic DD nonlinearity extends the existence and stability regions of the fundamental solitons. New families of on-site, inter-site, and hybrid solitons, built on top of a finite background, are found as a result of the interplay of the isotropic repulsive DD interaction and attractive contact nonlinearity. By themselves, these solutions are unstable, but they evolve into robust breathers which exist on an oscillating background. In the presence of the repulsive contact interactions, fundamental localized modes exist if the DD interaction (attractive isotropic or anisotropic) is strong enough. They are stable in narrow regions close to the anticontinuum limit, while unstable solitons evolve into breathers. In the latter case, the presence of the background is immaterial.
A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds
Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin
2013-10-11
Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.
PLUME2D: TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLUMES IN UNIFORM GROUND WATER FLOW
A closed-form analytical solution for two dimensional plumes was incorporated in an interactive computer program. The assumption of an infinite aquifer depth and uniform source mass rate and source location was overcome by using the principal of superposition in space and time. T...
GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System
James Menart
2013-06-07
This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..
Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D. [LMFBR
Zielinski, R.G.; Kazimi, M.S.
1981-09-01
Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a two-dimensional, two fluid code developed at MIT for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, momentum and energy exchange rate models, and a cell-to-cell radial heat conduction mechanism which was calibrated by simulation of Westinghouse Blanket Heat Transfer Test Program Runs 544 and 545. Finally, a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into NATOF-2D, replacing the iterative technique previously available, and resulted in substantially reduced computational costs.
FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony
1994-01-01
FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.
Magnetic properties of tapiolite (FeTa2O6); a quasi two-dimensional (2D) antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, E. M. L.; Lees, M. R.; McIntyre, G. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Balakrishnan, G.; Hague, J. P.; Visser, D.; McK Paul, D.
2004-11-01
The possibilities of two-dimensional (2D) short-range magnetic correlations and frustration effects in the mineral tapiolite are investigated using bulk-property measurements and neutron Laue diffraction. In this study of the magnetic properties of synthetic single-crystals of tapiolite, we find that single crystals of FeTa2O6 order antiferromagnetically at TN = 7.95 ± 0.05 K, with extensive two-dimensional correlations existing up to at least 40 K. Although we find no evidence that FeTa2O6 is magnetically frustrated, hallmarks of two-dimensional magnetism observed in our single-crystal data include: (i) broadening of the susceptibility maximum due to short-range correlations, (ii) a spin-flop transition and (iii) lambda anomalies in the heat capacity and d(χT)/dT. Complementary neutron Laue diffraction measurements reveal 1D magnetic diffuse scattering extending along the c* direction perpendicular to the magnetic planes. This magnetic diffuse scattering, observed for the first time using the neutron Laue technique by VIVALDI, arises directly as a result of 2D short-range spin correlations.
Avalanche dynamics of magnetic flux in a two-dimensional discrete superconductor
Ginzburg, S. L.; Nakin, A. V.; Savitskaya, N. E.
2006-11-15
The critical state of a two-dimensional discrete superconductor in an external magnetic field is studied. This state is found to be self-organized in the generalized sense, i.e., is a set of metastable states that transform to each other by means of avalanches. An avalanche is characterized by the penetration of a magnetic flux to the system. The sizes of the occurring avalanches, i.e., changes in the magnetic flux, exhibit the power-law distribution. It is also shown that the size of the avalanche occurring in the critical state and the external magnetic field causing its change are statistically independent quantities.
Mitri, F G
2015-09-01
The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque. PMID:25773968
Karavitis, G.A.
1984-01-01
The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2015-04-07
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2015-04-07
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less
Efficient architectures for two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform using lifting scheme.
Xiong, Chengyi; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian
2007-03-01
Novel architectures for 1-D and 2-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) by using lifting schemes are presented in this paper. An embedded decimation technique is exploited to optimize the architecture for 1-D DWT, which is designed to receive an input and generate an output with the low- and high-frequency components of original data being available alternately. Based on this 1-D DWT architecture, an efficient line-based architecture for 2-D DWT is further proposed by employing parallel and pipeline techniques, which is mainly composed of two horizontal filter modules and one vertical filter module, working in parallel and pipeline fashion with 100% hardware utilization. This 2-D architecture is called fast architecture (FA) that can perform J levels of decomposition for N * N image in approximately 2N2(1 - 4(-J))/3 internal clock cycles. Moreover, another efficient generic line-based 2-D architecture is proposed by exploiting the parallelism among four subband transforms in lifting-based 2-D DWT, which can perform J levels of decomposition for N * N image in approximately N2(1 - 4(-J))/3 internal clock cycles; hence, it is called high-speed architecture. The throughput rate of the latter is increased by two times when comparing with the former 2-D architecture, but only less additional hardware cost is added. Compared with the works reported in previous literature, the proposed architectures for 2-D DWT are efficient alternatives in tradeoff among hardware cost, throughput rate, output latency and control complexity, etc. PMID:17357722
Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka
2014-05-01
We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric CalabiYau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.
Spiral waves are stable in discrete element models of two-dimensional homogeneous excitable media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feldman, A. B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.
1998-01-01
The spontaneous breakup of a single spiral wave of excitation into a turbulent wave pattern has been observed in both discrete element models and continuous reaction-diffusion models of spatially homogeneous 2D excitable media. These results have attracted considerable interest, since spiral breakup is thought to be an important mechanism of transition from the heart rhythm disturbance ventricular tachycardia to the fatal arrhythmia ventricular fibrillation. It is not known whether this process can occur in the absence of disease-induced spatial heterogeneity of the electrical properties of the ventricular tissue. Candidate mechanisms for spiral breakup in uniform 2D media have emerged, but the physical validity of the mechanisms and their applicability to myocardium require further scrutiny. In this letter, we examine the computer simulation results obtained in two discrete element models and show that the instability of each spiral is an artifact resulting from an unphysical dependence of wave speed on wave front curvature in the medium. We conclude that spiral breakup does not occur in these two models at the specified parameter values and that great care must be exercised in the representation of a continuous excitable medium via discrete elements.
Flocking with discrete symmetry: The two-dimensional active Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solon, A. P.; Tailleur, J.
2015-10-01
We study in detail the active Ising model, a stochastic lattice gas where collective motion emerges from the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. On a two-dimensional lattice, active particles undergo a diffusion biased in one of two possible directions (left and right) and align ferromagnetically their direction of motion, hence yielding a minimal flocking model with discrete rotational symmetry. We show that the transition to collective motion amounts in this model to a bona fide liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble. The phase diagram in the density-velocity parameter plane has a critical point at zero velocity which belongs to the Ising universality class. In the density-temperature "canonical" ensemble, the usual critical point of the equilibrium liquid-gas transition is sent to infinite density because the different symmetries between liquid and gas phases preclude a supercritical region. We build a continuum theory which reproduces qualitatively the behavior of the microscopic model. In particular, we predict analytically the shapes of the phase diagrams in the vicinity of the critical points, the binodal and spinodal densities at coexistence, and the speeds and shapes of the phase-separated profiles.
FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires
Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.
2013-01-01
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599
Polymorphic phase transitions in systems evolving in a two-dimensional discrete space.
Gadomski, A
1999-08-01
Polymorphic phase transitions in systems evolving in a two-dimensional discrete space have been studied. The driving force of the transitions appears to be a difference between two main energetic contributions: one, related to the thermal activation of the process, and another, being of quantum nature. The former (high temperature limit) is naturally assigned to the expansion (melting) part of the transition, while the latter (low temperature limit) has much in common with the contraction (solidification) part. Between the two main physical states distinguished, there exists a certain state, corresponding to a discontinuity point (pole) in the morphological phase diagram, represented by the well-known Bose-Einstein (Planck) formula, in which the system blows up. This point is related to an expected situation in which the contour of the object under investigation stands for the Brownian or purely diffusional path, with the fractal dimension dw=2, and the situation can be interpreted as some emergence of an intermediate "tetratic" phase. This, in turn, recalls a certain analogy to the equilibrium (order-disorder) phase transition of Kosterlitz-Thouless type, characteristic of, e.g., rough vs rigid interfaces in a two-dimensional space, with some disappearance of interface correlation length at dw=2. Otherwise, the contours of the objects are equivalent to fractional Brownian paths either in superlinear or "turbulent" (dw<2; the expansion case), or sublinear, viz., anomalously slow (dw>2; the contraction case) regimes, respectively. It is hoped that the description offered will serve to reflect properly the main subtleties of the dynamics of the polymorphic transitions in complex "soft-matter" systems, like formation of lipid mesomorphs or diffusional patterns, with nonzero line tension effect. PMID:11969883
Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou
2009-08-01
This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.
Fayer, Michael D; Moilanen, David E; Wong, Daryl; Rosenfeld, Daniel E; Fenn, Emily E; Park, Sungnam
2009-09-15
Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species. Many of these species are charged. In the ocean, water interacts with dissolved salts. In biological systems, water interacts with dissolved salts as well as charged amino acids, the zwitterionic head groups of membranes, and other biological groups that carry charges. Water plays a central role in a vast number of chemical processes because of its dynamic hydrogen-bond network. A water molecule can form up to four hydrogen bonds in an approximately tetrahedral arrangement. These hydrogen bonds are continually being broken, and new bonds are being formed on a picosecond time scale. The ability of the hydrogen-bond network of water to rapidly reconfigure enables water to accommodate and facilitate chemical processes. Therefore, the influence of charged species on water hydrogen-bond dynamics is important. Recent advances in ultrafast coherent infrared spectroscopy have greatly expanded our understanding of water dynamics. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is providing new observables that yield direct information on the fast dynamics of molecules in their ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions. The 2D IR vibrational echoes are akin to 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) but operate on time scales that are many orders of magnitude shorter. In a 2D IR vibrational echo experiment (see the Conspectus figure), three IR pulses are tuned to the vibrational frequency of interest, which in this case is the frequency of the hydroxyl stretching mode of water. The first two pulses "label" the initial molecular structures by their vibrational frequencies. The system evolves between pulses two and three, and the third pulse stimulates the emission of the vibrational echo pulse, which is the signal. The vibrational echo pulse is heterodyne, detected by combining it
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banton, J.; Villard, P.; Jongmans, D.; Scavia, C.
2009-11-01
Application of the discrete element method (DEM) to model avalanches of granular materials requires determining the correct geometric and rheological parameters for and between the particles as well as for the basal surface. The use of spherical (circular in 2-D) particles enhances particle rolling, yielding excessive runout values. The solution usually adopted to correct this effect is to introduce a drag force which artificially slows down the particle velocities. The aim of this study is to test the capability of the DEM to simulate well-controlled unsteady channelized granular flows, considering the measured properties of the particles and of the basal surface which naturally contribute to dissipate energy. We first performed a parametrical analysis on a simple 2-D model in order to estimate the influence of particle shape, friction parameters, and restitution coefficients on the dynamics of the flow and on the deposit geometry. We then simulated three channelized laboratory experiments performed with two materials and two bed linings. Using the geometrical layout and the values of the mechanical parameters provided by the authors, we obtained a remarkable agreement between the observed and 2-D simulated deposit shapes for the three experiments. Also, the computed mass evolution with time was very consistent with the experimental snapshots in all cases. These results highlight the capability of the DEM technique for modeling avalanche of granular material when the particle shape as well as the friction and restitution coefficients are properly considered.
Tensor representation of color images and fast 2D quaternion discrete Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.
2015-03-01
In this paper, a general, efficient, split algorithm to compute the two-dimensional quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT), by using the special partitioning in the frequency domain, is introduced. The partition determines an effective transformation, or color image representation in the form of 1-D quaternion signals which allow for splitting the N × M-point 2-D QDFT into a set of 1-D QDFTs. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. In particular, a proposed method of calculating the 2r × 2r -point 2-D QDFT uses 18N2 less multiplications than the well-known column-row method and method of calculation based on the symplectic decomposition. The proposed algorithm is simple to apply and design, which makes it very practical in color image processing in the frequency domain.
Beura, Shradhananda; Majhi, Banshidhar; Dash, Ratnakar; Roy, Susnata
2015-04-01
An efficient approach for classification of mammograms for detection of breast cancer is presented. The approach utilises the two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform (DOST) to extract the coefficients from the digital mammograms. A feature selection algorithm based the on null-hypothesis test with statistical 'two-sample t-test' method has been suggested to select most significant coefficients from a large number of DOST coefficients. The selected coefficients are used as features in the classification of mammographic images as benign or malignant. This scheme utilises an AdaBoost algorithm with random forest as its base classifier. Two standard databases Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) are used for the validation of the proposed scheme. Simulation results show an optimal classification performance with respect to accuracies of 98.3 and 98.8% and AUC (receiver operating characteristic) values of 0.9985 and 0.9992 for MIAS and DDSM, respectively. Comparative analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms its competent schemes. PMID:26609404
Majhi, Banshidhar; Dash, Ratnakar; Roy, Susnata
2015-01-01
An efficient approach for classification of mammograms for detection of breast cancer is presented. The approach utilises the two-dimensional discrete orthonormal S-transform (DOST) to extract the coefficients from the digital mammograms. A feature selection algorithm based the on null-hypothesis test with statistical ‘two-sample t-test’ method has been suggested to select most significant coefficients from a large number of DOST coefficients. The selected coefficients are used as features in the classification of mammographic images as benign or malignant. This scheme utilises an AdaBoost algorithm with random forest as its base classifier. Two standard databases Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) are used for the validation of the proposed scheme. Simulation results show an optimal classification performance with respect to accuracies of 98.3 and 98.8% and AUC (receiver operating characteristic) values of 0.9985 and 0.9992 for MIAS and DDSM, respectively. Comparative analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms its competent schemes. PMID:26609404
Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method
Pevey, R.E.
1982-07-01
The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.; Dawar, Mayank; Hanmandlu, M.
2015-09-01
In this cryptosystem, we have presented a novel technique for security of video data by using matrix affine cipher (MAC) combined with two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT). Existing schemes for security of video data provides only one layer of security, but the presented technique provides two layers of security for video data. In this cryptosystem, keys and arrangement of MAC parameters are imperative for decryption process. In this cryptosystem, if the attacker knows about all the exact keys, but has no information about the specific arrangement of MAC parameters, then the information of original video cannot be recovered from the encrypted video. Experimental results on standard examples support to the robustness and appropriateness of the presented cryptosystem of video encryption and decryption. The statistical analysis of the experimental results based on standard examples critically examine the behavior of the proposed technique. Comparison between existing schemes for security of video with the presented cryptosystem is also provided for the robustness of the proposed cryptosystem.
Soliton Theory of Two-Dimensional Lattices: The Discrete Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation
Arevalo, Edward
2009-06-05
We theoretically investigate the motion of collective excitations in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with cubic nonlinearity. The form of these excitations for a broad range of parameters is derived. Their evolution and interaction is numerically studied and the modulation instability is discussed. The case of saturable nonlinearity is revisited.
Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Yu, Guihua; Stoller, Meryl; Tozzini, Valentina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ruoff, Rodney S; Pellegrini, Vittorio
2015-01-01
Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a catalyst in fuel and dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically functionalized graphene can also improve storage and diffusion of ionic species and electric charge in batteries and supercapacitors. Two-dimensional crystals provide optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties complementing those of graphene, enabling the realization of ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices or systems for hydrogen production. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for energy conversion and storage, outlining the roadmap for future applications. PMID:25554791
Modeling and 2-D discrete simulation of dislocation dynamics for plastic deformation of metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Juan; Cui, Zhenshan; Ou, Hengan; Ruan, Liqun
2013-05-01
Two methods are employed in this paper to investigate the dislocation evolution during plastic deformation of metal. One method is dislocation dynamic simulation of two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (2D-DDD), and the other is dislocation dynamics modeling by means of nonlinear analysis. As screw dislocation is prone to disappear by cross-slip, only edge dislocation is taken into account in simulation. First, an approach of 2D-DDD is used to graphically simulate and exhibit the collective motion of a large number of discrete dislocations. In the beginning, initial grains are generated in the simulation cells according to the mechanism of grain growth and the initial dislocation is randomly distributed in grains and relaxed under the internal stress. During the simulation process, the externally imposed stress, the long range stress contribution of all dislocations and the short range stress caused by the grain boundaries are calculated. Under the action of these forces, dislocations begin to glide, climb, multiply, annihilate and react with each other. Besides, thermal activation process is included. Through the simulation, the distribution of dislocation and the stress-strain curves can be obtained. On the other hand, based on the classic dislocation theory, the variation of the dislocation density with time is described by nonlinear differential equations. Finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the built differential equations. The dislocation evolution at a constant strain rate is taken as an example to verify the rationality of the model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hua, Chongyu; Volakis, John L.
1990-01-01
AUTOMESH-2D is a computer program specifically designed as a preprocessor for the scattering analysis of two dimensional bodies by the finite element method. This program was developed due to a need for reproducing the effort required to define and check the geometry data, element topology, and material properties. There are six modules in the program: (1) Parameter Specification; (2) Data Input; (3) Node Generation; (4) Element Generation; (5) Mesh Smoothing; and (5) Data File Generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullam, Jennifer; Boye, Carol; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Tomlinson, Derek; Xiao, Hong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack
2011-03-01
In this paper, we tested a novel methodology of measuring critical dimension (CD) uniformity, or CDU, with electron beam (e-beam) hotspot inspection and measurement systems developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). The systems were used to take images of two-dimensional (2D) array patterns and measure CDU values in a custom designated fashion. Because this methodology combined imaging of scanning micro scope (SEM) and CD value averaging over a large array pattern of optical CD, or OCD, it can measure CDU of 2D arrays with high accuracy, high repeatability and high throughput.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fal'ko, Vladimir I.
2014-06-01
On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.
Sanchez, A.; Smith, T.F. )
1992-05-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a model based on the discrete-ordinates method for computing radiant exchange between surfaces separated by a transparent medium and to formulate the model so that arbitrary arrangements of the surfaces can be accommodated. Heat fluxes from the model are compared to those based on the radiosity/irradiation analysis. Three test geometries that include shadowing and irregular geometries are used to validate the model. Heat fluxes from the model are in good agreement with those from the radiosity/irradiation analysis. Effects of geometries, surface emittances, grid patterns, finite-difference weighting factor, and number of discrete angles are reported.
Filho, J. F. P.
2013-07-01
In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)
Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y
2016-03-01
In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme. PMID:27078488
Boriskina, Svetlana V; Sewell, Phillip; Benson, Trevor M; Nosich, Alexander I
2004-03-01
A fast and accurate method is developed to compute the natural frequencies and scattering characteristics of arbitrary-shape two-dimensional dielectric resonators. The problem is formulated in terms of a uniquely solvable set of second-kind boundary integral equations and discretized by the Galerkin method with angular exponents as global test and trial functions. The log-singular term is extracted from one of the kernels, and closed-form expressions are derived for the main parts of all the integral operators. The resulting discrete scheme has a very high convergence rate. The method is used in the simulation of several optical microcavities for modern dense wavelength-division-multiplexed systems. PMID:15005404
Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.
Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun
2016-04-21
Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp(2) honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices. PMID:27072060
Discrete translational invariance and mass-renormalization in the two-dimensional sine-Gordon model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neudecker, Bernhard
1982-06-01
We consider the sine-Gordon model as a field-theory in which the interaction has a discrete translational invariance. It is shown that apart from a Gaussian contribution the Helmholtz free-energy exhibits this symmetry as well. Thus in an originally massless theory, the insertion of a mass term can be considered as a rather “weak” symmetry-breaking. Within the Amit-Goldschmidt-Grinstein renormalization-scheme we show that mass-renormalization is trivial.
Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong
2013-12-01
A new method for discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with kernel orthogonal projection to latent structure (K-OPLS). Three adulteration types of milk with urea, melamine, and glucose were prepared, respectively. The synchronous 2D spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk samples were calculated. Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation spectra of adulterated milk and pure milk, a discriminant model of urea-tainted milk, melamine-tainted milk, glucose-tainted milk, and pure milk was built by K-OPLS. The classification accuracy rates of unknown samples were 85.7, 92.3, 100, and 87.5%, respectively. The results show that this method has great potential in the rapid discrimination analysis of adulterated milk and pure milk. PMID:24359648
Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun
2016-04-01
Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ~1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor
Vertical Modes and Discrete Instabilities in Two-Dimensional Dust Particle Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Kong, Jie; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell
2013-10-01
The coupling observed between horizontal and vertical wave modes in large plasma crystals and their resulting instability formation are current topics of interest, both theoretically and experimentally. Similarly, horizontal and vertical normal modes in finite dust clusters have been examined theoretically but to date, only horizontal modes have been experimentally observed. In this research, dust clusters are formed within a modified GEC rf reference cell, using a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode to provide horizontal confinement. The resulting thermal motion of the dust particles is tracked and analyzed. Using the power spectra obtained, both horizontal and vertical normal modes are identified and discrete instabilities as predicted theoretically are shown to be induced due to the coupling between the horizontal and vertical modes.
FTOM-2D: a two-dimensional approach to model the detailed thermal behavior of nonplanar surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartos, B.; Stein, K.
2015-10-01
The Fraunhofer thermal object model (FTOM) predicts the temperature of an object as a function of the environmental conditions. The model has an outer layer exchanging radiation and heat with the environment and a stack of layers beyond modifying the thermal behavior. The innermost layer is at a constant or variable temperature called core temperature. The properties of the model (6 parameters) are fitted to minimize the difference between the prediction and a time series of measured temperatures. The model can be used for very different objects like backgrounds (e.g. meadow, forest, stone, or sand) or objects like vehicles. The two dimensional enhancement was developed to model more complex objects with non-planar surfaces and heat conduction between adjacent regions. In this model we call the small thermal homogenous interacting regions thermal pixels. For each thermal pixel the orientation and the identities of the adjacent pixels are stored in an array. In this version 7 parameters have to be fitted. The model is limited to a convex geometry to reduce the complexity of the heat exchange and allow for a higher number of thermal pixels. For the test of the model time series of thermal images of a test object (CUBI) were analyzed. The square sides of the cubes were modeled as 25 thermal pixels (5 × 5). In the time series of thermal images small areas in the size of the thermal pixels were analyzed to generate data files that can easily be read by the model. The program was developed with MATLAB and the final version in C++ using the OpenMP multiprocessor library. The differential equation for the heat transfer is the time consuming part in the computation and was programmed in C. The comparison show a good agreement of the fitted and not fitted thermal pixels with the measured temperatures. This indicates the ability of the model to predict the temperatures of the whole object.
Extreme Local Extrema of Two-Dimensional Discrete Gaussian Free Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren
2016-01-01
We consider the discrete Gaussian Free Field in a square box in Z^2 of side length N with zero boundary conditions and study the joint law of its properly-centered extreme values (h) and their scaled spatial positions (x) in the limit as N to ∞ . Restricting attention to extreme local maxima, i.e., the extreme points that are maximal in an r N -neighborhood thereof, we prove that the associated process tends, whenever r_N to ∞ and {r_N/N to 0} , to a Poisson point process with intensity measure {Z{(dx)}e^{-α h} dh} , where {α:= 2/√{g}} with g: = 2/π and where Z(dx) is a random Borel measure on [0, 1]2. In particular, this yields an integral representation of the law of the absolute maximum, similar to that found in the context of Branching Brownian Motion. We give evidence that the random measure Z is a version of the derivative martingale associated with the continuum Gaussian Free Field.
A two-dimensional discrete particle model of gravel bed river systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacVicar, B. J.; Parrott, L.; Roy, A. G.
2006-09-01
The formation of bed forms in gravel bed rivers acts as a control on stream ecology and the response of rivers to floods. Available models do not reproduce the range of observed bed forms and do not consider interactions between the bed and flow hydraulics. The model presented here considers a gravel bed river as a complex system in which sediment clasts are represented as discrete elements. Simple and local rules describe the sediment and flow dynamics. Using a trimodal sediment distribution, irregular forms that scale with particle diameter develop without explicit feedback mechanisms because of the tendency of large particles to roll along the bed surface and collect into chains. Feedback mechanisms such as imbrication increase the effective entrainment threshold of groups of large particles and increase the stability of these imbricate forms. A second type of bed form is associated with saltating grains and emerges where particles are transported at a preferred distance. The development and maintenance of larger-scale bed forms require feedback between the bed and flow properties. By allowing mean velocity to adjust to bed morphology and considering the effect of acceleration on turbulence generation and mean velocity profiles we demonstrate the emergence of forms similar in morphology to gravel sheets, dunes, and riffle pools. The model is best used to complement field-based studies and is suitable for testing hypotheses of streambed behavior.
Extreme Local Extrema of Two-Dimensional Discrete Gaussian Free Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biskup, Marek; Louidor, Oren
2016-07-01
We consider the discrete Gaussian Free Field in a square box in {mathbb{Z}^2} of side length N with zero boundary conditions and study the joint law of its properly-centered extreme values ( h) and their scaled spatial positions ( x) in the limit as {N to infty}. Restricting attention to extreme local maxima, i.e., the extreme points that are maximal in an r N -neighborhood thereof, we prove that the associated process tends, whenever {r_N to infty} and {r_N/N to 0}, to a Poisson point process with intensity measure {Z{(dx)}e^{-α h} dh}, where {α:= 2/√{g}} with g: = 2/π and where Z(dx) is a random Borel measure on [0, 1]2. In particular, this yields an integral representation of the law of the absolute maximum, similar to that found in the context of Branching Brownian Motion. We give evidence that the random measure Z is a version of the derivative martingale associated with the continuum Gaussian Free Field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.
2016-03-01
In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.033]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.
Depinning of a discrete elastic string from a two-dimensional random array of weak pinning points
Proville, Laurent
2010-04-15
The present work is essentially concerned with the development of statistical theory for the low temperature dislocation glide in concentrated solid solutions where atom-sized obstacles impede plastic flow. In connection with such a problem, we compute analytically the external force required to drag an elastic string along a discrete two-dimensional square lattice, where some obstacles have been randomly distributed. Some numerical simulations allow us to demonstrate the remarkable agreement between simulations and theory for an obstacle density ranging from 1% to 50% and for lattices with different aspect ratios. The theory proves efficient on the condition that the obstacle-chain interaction remains sufficiently weak compared to the string stiffness.
Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.
2016-04-08
Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less
Schloeder, F.X. III
1995-09-01
The principal objective of seismic exploration is to determine three geologic parameters, the structural top, the bottom, and the lateral extent of an oil and gas reservoir. Conventional (100%) data is very efficient in locating the structural top and bottom of reservoirs. Two-dimensional (2D) common depth point (CDP) seismic data provides an immense improvement in seismic data quality over conventional (100%) data. This improvement enables the explorer to better visualize and map the reservoir in each direction of the seismic line. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic technology provides even more mappable data and capability. The explorer may visualize every imaginable direction and subtlety of a reservoir. This talk compares conventional (100%), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the Midcontinent. Case histories of the Douglass (Upper Pennsylvanian) in Texas, the Morrow (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Colorado, the {open_quotes}Chat{close_quotes} (Mississippian) and the Hunton (Silurian-Devonian) in Oklahoma, and the Simpson (Ordovician) in Kansas will be discussed. Major and independent operators can maximize their exploration efforts by integrating existing data with three-dimensional (3D) technology and a solid geologic interpretation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.
1999-01-01
In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakami, M.; Charette, A.; Le Dez, V.
1996-10-01
This paper describes a new approach for determining the radiative intensity and temperature fields in a semi-transparent medium for coupled radiative - conductive heat transfer in two-dimensional enclosures. The boundary surfaces are uniformly gray with prescribed emissivities and temperatures. The medium is radiatively absorbing - emitting - scattering and gray. The method is a modification of the discrete ordinates method based on the incorporation of directional ray propagation relations within the cells. The algorithm is applicable to enclosures of arbitrary geometry and does not generate numerical oscillations and negative intensities which can appear in the traditional technique. This is made possible by solving the radiative transfer equation exactly along a set of discretized directions. The method can handle triangular grids of any type, structured or unstructured, and is thus compatible with the finite element technique - which is used for the conduction part of the present coupled problem. A summary of the basic equations is given, followed by a brief assessment of the method for pure radiation. Cases of combined conduction - radiation are then presented and the results are compared with those obtained by other researchers. It is shown that the method has no limitation with respect to geometry and is accurate over a wide range of optical thicknesses.
Davis, A.B.
1998-12-01
The authors compare several ways of uncovering multifractal properties of data in 1D and 2D using wavelet transforms. The WTMM or (Continuous) Wavelet Transform Maximum Modulus method has been extensively documented and widely applied by Dr. Alain Arneodo`s (Bordeaux) group, to the point where their successes have overshadowed simpler techniques that use the Discrete WT. What the latter lack in robustness is gained in efficiency, thus enabling virtually real-time multifractal analysis of data as it is collected. Another advantage of DWT-based approaches is that tensor products of dyadic and triadic branching schemes enable a straightforward attack on strong anisotropy in natural and artificial 2D random fields.
Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J
2013-06-14
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15,000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm(2). PMID:23781772
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.
2013-06-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15 000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm2.
Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.
2013-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15, 000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N_{2} and air over a 2D field of 40 mm^{2}.
Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia
2014-01-01
This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data. PMID:25061786
Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Wenger, Emmanuel; Biache, Coralie; Lambi Ngolui, John; Ponou, Siméon; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude
2014-10-01
The stacked two-dimensional supramolecular compound catena-{Co(amp)3Cr(ox)3·6H2O} (amp = 2-picolylamine, ox = oxalate) has been synthesized from the bimolecular approach using hydrogen bonds. It is built from layers in which both Co(amp)(3+) (D) and Cr(ox)(3-) (A) ions are bonded in a repeating DADADA… pattern along the a and c axes by multiple hydrogen bonds. These layers host a well resolved R12 dodecameric discrete ring of water clusters built by six independent molecules located around the 2c centrosymmetric Wyckoff positions of the P21/n space group in which the compound crystallizes. These clusters are ranged along the [001] direction, occupy 733.5 Å(3) (22.0%) of the unit cell and have a chair conformation via 12 hydrogen bonds. The water molecules of the cluster are linked with stronger hydrogen bonds than those between the cluster and its host, which explains the single continuous step of the dehydration process of the compound. PMID:25274525
Nutter, C.
1981-04-01
MT2D.REV3 is the latest revision of a 2-dimensional, finite-element, interactive MT-line source modeling program. The original program was a batch-mode program developed by John Stodt. An interactive program was developed based on Stodt's program for a UNIVAC 1108. The program uses linear interpolation of the unknown field over triangular sub-domains of the region where a solution is sought in conjunction with the Galerkin technique to derive a system of linear equations which approximate the governing partial differential equation. The solution of this linear system of equations gives the approximate field values at the nodes of the discretized domain. MT2D has an interactive data management system for data manipulation and display built around the finite-element program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao
2014-07-01
Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.
1985-01-01
Appendix 4 of the Study of One- and Two-Dimensional Filtering and Deconvolution Algorithms for a Streaming Array Computer discusses coordinate axes, location of origin, and redundancy for the one- and two-dimensional Fourier transform for complex and real data.
A multispeed Discrete Boltzmann Model for transcritical 2D shallow water flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Rocca, Michele; Montessori, Andrea; Prestininzi, Pietro; Succi, Sauro
2015-03-01
In this work a Discrete Boltzmann Model for the solution of transcritical 2D shallow water flows is presented and validated. In order to provide the model with transcritical capabilities, a particular multispeed velocity set has been employed for the discretization of the Boltzmann equation. It is shown that this particular set naturally yields a simple and closed procedure to determine higher order equilibrium distribution functions needed to simulate transcritical flow. The model is validated through several classical benchmarks and is proven to correctly and accurately simulate both 1D and 2D transitions between the two flow regimes.
A novel sliding window algorithm for 2D discrete Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Gui, Jiyong
2015-12-01
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is one of the most wildly used tools for signal processing. In this paper, a novel sliding window algorithm is presented for fast computing 2D DFT when sliding window shifts more than one-point. The propose algorithm computing the DFT of the current window using that of the previous window. For fast computation, we take advantage of the recursive process of 2D SDFT and butterfly-based algorithm. So it can be directly applied to 2D signal processing. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational complexity is equal to 2D SDFT when one sample comes into current window. As well, the number of additions and multiplications of our proposed algorithm are less than those of 2D vector radix FFT when sliding window shifts mutiple-point.
Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier
2011-05-01
We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.
Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Ho, Jia-Jung; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Skoff, David R.; Zhang, Tianqi; Zanni, Martin T.
2015-01-01
By adding a mid-infrared pulse shaper to a sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectrometer, we have built a 2D SFG spectrometer capable of measuring spectra analogous to 2D IR spectra but with monolayer sensitivity and SFG selection rules. In this paper, we describe the experimental apparatus and provide an introduction to 2D SFG spectroscopy to help the reader interpret 2D SFG spectra. The main aim of this manuscript is to report 2D SFG spectra of the amyloid forming peptide FGAIL. FGAIL is a critical segment of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) that aggregates in people with type 2 diabetes. FGAIL is catalyzed into amyloid fibers by many types of surfaces. Here, we study the structure of FGAIL upon deposition onto a gold surface covered with a self-assembled monolayer of methyl 4-mercaptobenzoate (MMB) that produces an ester coating. FGAIL deposited on bare gold does not form ordered layers. The measured 2D SFG spectrum is consistent with amyloid fiber formation, exhibiting both the parallel (a+) and perpendicular (a−) symmetry modes associated with amyloid β-sheets. Cross peaks are observed between the ester stretches of the coating and the FGAIL peptides. Simulations are presented for two possible structures of FGAIL amyloid β-sheets that illustrates the sensitivity of the 2D SFG spectra to structure and orientation. These results provide some of the first molecular insights into surface catalyzed amyloid fiber structure. PMID:25611039
Minor, B.M.
1993-09-01
The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisjak, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Mahabadi, O. K.; Grasselli, G.
2013-10-01
Stress waves, known as acoustic emissions (AEs), are released by localized inelastic deformation events during the progressive failure of brittle rocks. Although several numerical models have been developed to simulate the deformation and damage processes of rocks, such as non-linear stress-strain behaviour and localization of failure, only a limited number have been capable of providing quantitative information regarding the associated seismicity. Moreover, the majority of these studies have adopted a pseudo-static approach based on elastic strain energy dissipation that completely disregards elastodynamic effects. This paper describes a new AE modelling technique based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), a numerical tool that simulates material failure by explicitly considering fracture nucleation and propagation in the modelling domain. Given the explicit time integration scheme of the solver, stress wave propagation and the effect of radiated seismic energy can be directly captured. Quasi-dynamic seismic information is extracted from a FEM/DEM model with a newly developed algorithm based on the monitoring of internal variables (e.g. relative displacements and kinetic energy) in proximity to propagating cracks. The AE of a wing crack propagation model based on this algorithm are cross-analysed by traveltime inversion and energy estimation from seismic recordings. Results indicate a good correlation of AE initiation times and locations, and scaling of energies, independently calculated with the two methods. Finally, the modelling technique is validated by simulating a laboratory compression test on a granite sample. The micromechanical parameters of the heterogeneous model are first calibrated to reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain response measured during standard laboratory tests. Subsequently, AE frequency-magnitude statistics, spatial clustering of source locations and the evolution of AE rate are investigated. The distribution of
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
HPLC analysis of discrete haptoglobin isoform N-linked oligosaccharides following 2D-PAGE isolation.
He, Zhicong; Aristoteli, Lina P; Kritharides, Leonard; Garner, Brett
2006-05-01
Glycosylation is a common but variable modification that regulates glycoprotein structure and function. We combined small format 2D-PAGE with HPLC to analyse discrete human haptoglobin isoform N-glycans. Seven major and several minor haptoglobin isoforms were detected by 2D-PAGE. N-Glycans released from Coomassie-stained gel spots using PNGase were labeled at their reducing termini with 2-aminobenzamide. HPLC analysis of selected major isoform N-glycans indicated that sialic acid composition determined their separation by isoelectric focussing. N-Glycans from two doublets of quantitatively minor isoforms were also analysed. Although separation of each pair of doublets was influenced by sialylation, individual spots within each doublet contained identical N-glycans. Thus, heterogeneity in minor haptoglobin isoforms was due to modifications distinct from N-glycan structure. These studies describe a simple method for analysing low abundance protein N-glycans and provide details of discrete haptoglobin isoform N-glycan structures which will be useful in proteomic analysis of human plasma samples. PMID:16546121
Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Chang, J H
2008-10-01
We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. This discretization is a discontinuous finite element method that utilizes the piecewise linear basis functions developed by Stone and Adams. We describe an asymptotic analysis that shows this method to be accurate for many problems in the thick diffusion limit on arbitrary polygons, allowing this method to be applied to radiative transfer problems with these types of meshes. We also present numerical results for multiple problems on quadrilateral grids and compare these results to the well-known bi-linear discontinuous finite element method.
Two dimensional NMR spectroscopy
Schram, J.; Bellama, J.M.
1988-01-01
Two dimensional NMR represents a significant achievement in the continuing effort to increase solution in NMR spectroscopy. This book explains the fundamentals of this new technique and its analytical applications. It presents the necessary information, in pictorial form, for reading the ''2D NMR,'' and enables the practicing chemist to solve problems and run experiments on a commercial spectrometer by using the software provided by the manufacturer.
A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method
Brocklehurst, Paul; Adeniran, Ismail; Yang, Dongmin; Sheng, Yong; Zhang, Henggui; Ye, Jianqiao
2015-01-01
Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM). In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue's corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart. PMID:26583141
1997-11-18
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
Castillejo, Ma Ángeles; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Rubiales, Diego
2012-01-01
Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is considered to be the major constraint for legume crops in Mediterranean countries. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. For the efficient control of the parasite, a better understanding of its interaction and associated resistance mechanisms at the molecular level is required. The pea response to this parasitic plant and the molecular basis of the resistance was studied using a proteomic approach based on 2D DIGE and MALDI-MSMS analysis. For this purpose, two genotypes showing different levels of resistance to O. crenata, as well as three time points (21, 25, and 30 d after inoculation) have been compared. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 43 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments), 22 of which were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. Most of the proteins identified were metabolic and stress-related proteins and a high percentage of them (86%) matched with specific proteins of legume species. The behaviour pattern of the identified proteins suggests the existence of defence mechanisms operating during the early stages of infection that differed in both genotypes. Among these, several proteins were identified with protease activity which could play an important role in preventing the penetration and connection to the vascular system of the parasite. Our data are discussed and compared with those previously obtained in pea and Medicago truncatula. PMID:21920908
2D resistivity inversion using conjugate gradients for a finite element discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolozo, C. A.; Santos, F. M.; Porsani, J. L.
2014-12-01
In this work we present a DC 2D inversion algorithm using conjugate gradients relaxation to solve the maximum likelihood inverse equations. We apply, according to Zhang (1995), the maximum likelihood inverse theory developed by Tarantola and Valette (1982) to our 2D resistivity inversion. This algorithm was chosen to this research because it doesn't need to calculate the field's derivatives. Since conjugate gradient techniques only need the results of the sensitivity matrix Ã or its transpose ÃT multiplying a vector, the actual computation of the sensitivity matrix are not performed, according to the methodology described in Zhang (1995). In Zhang (1995), the terms Ãx and ÃTy, are dependent of the stiffness matrix K and its partial derivative ∂K⁄∂ρ. The inversion methodology described in Zhang (1995) is for the case of 3D electrical resistivity by finite differences discretization. So it was necessary to make a series of adjustments to obtain a satisfactory result for 2D electrical inversion using finite element method. The difference between the modeling of 3D resistivity with finite difference and the 2D finite element method are in the integration variable, used in the 2D case. In the 2D case the electrical potential are initially calculated in the transformed domain, including the stiffness matrix, and only in the end is transformed in Cartesian domain. In the case of 3D, described by Zhang (1995) this is done differently, the calculation is done directly in the Cartesian domain. In the literature was not found any work describing how to deal with this problem. Because the calculations of Ãx and ÃTy must be done without having the real stiffness matrix, the adaptation consist in calculate the stiffness matrix and its partial derivative using a set of integration variables. We transform those matrix in the same form has in the potential case, but with different sets of variables. The results will be presented and are very promising.
Application of the 2-D discrete-ordinates method to multiple scattering of laser radiation
Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Embury, J.F.
1983-05-01
The discrete-ordinates finite-element radiation transport code twotran is applied to describe the multiple scattering of a laser beam from a reflecting target. For a model scenario involving a 99% relative humidity rural aerosol we compute the average intensity of the scattered radiation and correction factors to the Beer-Lambert law arising from multiple scattering. As our results indicate, 2-D x-y and r-z geometry modeling can reliably describe a realistic 3-D scenario. Specific results are presented for the two visual ranges of 1.52 and 0.76 km which show that, for sufficiently high aerosol concentrations (e.g., equivalent to V = 0.76 km), the target signature in a distant detector becomes dominated by multiply scattered radiation from interactions of the laser light with the aerosol environment. The merits of the scaling group and the delta-M approximation for the transfer equation are also explored.
A framework for grand scale parallelization of the combined finite discrete element method in 2d
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Z.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.
2014-09-01
Within the context of rock mechanics, the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM) has been applied to many complex industrial problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques (tunneling, pillar strength, etc.), rock blasting, seismic wave propagation, packing problems, dam stability, rock slope stability, rock mass strength characterization problems, etc. The reality is that most of these were accomplished in a 2D and/or single processor realm. In this work a hardware independent FDEM parallelization framework has been developed using the Virtual Parallel Machine for FDEM, (V-FDEM). With V-FDEM, a parallel FDEM software can be adapted to different parallel architecture systems ranging from just a few to thousands of cores.
FPGA implementation of 2-D discrete cosine transforms algorithm using systemC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yifei; Ding, Mingyue
2007-12-01
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is widely applied in image and video compression. This paper presented the software and hardware co-design method based on SystemC. As a case of study, a two dimension (2D) DCT Algorithm was implemented on Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) chip. The short simulation time and verification process greatly increases the design efficiency of SystemC, making the product designed by SystemC more quickly into the market. The design effect using SystemC is compared between the expertise hardware designer and the software designer with little hardware knowledge. The result shows SystemC is an excellent and high efficiency hardware design method for an expertise hardware designer.
Robust H(∞) control for a class of 2-D discrete delayed systems.
Ye, Shuxia; Li, Jianzhen; Yao, Juan
2014-09-01
In this paper, we deal with the problem of robust H∞ control for a class of 2-D discrete uncertain systems with delayed perturbations described by the Roesser state-space model (RM). The problem to be addressed is the design of robust controllers via state feedback such that the stability of the resulting closed-loop system is guaranteed and a prescribed H∞ performance level is ensured for all delayed perturbations. By utilizing the Lyapunov method and some results, H∞ controllers are given. The results are delay-dependent and can be expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. PMID:24411024
A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform
Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis
2015-04-15
Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
G, A., Major; Fretwell, H. M.; Dugdale, S. B.; Alam, M. A.
1998-11-01
A novel method for reconstructing the Fermi surface from experimental two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) projections is proposed. In this algorithm, the 3D electron momentum-density distribution is expanded in terms of a basis of wavelet-like functions. The parameters of the model, the wavelet coefficients, are determined by maximizing the likelihood function corresponding to the experimental data and the projections calculated from the model. In contrast to other expansions, in the case of that in terms of wavelets a relatively small number of model parameters are sufficient for representing the relevant parts of the 3D distribution, thus keeping computation times reasonably short. Unlike other reconstruction methods, this algorithm takes full account of the statistical information content of the data and therefore may help to reduce the amount of time needed for data acquisition. An additional advantage of wavelet expansion may be the possibility of retrieving the Fermi surface directly from the wavelet coefficients rather than indirectly using the reconstructed 3D distribution.
Effective Temperature of 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids at the Discrete Level
Io, C.-W.; Chan, C.-L.; I Lin
2007-07-13
Fluctuation-dissipation theory has been used to measure the effective temperature of non-equilibrium system. In this work, using a 2D dusty plasma liquid formed by the negatively charged fine particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges and sheared by two CW counter parallel laser beams, we measure the micro-transport at the kinetic level. The effective temperatures Teff at different time scales are obtained through the Stokes-Einstein relation which relates the diffusion coefficient (D) and the viscosity ({eta}). The external energy is cascaded from the slow hopping modes to the fast caging modes through mutual coupling, which leads to the higher effective temperature of the slow hopping modes.
Two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowire networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y. M.; Li, Y. H.; Ahmad, I.; McCartney, D. G.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Hu, W. B.
2006-09-01
The authors report the synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional (2D) single crystalline nanonetworks consisting of tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters of ca. 20nm. The 2D networks are believed to result from the nanowire growth along the four crystallographic equivalent directions of ⟨110⟩ in the tetragonal WO2.9 structure. These 2D tungsten oxide networks may be potential precursors for creating 2D networks comprising WS2 nanotubes.
James, C.A.; Hodge, B.K.; Taylor, R.P.
1993-05-01
Surface roughness is a commonly used approach for enhancing the rate of heat transfer of surfaces, such as in heat-exchanger tubes. Because the improved thermal performance of roughened surfaces is at the expense of increased flow resistance (increased pressure drop or friction factor), accurate prediction techniques for determining the friction factors and Nusselt numbers for roughened surfaces are required if such features are to be considered as design options. This report presents the results of the second phase of a research program sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory to validate models for the prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers for fully developed turbulent flow in enhanced heat-exchanger tubes. The first phase was concerned with validating a roughness model for turbulent flow in tubes internally roughened with three-dimensional distributed roughness elements, such as sandgrains, spheres, hemispheres, and cones. The second phase is concerned with devising and validating methods for the prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers for turbulent flow in tubes internally roughened with repeated, two-dimensional ribs aligned perpendicular to the flow. The ribs are spaced sufficiently far apart that the leeward-side separated flow reattaches to the wall before again separating in order to negotiate the next rib. This heat-transfer enhancement mechanism is called the separation and reattachment mechanism, after Rabas (1989). This work is limited to rectangular rib shapes.
Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi
2007-10-01
We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.
Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.
1987-01-01
Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.
Superconductivity in two-dimensional boron allotropes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun
2016-01-01
We use ab initio evolutionary algorithm and first-principles calculations to investigate structural, electronic, vibrational, and superconducting properties of two-dimensional (2 D ) boron allotropes. Remarkably, we show that conventional BCS superconductivity in the stable 2 D boron structures is ubiquitous with the critical temperature Tc above the liquid hydrogen temperature for certain configurations. Due to the electronic states of the Fermi surface originating from both σ and π electrons, the superconductivity of the 2 D structures arises from multiple phonon modes. Our results support that 2 D boron structure may be a pure single-element material with the highest Tc on conditions without high pressure and external strain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinke, R. C.
2015-12-01
Discretizing 1-D vadose zone simulations in the moisture content domain, such as is done in the Talbot-Ogden method, provides some advantages over discretizing in depth, such as is done in Richards' Equation. These advantages include inherent mass conservation and lower computational cost. However, doing so presents a difficulty for integration with 2-D groundwater interflow simulations. The equations of motion of the bins of discrete moisture content take the depth of the water table as an input. They do not produce it as an output. Finding the correct water table depth so that the groundwater recharge from the 1-D vadose zone simulation mass balances with the lateral flows from the 2-D groundwater interflow simulation was a previously unsolved problem. In this paper we present a net-groundwater-recharge method to solve to this problem and compare it with the source-term method used with Richards' Equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
Slater, C.O.
1992-01-01
The DRC2 code, which couples MASH or MASHX adjoint leakages with DORT 2-D discrete ordinates forward directional fluences, is described. The forward fluences are allowed to vary both axially and radially over the coupling surface, as opposed to the strictly axial variation allowed by the predecessor DRC code. Input instructions are presented along with descriptions and results from several sample problems. Results from the sample problems are used to compare DRC2 with DRC, DRC2 with DORT, and DRC2 with itself for the case of x-y dependence versus no x-y dependence of the forward fluence. The test problems demonstrate that for small systems DRC and DRC2 give essentially the same results. Some significant differences are noted for larger systems. Additionally, DRC2 results with no x-y dependence of the forward directional fluences are practically the same as those calculated by DRC.
Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.
1998-01-01
We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.
Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.
Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I
1998-07-01
We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473
Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2016-09-01
We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-03-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96 eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications.
Nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structures
Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Jeon, In-Yup; Jung, Sun-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Noejung; Oh, Joon Hak; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-01-01
Recent graphene research has triggered enormous interest in new two-dimensional ordered crystals constructed by the inclusion of elements other than carbon for bandgap opening. The design of new multifunctional two-dimensional materials with proper bandgap has become an important challenge. Here we report a layered two-dimensional network structure that possesses evenly distributed holes and nitrogen atoms and a C2N stoichiometry in its basal plane. The two-dimensional structure can be efficiently synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction and confirmed with various characterization techniques, including scanning tunnelling microscopy. Furthermore, a field-effect transistor device fabricated using the material exhibits an on/off ratio of 107, with calculated and experimental bandgaps of approximately 1.70 and 1.96 eV, respectively. In view of the simplicity of the production method and the advantages of the solution processability, the C2N-h2D crystal has potential for use in practical applications. PMID:25744355
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun
2016-03-01
Three mix-ligand Ag(I) coordination compounds, namely, {[Ag10(tpyz) 5(L1) 5(H2 O)2].(H2 O)4}n (1, tpyz = 2,3,4,5-tetramethylpyrazine, H2 L1 = phthalic acid), [Ag4(tpyz) 2(L2) 2(H2 O)].(H2 O)5}n (2, H2 L2 = isophthalic acid) {[Ag2(tpyz) 2(L3) (H2 O)4].(H2 O)8}n (3, H2 L3 = terephthalic acid), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PXRD and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 exhibits a 2D layer which can be simplified as a (4,4) net. 2 is a 3D network which can be simplified as a (3,3)-connected 2-nodal net with a point symbol of {102.12}{102}. 3 consists of linear [Ag(tpyz) (H2 O)2]n chain. Of particular interest, discrete hexamer water clusters were observed in 1 and 2, while a 2D L10(6) water layer exists in 3. The results suggest that the benzene dicarboxylates play pivotal roles in the formation of the different host architectures as well as different water aggregations. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and emissive behaviors of these compounds were investigated.
Algorithmic proof for the completeness of the two-dimensional Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimipour, Vahid; Zarei, Mohammad Hossein
2012-11-01
We show that the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model is complete, in the sense that the partition function of any lattice model on any graph is equal to the partition function of the 2D Ising model with complex coupling. The latter model has all its spin-spin coupling equal to i(π)/(4) and all parameters of the original model are contained in the local magnetic fields of the Ising model. This result has already been derived by using techniques from quantum information theory and by exploiting the universality of cluster states. Here we do not use the quantum formalism and hence make the completeness result accessible to a wide audience. Furthermore, our method has the advantage of being algorithmic in nature so that, by following a set of simple graphical transformations, one is able to transform any discrete lattice model to an Ising model defined on a (polynomially) larger 2D lattice.
Two-dimensional quantum propagation using wavelets in space and time
Sparks, Douglas K.; Johnson, Bruce R.
2006-09-21
A recent method for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation has been developed using expansions in compact-support wavelet bases in both space and time [H. Wang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 7647 (2004)]. This method represents an exact quantum mixed time-frequency approach, with special initial temporal wavelets used to solve the initial value problem. The present work is a first extension of the method to multiple spatial dimensions applied to a simple two-dimensional (2D) coupled anharmonic oscillator problem. A wavelet-discretized version of norm preservation for time-independent Hamiltonians discovered in the earlier one-dimensional investigation is verified to hold as well in 2D and, by implication, in higher numbers of spatial dimensions. The wavelet bases are not restricted to rectangular domains, a fact which is exploited here in a 2D adaptive version of the algorithm.
Coherence resonance in the two-dimensional neural map driven by non-Gaussian colored noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dongxi; Hu, Bing; Wang, Jia; Jing, Yingchuan; Hou, Fangmei
2016-01-01
Based on the two-dimensional (2D) neural map, we investigate the impacts of non-Gaussian colored noise on the firing activity of discrete system. Taking the coherence parameter R to measure the regularity of firing behavior, it is demonstrated that coherence parameter R has a pronounced minimum value with the noise intensity and the correlation time of non-Gaussian colored noise, which is the so-called phenomenon of coherence resonance (CR). Besides, the firing activity is not sensitive to the non-Gaussian parameter which determines the departure from the Gaussian distribution when the correlation time is large enough.
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.
Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim
2005-02-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colson, John W.; Dichtel, William R.
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igami, M.; Shibazaki, B.; Nakama, Y.
2002-12-01
Particle based simulations such as the lattice solid modeling (Mora and Place, 1994; Abe et al., 2002) and the modeling using the discrete element method (Morgan and Boettcher, 1999) are very useful for investigating frictional behavior of the fault zone. We investigate the fault behavior using the discrete element method considering the effect of the time-dependent increase of contact area between particles. In our model the tangential force due to the frictional contact is assumed to be SA, where S is the shear stress within microcontacts and A is the contact area. For stationary contact, the contact area is assumed to increase with time following the equation A(t)=A0}(1+k{BT/E ln (1+t/t0)) (Brechet and Estrin, 1994), where t0 is an increasing function of temperature T. On the other hand, when sliding velocity V is not equal to 0, t is replaced with D c/V. Based on the elastic contact theory, A0 is assumed to be in proportion to Fn3/2, where Fn is the normal force that acts on each grain. As a test, we perform velocity step experiments. We consider the particle size distribution of r max/r min=2, where r max and r min represent maximum and minimum particle size, respectively. We found that stability of the fault zone is controlled by T. For small T or t0, velocity weakening behavior was observed. When T or t0 is large, however, no velocity weakening was observed. Our model is able to include the increase of contact area due to solution-transfer proposed by Hickman and Evans (1992). We also report the results of numerical simulation using the functional form of contact area when the solution-transfer is at work within microcontacts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Wang, Weihua; Tan, Liang Z.; Li, Xing Guang; Shi, Zilang; Kuang, Guowen; Liu, Pei Nian; Louie, Steven G.; Lin, Nian
2013-12-01
We report on the modulation of two-dimensional (2D) bands of Cu(111) surface-state electrons by three isostructural supramolecular honeycomb architectures with different periodicity or constituent molecules. Using Fourier-transformed scanning tunneling spectroscopy and model calculations, we resolved the 2D band structures and found that the intrinsic surface-state band is split into discrete bands. The band characteristics including band gap, band bottom, and bandwidth are controlled by the network unit cell size and the nature of the molecule-surface interaction. In particular, Dirac cones emerge where the second and third bands meet at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the supramolecular lattice.
Kirigami for Two-Dimensional Electronic Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, Dario; Campbell, David; Park, Harold
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional materials have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their unique properties. In this work, we introduce the notion of two-dimensional kirigami, where concepts that have been used almost exclusively for macroscale structures are applied to dramatically enhance their stretchability. Specifically, we show using classical molecular dynamics simulations that the yield and fracture strains of graphene and MoS2 can be enhanced by about a factor of three using kirigami as compared to standard monolayers. Finally, using graphene as an example, we demonstrate that the kirigami structure may open up interesting opportunities in coupling to the electronic behavior of 2D materials. Authors acknowledge Mechanical Engineering and Physics departments at Boston University, and Mackgrafe at Mackenzie Presbyterian University.
Two-dimensional probe absorption in coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ningwu; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-07-01
We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption in coupled quantum dots. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference effect, the 2D optical absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state quantum communication.
An atlas of two-dimensional materials.
Miró, Pere; Audiffred, Martha; Heine, Thomas
2014-09-21
The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls. PMID:24825454
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Information on the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory two dimensional transonic wind tunnel, completed at the end of 1979 is presented. Its construction is discussed in detail, and the wind tunnel structure, operation, test results, and future plans are presented.
Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?
Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2016-04-13
Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K. PMID:27003635
Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jinfeng
Ultrathin semiconductors present various novel electronic properties. The first experimental realized two-dimensional (2D) material is graphene. Searching 2D materials with heavy elements bring the attention to Si, Ge and Sn. 2D buckled Si-based silicene was realized by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Ge-based germanene was realized by mechanical exfoliation. Sn-based stanene has its unique properties. Stanene and its derivatives can be 2D topological insulators (TI) with a very large band gap as proposed by first-principles calculations, or can support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. For the first time, in this work, we report a successful fabrication of 2D stanene by MBE. The atomic and electronic structures were determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in combination with first-principles calculations. This work will stimulate the experimental study and exploring the future application of stanene. In cooperation with Fengfeng Zhu, Wei-jiong Chen, Yong Xu, Chun-lei Gao, Dan-dan Guan, Canhua Liu, Dong Qian, Shou-Cheng Zhang.
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26394207
Nosich, Andrey A; Gandel, Yuriy V; Magath, Thore; Altintas, Ayhan
2007-09-01
Considered is the beam wave guidance and scattering by 2D quasi-optical reflectors modeling the components of beam waveguides. The incident field is taken as the complex-source-point field to simulate a finite-width beam generated by a small-aperture source. A numerical solution is obtained from the coupled singular integral equations (SIEs) for the surface currents on reflectors, discretized by using the recently introduced Nystrom-type quadrature formulas. This analysis is applied to study what effect the edge illumination has on the performance of a chain of confocal elliptic reflectors. We also develop a semianalytical approach for shaped reflector synthesis after a prescribed near-field pattern. Here a new point is the use of auxiliary SIEs of the same type as in the scattering analysis problem, however, for the gradient of the objective function. Sample results are presented for the synthesis of a reflector-type beam splitter. PMID:17767252
Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng
2015-10-01
Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Two-dimensional dipolar nematic colloidal crystals.
Skarabot, M; Ravnik, M; Zumer, S; Tkalec, U; Poberaj, I; Babic, D; Osterman, N; Musevic, I
2007-11-01
We study the interactions and directed assembly of dipolar nematic colloidal particles in planar nematic cells using laser tweezers. The binding energies for two stable configurations of a colloidal pair with homeotropic surface alignment are determined. It is shown that the orientation of the dipolar colloidal particle can efficiently be controlled and changed by locally quenching the nematic liquid crystal from the laser-induced isotropic phase. The interaction of a single colloidal particle with a single colloidal chain is determined and the interactions between pairs of colloidal chains are studied. We demonstrate that dipolar colloidal chains self-assemble into the two-dimensional (2D) dipolar nematic colloidal crystals. An odd-even effect is observed with increasing number of colloidal chains forming the 2D colloidal crystal. PMID:18233658
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maginot, Peter G.; Morel, Jim E.; Ragusa, Jean C.
2012-08-01
We present a new nonlinear spatial finite-element method for the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with Sn angular discretization in 1-D and 2-D Cartesian geometries. This method has two central characteristics. First, it is equivalent to the linear-discontinuous (LD) Galerkin method whenever that method yields a strictly non-negative solution. Second, it always satisfies both the zeroth and first spatial moment equations. Because it yields the LD solution when that solution is non-negative, one might interpret our method as a classical fix-up to the LD scheme. However, fix-up schemes for the LD equations derived in the past have given up solution of the first moment equations when the LD solution is negative in order to satisfy positivity in a simple manner. We present computational results comparing our method in 1-D to the strictly non-negative linear exponential-discontinuous method and to the LD method. We present computational results in 2-D comparing our method to a recently developed LD fix-up scheme and to the LD scheme. It is demonstrated that our method is a valuable alternative to existing methods.
On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems
Ji, X.
1996-06-01
The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.
Two-dimensional cyanates: stabilization through hydrogenation.
Tsetseris, Leonidas
2016-06-01
According to first-principles calculations, it should be possible to grow two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN) since their energies are only marginally higher than those of their most stable three-dimensional (3D) wurtzite structures. Here we show using the same theoretical approach that chemisorption reactions of hydrogen molecules with the above-mentioned 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN systems enhance their stability as they decrease the energy difference with respect to the corresponding hydrogenated forms of the wurtzite crystals. Hydrogenation causes a sizeable decrease in the energy band gap by 0.56 eV and 0.65 eV for hydrogenated 2D-CuSCN (CuSCNH2) and 2D-CuSeCN (CuSeCNH2), respectively. Finally, we describe the stability of hydrogen vacancies in CuSCNH2 and CuSeCNH2 and show that the presence of isolated single H vacancies or di-vacancies does not affect significantly the electronic properties of the host systems close to the valence and conduction band edges. PMID:27183226
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Universal Conductance Fluctuation in Two-Dimensional Topological Insulators.
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Chang, K J
2015-01-01
Despite considerable interest in two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), a fundamental question still remains open how mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in 2D TIs are affected by spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Here, we investigate the effect of SOI on the universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) in disordered 2D TIs. Although 2D TI exhibits UCF like any metallic systems, the amplitude of these fluctuations is distinguished from that of conventional spin-orbit coupled 2D materials. Especially, in 2D systems with mirror symmetry, spin-flip scattering is forbidden even in the presence of strong intrinsic SOI, hence increasing the amplitude of the UCF by a factor of √2 compared with extrinsic SOI that breaks mirror symmetry. We propose an easy way to experimentally observe the existence of such spin-flip scattering in 2D materials. Our findings provide a key to understanding the emergence of a new universal behavior in 2D TIs. PMID:26055574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilardy, Juan M.; Giacometto, F.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.
2011-01-01
The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.
Two-dimensional modulation transfer function: a new perspective.
Marom, Emanuel; Milgrom, Benjamin; Konforti, Naim
2010-12-10
One-dimensional templates, such as the U.S. Air Force resolution target or the circular spoke target, are commonly used for the characterization of imaging systems via the modulation transfer function response. It is shown in this paper that one needs a new family of templates for a true characterization of imaging systems that acquire two-dimensional (2D) high-density images or handle 2D information, such as 2D bar code detection and identification. The contrast provided by the newly defined 2D templates is the "true" contrast of the acquired image that the electronic processors are challenged with. PMID:21151231
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization
Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.
Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry
Farrar, T.C.
1987-06-01
This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t/sub 0/; an evolution period, t/sub 1/; and a detection period, t/sub 2/.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Two-dimensional vortices and accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauta, Michiel Doede
2000-01-01
Observations show that there are disks around certain stars that slowly rain down on the central (compact) object: accretion disks. The rate of depletion of the disk might be slow but is still larger than was expected on theoretical grounds. That is why it has been suggested that the disks are turbulent. Because the disk is thin and rotating this turbulence might be related to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence which is characterized by energy transfers towards small wave numbers and the formation of 2D-vortices. This hypothesis is investigated in this thesis by numerical simulations. After an introduction, the numerical algorithm that was inplemented is discussed together with its relation to an accretion disk. It performs well under the absence of discontinuities. The code is used to study 2D-turbulence under the influence of background rotation with compressibility and a shearing background flow. The first is found to be of little consequence but the shear flow alters 2D-turbulence siginificantly. Only prograde vortices of enough strength are able to withstand the shear flow. The size of the vortices in the cross stream direction is also found to be smaller than the equivalent of the thickness of an accretion disk. These circulstances imply that the assumption of two-dimensionality is questionable so that 2D-vortices might not abound in accretion disks. However, the existence of such vortices is not ruled out and one such a cortex is studied in detail in chapter 4. The internal structure of the vortex is well described by a balance between Coriolis, centrifugal and pressure forces. The vortex is also accompanied by two spiral compressible waves. These are not responsible for the azimuthal drift of the vortex, which results from secondary vortices, but they might be related to the small radial drift that is observed. Radial drift leads to accretion but it is not very efficient. Multiple vortex interactions are the topic of tha last chapter and though interesting the
Manning’s equation and two-dimensional flow analogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hromadka, T. V., II; Whitley, R. J.; Jordan, N.; Meyer, T.
2010-07-01
SummaryTwo-dimensional (2D) flow models based on the well-known governing 2D flow equations are applied to floodplain analysis purposes. These 2D models numerically solve the governing flow equations simultaneously or explicitly on a discretization of the floodplain using grid tiles or similar tile cell geometry, called "elements". By use of automated information systems such as digital terrain modeling, digital elevation models, and GIS, large-scale topographic floodplain maps can be readily discretized into thousands of elements that densely cover the floodplain in an edge-to-edge form. However, the assumed principal flow directions of the flow model analog, as applied across an array of elements, typically do not align with the floodplain flow streamlines. This paper examines the mathematical underpinnings of a four-direction flow analog using an array of square elements with respect to floodplain flow streamlines that are not in alignment with the analog's principal flow directions. It is determined that application of Manning's equation to estimate the friction slope terms of the governing flow equations, in directions that are not coincident with the flow streamlines, may introduce a bias in modeling results, in the form of slight underestimation of flow depths. It is also determined that the maximum theoretical bias, occurs when a single square element is rotated by about 13°, and not 45° as would be intuitively thought. The bias as a function of rotation angle for an array of square elements follows approximately the bias for a single square element. For both the theoretical single square element and an array of square elements, the bias as a function of alignment angle follows a relatively constant value from about 5° to about 85°, centered at about 45°. This bias was first noted about a decade prior to the present paper, and the magnitude of this bias was estimated then to be about 20% at about 10° misalignment. An adjustment of Manning's n is
Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations
Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.
2014-07-28
Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.
Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application.
Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng
2014-11-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. In this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures. PMID:25219598
Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application
Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng
2014-08-13
Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS2) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of variousmore » 2D heterostructures.« less
Two-dimensional heterostructures: fabrication, characterization, and application
Wang, Hong; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Wei; Fang, Zheyu; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Zheng
2014-08-13
Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, e.g., MoS_{2}) have attracted considerable attention in the past few years because of their novel properties and versatile potential applications. These 2D layers can be integrated into a monolayer (lateral 2D heterostructure) or a multilayer stack (vertical 2D heterostructure). The resulting artificial 2D structures provide access to new properties and applications beyond their component 2D atomic crystals and hence, they are emerging as a new exciting field of research. Lastly, in this article, we review recent progress on the fabrication, characterization, and applications of various 2D heterostructures.
Two-dimensional soft nanomaterials: a fascinating world of materials.
Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang
2015-01-21
The discovery of graphene has triggered great interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials for scientists in chemistry, physics, materials science, and related areas. In the family of newly developed 2D nanostructured materials, 2D soft nanomaterials, including graphene, Bx Cy Nz nanosheets, 2D polymers, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and 2D supramolecular organic nanostructures, possess great advantages in light-weight, structural control and flexibility, diversity of fabrication approaches, and so on. These merits offer 2D soft nanomaterials a wide range of potential applications, such as in optoelectronics, membranes, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, sensing, biotechnology, etc. This review article provides an overview of the development of 2D soft nanomaterials, with special highlights on the basic concepts, molecular design principles, and primary synthesis approaches in the context. PMID:25155302
Modeling Meandering Channel by Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, C.; Duan, J. G.
2014-12-01
This research is to simulate the process of channel meandering using a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model. The multiple interactions between unsteady flow, turbulence, secondary flow, nonequilibrium sediment transport and bank erosion are considered by the model. The governing equations are the 2D depth-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (2D-RANS) equations and the Exner equation for bed elevation evolution. The Reynolds stresses are calculated by the k-ɛ turbulence model. The secondary flow, is modeled by the dispersion terms in momentum equations. The spatial lag between the instantaneous flow properties and the rate of sediment transport is simulated by the nonequilibrium sediment transport model. During the process of adaptation, the sediment transport rate gradually develops into the transport capacity of a given flow condition. The evolution of channel bed and bank is modeled by the general Exner equation that accounts for both vertical deformation of bed elevation as well as lateral migration of bank. The system of governing equations is solved by a semi-implicit finite volume method over the Cartesian mesh. The advective fluxes across each cell interface are simultaneously calculated by the extended HLL Riemann solver. At each time step, the diffusion terms in the governing equations are solved by the implicit Euler scheme. The source terms are discretized in a well-balanced way to retain the C-property of the proposed model. Application of the model to different test cases indicates that the model can correctly simulate different phases of meandering channel evolution which include streamwise migration, transverse migration and rotation of channel bends.
Two-dimensional signal processing with application to image restoration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Assefi, T.
1974-01-01
A recursive technique for modeling and estimating a two-dimensional signal contaminated by noise is presented. A two-dimensional signal is assumed to be an undistorted picture, where the noise introduces the distortion. Both the signal and the noise are assumed to be wide-sense stationary processes with known statistics. Thus, to estimate the two-dimensional signal is to enhance the picture. The picture representing the two-dimensional signal is converted to one dimension by scanning the image horizontally one line at a time. The scanner output becomes a nonstationary random process due to the periodic nature of the scanner operation. Procedures to obtain a dynamical model corresponding to the autocorrelation function of the scanner output are derived. Utilizing the model, a discrete Kalman estimator is designed to enhance the image.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional swimming behavior of bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel; Wu, Yilin
Many bacteria swim by flagella motility which is essential for bacterial dispersal, chemotaxis, and pathogenesis. Here we combined single-cell tracking, theoretical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate two-dimensional swimming behavior of a well-characterized flagellated bacterium Bacillus subtilis at the single-cell level. We quantified the 2D motion pattern of B. subtilis in confined space and studied how cells interact with each other. Our findings shed light on bacterial colonization in confined environments, and will serve as the ground for building more accurate models to understand bacterial collective motion. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: ylwu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk.
Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.
Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S
2011-03-25
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357
Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.
2011-03-01
We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.
Greg Flach, Frank Smith
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less
Longitudinal viscosity of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin
2013-01-01
The longitudinal viscosity ηl is obtained for a two-dimensional (2D) liquid using a Green-Kubo method with a molecular dynamics simulation. The interparticle potential used has the Debye-Hückel or Yukawa form, which models a 2D dusty plasma. The longitudinal ηl and shear ηs viscosities are found to have values that match very closely, with only negligible differences for the entire range of temperatures that is considered. For a 2D Yukawa liquid, the bulk viscosity ηb is determined to be either negligibly small or not a meaningful transport coefficient.
Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics.
Eda, Goki; Maier, Stefan A
2013-07-23
Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as MoS2 and WSe2 exhibit unusual optical properties that can be exploited for novel optoelectronics ranging from flexible photovoltaic cells to harmonic generation and electro-optical modulation devices. Rapid progress of the field, particularly in the growth area, is beginning to enable ways to implement 2D crystals into devices with tailored functionalities. For practical device performance, a key challenge is to maximize light-matter interactions in the material, which is inherently weak due to its atomically thin nature. Light management around the 2D layers with the use of plasmonic nanostructures can provide a compelling solution. PMID:23834654
Two-Dimensional Layered Materials-Based Spintronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Guohui; Wu, Xing; Tong, Wenqi; Duan, Chungang
2015-12-01
The recent emergence of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials — graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides — opens a new avenue for exploring the internal quantum degrees of freedom of electrons and their potential for new electronics. Here, we provide a brief review of experimental achievements concerning electrical spin injection, spin transport, graphene nanoribbons spintronics and transition metal dichalcogenides spin and pseudospins. Future research in 2D layered materials spintronics will need to address the development of applications such as spin transistors and spin logic devices, as well as exotic physical properties including pseudospins-valley phenomena in graphene and other 2D materials.
Parallel Stitching of Two-Dimensional Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Department of Electrical Engineering; Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Team
Large scale integration of atomically thin metals (e.g. graphene), semiconductors (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)), and insulators (e.g. hexagonal boron nitride) is critical for constructing the building blocks for future nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. However, the construction of in-plane heterostructures, especially between two atomic layers with large lattice mismatch, could be extremely difficult due to the strict requirement of spatial precision and the lack of a selective etching method. Here, we developed a general synthesis methodology to achieve both vertical and in-plane ``parallel stitched'' heterostructures between a two-dimensional (2D) and TMD materials, which enables both multifunctional electronic/optoelectronic devices and their large scale integration. This is achieved via selective ``sowing'' of aromatic molecule seeds during the chemical vapor deposition growth. MoS2 is used as a model system to form heterostructures with diverse other 2D materials. Direct and controllable synthesis of large-scale parallel stitched graphene-MoS2 heterostructures was further investigated. Unique nanometer overlapped junctions were obtained at the parallel stitched interface, which are highly desirable both as metal-semiconductor contact and functional devices/systems, such as for use in logical integrated circuits (ICs) and broadband photodetectors.
Two-dimensional separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gersten, K.
The state of the art of asymptotic theory is discussed with respect to incompressible two-dimensional separated flows. As an example, the flow over an indented flat plate is considered for two cases: a small separation bubble within the lower part of the boundary layer, and the 'catastrophic' separation of the whole boundary layer with a large recirculating eddy. Separation means failure of Prandtl's boundary layer theory, and alternate theories are required. An example of this is shown in the calculation of circulation in the dent according to triple-deck theory. The free-streamline theory approach is used to examine the indented flat plate and the flow past a circular cylinder. Attention is also given to flow control by continuous injection, combined forced and free convection, unsteady laminar flows, and laminar flows.
Independent Pixel and Two Dimensional Estimates of LANDSAT-Derived Cloud Field Albedo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, L. H.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Evans, K. F.
1996-01-01
A theoretical study has been conducted on the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity on cloud albedo bias. A two-dimensional (2D) version of the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM) is used to estimate the albedo bias of the plane parallel (PP-IPA) and independent pixel (IPA-2D) approximations for a wide range of 2D cloud fields obtained from LANDSAT. They include single layer trade cumulus, open and closed cell broken stratocumulus, and solid stratocumulus boundary layer cloud fields over ocean. Findings are presented on a variety of averaging scales and are summarized as a function of cloud fraction, mean cloud optical depth, cloud aspect ratio, standard deviation of optical depth, and the gamma function parameter Y (a measure of the width of the optical depth distribution). Biases are found to be small for small cloud fraction or mean optical depth, where the cloud fields under study behave linearly. They are large (up to 0.20 for PP-IPA bias, -0.12 for IPA-2D bias) for large v. On a scene average basis PP-IPA bias can reach 0.30, while IPA-2D bias reaches its largest magnitude at -0.07. Biases due to horizontal transport (IPA-2D) are much smaller than PP-IPA biases but account for 20% RMS of the bias overall. Limitations of this work include the particular cloud field set used, assumptions of conservative scattering, constant cloud droplet size, no gas absorption or surface reflectance, and restriction to 2D radiative transport. The LANDSAT data used may also be affected by radiative smoothing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jin; Ren, Jun; Fu, HuiXia; Ding, ZiJing; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2015-10-01
We predict a series of new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic materials made of silicon and carbon elements (2D Si x C1- x ) based on density functional theory. Our calculations on optimized structure, phonon dispersion, and finite temperature molecular dynamics confirm the stability of 2D Si x C1- x sheets in a two-dimensional, graphene-like, honeycomb lattice. The electronic band gaps vary from zero to 2.5 eV as the ratio x changes in 2D Si x C1- x changes, suggesting a versatile electronic structure in these sheets. Interestingly, among these structures Si0.25C0.75 and Si0.75C0.25 with graphene-like superlattices are semimetals with zero band gap as their π and π* bands cross linearly at the Fermi level. Atomic structural searches based on particle-swarm optimization show that the ordered 2D Si x C1- x structures are energetically favorable. Optical absorption calculations demonstrate that the 2D silicon-carbon hybrid materials have strong photoabsorption in visible light region, which hold promising potential in photovoltaic applications. Such unique electronic and optical properties in 2D Si x C1- x have profound implications in nanoelectronic and photovoltaic device applications.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic studies of implosion modes of nested wire array z-pinches
Huang, Jun; Ding, Ning Xue, Chuang; Sun, Shunkai
2014-07-15
Implosion dynamics of nested wire arrays in (r, θ) geometry was studied with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulations. Three different implosion modes are obtained by just changing the wire number of the outer array, when the other conditions, such as the initial radius, length, mass of each array, the wire number of the inner array, and the discharge voltage waveform, are fixed. Simulation results show that the effect of discrete wires, which cannot be described by the thin shell inductive model, will influence the distribution of current between the outer and inner arrays at the early stage, and the discrepancy between results from MHD and thin shell model increases with the interwire gap of the outer array.
Fourier analysis of cell-wise Block-Jacobi splitting in two-dimensional geometry
Rosa, Massimiliano; Warsa, James S; Kelley, Timothy M
2009-01-01
A Fourier analysis is conducted in two-dimensional (2D) geometry for the discrete-ordinates (SN) approximation of the neutron transport problem solved with Richardson iteration (Source Iteration) using the cell-wise Block-Jacobi (B1) algorithm. The results of the Fourier analysis show that convergence of cell-wise BJ can degrade, leading to a spectral radius equal to 1, in problems containing optically thin cells. For problems containing cells that are optically thick, instead, the spectral radius tends to O. Hence, in the optically thick-cell regime, cell-wise BJ is rapidly convergent even for problems that are scattering dominated, with a scattering ratio c close to I.
Digital Filters for Two-Dimensional Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, T. R.
1983-01-01
Computational efficient filters speed processing of two-dimensional experimental data. Two-dimensional smoothing filter used to attenuate highfrequency noise in two-dimensional numerical data arrays. Filter provides smoothed data values equal to values obtained by fitting surface with secondand third-order terms to 5 by 5 subset of data points centered on points and replacing data at each point by value of surface fitted at point. Especially suited for efficient analysis of two-dimensional experimental data on images.
Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.
Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei
2013-10-01
In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution. PMID:23977902
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.
Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2013-07-25
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities. PMID:23176195
Creating tuneable microwave media from a two-dimensional lattice of re-entrant posts
Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.
2015-11-28
The potential capabilities of resonators based on two dimensional arrays of re-entrant posts is demonstrated. Such posts may be regarded as magnetically coupled lumped element microwave harmonic oscillators, arranged in a 2D lattices structure, which is enclosed in a 3D cavity. By arranging these elements in certain 2D patterns, we demonstrate how to achieve certain requirements with respect to field localisation and device spectra. Special attention is paid to symmetries of the lattices, mechanical tuning, design of areas of high localisation of magnetic energy; this in turn creates unique discrete mode spectra. We demonstrate analogies between systems designed on the proposed platform and well known physical phenomena such as polarisation, frustration, and Whispering Gallery Modes. The mechanical tunability of the cavity with multiple posts is analysed, and its consequences to optomechanical applications is calculated. One particular application to quantum memory is demonstrated with a cavity design consisting of separate resonators analogous to discrete Fabry–Pérot resonators. Finally, we propose a generalised approach to a microwave system design based on the concept of Programmable Cavity Arrays.
Creating tuneable microwave media from a two-dimensional lattice of re-entrant posts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.
2015-11-01
The potential capabilities of resonators based on two dimensional arrays of re-entrant posts is demonstrated. Such posts may be regarded as magnetically coupled lumped element microwave harmonic oscillators, arranged in a 2D lattices structure, which is enclosed in a 3D cavity. By arranging these elements in certain 2D patterns, we demonstrate how to achieve certain requirements with respect to field localisation and device spectra. Special attention is paid to symmetries of the lattices, mechanical tuning, design of areas of high localisation of magnetic energy; this in turn creates unique discrete mode spectra. We demonstrate analogies between systems designed on the proposed platform and well known physical phenomena such as polarisation, frustration, and Whispering Gallery Modes. The mechanical tunability of the cavity with multiple posts is analysed, and its consequences to optomechanical applications is calculated. One particular application to quantum memory is demonstrated with a cavity design consisting of separate resonators analogous to discrete Fabry-Pérot resonators. Finally, we propose a generalised approach to a microwave system design based on the concept of Programmable Cavity Arrays.
Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor
Baker, Kevin
2015-12-08
A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.
Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores
Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2014-11-14
Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.
Two-dimensional dynamic fluid bowtie attenuators.
Hermus, James R; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P
2016-01-01
Fluence field modulated (FFM) CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only one-dimensional modulators have been proposed, as the extension to two-dimensional (2-D) modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based fluence field modulated designs. This work proposes to use liquid and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam, as unlike solids, these materials can be arranged allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Liquid iodine, zinc chloride, cerium chloride, erbium oxide, iron oxide, and gadolinium chloride were studied. Gaseous xenon, uranium hexafluoride, tungsten hexafluoride, and nickel tetracarbonyl were also studied. Additionally, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment using a 96 cell array in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with erbium oxide allowing for the smallest thickness. For the gases, tungsten hexaflouride required the smallest pressure to compensate for 30 cm of soft tissue. The 96 cell iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter-to-primary ratio. For both liquids and gases, when k-edges were located within the diagnostic energy range used for imaging, the mean beam energy exhibited the smallest change with compensation amount. The thickness of liquids and the gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the space constraints of C-arm-based cone beam CT (CBCT) and diagnostic CT systems. The gas pressures also seem logistically implementable within the space and tube loading constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems. PMID:26835499
Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zheng
2015-03-01
The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.
Two-dimensional convective turbulence
Gruzinov, A.V.; Kukharkin, N.; Sudan, R.N.
1996-02-01
We show that 2D {bold E{times}B} ionospheric turbulence of the electron density in the equatorial electrojet is isomorphic to the viscous convection of an ordinary fluid in a porous medium due to temperature gradients. Numerical simulations reveal the strong anisotropy in the turbulence, which consists of rising hot bubbles and falling cool bubbles. These bubbles break up into fingers leading to the formation of stable shear flows. After reaching a quasisteady state, the omnidirectional energy spectrum approaches a {ital k}{sup {minus}2} behavior, rather than {ital k}{sup {minus}5/3} as expected from isotropic turbulence. Physical mechanisms that lead to anisotropy are analyzed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Current status of one- and two-dimensional numerical models: Successes and limitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, R. J.; Gray, J. L.; Lundstrom, M. S.
1985-01-01
The capabilities of one and two-dimensional numerical solar cell modeling programs (SCAP1D and SCAP2D) are described. The occasions when a two-dimensional model is required are discussed. The application of the models to design, analysis, and prediction are presented along with a discussion of problem areas for solar cell modeling.
Collective effects in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinokour, Valerii; Sadovskyy, Ivan; Galda, Alexey
2013-03-01
We study collective quantum effects in the two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays (JJA) in the vicinity of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). We find the contribution of the quantum coherent phase slips (QCPS) into the formation of thermodynamic properties of the JJA, including critical current, as a function of the magnetic field. We investigate the response of the 2D JJA to the external bias and the contribution from QCPS to this response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang
2016-07-01
Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE). However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography (2-D LC) separati...
Application of two dimensional periodic molecular dynamics to interfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay, David H.; Slater, Ben; Catlow, C. Richard A.
1997-08-01
We have applied two-dimensional molecular dynamics to the surface of a crystalline aspartame and the interface between the crystal face and a solvent (water). This has allowed us to look at the dynamic processes at the surface. Understanding the surface structure and properties are important to controlling the crystal morphology. The thermodynamic ensemble was constant Number, surface Area and Temperature (NAT). The calculations have been carried out using a 2D Ewald summation and 2D periodic boundary conditions for the short range potentials. The equations of motion integration has been carried out using the standard velocity Verlet algorithm.
Functionalization of Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides.
Chen, Xin; McDonald, Aidan R
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterials that have the potential for application in catalysis, electronics, photonics, energy storage, and sensing. TMDs are rather inert, and thus pose problems for chemical derivatization. However, to further modify the properties of TMDs and fully harness their capabilities, routes towards their chemical functionalization must be identified. Herein, recent efforts toward the chemical (bond-forming) functionalization of 2D TMDs are critically reviewed. Recent successes are highlighted, along with areas where further detailed analyses and experimentation are required. This burgeoning field is very much in its infancy but has already provided several important breakthroughs. PMID:26848815
SOLVING THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSION FLOW MODEL.
Hromadka, T.V., II; Lai, Chintu
1985-01-01
A simplification of the two-dimensional (2-D) continuity and momentum equations is the diffusion equation. To investigate its capability, the numerical model using the diffusion approach is applied to a hypothetical failure problem of a regional water reservoir. The model is based on an explicit, integrated finite-difference scheme, and the floodplain is simulated by a popular home computer which supports 64K FORTRAN. Though simple, the 2-D model can simulate some interesting flooding effects that a 1-D full dynamic model cannot.
Shock wave in a two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal
Ghosh, Samiran
2009-10-15
Two-dimensional (2D) shock structures of longitudinal dust lattice wave (LDLW) in a hexagonal Yukawa crystal are studied. The nonlinear evolution equation derived for dusty plasma crystal is found to be a 2D Burgers' equation, where the Burgers' term, i.e., the dissipation is provided by ''hydrodynamic damping'' due to irreversible processes that take place within the system. Analytical and numerical solutions of this equation on the basis of crystal experimental parameters show the development of compressional shock structures of LDLW in 2D dusty plasma crystal. The shock strength decreases (increases) with the increase in lattice parameter {kappa} (angle of propagation of the nonlinear wave). The results are discussed in the context of 2D monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal experiments.
2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation
Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha; Huang, Jinyang; Sun, Xiaoming
2015-04-15
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli
2016-05-01
A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene
Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael; Louie, Steven G.; Ringe, Emilie; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Akinwande, Deji; Zhu, Jun; Schuller, John; Schaak, Raymond; Robinson, Joshua A
2015-11-06
The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.
Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene
Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; et al
2015-11-06
The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulkmore » solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.« less
Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials
Sato, K.; Numata, K.; Dai, W.; Hunger, M.
2014-03-31
The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.
Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage.
Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury
2016-08-01
The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. The factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. Particularly, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films. PMID:27254831
Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.
Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A
2015-12-22
The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene. PMID:26544756
Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage
Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury
2016-06-02
The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Moreover, synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. Some factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented.more » The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Some various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. In particular, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films.« less
DOGS: a collection of graphics for support of discrete ordinates codes
Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.
1980-03-01
A collection of computer codes called DOGS (Discrete Ordinates Graphics Support) has been developed to assist in the display and presentation of data generated by commonly used discrete ordinates transport codes. The DOGS codes include: EGAD for plotting two-dimensional geometries, ISOPLOT4 for plotting 2-D fluxes in a contour line fashion, FORM for plotting 2-D fluxes in a 3-D surface fashion, ACTUAL for calculating 2-D activities, TOOTH for calculating and plotting space-energy contributon fluxes, and ASPECT for plotting energy spectra. All of the codes use FIDO input formats and DISSPLA graphics software including the DISSPOP post processors.
A two dimensional artificial reality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Myron W.
1991-01-01
The current presumption is that it is necessary to don goggles, gloves and a data suit to experience artificial reality. However, there is another technology that offers an alternative or complement to the encumbering techniques associated with NASA. In VIDEOPLACE, your image appears in a 2D graphic world created by a computer. The VIDEOPLACE computer can analyze a person's image in 1/30 second and can detect when an object is touched. Thus, it can generate a graphic or auditory response to an illusory contact. VIDEOPLACE technology exists in two formats: the VIDEODESK and the VIDEOPLACE. In the VIDEODESK environment, the image of your hands can be used to perform the normal mouse functions, such as menuing and drawing. In addition, you have the advantage of multipoint control. For instance, you can use the thumbs and forefingers of each hand as control points for a spline curve. Perhaps most important, the image of your hands can be compressed and transmitted to a colleague over an ISDN voice channel to appear on the remote screen superimposed over identical information. Likewise, the image of your colleague's hands can appear on both screens. The result is that the two of you can use your hands to point to features on your respective screens as you speak, exactly as you would if you were sitting together. In the VIDEOPLACE environment, you can interact with graphic creatures and the images of other people in other locations in a graphic world. Your whole body can be moved, scaled and rotated in real-time without regard to the laws of physics. Thus, VIDEOPLACE can be used to create a fantasy world in which the laws of cause and effect are composed by an artist.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates.
Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min
2016-06-01
Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. PMID:27199079
van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min
2016-06-01
Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.
Scaling and self-similarity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics.
Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent
2015-07-01
The conditions under which depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic equations system as an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) becomes self-similar are investigated by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. Self-similarity conditions due to the 2D k-ε turbulence model are also investigated. The self-similarity conditions for the depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamics are found for the flow variables including the time, the longitudinal length, the transverse length, the water depth, the flow velocities in x- and y-directions, the bed shear stresses in x- and y-directions, the bed shear velocity, the Manning's roughness coefficient, the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, the eddy viscosity, the turbulent kinetic energy, the turbulent dissipation, and the production and the source terms in the k-ε model. By the numerical simulations, it is shown that the IBVP of depth-averaged 2D hydrodynamic flow process in a prototype domain can be self-similar with that of a scaled domain. In fact, by changing the scaling parameter and the scaling exponents of the length dimensions, one can obtain several different scaled domains. The proposed scaling relations obtained by the Lie group scaling approach may provide additional spatial, temporal, and economical flexibility in setting up physical hydraulic models in which two-dimensional flow components are important. PMID:26232977
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems.
Ortuño, M; Somoza, A M; Vinokur, V M; Baturina, T I
2015-01-01
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials. PMID:25860804
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.
Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias
2010-01-01
This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…
Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing
Meerman, G.J. te; Meulen, M.A. van der ); Mullaart, E.; Morolli, B.; Uitterlinden, A.G. ); Daas, J.H.G. den ); Vijg, J. Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA )
1993-12-01
In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core probes. The 2-D DNA typing method generates a large amount of information on polymorphic loci per gel. Here, the authors demonstrate the potential usefulness of 2-D DNA typing in an empirical linkage study on the red factor in cattle, and the authors show an example of the 2-D DNA typing analysis of a human pedigree. The power efficiency of 2-D DNA typing in general is compared with that of single-locus typing by simulation. The results indicate that, although 2-D DNA typing is very efficient in generating data on polymorphic loci, its power to detect linkage is lower than single-locus typing, because it is not obvious whether a spot represents the presence of one or two alleles. It is possible to compensate for this lower informativeness by increasing the sample size. Genome scanning by 2-D DNA typing has the potential to be more efficient than current genotyping methods in scoring polymorphic loci. Hence, it could become a method of choice in mapping genetic traits in humans and animals. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Feng, Xiao; Ding, Xuesong; Chen, Long; Wu, Yang; Liu, Lili; Addicoat, Matthew; Irle, Stephan; Dong, Yuping; Jiang, Donglin
2016-01-01
Highly ordered discrete assemblies of chlorophylls that are found in natural light-harvesting antennae are key to photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and is the principal producer of organic matter on Earth. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines, which are analogues of chlorophylls, exhibit a strong absorbance of visible and near-infrared light, respectively. A highly ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae would harvest photons over the entire solar spectrum for chemical transformation. However, such a robust antennae has not yet been synthesised. Herein, we report a strategy that merges covalent bonds and noncovalent forces to produce highly ordered two-dimensional porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine antennae. This methodology enables control over the stoichiometry and order of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine units; more importantly, this approach is compatible with various metalloporphyrin and metallophthalocyanine derivatives and thus may lead to the generation of a broad structural diversity of two-dimensional artificial antennae. These ordered porphyrin-co-phthalocyanine two-dimensional antennae exhibit unique optical properties and catalytic functions that are not available with single-component or non-structured materials. These 2D artificial antennae exhibit exceptional light-harvesting capacity over the entire solar spectrum as a result of a synergistic light-absorption effect. In addition, they exhibit outstanding photosensitising activities in using both visible and near-infrared photons for producing singlet oxygen. PMID:27622274
Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.
1978-01-01
In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.
Two dimensional WS2 lateral heterojunctions by strain modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Lan; Zhang, Yuhan; Hu, Song; Wang, Xiangfu; Liu, Chunsheng; Guo, Yandong; Wang, Xinran; Yan, Xiaohong
2016-06-01
"Strain engineering" has been widely used to tailor the physical properties of layered materials, like graphene, black phosphorus, and transition-metal dichalcogenides. Here, we exploit thermal strain engineering to construct two dimensional (2D) WS2 in-plane heterojunctions. Kelvin probe force microscopy is used to investigate the surface potentials and work functions of few-layer WS2 flakes, which are grown on SiO2/Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition, followed by a fast cooling process. In the interior regions of strained WS2 flakes, work functions are found to be much larger than that of the unstrained regions. The difference in work functions, together with the variation of band gaps, endows the formation of heterojunctions in the boundaries between inner and outer domains of WS2 flakes. This result reveals that the existence of strain offers a unique opportunity to modulate the electronic properties of 2D materials and construct 2D lateral heterojunctions.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-01
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Extended quantum jump description of vibronic two-dimensional spectroscopy
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Keß, Martin; Wehner, Johannes G.; Engel, Volker; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Eisfeld, Alexander
2015-06-07
We calculate two-dimensional (2D) vibronic spectra for a model system involving two electronic molecular states. The influence of a bath is simulated using a quantum-jump approach. We use a method introduced by Makarov and Metiu [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10126 (1999)] which includes an explicit treatment of dephasing. In this way it is possible to characterize the influence of dissipation and dephasing on the 2D-spectra, using a wave function based method. The latter scales with the number of stochastic runs and the number of system eigenstates included in the expansion of the wave-packets to be propagated with the stochastic method and provides an efficient method for the calculation of the 2D-spectra.
Nanoelectronic circuits based on two-dimensional atomic layer crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seunghyun; Zhong, Zhaohui
2014-10-01
Since the discovery of graphene and related forms of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer crystals, numerous studies have reported on the fundamental material aspects, such as the synthesis, the physical properties, and the electrical properties on the transistor level. With the advancement in large-area synthesis methods, system level integration to exploit the unique applications of these materials is close at hand. The main purpose of this review is to focus on the current progress and the prospect of circuits and systems based on 2D material that go beyond the single-transistor level studies. Both analog and digital circuits based on graphene and related 2D atomic layer crystals will be discussed.
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de
2015-08-15
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Two dimensional Langevin recombination in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juška, Gytis; Genevičius, Kristijonas; Nekrašas, Nerijus; Sliaužys, Gytis; Österbacka, Ronald
2009-07-01
In this work, it is shown that recombination in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (RRP3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction solar cells is caused by the two dimensional (2D) Langevin recombination in the lamellar structures of RRP3HT, which are formed after annealing process. Due to 2D Langevin process, bimolecular recombination coefficient is reduced in comparison with three dimensional Langevin case, and bimolecular recombination coefficient depends on the density of charge carriers n1/2. Data obtained from the different experimental techniques (charge extraction with linearly increasing voltage, integral time of flight, double injection current transients and transient absorption spectroscopy) confirms 2D Langevin recombination in RR3PHT.
Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
2016-06-01
We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.
A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.
1993-01-01
The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges.
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-01
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria. PMID:25554272
Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs
Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.
2016-01-01
At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195
Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha; Huang, Jinyang; Sun, Xiaoming
2015-04-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing "reaction zones" during sedimentation of the colloids.
Two-dimensional nanoarchitectonics: organic and hybrid materials.
Govindaraju, T; Avinash, M B
2012-10-21
Programmed molecular assemblies with molecular-level precision have always intrigued mankind in the quest to master the art of molecular engineering. In this regard, our review seeks to highlight the state of the art in supramolecular engineering. Herein we describe two-dimensional (2D) nanoarchitectonics of organic and organic-inorganic based hybrid materials. Molecular systems ranging from simpler hydrogen bonding driven bis-acylurea and cyclic dipeptide derivatives to complex peptoids, arylenes, cucurbiturils, biphenyls, organosilicons and organometallics, which involve a delicate interplay of multiple noncovalent interactions are discussed. These specifically chosen examples illustrate the molecular design principles and synthetic protocols to realize 2D nanosheets. The description also emphasizes the wide variety of functional properties and technological implications of these 2D nanomaterials besides an outlook for future progress. PMID:22782293
Attractive Coulomb interaction of two-dimensional Rydberg excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahnazaryan, V.; Shelykh, I. A.; Kyriienko, O.
2016-06-01
We analyze theoretically the Coulomb scattering processes of highly excited excitons in the direct-band-gap semiconductor quantum wells. We find that contrary to the interaction of ground-state excitons, the electron and hole exchange interaction between excited excitons has an attractive character both for s - and p -type two-dimensional (2D) excitons. Moreover, we show that similar to the three-dimensional highly excited excitons, the direct interaction of 2D Rydberg excitons exhibits van der Waals-type long-range interaction. The results predict the linear growth of the absolute value of exchange interaction strength with an exciton principal quantum number and point the way towards enhancement of optical nonlinearity in 2D excitonic systems.
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-08-01
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported. PMID:26329169
Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis
Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G
2011-03-23
We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10.
Yoshikawa, M; Negishi, S; Shima, Y; Hojo, H; Mase, A; Kogi, Y; Imai, T
2010-10-01
Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10. PMID:21033869
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water
Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
Two Dimensional Mechanism for Insect Hovering
Jane Wang, Z.
2000-09-04
Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Discrete Sibson interpolation.
Park, Sung W; Linsen, Lars; Kreylos, Oliver; Owens, John D; Hamann, Bernd
2006-01-01
Natural-neighbor interpolation methods, such as Sibson's method, are well-known schemes for multivariate data fitting and reconstruction. Despite its many desirable properties, Sibson's method is computationally expensive and difficult to implement, especially when applied to higher-dimensional data. The main reason for both problems is the method's implementation based on a Voronoi diagram of all data points. We describe a discrete approach to evaluating Sibson's interpolant on a regular grid, based solely on finding nearest neighbors and rendering and blending d-dimensional spheres. Our approach does not require us to construct an explicit Voronoi diagram, is easily implemented using commodity three-dimensional graphics hardware, leads to a significant speed increase compared to traditional approaches, and generalizes easily to higher dimensions. For large scattered data sets, we achieve two-dimensional (2D) interpolation at interactive rates and 3D interpolation (3D) with computation times of a few seconds. PMID:16509383
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, K. F.
1993-01-01
A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular part of the radiance field in a spherical harmonic series and representing the spatial part with a discrete grid. The resulting sparse coupled system of equations is solved iteratively with the conjugate gradient method. A Monte Carlo model is used for extensive verification of outgoing flux and radiance values from both smooth and highly variable (multifractal) media. The spherical harmonic expansion naturally allows for different levels of approximation, but tests show that the 2D equivalent of the two-stream approximation is poor at approximating variations in the outgoing flux. The model developed here is shown to be highly efficient so that media with tens of thousands of grid points can be computed in minutes. The large improvement in efficiency will permit quick, accurate radiative transfer calculations of realistic cloud fields and improve our understanding of the effect of inhomogeneity on radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres.
Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee
2011-04-01
In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection. PMID:21396181
Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.
2015-01-01
A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…
Two-dimensional correlation analysis of near-infrared spectral intensity variations of ground wheat
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the NIR spectral intensity fluctuations among many spectra of ground wheat with multi-variable variations. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra having neighboring protein / SDSS reference values were averaged and then new...
The SWISS-2DPAGE database of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Appel, R D; Sanchez, J C; Bairoch, A; Golaz, O; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Hughes, G J; Hochstrasser, D F
1994-01-01
SWISS-2DPAGE is a database of proteins identified on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), created and maintained at the University Hospital of Geneva in collaboration with the Department of Medical Biochemistry of Geneva University. The proteins have been identified on various 2-D PAGE reference maps by microsequencing, immunoblotting, gel comparison and amino acid composition. Images PMID:7937063
Two-Dimensional Ffowcs Williams/Hawkings Equation Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.
2005-01-01
FWH2D is a Fortran 90 computer program that solves a two-dimensional (2D) version of the equation, derived by J. E. Ffowcs Williams and D. L. Hawkings, for sound generated by turbulent flow. FWH2D was developed especially for estimating noise generated by airflows around such approximately 2D airframe components as slats. The user provides input data on fluctuations of pressure, density, and velocity on some surface. These data are combined with information about the geometry of the surface to calculate histories of thickness and loading terms. These histories are fast-Fourier-transformed into the frequency domain. For each frequency of interest and each observer position specified by the user, kernel functions are integrated over the surface by use of the trapezoidal rule to calculate a pressure signal. The resulting frequency-domain signals are inverse-fast-Fourier-transformed back into the time domain. The output of the code consists of the time- and frequency-domain representations of the pressure signals at the observer positions. Because of its approximate nature, FWH2D overpredicts the noise from a finite-length (3D) component. The advantage of FWH2D is that it requires a fraction of the computation time of a 3D Ffowcs Williams/Hawkings solver.
First-Principles Predication of Two-Dimensional Electrides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ming, Wenmei; Yoon, Mina
Two-dimensional (2D) electrides have recently received increasing interest due to its promise for electron emitter, surface catalyst and high-mobility electronic devices. However, they are very limited in a few layered alkaline-earth nitrides and rare-earth carbides. Here, we extend the possibility of 2D electrides by structure predication, using density functional theory calculation in conjunction with particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simple-element compounds A2B (A/B = alkali metals/halogen, or A/B = alkaline-earth metals/VA, VIA, VIIA nonmetals) and AB (A/B = alkaline-earth metals/halogen), which have nominal imbalanced oxidation numbers, were investigated. We find several new 2D electrides out of 90 candidates, and uncover that the stabilization of the 2D layered structure, which is required for the success of 2D electrides, strongly depends on the relative size of cation, in such a way that it has to be of similar or larger size than the anion in order to sufficiently screen the repulsion between the excess electrons and anions. We additionally identify the experimental conditions of temperature and chemical potential where the predicted 2D electrides are stabilized against the decomposition into compounds with balanced oxidation numbers. Funding support from LDRD program at ORNL.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations
Steinhauer, Loren
2014-08-15
An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.
Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields
Belvedere, L. V.
2006-11-15
The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.
Efficient Two-Dimensional-FFT Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miko, J.
1992-01-01
Program computes 64 X 64-point fast Fourier transform in less than 17 microseconds. Optimized 64 X 64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform combines performance of real- and complex-valued one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) to execute two-dimensional FFT and coefficients of power spectrum. Coefficients used in many applications, including analyzing spectra, convolution, digital filtering, processing images, and compressing data. Source code written in C, 8086 Assembly, and Texas Instruments TMS320C30 Assembly languages.
Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Chiwon; Yang, Myung-Seok; Jeong, Sunil; Kim, Dongchul; Kang, Taewook
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) gold nanoparticles can possess novel physical and chemical properties, which will greatly expand the utility of gold nanoparticles in a wide variety of applications ranging from catalysis to biomedicine. However, colloidal synthesis of such particles generally requires sophisticated synthetic techniques to carefully guide anisotropic growth. Here we report that 2D hyper-branched gold nanoparticles in the lateral size range of about 50 ~ 120 nm can be synthesized selectively on a 2D immiscible oil/water interface in a few minutes at room temperature without structure-directing agents. An oleic acid/water interface can provide diffusion-controlled growth conditions, leading to the structural evolution of a smaller gold nucleus to 2D nanodendrimer and nanourchin at the interface. Simulations based on the phase field crystal model match well with experimental observations on the 2D branching of the nucleus, which occurs at the early stage of growth. Branching results in higher surface area and stronger near-field enhancement of 2D gold nanoparticles. This interfacial synthesis can be scaled up by creating an emulsion and the recovery of oleic acid is also achievable by centrifugation. PMID:25156520
Thermopower in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chickering, William Elbridge
The subject of this thesis is the measurement and interpretation of thermopower in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). These 2DESs are realized within state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures that are cooled to temperatures as low as T = 20 mK. Much of this work takes place within strong magnetic fields where the single-particle density of states quantizes into discrete Landau levels (LLs), a regime best known for the quantum Hall effect (QHE). In addition, we review a novel hot-electron technique for measuring thermopower of 2DESs that dramatically reduces the influence of phonon drag. Early chapters concentrate on experimental materials and methods. A brief overview of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and device fabrication is followed by details of our cryogenic setup. Next, we provide a primer on thermopower that focuses on 2DESs at low temperatures. We then review our experimental devices, temperature calibration methods, as well as measurement circuits and protocols. Latter chapters focus on the physics and thermopower results in the QHE regime. After reviewing the basic phenomena associated with the QHE, we discuss thermopower in this regime. Emphasis is given to the relationship between diffusion thermopower and entropy. Experimental results demonstrate this relationship persists well into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Several experimental results are reviewed. Unprecedented observations of the diffusion thermopower of a high-mobility 2DES at temperatures as high as T = 2 K are achieved using our hot-electron technique. The composite fermion (CF) effective mass is extracted from measurements of thermopower at LL filling factor nu = 3/2. The thermopower versus magnetic field in the FQH regime is shown to be qualitatively consistent with a simple entropic model of CFs. The thermopower at nu = 5/2 is shown to be quantitatively consistent with the presence of non-Abelian anyons. An abrupt collapse of thermopower is observed at
A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code
1995-03-17
F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less
Two-Dimensional Aperture Coding for Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, Zachary E.; Chen, Evan X.; Amsden, Jason J.; Wolter, Scott D.; Danell, Ryan M.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Brady, David J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.
2015-02-01
In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code.
Two-dimensional aperture coding for magnetic sector mass spectrometry.
Russell, Zachary E; Chen, Evan X; Amsden, Jason J; Wolter, Scott D; Danell, Ryan M; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Gehm, Michael E; Brady, David J; Glass, Jeffrey T
2015-02-01
In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in either resolution or throughput would be expected. However, in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications, we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of 2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is preferred because of increased measurement diversity for improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom 90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This 2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding, including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore, micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support structures were developed to provide a viable design that allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the code. PMID:25510933
Ultrafast Band Structure Control of a Two-Dimensional Heterostructure.
Ulstrup, Søren; Čabo, Antonija Grubišić; Miwa, Jill A; Riley, Jonathon M; Grønborg, Signe S; Johannsen, Jens C; Cacho, Cephise; Alexander, Oliver; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; King, Phil D C; Hofmann, Philip
2016-06-28
The electronic structure of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be significantly altered by screening effects, either from free charge carriers in the material or by environmental screening from the surrounding medium. The physical properties of 2D semiconductors placed in a heterostructure with other 2D materials are therefore governed by a complex interplay of both intra- and interlayer interactions. Here, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission, we are able to isolate both the layer-resolved band structure and, more importantly, the transient band structure evolution of a model 2D heterostructure formed of a single layer of MoS2 on graphene. Our results reveal a pronounced renormalization of the quasiparticle gap of the MoS2 layer. Following optical excitation, the band gap is reduced by up to ∼400 meV on femtosecond time scales due to a persistence of strong electronic interactions despite the environmental screening by the n-doped graphene. This points to a large degree of tunability of both the electronic structure and the electron dynamics for 2D semiconductors embedded in a van der Waals-bonded heterostructure. PMID:27267820
Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1–2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.
Photocurrent generation with two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors.
Buscema, Michele; Island, Joshua O; Groenendijk, Dirk J; Blanter, Sofya I; Steele, Gary A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. This family of materials allows for the realization of versatile electronic devices and holds promise for next-generation (opto)electronics. Their electronic properties strongly depend on the number of layers, making them interesting from a fundamental standpoint. For electronic applications, semiconducting 2D materials benefit from sizable mobilities and large on/off ratios, due to the large modulation achievable via the gate field-effect. Moreover, being mechanically strong and flexible, these materials can withstand large strain (>10%) before rupture, making them interesting for strain engineering and flexible devices. Even in their single layer form, semiconducting 2D materials have demonstrated efficient light absorption, enabling large responsivity in photodetectors. Therefore, semiconducting layered 2D materials are strong candidates for optoelectronic applications, especially for photodetection. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on semiconducting 2D materials, focusing on the transition metal dichalcogenides, novel van der Waals materials, black phosphorus, and heterostructures. PMID:25909688
Cross-peak-specific two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Read, Elizabeth L.; Engel, Gregory S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.; Mančal, Tomáš; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.
2007-01-01
Intermolecular electronic coupling dictates the optical properties of molecular aggregate systems. Of particular interest are photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes that absorb sunlight then efficiently direct energy toward the photosynthetic reaction center. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy has been used widely in the infrared (IR) and increasingly in the visible to probe excitonic couplings and observe dynamics, but the off-diagonal spectral signatures of coupling are often obscured by broad diagonal peaks, especially in the visible regime. Rotating the polarizations of the laser pulses exciting the sample can highlight certain spectral features, and the use of polarized pulse sequences to elucidate cross-peaks in 2D spectra has been demonstrated in the IR for vibrational transitions. Here we develop 2D electronic spectroscopy using cross-peak-specific pulse polarization conditions in an investigation of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson light harvesting complex from green photosynthetic bacteria. Our measurements successfully highlight off-diagonal features of the 2D spectra and, in combination with an analysis based on the signs of features arising from particular energy level pathways and theoretical simulation, we characterize the dominant response pathways responsible for the spectral features. Cross-peak-specific 2D electronic spectroscopy provides insight into the interchromophore couplings, as well as into the energetic pathways giving rise to the signal. With femtosecond resolution, we also observe dynamical processes that depend on these couplings and interactions with the protein environment. PMID:17548830
Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.
Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz
2016-05-11
Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors. PMID:27089497
Modified two-dimensional computational model for electrostrictive graft elastomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Changjie; Wang, Youqi; Su, Ji
2004-07-01
A modified two-dimensional computational model is developed to calculate the electromechanical properties of the electrostrictive graft elastomer. The electrostrictive graft elastomer, recently developed by NASA, is a type of electro-active polymer. In a previous paper, the authors calculated electrostrictive graft elastomer electromechanical properties using a 2-D atomic force field. For this 2-D polymer structure, a much higher electric field was required to produce strain compared with that required in experiments. Two reasons could explain the higher electric field strength: (1) Polymer chain movement is restricted to a 2-D plane rather than to a 3-D plane. Out-plane dihedral torsional angle change would thus not be modeled. For this reason, 2-D polymer chains are less flexible than actual 3-D polymer chains. (2) Boundary effect of the computational model. In the original model, a unit cell consisting of a single graft unit was developed to simulate the deformation of the electrostrictive graft elastomer. The boundary of the unit cell would restrict the rotation of the graft unit. In this paper, a modified 2-D computational model is established to overcome the above problems. Firstly, three-dimensional deformations, induced by both bending angle and dihedral torsional angle changes, are projected onto a two-dimensional plane. Using both theoretical and numerical analyses, the projected 2-D equilibrium bending angle is shown to have the same value as the 3-D equilibrium bending angle. The 2-D equivalent bending stiffness is derived using a series model based upon the fact that both bending and dihedral torsion produce configuration change. The equivalent stiffness is justified by the characteristics of the polymer chain and end-to-end distance. Secondly, a self-consistent scheme is developed to eliminate the boundary effect. Eight images of the unit cell are created peripherally, with the original unit cell in the center. Thus the boundary can only affect the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hengxu; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; van der Giessen, Erik
2015-03-01
It is well known for almost three decades that crystal plasticity in metals, such as Cu, is strongly rate dependent at strain rates higher than 10⌃3/s. This rate sensitivity is typically attributed to dislocation drag effects, but there appears to be a large range of possible high-rate-sensitivity exponents, depending on the sample and the experimental group. Thus, one may hypothesize that the dislocation structure has a strong influence on these effects. We elucidate the origins of rate effects in crystal plasticity and their connection with relaxed, before applying stress, dislocation structures by investigating simple bending in a model of discrete dislocation plasticity in two dimensions. We find that the high-strain-rate sensitivity changes significantly as a function of strain, different material treatment (annealed or not) and properties of dislocation sources (surface vs. bulk nucleation). We characterize in detail the emerging patterning in the dislocation structure and we provide predictions for future experiments on the dependence of the rate sensitivity on dislocation-related characteristics.
Control of Electron Transport in Two-Dimensional Array of Si Nanodisks for Spiking Neuron Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Makoto; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Morie, Takashi; Samukawa, Seiji
2010-08-01
We fabricated a device with a two-dimensional Si-nanodisk array (2D ND array) with spiking neurons. The 2D ND array was prepared using a 2D array of iron-oxide cores as a uniform mask and a defect-free chlorine neutral beam as an etcher. The transformation from a pulse input signal (voltage) to a decayed analog output (current) was clearly observed, which may have resulted from the random hopping of electrons in the 2D ND array. Additionally, these analog outputs could be integrated in this 2D array by applying consecutive pulse inputs.
High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Black Phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Likai; Ye, Guojun; Tran, Vy; Chen, Guorui; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Jian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Li; Chen, Xianhui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2015-03-01
Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new member in the family of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals. It is a semiconductor with a tunable bandgap and high carrier mobility - material properties that are important for potential opto-electronic and high-speed device applications. In this work, we achieve a record-high carrier mobility in black phosphorus by placing it on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. The exceptional mobility of the 2D electron gas created at the interface allows us to observe quantum oscillations for the first time in this material. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the oscillations yields crucial information about the black phosphorus 2DEG, such as cyclotron mass of the charge carriers and their lifetime. Our results pave the way to future research on quantum transport in black phosphorus.
Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.
2016-08-01
A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.
Dynamic metastability in the two-dimensional Potts ferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez Berganza, Miguel; Petri, Alberto; Coletti, Pietro
2014-05-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) Potts model on the square lattice after a quench below the discontinuous transition point. By means of numerical simulations of systems with q =12, 24, and 48, we observe the onset of a stationary regime below the temperature-driven transition, in a temperature interval decreasing with the system size and increasing with q. These results obtained dynamically agree with those obtained from the analytical continuation of the free energy [J. L. Meunier and A. Morel, Eur. Phys. J. B 13, 341 (2000), 10.1007/s100510050040], from which metastability in the 2D Potts model results to be a finite-size effect.
Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin
2015-04-01
Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.
Exchange interactions of magnetic surfaces below two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Rico; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan
2016-06-01
In this theoretical investigation we demonstrate that the adsorption of spatially extended two-dimensional (2D) π systems such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on the ferromagnetic fcc Co(111) surface leads to a specific behavior of the in-plane and interlayer Co-Co magnetic exchange interactions. More specifically, for both systems the magnetic exchange coupling within the first Co layer is enhanced, while the one between the first and the second Co layer is not modified, in contrast to the magnetic interlayer softening induced by organic molecules. Importantly, the in-plane magnetic hardening effect is mainly due to the hybridization between the pz states of the 2D π system and the d states of the Co surface.
Superfluid response of two-dimensional parahydrogen clusters in confinement
Idowu, Saheed; Boninsegni, Massimo
2015-04-07
We study by computer simulations the effect of confinement on the superfluid properties of small two-dimensional (2D) parahydrogen clusters. For clusters of fewer than twenty molecules, the superfluid response in the low temperature limit is found to remain comparable in magnitude to that of free clusters, within a rather wide range of depth and size of the confining well. The resilience of the superfluid response is attributable to the “supersolid” character of these clusters. We investigate the possibility of establishing a bulk 2D superfluid “cluster crystal” phase of p-H{sub 2}, in which a global superfluid response would arise from tunnelling of molecules across adjacent unit cells. The computed energetics suggests that for clusters of about ten molecules, such a phase may be thermodynamically stable against the formation of the equilibrium insulating crystal, for values of the cluster crystal lattice constant possibly allowing tunnelling across adjacent unit cells.
Nonlinear compressional waves in a two-dimensional Yukawa lattice.
Avinash, K; Zhu, P; Nosenko, V; Goree, J
2003-10-01
A modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is obtained for studying the propagation of nonlinear compressional waves and pulses in a chain of particles including the effect of damping. Suitably altering the linear phase velocity makes this equation useful also for the problem of phonon propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice. Assuming a Yukawa potential, we use this method to model compressional wave propagation in a 2D plasma crystal, as in a recent experiment. By integrating the modified KdV equation the pulse is allowed to evolve, and good agreement with the experiment is found. It is shown that the speed of a compressional pulse increases with its amplitude, while the speed of a rarefactive pulse decreases. It is further discussed how the drag due to the background gas has a crucial role in weakening nonlinear effects and preventing the emergence of a soliton. PMID:14683049
Water adsorption on two-dimensional silica films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayakasinghe, M. T.; Chakradhar, A.; Sivapragasam, N.; Burghaus, U.
2016-02-01
In the meanwhile several inorganic low-dimensional crystals (analog to the prototypical organic graphene) are known. A technological important example is two-dimensional (2D) silica films (silicatene); their molecular structure is well described in the literature. However, much less is known about the surface chemistry. We present experimental data to characterize water adsorption on silicatene using several known synthesis procedures. The wettability of the 2D films did in our study depend on details of the film preparation. Therefore, the hydrophobicity could be used as a simple diagnostics tool to verify the quality of silicatene films. In addition, wettability of the precursors to silicatene namely Mo(112), and O-Mo(112) were characterized.
Two-dimensional inorganic analogues of graphene: transition metal dichalcogenides.
Jana, Manoj K; Rao, C N R
2016-09-13
The discovery of graphene marks a major event in the physics and chemistry of materials. The amazing properties of this two-dimensional (2D) material have prompted research on other 2D layered materials, of which layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are important members. Single-layer and few-layer TMDCs have been synthesized and characterized. They possess a wide range of properties many of which have not been known hitherto. A typical example of such materials is MoS2 In this article, we briefly present various aspects of layered analogues of graphene as exemplified by TMDCs. The discussion includes not only synthesis and characterization, but also various properties and phenomena exhibited by the TMDCs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'. PMID:27501969
Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers
Wang Ziren; Han Yilong; Alsayed, Ahmed M.
2010-04-21
Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.
Materials Science and Engineering with Two-dimensional Atomic Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajayan, Pulickel M.
There has been tremendous interest in recent years to study two-dimensional atomic layers which form building blocks of many bulk layered materials and devices. This talk will focus on the materials science aspects of 2D atomic layer, in particular the emerging structures based on transition metal chalcogenides. Several aspects that include synthesis, characterization and device fabrication will be explored with the objective of achieving all 2D functional structures for future technologies. The concept of nanoscale engineering and the goal of creating new artificially stacked van der Waals solids will be discussed through a number of examples. The challenges involved in scalable synthesis, doping, defect engineering, surface modifications of monolayers and the controlled creation of stacked structures and in-plane junctions from multiple compositions will be discussed. Some of anticipated applications of these materials will also be discussed.
Electrical conductivity of quasi-two-dimensional foams.
Yazhgur, Pavel; Honorez, Clément; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina
2015-04-01
Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) foams consist of monolayers of bubbles squeezed between two narrowly spaced plates. These simplified foams have served successfully in the past to shed light on numerous issues in foam physics. Here we consider the electrical conductivity of such model foams. We compare experiments to a model which we propose, and which successfully relates the structural and the conductive properties of the foam over the full range of the investigated liquid content. We show in particular that in the case of quasi-2D foams the liquid in the nodes needs to be taken into account even at low liquid content. We think that these results may provide different approaches for the characterization of foam properties and for the in situ characterization of the liquid content of foams in confining geometries, such as microfluidics. PMID:25974485
CAS2D- NONROTATING BLADE-TO-BLADE, STEADY, POTENTIAL TRANSONIC CASCADE FLOW ANALYSIS CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1994-01-01
An exact, full-potential-equation model for the steady, irrotational, homoentropic, and homoenergetic flow of a compressible, inviscid fluid through a two-dimensional planar cascade together with its appropriate boundary conditions has been derived. The CAS2D computer program numerically solves an artificially time-dependent form of the actual full-potential-equation, providing a nonrotating blade-to-blade, steady, potential transonic cascade flow analysis code. Comparisons of results with test data and theoretical solutions indicate very good agreement. In CAS2D, the governing equation is discretized by using type-dependent, rotated finite differencing and the finite area technique. The flow field is discretized by providing a boundary-fitted, nonuniform computational mesh. This mesh is generated by using a sequence of conformal mapping, nonorthogonal coordinate stretching, and local, isoparametric, bilinear mapping functions. The discretized form of the full-potential equation is solved iteratively by using successive line over relaxation. Possible isentropic shocks are captured by the explicit addition of an artificial viscosity in a conservative form. In addition, a four-level, consecutive, mesh refinement feature makes CAS2D a reliable and fast algorithm for the analysis of transonic, two-dimensional cascade flows. The results from CAS2D are not directly applicable to three-dimensional, potential, rotating flows through a cascade of blades because CAS2D does not consider the effects of the Coriolis force that would be present in the three-dimensional case. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 200K of 8 bit bytes. The CAS2D program was developed in 1980.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Masato; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Osawa, Hisashi; Miura, Kenji; Greaves, S.; Aoi, H.; Kanai, Y.; Muraoka, Hiroaki
2012-04-01
A simple writing process considering magnetic clusters due to exchange coupling between grains is studied for two-dimensional magnetic recording. The bit error rate (BER) performance of a low-density parity-check coding and iterative decoding system with a two-dimensional neural network equalizer (2D-NNE) that can diminish the influences of jitter-like medium noise and inter-track interference is obtained using a read/write channel model based on the proposed writing process, and it is compared with those for one- and two-dimensional finite impulse response equalizers (FIREs). It is clarified that the BER performance for the 2D-NNE is far superior to those for the FIREs.
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.
Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras
2015-12-01
The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26585088
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Two-dimensional nanolithography using atom interferometry
Gangat, A.; Pradhan, P.; Pati, G.; Shahriar, M.S.
2005-04-01
We propose a scheme for the lithography of arbitrary, two-dimensional nanostructures via matter-wave interference. The required quantum control is provided by a {pi}/2-{pi}-{pi}/2 atom interferometer with an integrated atom lens system. The lens system is developed such that it allows simultaneous control over the atomic wave-packet spatial extent, trajectory, and phase signature. We demonstrate arbitrary pattern formations with two-dimensional {sup 87}Rb wave packets through numerical simulations of the scheme in a practical parameter space. Prospects for experimental realizations of the lithography scheme are also discussed.
Crossflow in two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sebacher, D. I.; Lee, L. P.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation of the crossflow effects in three contoured, two-dimensional asymmetric nozzles is described. The data were compared with theoretical predictions of nozzle flow by using an inviscid method of characteristics solution and two-dimensional turbulent boundary-layer calculations. The effect of crossflow as a function of the nozzle maximum expansion angle was studied by use of oil-flow techniques, static wall-pressure measurements, and impact-pressure surveys at the nozzle exit. Reynolds number effects on crossflow were investigated.
Pressure profiles of nonuniform two-dimensional atomic Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martiyanov, Kirill; Barmashova, Tatiana; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey
2016-06-01
Spatial profiles of the pressure have been measured in atomic Fermi gases with primarily two-dimensional (2D) kinematics. The in-plane motion of the particles is confined by a Gaussian-shape potential. The two-component deeply degenerate Fermi gases are prepared at different values of the s -wave attraction. The pressure profile is found using the force-balance equation, from the measured density profile and the trapping potential. The pressure is compared to zero-temperature models within the local density approximation. In the weakly interacting regime, the pressure lies above a Landau Fermi-liquid theory and below the ideal-Fermi-gas model, whose prediction coincides with that of the Cooper-pair mean-field theory. The values closest to the data are provided by the approach where the mean field of Cooper pairs is supplemented with fluctuations. In the regime of strong interactions, in response to the increasing attraction, the pressure shifts below this model reaching lower values calculated within Monte Carlo methods. Comparison to models shows that interaction-induced departure from 2D kinematics is either small or absent. In particular, comparison with a lattice Monte Carlo suggests that kinematics is two dimensional in the strongly interacting regime.
Statistical mechanics of shell models for two-dimensional turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurell, E.; Boffetta, G.; Crisanti, A.; Frick, P.; Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.
1994-12-01
We study shell models that conserve the analogs of energy and enstrophy and hence are designed to mimic fluid turbulence in two-dimensions (2D). The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager [Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 6, 279 (1949)], Hopf [J. Rat. Mech. Anal. 1, 87 (1952)], and Lee [Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)]. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. This is clear evidence that the simplest shell models are not adequate to reproduce the main features of two-dimensional turbulence. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium coincide in these shell models in contrast to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence has previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward cascade of enstrophy. We also study the dynamical properties of the models and the growth of perturbations.
Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.
Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun
2016-04-15
Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. PMID:26994923
The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.
2016-01-01
One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warisarn, C.; Losuwan, T.; Supnithi, P.; Kovintavewat, P.
2014-05-01
At high recording density, the readback signal of two-dimensional magnetic recording is inevitably corrupted by the two-dimensional (2D) interference consisting of inter-symbol interference and inter-track interference (ITI), which can significantly degrade the overall system performance. This paper proposes an iterative ITI mitigation method using three modified 2D soft-output Viterbi algorithm (2D-SOVA) detectors in conjunction with an iterative processing technique to combat the 2D interference. The codeword of the outer code is divided and then written on three separate tracks. For every iteration, all 2D-SOVA detectors exchange the soft information to improve the reliability of the a priori information and use it in the branch metric calculation, before feeding the refined soft information to the outer decoder. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional receiver and the existing partial ITI mitigation method.
Bunck, David N; Dichtel, William R
2013-10-01
Two-dimensional (2D) polymers assemble organic subunits into covalently linked, high-aspect-ratio networks with long-range order. Despite recent advances in 2D polymerization, scalable and general methods to access few- and single-layer materials are limited. Here we exfoliate a hydrazone-linked covalent organic framework (COF) to yield bulk quantities of few-layer two-dimensional (2D) polymers. Immersing the COF powder in several laboratory solvents exfoliates and disperses thin COF-43 samples, which maintain their characteristic periodic hexagonal structure. This phenomenon was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. 2D COFs with reduced interlayer interaction energies offer a new means to access high-aspect-ratio 2D polymers whose structure may be designed using established principles of COF synthesis. PMID:24053107
Two-dimensional carbon leading to new photoconversion processes.
Tang, Hongjie; Hessel, Colin M; Wang, Jiangyan; Yang, Nailiang; Yu, Ranbo; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Dan
2014-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotropes, which are atomic thick layers made of network carbon atoms with hexagonal structured lattices, have been neglected until the direct investigation of mechanically exfoliated graphene by Novoselov et al. in 2004. Graphene is a 2D carbon allotrope with a unique structure of hexagonally arranged atoms that give it unparalleled electrical conductivity and carrier mobility, in addition to excellent mechanical flexibility and extremely high specific surface area. Graphene and its derivatives have been extensively studied for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications due to their inherent nature to extract and transport charges from photon-absorbing semiconductors and conjugated polymers. Graphyne and graphdiyne, 2D carbon allotropes like graphene but containing not only doubly but also triply bonded carbon atoms, are predicted to possess intrinsic semiconductor bandgap and even more superior electrical properties than graphene. The current theoretical understanding and experimental status of graphyne and graphdiyne will be discussed in contrast of graphene, demonstrating those promising competitors to graphene in further lightening a new photoconversion. This review addresses the recent successes and current challenges of graphene, graphyne and graphdiyne, and provides insightful perspectives for the future applications of 2D carbon materials in photoelectric conversion and photocatalysis. PMID:24654006
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A
2016-05-11
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them. PMID:27100910
Line shape analysis of two-dimensional infrared spectra
Guo, Qi; Pagano, Philip; Li, Yun-Liang; Kohen, Amnon; Cheatum, Christopher M.
2015-01-01
Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy probes femtosecond to picosecond time scale dynamics ranging from solvation to protein motions. The frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) is the quantitative measure of the spectral diffusion that reports those dynamics and, within certain approximations, can be extracted directly from 2D IR line shapes. A variety of methods have been developed to extract the FFCF from 2D IR spectra, which, in principle, should give the same FFCF parameters, but the complexity of real experimental systems will affect the results of these analyses differently. Here, we compare five common analysis methods using both simulated and experimental 2D IR spectra to understand the effects of apodization, anharmonicity, phasing errors, and finite signal-to-noise ratios on the results of each of these analyses. Our results show that although all of the methods can, in principle, yield the FFCF under idealized circumstances, under more realistic experimental conditions they behave quite differently, and we find that the centerline slope analysis yields the best compromise between the effects we test and is most robust to the distortions that they cause. PMID:26049447
Two-dimensional material electronics and photonics (Presentation Recording)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wenjuan
2015-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted intense interest in research in recent years. As compared to their bulk counterparts, these 2D materials have many unique properties due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the materials also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D materials open up broad territories of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides.
Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Choi, Hyunho; Liang, Hong
2015-12-21
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A., III
2016-05-01
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nano-electronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation, one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies, and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.
Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya
2015-04-01
Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.
Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien
2011-02-15
The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k{sub ||}=0 and in the area k{sub ||}>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvenic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Choi, Hyunho; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong
2015-12-01
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.
Two-dimensional ultrasound image matching system for photodynamic therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaim, Amjad; Keck, Rick W.; Selman, Steven H.; Jankun, Jerzy
2001-05-01
Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound imaging is commonly used for diagnosis in a variety of medical fields. However, there are several drawbacks of conventional 2D-ultrasound imaging. These include prostate or transducer movement that produces sets of different images that are difficult to interpret. Also during patient's reexamination correspondence between sets of images before reexamination and after is difficult to establish. This can be described as a problem of correlation between two sets of images: the first created before distortion or examination, the second one after. We propose a method to register 2D ultrasound volumes based on external markers introduced in the prostate. The metal balls are inserted in the prostate at three distinct locations in the prostate. These appear as bright dots in the ultrasound field, serve as reference points, are then outlined through a user-interactive program from two sets of images. Then, the computer program rotates and translates till they match respectively, and displays the mapped points with their corresponding location. Based on this idea we developed an image-guided system for PDT that require high-precision placement of implants. In the planning stage, the system performs an automatic acquisition of 2D transrectal ultrasound images that will ultimately be used to construct the treatment plan. At the time of the therapy, new sets of ultrasound images are acquired and a match is established between the virtual world and the patient's real world with the aid of manually introduced markers and image matching algorithms.
Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry
Levenson, R.M.; Maytin, E.V.; Young, D.A.
1986-11-01
A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, the authors have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or mouse, is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of dot-blot autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.
Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Applications for chemists and biochemists
Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.
1987-01-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2-D NMR) has become a very powerful class of experiments (in the hands of an adept scientist) with broad adaptability to new situations. It is the product of a happy marriage between modern pulse FT-NMR technology, with its large memory and high-speed computers, and the physicists and chemists who love to manipulate spin systems. Basic 2-D experiments are now a standard capability of modern NMR spectrometers, and this timely book intends to make 2-D NMR users of those who are familiar with normal 1-D NMR. The 2-D NMR goal is correlation of the lines of the observed NMR spectrum with other properties of the system. This book deals with applications to high-resolution spectrum analysis, utilizing either coupling between the NMR-active nuclei or chemical exchange to perform the correlation. The coupling can be scalar (through bonds) or direct through space (within 5 A). The coupling may be homonuclear (between like nuclei) or heteronuclear.
1990-04-25
Version 00 TPTRIA calculates reactivity, effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time for two-dimensional triangular geometry on the basis of neutron transport perturbation theory. DIAMANT2 (also designated as CCC-414), is a multigroup two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code system for triangular and hexagonal geometry which calculates direct and adjoint angular fluxes.
Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kendl, A.
2008-01-01
In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…
New two dimensional compounds: beyond graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebegue, Sebastien
2015-03-01
In the field of nanosciences, the quest for materials with reduced dimensionality is only at its beginning. While a lot of effort has been put initially on graphene, the focus has been extended in the last past years to functionalized graphene, boron nitride, silicene, and transition metal dichalcogenides in the form of single layers. Although these two-dimensional compounds offer a larger range of properties than graphene, there is a constant need for new materials presenting equivalent or superior performances to the ones already known. Here I will present an approach that we have used to discover potential new two-dimensional materials. This approach corresponds to perform datamining in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database using simple geometrical criterias, and allowed us to identify nearly 40 new materials that could be exfoliated into two-dimensional sheets. Then, their electronic structure (density of states and bandstructure) was obtained with density functional theory to predict whether the two-dimensional material is metallic or insulating, as well as if it undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures. If time allows, I will also present some of our recent results concerning the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides bilayers.
Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok
2007-01-01
We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…
Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors
Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang
2014-12-30
Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less
Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors
Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang
2014-12-30
Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.
Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications.
Chen, Yu; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Lianzhou
2015-05-01
The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress of this dynamically developed material family with a particular focus on biomedical applications. After the introduction, the second section of the article summarizes a range of synthetic methods for new types of 2D-GAs as well as their surface functionalization. The subsequent section provides a snapshot on the use of these biocompatible 2D-GAs for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications, including therapeutic (photothermal/photodynamic therapy, chemotherapy and synergistic therapy), diagnostic (fluorescent/magnetic resonance/computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging) and theranostic (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) applications, especially on oncology. In addition, we briefly present the biosensing applications of these 2D-GAs for the detection of biomacromolecules and their in vitro/in vivo biosafety evaluations. The last section summarizes some critical unresolved issues, possible challenges/obstacles and also proposes future perspectives related to the rational design and construction of 2D-GAs for biomedical engineering, which are believed to promote their clinical translations for benefiting the personalized medicine and human health. PMID:25519856
Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes.
Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng
2016-08-19
Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as
Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng
2016-08-01
Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as
Kinematics of segregating granular mixtures in quasi-2D heaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yi; Umbanhowar, Paul; Ottino, Julio; Lueptow, Richard
2012-11-01
Segregation of granular mixtures of different sized particles in heap flow appears in a variety of contexts. Our recent experiments showed that when bi-disperse mixtures of different sized spherical particles fill a quasi-two dimensional (2D) silo, three different final heap configurations - stratified, segregated, and mixed - occur, depending on either 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity. However, since it is difficult to measure the kinematic details of the segregating granular mixtures in heap flow experimentally, the underlying mechanisms for how 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity influences final particle configurations have not been well understood. In this work, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate heap flow of bi-disperse mixtures in experimental scale quasi-2D heaps. The final particle distributions in the simulations agree quantitatively with experiments. We measure several key kinematic properties of the segregating granular mixtures including the local flow rate, velocity, and flowing layer thickness. We correlate the characteristics of these kinematic properties with the local particle distributions of the mixtures. This provides new insights for understanding the mechanisms of segregation and stratification in heap flow including the linear decrease in flow rate and maximum velocity down the heap as well as the relatively constant flowing layer thickness along the length of the heap. Funded by Dow Chemical Co.
Magnetization study of two dimensional helium three
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Lei
This dissertation discusses a magnetization study of a two dimensional Fermi system. Our group developed a SQUID NMR system to study the magnetization of two dimensional 3He on both GTA grafoil and ZYX Graphite substrates. Benefiting from SQUID technology, our NMR experiments were performed at very low applied magnetic field thus avoid the masking of ordering by strong external field. Monolayer 3He films adsorbed on crystalline graphite are considered a nearly ideal example of a two dimensional system of highly correlated fermions. By controlling the 3He areal density, adsorbed films exhibit a wide range of structures with different temperature- dependent magnetic properties and heat capacities. Our recent experiments on two dimensional 3He adsorbed on ZYX graphite focused on the anti-ferromagnetic 4/7 phase and the ferromagnetic incommensurate solid state of a second 3He monolayer. Ferromagnetic order was observed in two dimensional 3He films on both Grafoil and highly oriented ZYX grade exfoliated graphite. The dipolar field plays an important role in magnetic ordering in two dimensional spin systems. The dipole-dipole interaction leads to a frequency shift of the NMR absorption line. The resulting 3He NMR lineshape on Grafoil was a broad peak shifted towards lower frequency with a background from the randomly oriented regions extending to positive frequencies. Compared to Grafoil, ZYX graphite has a much greater structural coherence and is more highly oriented. When studying magnetism of 3He films on ZYX substrate we found that the features we observed in our original Grafoil experiment were much more pronounced on ZYX graphite. In addition, we observed some multi-peak structure on the 3He NMR lineshape, which suggest a series of spin wave resonances. We also studied the magnetic properties of the second layer of 3He films on ZYX substrate at density around 4/7 phase. To eliminate the paramagnetic signal of the first layer solid, we pre-plated a 4He layer on the
Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction
Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury
2014-12-09
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor
Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction
Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury
2014-12-09
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds tomore » form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spatially-developing mixing layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. V.; Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional, incompressible, spatially developing mixing layer simulations are performed at Re = 10(exp 2) and 10(exp 4) with two classes of perturbations applied at the inlet boundary; combinations of discrete modes from linear stability theory, and a broad spectrum of modes derived from experimentally measured velocity spectra. The effect of the type and strength of inlet perturbations on vortex dynamics and time-averaged properties are explored. Two-point spatial velocity and autocorrelations are used to estimate the size and lifetime of the resulting coherent structures and to explore possible feedback effects. The computed time-averaged properties such as mean velocity profiles, turbulent statistics, and spread rates show good agreement with experimentally measured values. It is shown that by forcing with a broad spectrum of modes derived from an experimental energy spectrum many experimentally observed phenomena can be reproduced by a 2-D simulation. The strength of the forcing merely affected the length required for the dominant coherent structures to become fully-developed. Thus intensities comparable to those of the background turbulence in many wind tunnel experiments produced the same results, given sufficient simulation length.
CAS2D: FORTRAN program for nonrotating blade-to-blade, steady, potential transonic cascade flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1980-01-01
An exact, full-potential-equation (FPE) model for the steady, irrotational, homentropic and homoenergetic flow of a compressible, homocompositional, inviscid fluid through two dimensional planar cascades of airfoils was derived, together with its appropriate boundary conditions. A computer program, CAS2D, was developed that numerically solves an artificially time-dependent form of the actual FPE. The governing equation was discretized by using type-dependent, rotated finite differencing and the finite area technique. The flow field was discretized by providing a boundary-fitted, nonuniform computational mesh. The mesh was generated by using a sequence of conforming mapping, nonorthogonal coordinate stretching, and local, isoparametric, bilinear mapping functions. The discretized form of the FPE was solved iteratively by using successive line overrelaxation. The possible isentropic shocks were correctly captured by adding explicitly an artificial viscosity in a conservative form. In addition, a three-level consecutive, mesh refinement feature makes CAS2D a reliable and fast algorithm for the analysis of transonic, two dimensional cascade flows.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors
Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee
2014-01-01
A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis.
Waudby, Christopher A; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John
2016-01-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776
Mobility and Diffusion-Ordered Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Kevin Freeman
Mobility and diffusion-ordered two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments have been developed for the analysis of mixtures. In the mobility -ordered experiments, the full range of positive and negative electrophoretic mobilities is displayed in one dimension and chemical shifts are displayed in the other. A concentric cylindrical tube electrophoresis chamber was designed to reduce the effective pathlength for current and to provide unidirectional flow for ions of interest. Techniques based upon the reverse precession method were also implemented to recover the signs of the mobilities and improved resolution in the mobility dimension was obtained by replacing Fourier transformation of truncated data sets with a linear prediction analysis. In the diffusion-ordered two-dimensional NMR experiments, the conventional chemical shift spectrum is resolved in one dimension and spectra of diffusion rates or molecular radii are resolved in the other. Diffusion dependent pulsed field gradient NMR data sets were inverted by means of the computer programs SPLMOD or DISCRETE, when discrete diffusion coefficients were present, and CONTIN when continuous distributions were present. Since the inversion is ill -conditioned, it was necessary to introduce additional information to limit the range of the solutions. In addition to prior knowledge of the decay kernels and non-negativity of amplitudes and damping constants, a set of rejection criteria was constructed for the discrete analysis case that took into account physical limits on diffusion coefficients, experimentally accessible values, and variations in effective decay kernels resulting from instrumental non-linearities. Examples of analyses of simulated data and experimental data for mixtures are presented as well as two-dimensional spectra generated by CONTIN for polydisperse polymer samples. Also, resolution in the diffusion dimension was increased by performing experiments on hydrophobic molecules in
Deeply subrecoil two-dimensional Raman cooling
Boyer, V.; Phillips, W.D.; Lising, L.J.; Rolston, S.L.
2004-10-01
We report the implementation of a two-dimensional Raman cooling scheme using sequential excitations along the orthogonal axes. Using square pulses, we have cooled a cloud of ultracold cesium atoms down to an rms velocity spread of 0.39(5) recoil velocities, corresponding to an effective transverse temperature of 30 nK (0.15T{sub rec}). This technique can be useful to improve cold-atom atomic clocks and is particularly relevant for clocks in microgravity.
Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons
Yang Jianke
2010-11-15
We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.
Two-dimensional Electronic Double-Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy
Kim, Jeongho; Mukamel, Shaul
2009-01-01
CONSPECTUS The theory of electronic structure of many-electron systems like molecules is extraordinarily complicated. A lot can be learned by considering how electron density is distributed, on average, in the average field of the other electrons in the system. That is, mean field theory. However, to describe quantitatively chemical bonds, reactions, and spectroscopy requires consideration of the way that electrons avoid each other by the way they move; this is called electron correlation (or in physics, the many-body problem for fermions). While great progress has been made in theory, there is a need for incisive experimental tests that can be undertaken for large molecular systems in the condensed phase. Here we report a two-dimensional (2D) optical coherent spectroscopy that correlates the double excited electronic states to constituent single excited states. The technique, termed two-dimensional double-coherence spectroscopy (2D-DQCS), makes use of multiple, time-ordered ultrashort coherent optical pulses to create double- and single-quantum coherences over time intervals between the pulses. The resulting two-dimensional electronic spectrum maps the energy correlation between the first excited state and two-photon allowed double-quantum states. The principle of the experiment is that when the energy of the double-quantum state, viewed in simple models as a double HOMO to LUMO excitation, equals twice that of a single excitation, then no signal is radiated. However, electron-electron interactions—a combination of exchange interactions and electron correlation—in real systems generates a signal that reveals precisely how the energy of the double-quantum resonance differs from twice the single-quantum resonance. The energy shift measured in this experiment reveals how the second excitation is perturbed by both the presence of the first excitation and the way that the other electrons in the system have responded to the presence of that first excitation. We
Two-dimensional resonators for local oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, K.-c.; Jenkins, A.; Edwards, D.; Dew-Hughes, D.
1999-11-01
The expedited globalization of satellite technology has brought about a rapid boost in satellite competition and increased utilization of wireless communications remote data devices. In space communications receivers, there is an expanding demand for higher performance from local oscillators. The determining conditions are high Q values, high circulating power and low amplifier noise figures. In spite of their low insertion loss, conventional one-dimensional high-temperature superconducting (HTS) resonator-feedback oscillators suffer from high peak current densities inside the resonator and thus have a limited power-handling characteristics. To achieve higher-power oscillators, it is possible to introduce a two-dimensional microstrip resonator to balance the internal current distribution. To this end, 3 GHz two-dimensional resonators have been fabricated from TBCCO 2212 thin films deposited by RF sputtering onto 2 cm square LaAlO3 substrates. This paper demonstrates the frequency stabilizer role and the frequency response of the two-dimensional resonator. The considerable improvement for the performance of resonator-feedback oscillators constructed using such HTS resonators will also be presented.
Two-dimensional structured illumination microscopy.
Schropp, M; Uhl, R
2014-10-01
In widefield fluorescence microscopy, images from all but very flat samples suffer from fluorescence emission from layers above or below the focal plane of the objective lens. Structured illumination microscopy provides an elegant approach to eliminate this unwanted image contribution. To this end a line grid is projected onto the sample and phase images are taken at different positions of the line grid. Using suitable algorithms 'quasi-confocal images' can be derived from a given number of such phase-images. Here, we present an alternative structured illumination microscopy approach, which employs two-dimensional patterns instead of a one-dimensional one. While in one-dimensional structured illumination microscopy the patterns are shifted orthogonally to the pattern orientation, in our two-dimensional approach it is shifted at a single, pattern-dependent angle, yet it already achieves an isotropic power spectral density with this unidirectional shift, which otherwise would require a combination of pattern-shift and -rotation. Moreover, our two-dimensional approach also yields a better signal-to-noise ratio in the evaluated image. PMID:25113075
Two-Dimensional Chalcogenides: Material Synthesis and Nano-Device Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin
Low-dimensional nanostructures exhibit distinct properties from their bulk counterparts. Here the synthesis of novel low-dimensional nanostructures is demonstrated using both top down and bottom up processes and their properties are investigated. Two-dimensional (2D) binary sesquichalcogenides are introduced as a viable material platform for phase change random access memory, photodetection, and the investigation of topological insulator surface states. An exponential relationship is observed between layer thickness and energy consumption during switching of 2D phase change devices, ultra-high responsivity in 2D photoresistors, and surface-rich conduction in 2D topological insulator nanoplates. Additionally, methods for the assessment of chemical purity, stoichiometry, and dimensions of two-dimensional nanomaterials are introduced for the first time. The unique properties of nanoscaled chalcogenide materials may enable future technologies such as synaptronics, universal memory and machine vision, as well as providing a platform for fundamental research on the physics of condensed matter systems.
Fabrication and characterization of a two-dimensional IPMC sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo
2013-04-01
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have inherent sensing and actuation properties. An IPMC sensor typically consists of a thin ion-exchange membrane, chemically plated with electrodes on both surfaces. Such IPMC sensors respond to deflections in the beam-bending directions only and thus are considered one-dimensional. In this paper, a novel IPMC sensor capable of two-dimensional sensing is proposed by plating two pairs of electrodes on orthogonal surfaces of a Nafion beam that has comparable thickness and width. The fabrication method is reported along with the characterization of the fabricated sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed IPMC sensor can be used for 2D flow sensing with promising applications in artificial lateral line systems. In the fabrication process Nafion solution is first cast and solidified, and the resulting structure is then cut to form beams with square cross-sections. In particular, the sample we fabricated has cross section of 1mm by 1mm and length of 15mm. Platinum electrodes are then plated on four side surfaces of the Nafion beam, insulated from each other. The fabricated IPMC sensor is shown to respond to 2D mechanical stimuli, and separate sensor signals are collected from the two pairs of electrodes. The responses (short-circuit currents) of the fabricated IPMC sensor are characterized both in air and in water, to verify the 2D sensing capability and examine the correlation between the two sensor signals.
Transparent Conductive Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide Epitaxial Thin Films
2014-01-01
Since the discovery of graphene, the quest for two-dimensional (2D) materials has intensified greatly. Recently, a new family of 2D transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) was discovered that is both conducting and hydrophilic, an uncommon combination. To date MXenes have been produced as powders, flakes, and colloidal solutions. Herein, we report on the fabrication of ∼1 × 1 cm2 Ti3C2 films by selective etching of Al, from sputter-deposited epitaxial Ti3AlC2 films, in aqueous HF or NH4HF2. Films that were about 19 nm thick, etched with NH4HF2, transmit ∼90% of the light in the visible-to-infrared range and exhibit metallic conductivity down to ∼100 K. Below 100 K, the films’ resistivity increases with decreasing temperature and they exhibit negative magnetoresistance—both observations consistent with a weak localization phenomenon characteristic of many 2D defective solids. This advance opens the door for the use of MXenes in electronic, photonic, and sensing applications. PMID:24741204
Two-dimensional boron nitride structures functionalization: first principles studies.
Ponce-Pérez, R; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H; Takeuchi, Noboru
2016-09-01
Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D hBN) structures functionalization with organic molecules. 2x2, 4x4 and 6x6 periodic 2D hBN layers have been considered to interact with acetylene. To deal with the exchange-correlation energy the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is invoked. The electron-ion interaction is treated with the pseudopotential method. The GGA with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) functionals together with van der Waals interactions are considered to deal with the composed systems. To investigate the functionalization two main configurations have been explored; in one case the molecule interacts with the boron atom and in the other with the nitrogen atom. Results of the adsorption energies indicate chemisorption in both cases. The total density of states (DOS) displays an energy gap in both cases. The projected DOS indicate that the B-p and N-p orbitals are those that make the most important contribution in the valence band and the H-s and C-p orbitals provide an important contribution in the conduction band to the DOS. Provided that the interactions of the acetylene with the 2D layer modify the structural and electronic properties of the hBN the possibility of structural functionalization using organic molecules may be concluded. PMID:27566317
Two-dimensional van der Waals C60 molecular crystal
Reddy, C. D.; Gen Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Wei
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides et al. have drawn extraordinary attention recently. For these 2D materials, atoms within their monolayer are covalently bonded. An interesting question arises: Can molecules form a 2D monolayer crystal via van der Waals interactions? Here, we first study the structural stability of a free-standing infinite C60 molecular monolayer using molecular dynamic simulations, and find that the monolayer is stable up to 600 K. We further study the mechanical properties of the monolayer, and find that the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and failure strain are 55–100 GPa, 90–155 MPa, and 1.5–2.3%, respectively, depending on the stretching orientation. The monolayer fails due to shearing and cavitation under uniaxial tensile loading. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the monolayer are found to be delocalized and as a result, the band gap is reduced to only 60% of the isolated C60 molecule. Interestingly, this band gap can be tuned up to ±30% using strain engineering. Owing to its thermal stability, low density, strain-tunable semi-conducting characteristics and large bending flexibility, this van der Waals molecular monolayer crystal presents aplenty opportunities for developing novel applications in nanoelectronics. PMID:26183501
Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Porous Polymorphs with Tunable Band Gaps.
Zhuo, Zhiwen; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong
2016-06-01
Exploring stable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structures of phosphorus with tunable properties is of considerable importance partly due to the novel anisotropic behavior in phosphorene and potential applications in high-performance devices. Here, 21 new 2D phosphorus allotropes with porous structure are reported based on topological modeling method and first-principles calculations. We establish that stable 2D phosphorus crystals can be obtained by topologically assembling selected phosphorus monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and hexamer. Nine of reported structures are predicted to be more stable than white phosphorus. Their dynamic and thermal stabilities are confirmed by the calculated vibration spectra and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamic simulation at temperatures up to 1500 K. These phosphorus porous polymorphs have isotropic mechanic properties that are significantly softer than phosphorene. The electronic band structures calculated with the HSE06 method indicate that new structures are semiconductors with band gaps ranging widely from 0.15 to 3.42 eV, which are tuned by the basic units assembled in the network. Of particular importance is that the position of both conduction and valence band edges of some allotropes matches well with the chemical reaction potential of H2/H(+) and O2/H2O, which can be used as element photocatalysts for visible-light-driven water splitting. PMID:27171121
Two-dimensional copper thio- and seleno-cyanates.
Tsetseris, Leonidas
2016-03-21
Based on density-functional theory calculations we identify two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN). CuSCN is known to crystallize in two three-dimensional polymorphs, the beta wurtzite and the alpha structure, both with tetrahedral bonding networks. Here we find that CuSCN and CuSeCN may be stabilized also in monolayer geometries with SCN or SeCN groups protruding out of Cu planes. The cohesive energies of stacks made out of these sheets are comparable to those of the alpha and beta structures, so, in principle, 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN may be formed under the appropriate experimental conditions. Other 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN phases with honeycomb-like structures also correspond to local energy minima, but are less stable with respect to the above-mentioned systems. PMID:26911411
Valley Hall Effect in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Michihisa; Shimazaki, Yuya; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Tarucha, Seigo
2015-12-01
Valley is a quantum number defined for energetically degenerate but nonequivalent structures in energy bands of a crystalline material. Recent discoveries of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have shed light on the potential use of this degree of freedom for information carriers because the valley can now be potentially manipulated in integrated 2D architectures. The valleys separated by a long distance in a momentum space are robust against external disturbance and the flow of the valley, the valley current, is nondissipative because it carries no net electronic current. Among the various 2D valley materials, graphene has by far the highest crystal quality, leading to an extremely long valley relaxation length in the bulk. In this review, we first describe the theoretical background of the valley Hall effect, which converts an electric field into a valley current. We then describe the first observation of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we describe experiments on the generation and detection of the pure valley current in monolayer and bilayer graphene, achieved recently using the valley Hall effect and inverse valley Hall effect. While we show unambiguous evidence of a pure valley current flowing in graphene, we emphasize that the field of "valleytronics" is still in its infancy and that further theoretical and experimental investigations are necessary.
Impact of heterocirculene molecular symmetry upon two-dimensional crystallization
Xiao, W. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Tao, L.; Aït-Mansour, K.; Chernichenko, K. Y.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Ruffieux, P.; Du, S. X.; Gao, H.-J.; Fasel, R.
2014-01-01
Despite the development of crystal engineering, it remains a great challenge to predict the crystal structure even for the simplest molecules, and a clear link between molecular and crystal symmetry is missing in general. Here we demonstrate that the two-dimensional (2D) crystallization of heterocirculenes on a Au(111) surface is greatly affected by the molecular symmetry. By means of ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe a variety of 2D crystalline structures in the coverage range from submonolayer to monolayer for D8h-symmetric sulflower (C16S8), whereas D4h-symmetric selenosulflower (C16S4Se4) forms square and rectangular lattices at submonolayer and monolayer coverages, respectively. No long-range ordered structure is observed for C1h-symmetric selenosulflower (C16S5Se3) self-assembling at submonolayer coverage. Such different self-assembly behaviors for the heterocirculenes with reduced molecular symmetries derive from the tendency toward close packing and the molecular symmetry retention in 2D crystallization due to van der Waals interactions. PMID:24957140
Two-dimensional van der Waals C60 molecular crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, C. D.; Gen Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Wei
2015-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides et al. have drawn extraordinary attention recently. For these 2D materials, atoms within their monolayer are covalently bonded. An interesting question arises: Can molecules form a 2D monolayer crystal via van der Waals interactions? Here, we first study the structural stability of a free-standing infinite C60 molecular monolayer using molecular dynamic simulations, and find that the monolayer is stable up to 600 K. We further study the mechanical properties of the monolayer, and find that the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and failure strain are 55-100 GPa, 90-155 MPa, and 1.5-2.3%, respectively, depending on the stretching orientation. The monolayer fails due to shearing and cavitation under uniaxial tensile loading. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the monolayer are found to be delocalized and as a result, the band gap is reduced to only 60% of the isolated C60 molecule. Interestingly, this band gap can be tuned up to ±30% using strain engineering. Owing to its thermal stability, low density, strain-tunable semi-conducting characteristics and large bending flexibility, this van der Waals molecular monolayer crystal presents aplenty opportunities for developing novel applications in nanoelectronics.
Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur
2016-05-01
The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area. PMID:27141556
Epoxy nanocomposites with two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide additives.
Eksik, Osman; Gao, Jian; Shojaee, S Ali; Thomas, Abhay; Chow, Philippe; Bartolucci, Stephen F; Lucca, Don A; Koratkar, Nikhil
2014-05-27
Emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides offer unique and hitherto unavailable opportunities to tailor the mechanical, thermal, electronic, and optical properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, we exfoliated bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) into nanoplatelets, which were then dispersed in epoxy polymers at loading fractions of up to 1% by weight. We characterized the tensile and fracture properties of the composite and show that MoS2 nanoplatelets are highly effective at enhancing the mechanical properties of the epoxy at very low nanofiller loading fractions (below 0.2% by weight). Our results show the potential of 2D sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides as reinforcing additives in polymeric composites. Unlike graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 are high band gap semiconductors and do not impart significant electrical conductivity to the epoxy matrix. For many applications, it is essential to enhance mechanical properties while also maintaining the electrical insulation properties and the high dielectric constant of the polymer material. In such applications, conductive carbon based fillers such as graphene cannot be utilized. This study demonstrates that 2D transition metal dichalcogenide additives offer an elegant solution to such class of problems. PMID:24754702
Lateral and Vertical Two-Dimensional Layered Topological Insulator Heterostructures.
Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Guangyuan; Sun, Yongming; Hong, Seung Sae; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Cui, Yi
2015-11-24
The heterostructured configuration between two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials has enabled the engineering of the band gap and the design of novel devices. So far, the synthesis of single-component topological insulator (TI) 2D materials such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3 has been achieved through vapor phase growth and molecular beam epitaxy; however, the spatial controlled fabrication of 2D lateral heterostructures in these systems has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report an in situ two-step synthesis process to form TI lateral heterostructures. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray mapping results show the successful spatial control of chemical composition in these as-prepared heterostructures. The edge-induced growth mechanism is revealed by the ex situ atomic force microscope measurements. Electrical transport studies demonstrate the existence of p-n junctions in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 heterostructures. PMID:26468661
Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.
2014-06-01
We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.
Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence
Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-08-01
Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R{sub {lambda}}{approx}100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in {ital k} space consistent with the k{sup {minus}3} spectrum of the Kraichnan{endash}Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Temporal enhancement of two-dimensional color doppler echocardiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terentjev, Alexey B.; Settlemier, Scott H.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Shturts, Igor V.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.
2016-03-01
Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is widely used for assessing blood flow inside the heart and blood vessels. Currently, frame acquisition time for this method varies from tens to hundreds of milliseconds, depending on Doppler sector parameters. This leads to low frame rates of resulting video sequences equal to tens of Hz, which is insufficient for some diagnostic purposes, especially in pediatrics. In this paper, we present a new approach for reconstruction of 2D color Doppler cardiac images, which results in the frame rate being increased to hundreds of Hz. This approach relies on a modified method of frame reordering originally applied to real-time 3D echocardiography. There are no previous publications describing application of this method to 2D Color Doppler data. The approach has been tested on several in-vivo cardiac 2D color Doppler datasets with approximate duration of 30 sec and native frame rate of 15 Hz. The resulting image sequences had equivalent frame rates to 500Hz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, Keunhwi; Kim, Soo-Yong; Jeong, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang Woo
2013-09-01
In a practical holographic data storage system, the reconstruction process for a data page should account for the processing time as well as the bit error rate (BER) performance. To improve both aspects, we introduce two-dimensional (2D) partial response maximum likelihood composed of a 2D partial response (PR) target including diagonal elements and a 2D soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) with a variable reliability factor. The 2D SOVA performs two one-dimensional (1D) SOVAs in structural accordance with the 2D PR target where extrinsic information uses the expected value calculated on a synchronization pattern. Finally, the 2D SOVA exports a weighted average using the reliability factor that is updated similarly as the optimization scheme for each page. The simulation results show that the proposed method has superior BER performance, despite using only two 1D SOVAs as compared with the modified 2D SOVA composed of four 1D SOVAs.
Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei
2015-06-07
Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectra at vapor/water interface were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with a classical flexible and nonpolarizable model. The present model well describes the spectral diffusion of 2D infrared spectrum of bulk water as well as 2D HD-VSFG at the interface. The effect of isotopic dilution on the 2D HD-VSFG was elucidated by comparing the normal (H{sub 2}O) water and HOD water. We further performed decomposition analysis of 2D HD-VSFG into the hydrogen-bonding and the dangling (or free) OH vibrations, and thereby disentangled the different spectral responses and spectral diffusion in the 2D HD-VSFG. The present MD simulation demonstrated the role of anharmonic coupling between these modes on the cross peak in the 2D HD-VSFG spectrum.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine
2012-06-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.
Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials.
Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert
2016-03-21
Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the "bio-nanosheet" interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26923057
ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akca, Irfan
2016-04-01
ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.
Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation
Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials. PMID:27346485
Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation.
Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene's G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials. PMID:27346485
Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.
Self-calibration method of two-dimensional grid plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Guoqing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lihua; Lei, Lihua; Li, Yuan
2011-12-01
A two-dimensional grid plate can offer an X-Y position standard where grids are aligned orthogonal to each other. It is important to ensure the positional accuracy of the grid plate when the grid plate is used to calibrate planar movement systems, such as vision measuring machines and scanning probe microscopes. Existing algorithms for self-calibration employ the discrete Fourier transform, which is complicated and has poor noise suppression capability. We have developed an algorithm that can achieve exact self-calibration for a two-dimensional grid plate using the least squares method when there is no random noise. In the presence of random noise, the algorithm still presents an excellent capability for noise suppression. As an extension of the classic three-location measurement, the algorithm can be applied to four- or five-location measurements, which reduce measurement uncertainties. The error propagation characteristic of the random errors has been investigated in the case of different measurement strategies. According to the simulation results, the mean error propagation ratios are less than 1 when the array size of the grid plate is less than 32×32. Finally, the influence of the scale errors of the planar movement system is discussed.
Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow
Simoes, F.J.M.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.
Two-dimensional radiant energy array computers and computing devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (Inventor)
1976-01-01
Two dimensional digital computers and computer devices operate in parallel on rectangular arrays of digital radiant energy optical signal elements which are arranged in ordered rows and columns. Logic gate devices receive two input arrays and provide an output array having digital states dependent only on the digital states of the signal elements of the two input arrays at corresponding row and column positions. The logic devices include an array of photoconductors responsive to at least one of the input arrays for either selectively accelerating electrons to a phosphor output surface, applying potentials to an electroluminescent output layer, exciting an array of discrete radiant energy sources, or exciting a liquid crystal to influence crystal transparency or reflectivity.
Flexoelectricity in two-dimensional crystalline and biological membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Sharma, Pradeep
2015-10-01
The ability of a material to convert electrical stimuli into mechanical deformation, i.e. piezoelectricity, is a remarkable property of a rather small subset of insulating materials. The phenomenon of flexoelectricity, on the other hand, is universal. All dielectrics exhibit the flexoelectric effect whereby non-uniform strain (or strain gradients) can polarize the material and conversely non-uniform electric fields may cause mechanical deformation. The flexoelectric effect is strongly enhanced at the nanoscale and accordingly, all two-dimensional membranes of atomistic scale thickness exhibit a strong two-way coupling between the curvature and electric field. In this review, we highlight the recent advances made in our understanding of flexoelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) membranes--whether the crystalline ones such as dielectric graphene nanoribbons or the soft lipid bilayer membranes that are ubiquitous in biology. Aside from the fundamental mechanisms, phenomenology, and recent findings, we focus on rapidly emerging directions in this field and discuss applications such as energy harvesting, understanding of the mammalian hearing mechanism and ion transport among others.
Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu
Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.
Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials.
Sinclair, J; Walhout, M
2012-01-20
We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or underfill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2D lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles. PMID:22400753
Flat Chern Band in a Two-Dimensional Organometallic Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng
2013-03-01
By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band, namely the flat chern band (FCB), has recently been proposed, in which carriers experience strong Coulomb interaction as well as topological frustration that in together spawn unprecedented topological strongly-correlated electronic states, such as high-temperature fractional quantum hall state. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains a doubt whether such a ``romance of flatland'' could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design to realize a nearly FCB right around the Fermi level in a two-dimensional (2D) Indium-Phenylene Organometallic Framework (IPOF). Our design in addition provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials in virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology. Supported by DOE-BES and ARL
Microwave near-field imaging of two-dimensional semiconductors.
Berweger, Samuel; Weber, Joel C; John, Jimmy; Velazquez, Jesus M; Pieterick, Adam; Sanford, Norman A; Davydov, Albert V; Brunschwig, Bruce; Lewis, Nathan S; Wallis, Thomas M; Kabos, Pavel
2015-02-11
Optimizing new generations of two-dimensional devices based on van der Waals materials will require techniques capable of measuring variations in electronic properties in situ and with nanometer spatial resolution. We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) imaging of single layers of MoS2 and n- and p-doped WSe2. By controlling the sample charge carrier concentration through the applied tip bias, we are able to reversibly control and optimize the SMM contrast to image variations in electronic structure and the localized effects of surface contaminants. By further performing tip bias-dependent point spectroscopy together with finite element simulations, we distinguish the effects of the quantum capacitance and determine the local dominant charge carrier species and dopant concentration. These results underscore the capability of SMM for the study of 2D materials to image, identify, and study electronic defects. PMID:25625509
Pairwise interactions of colloids in two-dimensional geometric confinement.
Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Bomsock; Yu, Taekyung
2014-12-28
We present the pairwise interaction behaviour of colloids confined to two-dimensional (2D) colloidal cages using optical laser tweezers. A single probe particle inside hexagonal cage particles at a planar oil-water interface is allowed to diffuse freely and the spring constant is extracted from its trajectories. To evaluate the effect of multibody interactions, the pair interactions between the probe particle and each cage particle are directly measured by using optical tweezers. Based on pairwise additivity, Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the values of the spring constant obtained from experiments and simulations. We find that the multibody interactions negligibly occur and thus the particle interactions confined to such colloidal cages are highly pairwise. This work demonstrates that the use of the pairwise assumption in numerical simulations is rational when interparticle repulsive interactions are sufficiently strong, such as the particle interactions at fluid-fluid interfaces. PMID:25363564
Conditional convergence in two-dimensional dislocation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuykendall, William P.; Cai, Wei
2013-07-01
For two-dimensional dislocation dynamics simulations under periodic boundary conditions in both directions, the summation of the periodic image stress fields is found to be conditionally convergent. For example, different stress fields are obtained depending on whether the summation in the x-direction is performed before or after the summation in the y-direction. This problem arises because the stress field of a 1D periodic array of dislocations does not necessarily go to zero far away from the dislocation array. The spurious stress fields caused by conditional convergence in the 2D sum are shown to consist of only a linear term and a constant term with no higher order terms. Absolute convergence, and hence self-consistency, is restored by subtracting the spurious stress fields, whose expressions are derived in both isotropic and anisotropic elasticity.
Domain engineering of physical vapor deposited two-dimensional materials
Alam, Tarek; Wang, Baoming; Pulavarthy, Raghu; Haque, M. A.; Muratore, Christopher; Glavin, Nicholas; Roy, Ajit K.; Voevodin, Andrey A.
2014-11-24
Physical vapor deposited two-dimensional (2D) materials span larger areas compared to exfoliated flakes, but suffer from very small grain or domain sizes. In this letter, we fabricate freestanding molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and amorphous boron nitride (BN) specimens to expose both surfaces. We performed in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope to observe the domain restructuring in real time. The freestanding MoS{sub 2} specimens showed up to 100× increase in domain size, while the amorphous BN transformed in to polycrystalline hexagonal BN (h-BN) at temperatures around 600 °C much lower than the 850–1000 °C range cited in the literature.
Holographic two dimensional QCD and Chern-Simons term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Ho-Ung; Zahed, Ismail
2011-07-01
We present a holographic realization of large N c massless QCD in two dimensions using a D2/ D8 brane construction. The flavor axial anomaly is dual to a three dimensional Chern-Simons term which turns out to be of leading order, and it affects the meson spectrum and holographic renormalization in crucial ways. The massless flavor bosons that exist in the spectrum are found to decouple from the heavier mesons, in agreement with the general lore of non-Abelian bosonization. We also show that an external dynamical photon acquires a mass through the three dimensional Chern-Simons term as expected from the Schwinger mechanism. Massless two dimensional QCD at large N c exhibits anti-vector-meson dominance due to the axial anomaly.
Guest Editorial: Two-Dimensional Optical Signal Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kooij, Theo; Ludman, Jacques E.; Stilwell, P. D., Jr.
1982-10-01
When some optical processing systems firms proposed to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the U.S. Navy some years ago that they could beat the ILLIAC-IV-that venerable supercomputer, which until recently was the world's largest by at least a factor of 100, it sounded too good to be true. But they were right, and they did not even have to try hard. The problem was a two-dimensional (2-D) processing task of generating ambiguity surfaces to test whether two received signals came from a common origin, with unknown time and Doppler shifts. The ILLIAC, going all out as an in-line processor for the Acoustic Research Center near San Francisco, California, could just make a handful of such surfaces per second; the optical processors made hundreds, literally sucking their digital inputs dry.
Plasmon excitations in two-dimensional atomic cluster systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yan-Qin; Yu, Ya-Bin; Xue, Hong-Jie; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Jie
2016-09-01
Properties of plasmon excitations in two-dimensional (2D) atomic cluster systems are theoretically studied within an extended Hubbard model. The collective oscillation equations of charge, plasmon eigen-equations and the energy-absorption spectrum formula are presented. The calculated results show that different symmetries of plasmons exist in the cluster systems, and the symmetry of charge distribution in the plasmon resonance originate from the intrinsic symmetry of the corresponding eigen-plasmon modes, but not from the symmetry of applied external fields; however, the plasmon excitation with a certain polarization direction should be excited by the field in this direction, the dipole mode of plasmons can be excited by both uniform and non-uniform fields, but multipole ones cannot be excited by an uniform field. In addition, we show that for a given electron density, plasmon spectra are red-shifted with increasing size of the systems.
Two-dimensional metal-glass photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pysz, Dariusz; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Stępień, Ryszard; Dominiak, Radosław; Pniewski, Jacek; Szoplik, Tomasz
2007-04-01
We present recent achievements in fabricating a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal in the form of a bundle of parallel micro- or nanowires embedded in glass matrix. The method is similar to that of sequential thinning used for fabrication of photonic crystal fibers. We discuss technological issues that aim at preservation of regularity of photonic crystal lattice and uniformity of wire diameters. Proper selection of a melting point of metal alloy and the range of temperatures of glass viscosity leads to reduction of regularity losses resulting from sequential processes of drawing. Measured distributions of crystal lattices, wire diameters and shapes of wires are used to simulate photonic band structure of fabricated crystals. This work is directed toward fabrication of a photonic crystal showing the negative refraction in the near infrared and visible spectral range.
Coherent two-dimensional infrared microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baiz, Carlos; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2015-03-01
We developed ultrafast 2D IR spectral microscopy, a new technique to measure spatially-resolved 2D infrared spectra and vibrational dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution and femtosecond time resolution. The key enabling development consists of a new geometry where all three IR pulses propagate fully collinearly through an all-reflective IR microscope. A combination of polarization, chopping, and phase-cycling isolate the 2D IR signal by removing all unwanted signal and interference contributions. The single-beam collinear geometry enables us to implement 2D IR in three configurations: transmission, reflectance, and ATR. In terms of sensitivity, the 6 micron focus size produces an 8-fold enhancement of the signal compared to focusing with standard parabolic mirrors. These methods open up new possibilities for imaging proteins in cells, lipid membranes, or vesicles, as well as performing surface-sensitive studies on biological systems.
Superconductor-Metal-Insulator Transitions in two dimensional amorphous NbxSi1-x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humbert, Vincent; Couëdo, François; Crauste, Olivier; Bergé, Laurent; Drillien, Anne-Aelle; Akiko Marrache-Kikuchi, Claire; Dumoulin, Louis
2014-12-01
We report on the study of the two-dimensional Disorder-induced Superconductor- Insulator Transition (D-SIT) in NbxSi1-x thin films. In this proceeding, we present new results on the emergence of an insulating state from a 2d metallic state.
Analysis Of Phase Transitions In Quasi-Two-Dimensional Dusty Systems In RF-Discharge Plasma
Adamovich, X. G.; Vaulina, O. S.; Khrustalev, Yu. V.; Nekhaevsky, Yu. Yu.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.
2008-09-07
In this work, we investigate the phase transitions in quasi-two-dimensional systems of dusty plasma in RF discharge. The quasi-2D systems are considered, where the areas with different phase states (dusty liquid and dusty crystal) coexist. The parameters of these areas of dusty subsystem are estimated, the obtained results are analysed and compared with theoretical predictions.
Picture Perception in Infants: Generalization from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jowkar-Baniani, Gelareh; Schmuckler, Mark A.
2011-01-01
Two experiments investigated 9-month-old infants' abilities to recognize the correspondence between an actual three-dimensional (3D) object and its two-dimensional (2D) representation, looking specifically at representations that did not literally depict the actual object: schematic line drawings. In Experiment 1, infants habituated to a line…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for protein separation and subsequent mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification was applied to establish a proteomic reference map for the soybean embryonic axis. Proteins were extracted from dissecte...
USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS AT SCALES OF ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE. (R825760)
Modeling of flow features that are important in assessing stream habitat conditions has been a long-standing interest of stream biologists. Recently, they have begun examining the usefulness of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models in attaining this objective. Current modelin...
The SWISS-2DPAGE database of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, its status in 1995.
Appel, R D; Sanchez, J C; Bairoch, A; Golaz, O; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Hughes, G J; Hochstrasser, D F
1996-01-01
SWISS-2DPAGE is a database of proteins identified on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). The current release contains 343 entries of human, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli origin, as well as virtual entries for each of the protein sequences in the SWISS-PROT database. PMID:8594575
Electronic nanobiosensors based on two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Jinglei
Atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have tremendous potential to be applied as transduction elements in biosensors and bioelectronics. We developed scalable methods for synthesis and large-area transfer of two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly graphene and metal dichalcogenides (so called ``MX2'' materials). We also developed versatile fabrication methods for large arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) and micro-electrodes with these nanomaterials based on either conventional photolithography or innovative approaches that minimize contamination of the 2D layer. By functionalizing the FETs with a computationally redesigned water-soluble mu-opioid receptor, we created selective and sensitive biosensors suitable for detection of the drug target naltrexone and the neuropeptide enkephalin at pg/mL concentrations. We also constructed DNA-functionalized biosensors and nano-particle decorated biosensors by applying related bio-nano integration techniques. Our methodology paves the way for multiplexed nanosensor arrays with all-electronic readout suitable for inexpensive point-of-care diagnostics, drug-development and biomedical research. With graphene field-effect transistors, we investigated the graphene/solution interface and developed a quantitative model for the effect of ionic screening on the graphene carrier density based on theories of the electric double layer. Finally, we have developed a technique for measuring low-level Faradaic charge-transfer current (fA) across the graphene/solution interface via real-time charge monitoring of graphene microelectrodes in ionic solution. This technique enables the development of flexible and transparent pH sensors that are promising for in vivo applications. The author acknowledges the support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF1010093.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LeVine, David M.
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate
Two dimensional thick center vortex model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Ahmadi, Alireza
2016-01-01
The potential between static color source is calculated in the SU (3) gauge group by introducing a two dimensional vortex flux. To generalize the model, the length of the Wilson loop is equal to R oriented along the x axis, and the vortex flux is considered as a function of x and y. The comparison between the generalized model and the original one shows that the intermediate linear regime is increased significantly and better agreement with Casimir scaling is achieved. Furthermore, the model is applied to calculate the potential between baryons.
Two-dimensional meniscus in a wedge
Kagan, M.; Pinczewski, W.V.; Oren, P.E.
1995-03-15
This paper presents a closed-form analytical solution of the augmented Young-Laplace equation for the meniscus profile in a two-dimensional wedge-shaped capillary. The solution is valid for monotonic forms of disjoining pressure which are repulsive in nature. In the limit of negligible disjoining pressure, it is shown to reduce to the classical solution of constant curvature. The character of the solution is examined and examples of practical interest which demonstrate the application of the solution to the computation of the meniscus profile in a wedge-shaped capillary are discussed.
Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de
2016-06-01
A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas.
Fractures in heterogeneous two-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politi, Antonio; Zei, Maria
2001-05-01
A two-dimensional triangular lattice with bond disorder is used as a testing ground for fracture behavior in heterogeneous materials in strain-controlled conditions. Simulations are performed with two interaction potentials (harmonic and Lennard-Jones types) and different breaking thresholds. We study the strain range where the fracture progressively develops from the first to the last breakdown. Scaling properties with the lattice size are investigated: no qualitative difference is found between the two interaction potentials. Clustering properties of the broken bonds are also studied by grouping them into disjoint sets of connected bonds. Finally, the role of kinetic energy is analyzed by comparing overdamped with dissipationless dynamics.
Couette flow of two-dimensional foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katgert, G.; Tighe, B. P.; Möbius, M. E.; van Hecke, M.
2010-06-01
We experimentally investigate flow of quasi-two-dimensional disordered foams in Couette geometries, both for foams squeezed below a top plate and for freely floating foams (bubble rafts). With the top plate, the flows are strongly localized and rate dependent. For the bubble rafts the flow profiles become essentially rate independent, the local and global rheology do not match, and in particular the foam flows in regions where the stress is below the global yield stress. We attribute this to nonlocal effects and show that the "fluidity" model recently introduced by Goyon et al. (Nature, 454 (2008) 84) captures the essential features of flow both with and without a top plate.
Program For Two-Dimensional Thermoplastic Deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orient, George E.
1993-01-01
SOLAS contains number of utility programs for use with finite-element simulations. Designed to handle two-dimensional problems of quasi-static thermoplastic deformation. Includes optional postprocessing software, independent of solution codes, generating unified element-by-element list of quantitative results of computation, plus file containing signed equivalent stresses, equivalent strains, and multiaxiality factor parameter. Signs of equivalent quantities expressed either with respect to maximum principal quantities or with respect to directions defined by user. Written in UNIX shell script and FORTRAN 77.
Transport in two-dimensional paper networks
Fu, Elain; Ramsey, Stephen A.; Kauffman, Peter; Lutz, Barry; Yager, Paul
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional paper networks (2DPNs) hold great potential for transcending the capabilities and performance of today's paper-based analytical devices. Specifically, 2DPNs enable sophisticated multi-step chemical processing sequences for sample pretreatment and analysis at a cost and ease-of-use that make them appropriate for use in settings with low resources. A quantitative understanding of flow in paper networks is essential to realizing the potential of these networks. In this report, we provide a framework for understanding flow in simple 2DPNs using experiments, analytical expressions, and computational simulations. PMID:22140373
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional QED
Carson, S.R.; Kenway, R.D.
1986-02-01
We describe the computer simulation of two-dimensional QED on a 64 x 64 Euclidean space-time lattice using the Susskind lattice fermion action. Theorder parameter for chiral symmetry breaking and the low-lying meson masses are calculated for both the model with two continuum flavours, which arises naturally in this formulation, and the model with one continuum falvour obtained by including a nonsymmetric mass term and setting one fermion mass equal to the cut-off. Results are compared with those obtined using the quenched approximation, and with analytic predictions.
Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases.
Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K
2015-12-11
In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS. PMID:26705613
Two-dimensional Rayleigh model of vapor bubble evolution
Amendt, P; Friedman, M; Glinsky, M; Gurewitz, E; London, R A; Strauss, M
1999-01-14
The understanding of vapor bubble generation in an aqueous tissue near a fiber tip has required advanced two dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations. For 1D spherical bubble expansion a simplified and useful Rayleigh-type model can be applied. For 2D bubble evolution, such a model does not exist. The present work proposes a Rayleigh-type model for 2D bubble expansion that is faster and simpler than the 2D hydrodynamic simulations. The model is based on a flow potential representation of the hydrodynamic motion controlled by a Laplace equation and a moving boundary condition. We show that the 1D Rayleigh equation is a specific case of our model. The Laplace equation is solved for each time step by a finite element solver using a triangulation of the outside bubble region by a fast unstructured mesh generator. Two problems of vapor bubbles generated by short-pulse lasers near a fiber tip-are considered: (a) the outside region has no boundaries except the fiber, (b) the fiber and the bubble are confined in a long channel, which simulates a fiber in a vessel wall. Our simulations for problems of type (a) include features of bubble evolution as seen in experiments, including a collapse away from the fiber tip. A different behavior was obtained for problems of type (b) when the channel boundary is close to the fiber. In this case the bubble's expansion and collapse are both extremely slow in the direction normal to this boundary and distortion of the bubble is observed.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of beta-carotene.
Christensson, Niklas; Milota, Franz; Nemeth, Alexandra; Sperling, Jaroslaw; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tönu; Hauer, Jürgen
2009-12-24
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D) has been applied to beta-carotene in solution to shine new light on the ultrafast energy dissipation network in carotenoids. The ability of 2D to relieve spectral congestion provides new experimental grounds for resolving the rise of the excited state absorption signal between 18,000 and 19,000 cm(-1). In this spectral region, the pump-probe signals from ground state bleach and stimulated emission overlap strongly. Combined modeling of the time-evolution of 2D spectra as well as comparison to published pump-probe data allow us to draw conclusions on both the electronic structure of beta-carotene as well as the spectral densities giving rise to the observed optical lineshapes. To account for the experimental observations on all time scales, we need to include a transition in the visible spectral range from the first optically allowed excited state (S(2)-->S(n2)). We present data from frequency resolved transient grating and pump-probe experiments confirming the importance of this transition. Furthermore, we investigate the role and nature of the S* state, controversially debated in numerous previous studies. On the basis of the analysis of Feynman diagrams, we show that the properties of S*-related signals in chi(3) techniques like pump-probe and 2D can only be accounted for if S* is an excited electronic state. Against this background, we discuss a new interpretation of pump-deplete-probe and intensity-dependent pump-probe experiments. PMID:19954155
Experimental investigation of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, Frank Matthew
Quantum fluctuations have a profound effect on the bulk properties of magnetic systems, particularly in low spatial dimension. For example, 1D chains with half integral spins have a gapless excitation spectrum while whole integer spin chains have a (Haldane) gap. The quantum critical behavior of the S = 1/2 2D system is thought to be the origin of high TC superconductivity. Molecular magnets are engineered materials where spin, interaction strength, or dimensionality can be tuned for experimental exploration of magnetism. A conscious effort was made to pick chemical motifs known to generate a quasi two dimensional Heisenberg system and attempt to exploit these motifs by designing classes of compounds based upon them. Creating many similar systems and observing changes in magnetism as a result in changes of chemical structure provides for the development of a phenomenological model of magnetostructural correlations which can then be verified by calculation. This dissertation discusses two distinct classes of antiferromagnetic systems, each based upon entirely different chemical motifs, both exhibiting the desired two dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. One class is based upon copper tetrabromide: (5gammaAP)2CuBr4 where 5gammaAP = 2-amino-5-gamma-pyridinium with gamma = chloro, bromo, or methyl substituents. These materials are shown, by bulk magnetization and calorimetry studies to possess an exchange strength on the order of J ≈ -7 to -9 K and ordering temperatures in the range of TN ≈ 3.5 to 5 K. In the ordered state, these materials are shown to possesses a weak 3D exchange interaction, and exhibit a spin-flop transition to long range order in the magnetism. The other class under investigation is based upon copper pyrazine: Cu(pz) 2(ClO4)2, Cu(pz)2(BF6) 2, and [Cu(pz)2(NO3)](PF6). By bulk magnetic measurements of powder and single crystal samples they are shown to be a very good approximation of the 2D QHAF model. The two dimensional magnetic
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-01-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-06-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.
Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide.
Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe
2016-01-01
Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441
Mechanisms in the solution growth of free-standing two-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Wang, Xudong
2014-05-01
Free-standing two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted extensive and growing research interest owing to their exotic physical and mechanical properties, which have enabled their applications in electronics, optoelectronics, electrochemical and biomedical devices. Current synthesis strategies rely largely on top-down approaches such as etching and exfoliation. Among bottom-up approaches in literature, there lacks a systematic understanding of the mechanisms of 2D crystal growth, unlike one-dimensional nanomaterials whose growth mechanisms have been well documented. To date, the growth design of free-standing 2D nanomaterials has remained a case-by-case practice. This review focuses on the bottom-up solution synthesis of free-standing 2D nanomaterials and summarizes the general mechanisms and empirical methodologies that can lead to 2D crystal growth. A brief outlook on the development of synthesis and application of solution-grown 2D nanomaterials is also presented.
Electronic structures and optical properties of two-dimensional ScN and YN nanosheets
Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Wen-Jin; Liu, Li-Min E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Peng, Ping E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn
2014-03-07
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different electronic properties than their bulk materials. Here, we present a systematic study of 2D tetragonal materials of ScN and YN using density functional theory calculations. Several thermodynamically stable 2D tetragonal structures were determined, and such novel tetragonal structures have good electronic and optical properties. Both bulk ScN and YN are indirect band gap semiconductors while the electronic structures of 2D ScN and YN are indirect gap semiconductors, with band gaps of 0.62–2.21 eV. The calculated optical spectra suggest that 2D tetragonal ScN and YN nanosheets have high visible light absorption efficiency. These electronic properties indicate that 2D ScN and YN have great potential for applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.
Recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Congxin, Xia; Jingbo, Li
2016-05-01
Since two-dimensional (2D) graphene was fabricated successfully, many kinds of graphene-like 2D materials have attracted extensive attention. Among them, the studies of 2D metal chalcogenides have become the focus of intense research due to their unique physical properties and promising applications. Here, we review significant recent advances in optoelectronic properties and applications of 2D metal chalcogenides. This review highlights the recent progress of synthesis, characterization and isolation of single and few layer metal chalcogenides nanosheets. Moreover, we also focus on the recent important progress of electronic, optical properties and optoelectronic devices of 2D metal chalcogenides. Additionally, the theoretical model and understanding on the band structures, optical properties and related physical mechanism are also reviewed. Finally, we give some personal perspectives on potential research problems in the optoelectronic characteristics of 2D metal chalcogenides and related device applications.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was applied to characterize the ATR spectral intensity fluctuations of native cotton fibers with various water contents. Prior to 2D analysis, the spectra were leveled to zero at the peak intensity of 1800 cm-1 and then were normalized at the peak intensity ...
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1938-01-01
Construction of the wood frame for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1937-01-01
Construction of the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a
Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1938-01-01
Manometer for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a space
Two-dimensional stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy of molecules with broadband x-ray pulses
Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang, Yu; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul
2012-01-01
Expressions for the two-dimensional stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (181 as, 14.2 eV FWHM) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core-hole. PMID:22583220
Fabrication of two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals using laser interference ablation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Zhaoguang; Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Hongmei; Zhai, Tianrui
2012-11-01
We demonstrate the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) metallic photonic crystals (MPCs) based on colloidal gold nanoparticles, where laser interference ablation combining subsequent high temperature annealing is employed for the construction of 2D gold nano-dot arrays in square lattices. The microscopic and spectroscopic properties of the 2-D MPCs are systematically characterized by the scanning electron microscope and the angle-resolved optical extinction spectroscopic measurements, the strong coupling between the waveguide resonance mode and the particle plasmon resonance of the MPCs imply the success of the fabrication method, which show potential applications in optoelectronic devices and sensors.
Quantum dots derived from two-dimensional materials and their applications for catalysis and energy.
Wang, Xuewan; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Nan; Chen, Peng
2016-04-21
Quantum dots (QDs) derived from the atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets (graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide, graphitic carbon nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, and phosphorene) are emerging extraordinary zero-dimensional materials. Covering a broad spectrum of interesting optical, catalytic, electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties, these 2D-QDs promise a wide range of novel applications including imaging, sensing, cancer therapy, optoelectronics, display, catalysis, and energy. In this article, we discuss the synthesis methods and the properties of these 2D-QDs and emphasize their applications in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, and photovoltaics. PMID:26848039
Symmetry Reduction of Two-Dimensional Damped Kuramoto—Sivashinsky Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdi, Nadjafikhah; Fatemeh, Ahangari
2011-08-01
In this paper, the problem of determining the largest possible set of symmetries for an important nonlinear dynamical system: the two-dimensional damped Kuramoto—Sivashinsky ((2D) DKS) equation is studied. By applying the basic Lie symmetry method for the (2D) DKS equation, the classical Lie point symmetry operators are obtained. Also, the optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the equation is constructed. The Lie invariants as well as similarity reduced equations corresponding to infinitesimal symmetries are obtained. The nonclassical symmetries of the (2D) DKS equation are also investigated.
Two-dimensional quantitative measurements of methyl radicals in methane/air flame.
Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili
2015-01-10
Two-dimensional (2D) quantitative measurements of methyl (CH3) radicals in a methane/air Hencken flame at atmospheric pressure are performed using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) technique. The 2D scanning and subsequent quantification are employed for Radar REMPI. The 2D quantitative results are used to verify the numerical calculations. The line-integral effect was involved in the calculation due to the real experimental configuration. A 25% difference existed between the experimental results and numerical calculation, while the overall concentration distributions between experiment and modeling of single flamelet have fairly good agreement with each other. PMID:25967612
Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis for comparative proteomics profiling
Tannu, Nilesh S; Hemby, Scott E
2007-01-01
Quantitative proteomics is the workhorse of the modern proteomics initiative. The gel-based and MuDPIT approaches have facilitated vital advances in the measurement of protein expression alterations in normal and disease phenotypic states. The methodological advance in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) has been the multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). 2D-DIGE is based on direct labeling of lysine groups on proteins with cyanine CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes before isoelectric focusing, enabling the labeling of 2–3 samples with different dyes and electrophoresis of all the samples on the same 2D gel. This capability minimizes spot pattern variability and the number of gels in an experiment while providing simple, accurate and reproducible spot matching. This protocol can be completed in 3–5 weeks depending on the sample size of the experiment and the level of expertise of the investigator. PMID:17487156
A two-dimensional mixing length theory of convective transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesaffre, Pierre; Chitre, Shashikumar M.; Potter, Adrian T.; Tout, Christopher A.
2013-05-01
The helioseismic observations of the internal rotation profile of the Sun raise questions about the two-dimensional (2D) nature of the transport of angular momentum in stars. Here we derive a convective prescription for axisymmetric (2D) stellar evolution models. We describe the small-scale motions by a spectrum of unstable linear modes in a Boussinesq fluid. Our saturation prescription makes use of the angular dependence of the linear dispersion relation to estimate the anisotropy of convective velocities. We are then able to provide closed form expressions for the thermal and angular momentum fluxes with only one free parameter, the mixing length. We illustrate our prescription for slow rotation, to first order in the rotation rate. In this limit, the thermodynamical variables are spherically symmetric, while the angular momentum depends on both radius and latitude. We obtain a closed set of equations for stellar evolution, with a self-consistent description for the transport of angular momentum in convective regions. We derive the linear coefficients which link the angular momentum flux to the rotation rate (Λ-effect) and its gradient (α-effect). We compare our results to former relevant numerical work.
Theory for two dimensional electron emission between parallel flat electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Cordoba, Rafael
2009-12-01
The electron emission in space charge is limited for the case of a planar cathode; such emission is generated by using an approximation that models electric field formation by a dipole, which generates an oscillatory symmetrical density current j(x ), minimum value is moved around the origin and calculated throughout the Poisson equation. Such value has been previously calculated based upon the already stated conditions for the two dimensional (2D) case. In our matter under study, it is stated that a symmetric oscillatory potential, namely, μ(x ,y) is invariably generated; because of that the boundary conditions represented by both a barrier potential and a square potential will satisfy this potential as well. For the case of the square potential, it is taking into account either a potential is attractive or repulsive. In this study one of the principal problems is discussed. It is when the space charge creates a potential barrier that prohibits steady-state beam propagation. In this paper it is claimed to have found the boundary conditions that fully satisfy the potential, and the potential satisfies approximately the Poisson equation for the 2D case, and the electron emission is generated through a finite strip due to electrical dipole formation.
Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon.
Sharma, Babu Ram; Manjanath, Aaditya; Singh, Abhishek K
2014-01-01
The ability of carbon to exist in many forms across dimensions has spawned search in exploring newer allotropes consisting of either, different networks of polygons or rings. While research on various 3D phases of carbon has been extensive, 2D allotropes formed from stable rings are yet to be unearthed. Here, we report a new sp(2) hybridized two-dimensional allotrope consisting of continuous 5-6-8 rings of carbon atoms, named as "pentahexoctite". The absence of unstable modes in the phonon spectra ensures the stability of the planar sheet. Furthermore, this sheet has mechanical strength comparable to graphene. Electronically, the sheet is metallic with direction-dependent flat and dispersive bands at the Fermi level ensuring highly anisotropic transport properties. This sheet serves as a precursor for stable 1D nanotubes with chirality-dependent electronic and mechanical properties. With these unique properties, this sheet becomes another exciting addition to the family of robust novel 2D allotropes of carbon. PMID:25418419
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy signatures of the glass transition
Lewis, K. L. .. M.; Myers, J. A.; Fuller, F.; Tekavec, P. F.; Ogilvie, J. P.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of solvation dynamics. Using a pump–probe geometry with a pulse shaper [ Optics Express 15 (2007), 16681-16689; Optics Express 16 (2008), 17420-17428], we present temperature dependent 2D spectra of laser dyes dissolved in glass-forming solvents. At low waiting times, the system has not yet relaxed, resulting in a spectrum that is elongated along the diagonal. At longer times, the system loses its memory of the initial excitation frequency, and the 2D spectrum rounds out. As the temperature is lowered, the time scale of this relaxation grows, and the elongation persists for longermore » waiting times. This can be measured in the ratio of the diagonal width to the anti-diagonal width; the behavior of this ratio is representative of the frequency–frequency correlation function [ Optics Letters 31 (2006), 3354–3356]. Near the glass transition temperature, the relaxation behavior changes. Understanding this change is important for interpreting temperature-dependent dynamics of biological systems.« less
Current distribution in a two-dimensional topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, John; Tsymbal, Evgeny
2015-03-01
Topological insulator (TI) is a bulk insulator with spin-dependent surface (edge) states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. This property makes TIs very interesting for potential application in electronic devices. Here we report on theoretical investigations of transport properties of a model two-dimensional (2D) TI where the conductance is controlled by the topologically protected edge states. We utilize the tight-binding form of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model and employ the Landauer-Büttiker formalism to explore the transport properties in the presence of impurities. Using the Green's function technique we calculate the current distribution for states within the bulk band gap of the 2D TI. Interestingly, in absence of impurities we find that the current density decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion reflecting an oscillatory decay pattern of the local density of states as predicted from the complex band structure. Non-magnetic impurities disturb this picture and lead to a complex spatial distribution of current; however, the net transmission along the edge is conserved and remains a spin conductance quantum as expected from general considerations.
Dissipation in quasi-two-dimensional flowing foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raufaste, Christophe; Foulon, Amandine; Dollet, Benjamin
2009-05-01
The dissipation between two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of bubbles, the so-called quasi-2D foams, and a wall is investigated in two setups: a "liquid pool" system, where the foam is confined between a soap solution and a glass coverslip, and a Hele-Shaw cell, where the foam occupies the narrow gap between two plates. This experimental study reports dissipation measurements for mobile gas/liquid interfaces (free shear boundary condition) over a large range of parameters: in the liquid pool system, velocity and bubble area; in the Hele-Shaw cell, velocity and liquid fraction. The effect of the latter quantity is measured for the first time over more than three orders of magnitude. A full comparison between our results and other experimental studies is proposed and enables to rescale all measurements on a single master curve. It shows that for mobile gas/liquid interfaces, the existing models systematically underestimate the dissipation in flowing foams. This is quantified by a discrepancy factor ξ, ratio of the experimental dissipation measurements to the theoretical predictions, which scales as ξ =1.4(RP/√A )-0.5 with RP the Plateau border radius and A the bubble area, showing that the discrepancy is higher for dry foams.
GW-BSE calculations on two-dimensional MXene phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhenglu; Hong, Liang; Jornada, Felipe; Cao, Ting; Ogut, Serdar; Louie, Steven G.
2015-03-01
MXene is a promising candidate for new useful two-dimensional (2D) crystals. Experimentally, few-layer samples have been made from the bulk, and they demonstrate many excellent properties for electric and thermal transport, as well as other novel physics. In this work, we have performed GW-BSE calculations based on first-principles calculations to study some of the MXene family. We find that monolayer Ti2CO2 possesses insulating properties. Furthermore, the 2D screening effect is very strong, resulting in a GW band gap correction of almost 1 eV. Based on these initial results, we expect that optical properties of these materials will also have strong excitonic effects. This research was supported by the DOE Theory Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR10-1006184. This research used resources NERSC, supported by US DOE.
One- and two-dimensional simulations of imploding metal shells
Keinigs, R.K.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Thomas, V.A.; Mclenithan, K.D.; Trainor, R.J.
1999-06-01
We report results of one- and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of imploding, cylindrical metal shells. One-dimensional simulations are used to calculate implosion velocities of heavy liners driven by 30 MA currents. Accelerated by the j{times}B force, 45 g aluminum/tungsten composite liners achieve velocities on the order of 13 km/s. Used to impact a tungsten target, the liner produces shock pressures of approximately 14 Mbar. The first 2D simulations of these liners are also described. These simulations have focused on two problems: (1) the interaction of the liner with the electrically conducting glide planes, and (2) the effect of realistic surface perturbations on the dynamics of the implosion. The former interaction is confined primarily to the region of the contact point between the liner and glide plane, and does not seriously affect the inner liner surface. However a 0.2 {mu}m surface perturbation has a significant effect on the implosion dynamics. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Fluctuations and symmetries in two-dimensional active gels.
Sarkar, N; Basu, A
2011-04-01
Motivated by the unique physical properties of biological active matter, e.g., cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotic cells, we set up effective two-dimensional (2d) coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for the dynamics of thin active gels with polar or nematic symmetries. We use the well-known three-dimensional (3d) descriptions (K. Kruse et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 5 (2005); A. Basu et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 149 (2008)) for thin active-gel samples confined between parallel plates with appropriate boundary conditions to derive the effective 2d constitutive relations between appropriate thermodynamic fluxes and generalised forces for small deviations from equilibrium. We consider three distinct cases, characterised by spatial symmetries and boundary conditions, and show how such considerations dictate the structure of the constitutive relations. We use these to study the linear instabilities, calculate the correlation functions and the diffusion constant of a small tagged particle, and elucidate their dependences on the activity or nonequilibrium drive. PMID:21533956
Exciton radiative lifetimes in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Palummo, Maurizia; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C
2015-05-13
Light emission in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) changes significantly with the number of layers and stacking sequence. While the electronic structure and optical absorption are well understood in 2D-TMDs, much less is known about exciton dynamics and radiative recombination. Here, we show first-principles calculations of intrinsic exciton radiative lifetimes at low temperature (4 K) and room temperature (300 K) in TMD monolayers with the chemical formula MX2 (X = Mo, W, and X = S, Se), as well as in bilayer and bulk MoS2 and in two MX2 heterobilayers. Our results elucidate the time scale and microscopic origin of light emission in TMDs. We find radiative lifetimes of a few picoseconds at low temperature and a few nanoseconds at room temperature in the monolayers and slower radiative recombination in bulk and bilayer than in monolayer MoS2. The MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2 heterobilayers exhibit very long-lived (∼20-30 ns at room temperature) interlayer excitons constituted by electrons localized on the Mo-based and holes on the W-based monolayer. The wide radiative lifetime tunability, together with the ability shown here to predict radiative lifetimes from computations, hold unique potential to manipulate excitons in TMDs and their heterostructures for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. PMID:25798735
Beliaev damping in quasi-two-dimensional dipolar condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Ryan M.; Natu, Stefan
2016-05-01
We study the effects of quasiparticle interactions in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D), zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar atoms, which can exhibit a roton-maxon feature in its quasiparticle spectrum. Our focus is the Beliaev damping process, in which a quasiparticle collides with the condensate and resonantly decays into a pair of quasiparticles. Remarkably, the rate for this process exhibits a highly nontrivial dependence on the quasiparticle momentum and the dipolar interaction strength. For weak interactions, low-energy phonons experience no damping, and higher-energy quasiparticles undergo anomalously weak damping. In contrast, the Beliaev damping rates become anomalously large for stronger dipolar interactions, as rotons become energetically accessible as final states. When the dipoles are tilted off the axis of symmetry, the damping rates acquire an anisotropic character. Surprisingly, this anisotropy does not simply track the anisotropy of the dipolar interactions, rather, the mechanisms for damping are qualitatively modified in the anisotropic case. Our study reveals the unconventional nature of Beliaev damping in dipolar condensates, and has important implications for ongoing studies of equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics in these systems. Further, our results are relevant for other 2D superfluids with roton excitations, including spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases, magnon condensates, and 4He films.
Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport
1992-03-05
FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less
Structural Modelling of Two Dimensional Amorphous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avishek
The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on the modelling of amorphous graphene and vitreous silica bilayers. Models of amorphous graphene have been created using a Monte Carlo bond-switching method and MD method. Vitreous silica bilayers have been constructed using models of amorphous graphene and the ring statistics of silica bilayers has been studied.
Atomic Defects in Two Dimensional Materials.
Rasool, Haider I; Ophus, Colin; Zettl, Alex
2015-10-14
Atomic defects in crystalline structures have pronounced affects on their bulk properties. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy has proved to be a powerful characterization tool for understanding the bonding structure of defects in materials. In this article, recent results on the characterization of defect structures in two dimensional materials are discussed. The dynamic behavior of defects in graphene shows the stability of zigzag edges of the material and gives insights into the dislocation motion. Polycrystalline graphene is characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques, revealing the global crystal structure of the material, as well as atomic-resolution observation of the carbon atom positions between neighboring crystal grains. Studies of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are also visited, highlighting the interlayer bonding, which occurs upon defect formation, and characterization of grain boundary structures. Lastly, defect structures in monolayer polycrystalline transition metal dichalcogenides grown by CVD are discussed. PMID:25946075
Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.
Two-dimensional polymers: concepts and perspectives.
Payamyar, Payam; King, Benjamin T; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Schlüter, A Dieter
2016-01-01
Creation of polymers comprised of repeat units that can create topologically planar macromolecules (rather than linear) has been the topic of several recent studies in the field of synthetic polymer chemistry. Such novel macromolecules, known as 2D polymers, are the result of advanced synthetic methodology which allows creation of monolayer sheets with a periodic internal structure and functional groups placed at predetermined sites under mild conditions. Given the promising potentials of 2D polymers, this feature paper aims at discussing the concept of these novel macromolecules from a topological viewpoint in Section 1. This is followed by spotlighting the expected behavior of 2D polymers in the context of polymer physics (entropy elasticity, strength, percolation, and persistence) and polymer chemistry (copolymers and growth kinetics) in Section 2. Section 3 delineates synthetic and analytical matters associated with 2D polymers followed by a brief final section highlighting the potential of these sheet-like macromolecules for application purposes. We hope this article will trigger the interest of chemists, physicists and engineers to help develop this encouraging new class of materials further such that societally relevant applications will be accessible in the market soon. PMID:26522010
[Research in two-dimensional critical phenomena and conformal field theory]. Final report
Not Available
1990-12-31
A very theoretical description is given of research in two- dimensional critical phenomena and conformal field theory. Major progress is reported in the field of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. A discretized representation of fluctuating geometry is used where surfaces are represented by triangulations; continuum surfaces are recovered by taking the size of the triangles to zero. One of the central goals of the theory of critical phenomena is to find all possible universality classes of n-dimensional critical phenomena; this goal has been translated into the problem of clasifying all possible scale-invariant euclidean quantum field theories. (RWR)
Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code
Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.
1997-04-01
The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem.
Kato, Takaumi; Sone, Shusaku; Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Kadowaki, Hiroko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation correctly reproduces hemodynamics even with an inexact inflow velocity distribution. This study aimed to investigate which is superior, a two-dimensional ordinary (2D-O) simulation with an accurate inflow velocity distribution or a 2D-UMI simulation with an inaccurate one. 2D-O and 2D-UMI simulations were performed for blood flow in a carotid artery with four upstream velocity boundary conditions: a velocity profile with backprojected measured Doppler velocities (condition A), and velocity profiles with a measured Doppler velocity distribution, a parabolic one, and a uniform one, magnitude being obtained by inflow velocity estimation (conditions B, C, and D, respectively). The error of Doppler velocity against the measurement data was sensitive to the inflow velocity distribution in the 2D-O simulation, but not in the 2D-UMI simulation with the inflow velocity estimation. Among the results in conditions B, C, and D, the error in the worst 2D-UMI simulation with condition D was 31 % of that in the best 2D-O simulation with condition B, implying the superiority of the 2D-UMI simulation with an inaccurate inflow velocity distribution over the 2D-O simulation with an exact one. Condition A resulted in a larger error than the other conditions in both the 2D-O and 2D-UMI simulations. PMID:26307203
Optical Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Graphene and Boron Nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Long
This dissertation describes the use of optical spectroscopy in studying the physical properties of two dimensional nano materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Compared to bulk materials, atomically thin two dimensional materials have a unique character that is the strong dependence of physical properties on external control. Both electronic band structure and chemical potential can be tuned in situ by electric field-which is a powerful knob in experiment. Therefore the optical study at atomic thickness scale can greatly benefit from modern micro-fabrication technique and electric control of the material properties. As will be shown in this dissertation, such control of both gemometric and physical properties enables new possibilities of optical spectroscopic measurement as well as opto-electronic studies. Other experimental techniques like electric transport and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are also combined with optical spectroscopy to reveal the physics that is beyond the reach of each individual technique. There are three major themes in the dissertation. The first one is focused on the study of plasmon excitation of Dirac electrons in monolayer graphene. Unlike plasmons in ordinary two dimensional electron gas, plasmons of 2D electrons as in graphene obey unusual scaling laws. We fabricate graphene micro-ribbon arrays with photolithography technique and use optical absorption spectroscopy to study its absorption spectrum. The experimental result demonstrates the extraordinarily strong light-plasmon coupling and its novel dependence on both charge doping and geometric dimensions. This work provides a first glance at the fundamental properties of graphene plasmons and forms the basis of an emerging subfield of graphene research and applications such as graphene terahertz metamaterials. The second part describes the opto-electronic response of heterostructures composed of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We found that there is
On 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence of nondegeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yusen; Liao, Bo; Ding, Kequan
2005-08-01
Some two-dimensional (2D) graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, Randić, and Liao et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a nondegeneracy 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence, which is different from Randić's novel 2D representation and Liao's 2D representation. We also present the nondegeneracy forms corresponding to the representations of Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler.
Chemistry of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashtalir, Olha
With consumer trends pushing toward smaller, faster, more flexible, multitasking devices, researchers striving to meet these needs have targeted two-dimensional (2D) materials---and graphene in particular---as holding the most promise for use in advanced applications. But in 2011, a significant interest has been triggered by a newly discovered family of novel 2D materials---layered transitional metal carbides and carbonitrides, named MXenes. Those compounds were of general formula Mn+1 XnTx, where M stands for metal atom, X is C and/or N, n = 1, 2 or 3, and Tx represents surface groups. Being initially suggested as a material for electrical energy storage systems, MXenes' properties and their potential applications have not been explored. This work is the first complete study of MXenes' chemistry that sheds light on the chemical composition, structure and properties of these novel materials and possible routes of its modification. The research was focused on 2D titanium carbide, Ti3C2Tx, chosen as the representative of the MXene family. The kinetic study of Ti 3C2Tx synthesis discovered the main synthesis parameters, viz. temperature, time and particle size, that affect the etching process and define the quality of final product. MXenes were found to be able to spontaneously accommodate various ions and small organic molecules between the layers leading to preopening of the structure. A major challenge of large scale production of delaminated, atomically thin 2D MXene layers was solved with two delamination techniques involving dimethyl sulfoxide and isopropyl amine pre-intercalation followed by sonication in water. Ti3C2Tx was also found to possess adsorptive and photocatalytic properties, revealing its potential for environmental applications. It also showed limited stability in water and in the presence of oxygen, providing important practical information on proper handling and storage of MXene materials. Completion of this work allowed the performance of energy
Two-dimensional dissipative gap solitons
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2009-08-15
We introduce a model which integrates the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in two dimensions (2Ds) with the linear-cubic-quintic combination of loss and gain terms, self-defocusing nonlinearity, and a periodic potential. In this system, stable 2D dissipative gap solitons (DGSs) are constructed, both fundamental and vortical ones. The soliton families belong to the first finite band gap of the system's linear spectrum. The solutions are obtained in a numerical form and also by means of an analytical approximation, which combines the variational description of the shape of the fundamental and vortical solitons and the balance equation for their total power. The analytical results agree with numerical findings. The model may be implemented as a laser medium in a bulk self-defocusing optical waveguide equipped with a transverse 2D grating, the predicted DGSs representing spatial solitons in this setting.
Optoelectronic memory using two-dimensional materials.
Lei, Sidong; Wen, Fangfang; Li, Bo; Wang, Qizhong; Huang, Yihan; Gong, Yongji; He, Yongmin; Dong, Pei; Bellah, James; George, Antony; Ge, Liehui; Lou, Jun; Halas, Naomi J; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M
2015-01-14
An atomically thin optoelectronic memory array for image sensing is demonstrated with layered CuIn7Se11 and extended to InSe and MoS2 atomic layers. Photogenerated charge carriers are trapped and subsequently retrieved from the potential well formed by gating a 2D material with Schottky barriers. The atomically thin layered optoelectronic memory can accumulate photon-generated charges during light exposure, and the charges can be read out later for data processing and permanent storage. An array of atomically thin image memory pixels was built to illustrate the potential of fabricating large-scale 2D material-based image sensors for image capture and storage. PMID:25517502
Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Anthropogenic Beach Berm Erosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeri Majd, M.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.
2014-12-01
Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping and thus guard against coastal flooding. However, the combination of a rising tide, storm surge, and/or waves may erode anthropogenic berms in a matter of hours or less and cause flooding [1]. Accurate forecasts of coastal flooding therefore demand the ability to predict where and when berms fail and the volume of water that overtops into defended coastal lowlands. Here, a two-dimensional numerical model of swash zone waves and erosion is examined as a tool for predicting the erosion of anthropogenic beach berms. The 2D model is known as a Debris Flow Model (DFM) because it tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver and is able to resolve shocks in fluid/sediment interface [2]. The DFM also includes a two dimensional avalanching scheme to account for gravity-driven slumping of steep slopes. The performance of the DFM is examined with field-scale anthropogenic berm erosion data collected at Newport Beach, California. Results show that the DFM can be applied in the swash zone to resolve wave-by-wave flow and sediment transport. Results also show that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then predict erosion for another event, but predictions are sensitive to model parameters, such as erosion and avalanching. References: [1] Jochen E. Schubert, Timu W. Gallien, Morteza Shakeri Majd, and Brett F. Sanders. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berm erosion and overtopping. Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, 2014. [2] Morteza Shakeri Majd and Brett F. Sanders. The LHLLC scheme for Two-Layer and Two-Phase transcritical flows over a mobile bed with avalanching, wetting and drying. Advances in Water Resources, 64, 16-31, 2014.
Two-dimensional crystals of apoferritin.
Yoshimura, H
1997-01-01
A simple 2D crystallization method using unfolded protein film as a supporting film of crystals was described, which allows modification of protein surfaces by injecting chemical reagents into the subphase after the crystal formation. As an example, glutaraldehyde was used to cross-link adjacent proteins and then stabilize protein crystals. The second layer of other proteins can also be formed on the apoferritin array using cross-linkers. The array of apoferritin is not only beneficial for electron crystallography but also for practical applications. For example, apoferritin produces a mineral core with a size which can be adjusted by the size to the cavity (i.e. 6 nm). Fabrication of such a small size of well defined fine particles is currently not easy using physical or chemical procedures. Using apoferritin, however, it is easy to produce uniform fine particles. If the core is designed to add interesting properties such as magnetism it is possible to make the highest class of magnetic film with ferritin 2D crystals. Basic researches toward practical applications of 2D protein crystal is now under way in various fields. The well defined size and function of protein molecules will benefit to many applications. The function and crystalline order can be designed by site-directed mutagenesis with the development of protein engineering. PMID:9204129
Two-dimensional phase gradient autofocus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, Douglas W.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Fitzgerrell, Alan; Beaver, John
2000-11-01
High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images can be blurred by phase perturbations induced by uncompensated sensor motion and/or unknown propagation effects caused by inhomogeneities in the atmosphere, troposphere, or ionosphere. The inability of the sensor platform to compensate for these effects has driven the development of SAR autofocus algorithms, which are a particular class of blind restoration algorithms. Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) was the first robust non- parametric phase estimation and correction algorithm. It has been an enabling technology for high-resolution SARs and is currently being used in a number of operational SAR systems. Most phase errors experienced by SARs defocus the image in one dimension. However, some proposed systems, such as satellite-based UWB foliage penetration (FOPEN) systems will suffer from potentially severe propagation effects through the ionosphere, including Faraday rotation, dispersion, and scintillation. These effects would cause defocus coupled in range and cross-range, degrading the SAR image by a non-separable 2D phase error. In this work, we present the 2D formulation of PGA and some preliminary results. We also describe some of the additional difficulties that may appear in 2D autofocus: phase residues or branch points and a lack of available redundancy.
Multiplet-separated heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levitt, Malcolm H.; Sørensen, O. W.; Ernst, R. R.
1983-02-01
Techniques are described for the identification and separation of peaks of different multiplicity in heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The methods are applied to the two-dimensional 13C- 1H shift correlation spectrum of menthol.
Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography
Guiochon, Georges A; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled S; Shalliker, R. Andrew
2008-01-01
Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n{sub c} twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n{sub c}{sup 2} once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (a) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC{sup x}) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC{sup t}), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup x} x LC{sup t}, LC{sup t} x LC{sup x}, and LC{sup x} x LC{sup x}. We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC{sup t} x LC{sup t}) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC{sup x} x LC{sup t} shows exceptional
Implementations of two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
Guiochon, Georges; Marchetti, Nicola; Mriziq, Khaled; Shalliker, R Andrew
2008-05-01
Today scientists must deal with complex samples that either cannot be adequately separated using one-dimensional chromatography or that require an inordinate amount of time for separation. For these cases we need two-dimensional chromatography because it takes far less time to generate a peak capacity n(c) twice in a row than to generate a peak capacity n(c)(2) once. Liquid chromatography has been carried out successfully on thin layers of adsorbents and along tubes filled with various adsorbents. The first type of separation sorts out the sample components in a physical separation space that is the layer of packing material. The analysis time is the same for all the components of the sample while their migration distance increases with decreasing retention. The resolution between two components having a certain separation factor (alpha) increases with increasing migration distance, i.e., from the strongly to the weakly retained compounds. In the second type of separation, the sample components are eluted from the column and separated in the time space, their migration distances are all the same while their retention times increase from the unretained to the strongly retained compounds. Separation efficiency varies little with retention, as long as the components are eluted from the column. We call these two types of separation the chromatographic separations in space (LC(x)) and the chromatographic separations in time (LC(t)), respectively. In principle, there are four ways to combine these two modes and do two-dimensional chromatographic separations, LC(t)xLC(t), LC(x)xLC(t), LC(t)xLC(x), and LC(x)xLC(x). We review, discuss and compare the potential performance of these combinations, their advantages, drawbacks, problems, perspectives and results. Currently, column-based combinations (LC(t)xLC(t)) are the most actively pursued. We suggest that the combination LC(x)xLC(t) shows exceptional promise because it permits the simultaneous second-dimension separations of
The Instability of Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Gated and Ungated Quantum Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liping
2016-04-01
The instability of terahertz (THz) plasma waves in two-dimensional (2D) quantum electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with asymmetrical boundary conditions has been investigated. We analyze THz plasma waves of two parts of the 2D quantum electron gas: gated and ungated regions. The results show that the radiation frequency and the increment (radiation power) in 2D ungated quantum electron gas are much higher than that in 2D gated quantum electron gas. The quantum effects always enhance the radiation power and enlarge the region of instability in both cases. This allows us to conclude that 2D quantum electron gas in the transistor channel is important for the emission and detection process and both gated and ungated parts take part in that process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10975114)
Xie, L M
2015-11-28
Engineering electronic structure of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials is of great importance to their potential applications. In comparison to numerous other approaches, such as strain and chemical functionization, alloying can continuously tune the band gaps in a wide energy range. Atomically thin 2D alloys have been prepared and studied recently due to their potential use in electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this review, we first summarize the preparation methods of 2D alloys (mainly on transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer alloys), including mechanical exfoliation, physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chalcogen exchange. Then, atomic-resolution imaging, Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy characterization of 2D alloys are reviewed, in which band gap tuning is discussed in detail based on the PL experiments and theoretical calculations. Finally, applications of 2D alloys in field-effect transistors (FETs), photocurrent generation and hydrogen evolution catalysis are reviewed. PMID:26508084
Two-dimensional graphene as a matrix for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.
Friesen, William L; Schultz, Brian J; Destino, Joel F; Alivio, Theodore E G; Steet, Joseph R; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D
2015-11-01
Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26323616
Two-Dimensional Graphene as a Matrix for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friesen, William L.; Schultz, Brian J.; Destino, Joel F.; Alivio, Theodore E. G.; Steet, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D.
2015-11-01
Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments.
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Braid Entropy of Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Faber, Benjamin; Shats, Michael
2015-01-01
The evolving shape of material fluid lines in a flow underlies the quantitative prediction of the dissipation and material transport in many industrial and natural processes. However, collecting quantitative data on this dynamics remains an experimental challenge in particular in turbulent flows. Indeed the deformation of a fluid line, induced by its successive stretching and folding, can be difficult to determine because such description ultimately relies on often inaccessible multi-particle information. Here we report laboratory measurements in two-dimensional turbulence that offer an alternative topological viewpoint on this issue. This approach characterizes the dynamics of a braid of Lagrangian trajectories through a global measure of their entanglement. The topological length of material fluid lines can be derived from these braids. This length is found to grow exponentially with time, giving access to the braid topological entropy . The entropy increases as the square root of the turbulent kinetic energy and is directly related to the single-particle dispersion coefficient. At long times, the probability distribution of is positively skewed and shows strong exponential tails. Our results suggest that may serve as a measure of the irreversibility of turbulence based on minimal principles and sparse Lagrangian data. PMID:26689261
Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.
Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen
2016-04-01
Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059
Two-dimensional Dirac signature of germanene
Zhang, L.; Bampoulis, P.; Houselt, A. van; Zandvliet, H. J. W.
2015-09-14
The structural and electronic properties of germanene coated Ge{sub 2}Pt clusters have been determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at room temperature. The interior of the germanene sheet exhibits a buckled honeycomb structure with a lattice constant of 4.3 Å and a buckling of 0.2 Å. The zigzag edges of germanene are reconstructed and display a 4× periodicity. The differential conductivity of the interior of the germanene sheet has a V-shape, which is reminiscent of the density of states of a two-dimensional Dirac system. The minimum of the differential conductivity is located close to the Fermi level and has a non-zero value, which we ascribe to the metallic character of the underlying Ge{sub 2}Pt substrate. Near the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges the shape of the differential conductivity changes from a V-shape to a more parabolic-like shape, revealing that the reconstructed germanene zigzag edges do not exhibit a pronounced metallic edge state.
Redox options in two-dimensional electrophoresis.
Wait, R; Begum, S; Brambilla, D; Carabelli, A M; Conserva, F; Rocco Guerini, A; Eberini, I; Ballerio, R; Gemeiner, M; Miller, I; Gianazza, E
2005-05-01
Two-dimensional electrophoresis is usually run on fully reduced samples. Under these conditions even covalently bound oligomers are dissociated and individual polypeptide chains may be fully unfolded by both, urea and SDS, which maximizes the number of resolved components and allows their pI and M(r) to be most accurately evaluated. However, various electrophoretic protocols for protein structure investigation require a combination of steps under varying redox conditions. We review here some of the applications of these procedures. We also present some original data about a few related samples -- serum from four species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus -- which we run under fully unreduced and fully reduced conditions as well as with reduction between first and second dimension. We demonstrate that in many cases the unreduced proteins migrate with a better resolution than reduced proteins, mostly in the crowded 'alpha-globulin' area of pI 4.5-6 and M(r) 50-70 kDa. PMID:15744479
Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan
2010-09-15
Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.
Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection
Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.
1995-07-25
Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits.
Two-dimensional laser interferometry analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehr, Leo; Concepcion, Ricky; Duggan, Robert; Moore, Hannah; Novick, Asher; Ransohoff, Lauren; Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce
2013-10-01
The objective of our research was to create a two-dimensional interferometer which we will use to measure plasma densities at the Cornell Research Beam Accelerator (COBRA). We built two shearing interferometers and mounted them on an optics table. They intercept the probe laser beam which travels directly through the plasma and is captured by a 16-bit CCD camera. In comparing the interferometer images before the shot and during the plasma shot, we observed both lateral and vertical shifts in the interference pattern caused by the change of the refractive index due to the plasma electrons. We developed a computer program using Matlab to map a vector field depicting the shift between the two images. This shift is proportional to the line integral of electron density through the plasma chamber. We show this method provides a reliable way to determine the plasma electron density profile. Additionally, we hope this method can improve upon the diagnostic capabilities and efficiency of data collection used with standard one-dimensional interferometry. Undergraduate.
Internal representation of two-dimensional shape.
Makioka, S; Inui, T; Yamashita, H
1996-01-01
The psychological space of shapes has been studied in many experiments. However, how shapes are represented in the brain has not been a major issue in psychological literature. Here, the characteristics of internal representation and how it was formed have been considered and an attempt has been made to explain the results of experiments in a unified manner. First, the data of similarity of alphabetic characters and random-dot patterns were reexamined. Multivariate analysis suggested that those patterns were represented by the combination of global features. Second, three-layer neural networks were trained to perform categorization or identity transformation of the same sets of patterns as used in psychological experiments, and activation patterns of the hidden units were analyzed. When the network learned categorization of the patterns, its internal representation was not similar to the representation suggested by psychological experiments. But a network which learned identity transformation of the patterns could acquire such an internal representation. The transformation performed by this kind of network is similar to principal-component analysis in that it projects the input image onto a lower-dimensional space. From these results it is proposed that two-dimensional shapes are represented in human brain by a process like principal-component analysis. This idea is compatible with the findings in neurophysiological studies about higher visual areas. PMID:8938008
Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.
Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2016-09-14
The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder. PMID:27580163
Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects.
Chimene, David; Alge, Daniel L; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are ultrathin nanomaterials with a high degree of anisotropy and chemical functionality. Research on 2D nanomaterials is still in its infancy, with the majority of research focusing on elucidating unique material characteristics and few reports focusing on biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent rapid advances in 2D nanomaterials have raised important and exciting questions about their interactions with biological moieties. 2D nanoparticles such as carbon-based 2D materials, silicate clays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs) provide enhanced physical, chemical, and biological functionality owing to their uniform shapes, high surface-to-volume ratios, and surface charge. Here, we focus on state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanomaterials as well as recent developments that are shaping this emerging field. Specifically, we describe the unique characteristics that make 2D nanoparticles so valuable, as well as the biocompatibility framework that has been investigated so far. Finally, to both capture the growing trend of 2D nanomaterials for biomedical applications and to identify promising new research directions, we provide a critical evaluation of potential applications of recently developed 2D nanomaterials. PMID:26459239
Substoichiometric two-dimensional molybdenum oxide flakes: a plasmonic gas sensing platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsaif, Manal M. Y. A.; Field, Matthew R.; Murdoch, Billy J.; Daeneke, Torben; Latham, Kay; Chrimes, Adam F.; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Russo, Salvy P.; Ou, Jian Zhen; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh
2014-10-01
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxides at their various stoichiometries are promising candidates for generating plasmon resonances in visible light range. Herein, we demonstrate plasmonic 2D molybdenum oxide flakes for gas sensing applications, in which hydrogen (H2) is selected as a model gas. The 2D molybdenum oxide flakes are obtained using a grinding-assisted liquid exfoliation method and exposed to simulated sunlight to acquire its substoichiometric quasi-metallic form. After the exposure to H2 gas molecules, the quasi-metallic molybdenum oxide flakes are partially transformed into semiconducting states, thus gradually losing their plasmonic properties. The novel 2D plasmonic sensing platform is tested using different concentrations of H2 gas at various operating temperatures to comprehensively assess its sensing performance. The presented 2D plasmonic system offers great opportunities for future sensing and optical applications.Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxides at their various stoichiometries are promising candidates for generating plasmon resonances in visible light range. Herein, we demonstrate plasmonic 2D molybdenum oxide flakes for gas sensing applications, in which hydrogen (H2) is selected as a model gas. The 2D molybdenum oxide flakes are obtained using a grinding-assisted liquid exfoliation method and exposed to simulated sunlight to acquire its substoichiometric quasi-metallic form. After the exposure to H2 gas molecules, the quasi-metallic molybdenum oxide flakes are partially transformed into semiconducting states, thus gradually losing their plasmonic properties. The novel 2D plasmonic sensing platform is tested using different concentrations of H2 gas at various operating temperatures to comprehensively assess its sensing performance. The presented 2D plasmonic system offers great opportunities for future sensing and optical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on optical gas measurement setup and
Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures.
Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Karpierz, Mirosław A; Assanto, Gaetano
2016-01-01
We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651
Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano
2016-03-01
We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response.
Quasi two-dimensional astigmatic solitons in soft chiral metastructures
Laudyn, Urszula A.; Jung, Paweł S.; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano
2016-01-01
We investigate a non-homogeneous layered structure encompassing dual spatial dispersion: continuous diffraction in one transverse dimension and discrete diffraction in the orthogonal one. Such dual diffraction can be balanced out by one and the same nonlinear response, giving rise to light self-confinement into astigmatic spatial solitons: self-focusing can compensate for the spreading of a bell-shaped beam, leading to quasi-2D solitary wavepackets which result from 1D transverse self-localization combined with a discrete soliton. We demonstrate such intensity-dependent beam trapping in chiral soft matter, exhibiting one-dimensional discrete diffraction along the helical axis and one-dimensional continuous diffraction in the orthogonal plane. In nematic liquid crystals with suitable birefringence and chiral arrangement, the reorientational nonlinearity is shown to support bell-shaped solitary waves with simple astigmatism dependent on the medium birefringence as well as on the dual diffraction of the input wavepacket. The observations are in agreement with a nonlinear nonlocal model for the all-optical response. PMID:26975651
Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Considine, Christopher R; Chou, Cheng-Tse; Ko, Wei-Chun; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Menon, Vinod M
2016-08-10
The low quantum yield observed in two-dimensional semiconductors of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has motivated the quest for approaches that can enhance the light emission from these systems. Here, we demonstrate broadband enhancement of spontaneous emission and increase in Raman signature from archetype two-dimensional semiconductors: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) by placing the monolayers in the near field of a photonic hypercrystal having hyperbolic dispersion. Hypercrystals are characterized by a large broadband photonic density of states due to hyperbolic dispersion while having enhanced light in/out coupling by a subwavelength photonic crystal lattice. This dual advantage is exploited here to enhance the light emission from the 2D TMDs and can be utilized for developing light emitters and solar cells using two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:27420735
Electrical level of defects in single-layer two-dimensional TiO2
Song, X. F.; Hu, L. F.; Li, D. H.; Chen, L.; Sun, Q. Q.; Zhou, P.; Zhang, D. W.
2015-01-01
The remarkable properties of graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted increasing attention on two-dimensional materials, but the gate oxide, one of the key components of two-dimensional electronic devices, has rarely reported. We found the single-layer oxide can be used as the two dimensional gate oxide in 2D electronic structure, such as TiO2. However, the electrical performance is seriously influenced by the defects existing in the single-layer oxide. In this paper, a nondestructive and noncontact solution based on spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to detect the defect states and energy level of single-layer TiO2 films. By fitting the Lorentz oscillator model, the results indicate the exact position of defect energy levels depends on the estimated band gap and the charge state of the point defects of TiO2. PMID:26522399
Electrical level of defects in single-layer two-dimensional TiO2.
Song, X F; Hu, L F; Li, D H; Chen, L; Sun, Q Q; Zhou, P; Zhang, D W
2015-01-01
The remarkable properties of graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted increasing attention on two-dimensional materials, but the gate oxide, one of the key components of two-dimensional electronic devices, has rarely reported. We found the single-layer oxide can be used as the two dimensional gate oxide in 2D electronic structure, such as TiO2. However, the electrical performance is seriously influenced by the defects existing in the single-layer oxide. In this paper, a nondestructive and noncontact solution based on spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to detect the defect states and energy level of single-layer TiO2 films. By fitting the Lorentz oscillator model, the results indicate the exact position of defect energy levels depends on the estimated band gap and the charge state of the point defects of TiO2. PMID:26522399
Noise from two-dimensional vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, N. D.; Stockman, N. O.
1972-01-01
The fluctuating flow in an idealized model of a turbulent shear layer composed of many discrete vortices is analyzed. Computer solutions reveal irregular motions which are similar in many respects to observed flows in turbulent three-dimensional layers. The model is further simplified to a pair of equal co-rotating vortices and the noise generation is analyzed in terms of equivalent quadrupole oscillations. Results of the analysis in a uniform medium are consistent with Lighthill's results. New results are obtained for the effects of mean velocity gradients, compressibility, temperature inhomogenities, and gradients of the mean Mach number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Keivan
2014-09-01
Useful nonlocal discrete and continuous models are developed to explain free vibration of two-dimensional (2D) ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in bending. For this purpose, the models are constructed based on the nonlocal Rayleigh, Timoshenko, and higher-order beam theories. In contrast to an individual SWCNT exhibits identical bending behavior in different directions, for 2D ensemble networks of SWCNTs, it is shown that such a fact is completely dissimilar. Such an important issue leads to the definition of in-plane and out-of-plane flexural behaviors for such nanostructures. Subsequently, their corresponding fundamental frequencies are evaluated based on the proposed nonlocal models. The capabilities of the proposed nonlocal continuous models in predicting flexural frequencies of SWCNTs' ensembles with different numbers of SWCNTs as well as various levels of slenderness ratios are then explained. Such investigations confirm the high efficiency of the proposed continuous models. This matter would be of great importance in vibration analysis of highly populated ensembles of SWCNTs in which the discrete models may suffer from the size of the governing equations. The roles of the number of SWCNTs, slenderness ratio, intertube distance, small-scale parameter, and radius of the SWCNT on both in-plane and out-of-plane fundamental frequencies are addressed.
Assessment of OPC effectiveness using two-dimensional metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiaux, Vincent; Philipsen, Vicky; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Vandenberghe, Geert; Verhaegen, Staf; Hoffmann, Thomas; Ronse, Kurt G.; Howard, William B.; Maurer, Wilhelm; Preil, Moshe E.
2002-07-01
A complete evaluation of the optical proximity effects (OPE) and of their corrections (OPC) requires a quantitative description of two-dimensional (2D) parameters, both at resist- and at reticle-level. Because the 2D behaviour at line-ends and at line-corners can become a limiting factor for the yield, it should be taken into account when characterising a process, just as the CD- and pitch-linearity are already kept under control. This implies the measurement of 2D-metrics in a precise way. We used an SEM Image Analysis tool (ProDATA SIAM) to define and measure various OPC-relevant metrics for a C013 process. For the METAL (M1) process, we show that the overlap between line-ends of M1-trenches and underlying nominal contacts is a relevant metric to describe the effectiveness of hammerheads. Moreover, it is an interesting metric to combine with the CD process window. For the GATE process, we demonstrate that for a given set of metrics there is a degree of OPC aggressiveness beyond which it is not worth to go. We considered both line-end shortening (LES) and corner rounding affecting the poly linewidth close to a contact pad, and this on various logic circuits having received different degrees of fragmentation. Finally the knowledge of the actual line-end contour on the reticle allows one to simulate separately the printing effect of that area loss at reticle line-ends. The area loss measured by comparing the extracted contour to the target one is regarded as a combination of pull-back and area loss at corners. For our C013 gate process, and for the 130nm lines at a 1:1.25 duty cycle, those two parameters contribute together to approximetely 40% of the measured LES in the resist. This fact raises the question of specifications on 2D reticle parameters. We also find a linear correlation between the area loss at reticle line-end corners and the corresponding increase of LES on the wafer, which suggests a way towards putting specifications on the reticle line-ends.
Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuman, Adam William
The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles.
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps. PMID:26172798
Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.
Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R
2015-05-14
During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided. PMID:25898786
Fast and accurate computation of two-dimensional non-separable quadratic-phase integrals.
Koç, Aykut; Ozaktas, Haldun M; Hesselink, Lambertus
2010-06-01
We report a fast and accurate algorithm for numerical computation of two-dimensional non-separable linear canonical transforms (2D-NS-LCTs). Also known as quadratic-phase integrals, this class of integral transforms represents a broad class of optical systems including Fresnel propagation in free space, propagation in graded-index media, passage through thin lenses, and arbitrary concatenations of any number of these, including anamorphic/astigmatic/non-orthogonal cases. The general two-dimensional non-separable case poses several challenges which do not exist in the one-dimensional case and the separable two-dimensional case. The algorithm takes approximately N log N time, where N is the two-dimensional space-bandwidth product of the signal. Our method properly tracks and controls the space-bandwidth products in two dimensions, in order to achieve information theoretically sufficient, but not wastefully redundant, sampling required for the reconstruction of the underlying continuous functions at any stage of the algorithm. Additionally, we provide an alternative definition of general 2D-NS-LCTs that shows its kernel explicitly in terms of its ten parameters, and relate these parameters bidirectionally to conventional ABCD matrix parameters. PMID:20508697
Two dimensionality in quasi-one-dimensional cobalt oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Brewer, J. H.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Morris, G. D.; Takami, T.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.
2006-03-01
Magnetism of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) cobalt oxides ACoO ( A=Ca, Sr and Ba, n=1-5 and ∞) was investigated by μ+SR using polycrystalline samples, at temperatures from 300 K down to 1.8 K. The wTF- μ+SR experiments showed the existence of a magnetic transition in all six samples investigated. The onset temperature of the transition (Tcon) was found to decrease with n; that is, 100±25, 90±10, 85±10, 65±10 50±10, and 15±1 K for n=1-5, and ∞, respectively. In particular, for the samples with n=2-5, Tcon was detected only by the present μ+SR measurements. A muon spin oscillation was clearly observed in both Ca 3Co 2O 6(n=1) and BaCoO 3(n=∞), whereas only a fast relaxation is apparent even at 1.8 K in the other four samples ( n=2-5). Taking together with the fact that the paramagnetic Curie temperature ranges from -150 to -200 K for the compound with n=2 and 3, the μ+SR result indicates that a two-dimensional (2D) short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order, which has been thought to be unlikely to exist at high T due to a relatively strong 1D F interaction, appears below Tcon for all compounds with n=1-5; but quasi-static long-range AF order formed only in Ca 3Co 2O 6, below 25 K. For BaCoO 3(n=∞), as T decreased from 300 K, 1D F order appeared below 53 K, and a sharp 2D AF transition occurred at 15 K.
Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki
2010-09-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.
Development of two-dimensional mapping technique by in-air-PIXE with metal capillary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, N.; Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H.
2011-05-01
We have developed the two-dimensional mapping technique with in-air-PIXE (2D-PIXE) using a metal capillary as a guide to extract ion beam to air. The metal capillary is the conventional injection needle with a 200 μm inside diameter. For the target which is the character made of the copper wires on aluminum basement, 2D-PIXE measurements were performed by irradiating 3 MeV proton beam. As a result, the character was tend to be restored clearly by this method. We discuss about the result of the two-dimensional map from a viewpoint of the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution. This technique is expected to be applicable to various fields such as biology, nano-technology, archeology and so on.
Spin Hall effect in two-dimensional systems within the relativistic phase shift model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Annika; Herschbach, Christian; Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2015-11-01
Recently, a relativistic phase shift model (RPSM) was introduced [D. V. Fedorov et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 085116 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085116] to describe the skew-scattering mechanism of the spin Hall effect caused by impurities in bulk crystals. Here, we present its analog derived for two-dimensional (2D) systems. The proposed 2D-RPSM is applied to one-monolayer noble-metal films with various substitutional impurities and the obtained results are compared with those of corresponding first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the three-dimensional RPSM, the considered model does not provide a sufficient qualitative description of the transport properties. Therefore, an ab initio treatment is necessary for the description of the spin Hall effect in two-dimensional crystals.
Ocular Proteomics with Emphasis on Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry
2010-01-01
The intention of this review is to provide an overview of current methodologies employed in the rapidly developing field of ocular proteomics with emphasis on sample preparation, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Appropriate sample preparation for the diverse range of cells and tissues of the eye is essential to ensure reliable results. Current methods of protein staining for 2D-PAGE, protein labelling for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, gel-based expression analysis and protein identification by MS are summarised. The uses of gel-free MS-based strategies (MuDPIT, iTRAQ, ICAT and SILAC) are also discussed. Proteomic technologies promise to shed new light onto ocular disease processes that could lead to the discovery of strong novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets useful in many ophthalmic conditions. PMID:21406065
Two-dimensional imaging with a single-sided NMR probe.
Casanova, F; Blümich, B
2003-07-01
A new low field unilateral NMR sensor equipped with a two-dimensional gradient coil system was built. A new NMR-MOUSE concept using a simple bar magnet instead of the classical U-shaped geometry was used to produce magnetic field profiles comparatively homogeneous in extended lateral planes defining a suitable field of view for 2D spatial localization. Slice selection along the depth direction is obtained by means of the highly constant static magnetic field gradient produced by this magnet geometry. Implementing a two-dimensional phase-encoding imaging method 2D cross sections of objects were obtained with high spatial resolution. By retuning the probe it was possible to change the depth of the selected slice obtaining a 3D imaging method. The details of the construction of the new device are presented together with imaging tests to show the quality of space encoding. PMID:12852905
Li, Mingda Snider, Gregory; Jena, Debdeep; Grace Xing, Huili; Esseni, David
2014-02-21
The single particle tunneling in a vertical stack consisting of monolayers of two-dimensional semiconductors is studied theoretically, and its application to a novel Two-dimensional Heterojunction Interlayer Tunneling Field Effect Transistor (Thin-TFET) is proposed and described. The tunneling current is calculated by using a formalism based on the Bardeen's transfer Hamiltonian, and including a semi-classical treatment of scattering and energy broadening effects. The misalignment between the two 2D materials is also studied and found to influence the magnitude of the tunneling current but have a modest impact on its gate voltage dependence. Our simulation results suggest that the Thin-TFETs can achieve very steep subthreshold swing, whose lower limit is ultimately set by the band tails in the energy gaps of the 2D materials produced by energy broadening. The Thin-TFET is thus very promising as a low voltage, low energy solid state electronic switch.
Direct Imaging of a Two-Dimensional Silica Glass on Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, P. Y.; Kurasch, S.; Srivastava, A.; Skakalova, V.; Kotakoski, J.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Hovden, R. M.; Mao, Q.; Meyer, J. C.; Smet, J.; Muller, D. A.; Kaiser, U.
2012-02-01
Large-area graphene substrates [1] are a promising lab bench for synthesizing and characterizing novel low-dimensional materials such as two-dimensional (2D) glasses. Unlike 2D crystals such as graphene, 2D glasses are almost entirely unexplored--yet they have enormous applicability for understanding amorphous structures, which are difficult to probe in 3D. We report direct observations of the structure of an amorphous 2D silica supported on graphene. To our knowledge, these results represent the first discovery of an extended 2D glass. The 2D glass enables aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy, producing the first atomically-resolved experimental images of a glass. The images strikingly resemble Zachariasen's seminal 1932 cartoons of a 2D continuous random network glass [2] and allow direct structural analyses not possible in 3D glassy materials. DFT calculations indicate that van der Waals interactions with graphene energetically favor the 2D structure over bulk SiO2, suggesting that graphene can be instrumental in stabilizing new 2D materials. [1] J. C. Meyer et al., Nature 454, 319--322 (2008). [2] W. H. Zachariasen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 54, 3841--3851 (1932).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, R. N.; Leidner, S. M.; Henderson, J. M.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J. V.; Bloom, S. C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In this study, we apply a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2d-VAR) to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. 2d-VAR determines a "best" gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost function. The cost function measures the misfit to the observations, the background, and the filtering and dynamical constraints. The ambiguity closest in direction to the minimizing analysis is selected. 2d-VAR method, sensitivity and numerical behavior are described. 2d-VAR is compared to statistical interpolation (OI) by examining the response of both systems to a single ship observation and to a swath of unique scatterometer winds. 2d-VAR is used with both NSCAT ambiguities and NSCAT backscatter values. Results are roughly comparable. When the background field is poor, 2d-VAR ambiguity removal often selects low probability ambiguities. To avoid this behavior, an initial 2d-VAR analysis, using only the two most likely ambiguities, provides the first guess for an analysis using all the ambiguities or the backscatter data. 2d-VAR and median filter selected ambiguities usually agree. Both methods require horizontal consistency, so disagreements occur in clumps, or as linear features. In these cases, 2d-VAR ambiguities are often more meteorologically reasonable and more consistent with satellite imagery.
Monolithic multigrid methods for two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adler, James H.; Benson, Thomas R.; Cyr, Eric C.; MacLachlan, Scott P.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.
2016-01-06
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) representations are used to model a wide range of plasma physics applications and are characterized by a nonlinear system of partial differential equations that strongly couples a charged fluid with the evolution of electromagnetic fields. The resulting linear systems that arise from discretization and linearization of the nonlinear problem are generally difficult to solve. In this paper, we investigate multigrid preconditioners for this system. We consider two well-known multigrid relaxation methods for incompressible fluid dynamics: Braess--Sarazin relaxation and Vanka relaxation. We first extend these to the context of steady-state one-fluid viscoresistive MHD. Then we compare the two relaxationmore » procedures within a multigrid-preconditioned GMRES method employed within Newton's method. To isolate the effects of the different relaxation methods, we use structured grids, inf-sup stable finite elements, and geometric interpolation. Furthermore, we present convergence and timing results for a two-dimensional, steady-state test problem.« less
Two-dimensional quantum walk under artificial magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalçınkaya, I.; Gedik, Z.
2015-10-01
We introduce the Peierls substitution to a two-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk on a square lattice to examine the spreading dynamics and the coin-position entanglement in the presence of an artificial gauge field. We use the ratio of the magnetic flux through the unit cell to the flux quantum as a control parameter. For a given flux ratio, we obtain faster spreading for a small number of steps and the walker tends to be highly localized around the origin. Moreover, the spreading of the walk can be suppressed and decreased within a limited time interval for specific rational values of flux ratio. When the flux ratio is an irrational number, even for a large number of steps, the spreading exhibits diffusive behavior rather than the well-known ballistic one as in the classical random walk and there is a significant probability of finding the walker at the origin. We also analyze the coin-position entanglement and show that the asymptotic behavior vanishes when the flux ratio is different from zero and the coin-position entanglement become nearly maximal in a periodic manner in a long time range.
Strongly trapped two-dimensional quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollár, B.; Kiss, T.; Jex, I.
2015-02-01
Discrete time quantum walks (DTQWs) are nontrivial generalizations of random walks with a broad scope of applications. In particular, they can be used as computational primitives, and they are suitable tools for simulating other quantum systems. DTQWs usually spread ballistically due to their quantumness. In some cases, however, they can remain localized at their initial state (trapping). The trapping and other fundamental properties of DTQWs are determined by the choice of the coin operator. We introduce and analyze a type of walks driven by a coin class leading to strong trapping, complementing the known list of walks. This class of walks exhibits a number of exciting properties with possible applications ranging from light pulse trapping in a medium to topological effects and quantum search.
Interaction and Correlation Effects in Quasi Two-dimensional Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louie, Steven G.
2015-03-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of atomically thin quasi two-dimensional materials (typically related to some parent van der Waals layered crystals) and their nanostructures have revealed that these systems can exhibit highly unusual behaviors. In this talk, we discuss some theoretical studies of the electronic, transport and optical properties of such systems. We present results on graphene and graphene nanostructures as well as other quasi-2D systems such as monolayer and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2) and metal monochalcogenides (such as GaSe and FeSe). Owing to their reduced dimensionality, these systems present opportunities for unusual manifestation of concepts and phenomena that may not be so prominent or have not been seen in bulk materials. Symmetry and many-body interaction effects often play a critical role in shaping qualitatively and quantitatively their properties. Several quantum phenomena are discussed, including novel and dominant exciton effects, tunable magnetism, electron supercollimation by disorder, unusual plasmon behaviors, and possible enhanced superconductivity in some of these systems. We investigate their physical origins and compare theoretical predictions with experimental data. This work was supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by NSF under Grant No. DMR10-1006184. I would like to acknowledge collaborations with members of the Louie group and the experimental groups of Crommie, Heinz, Wang, and Zhang.
Two dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding in face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Meng; Jiang, Jifeng; Lin, Chuang; Wang, Binghui
2015-03-01
One of the key issues of face recognition is to extract the features of face images. In this paper, we propose a novel method, named two-dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding (2DDNPE), for image feature extraction and face recognition. 2DDNPE benefits from four techniques, i.e., neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), locality preserving projection (LPP), image based projection and Fisher criterion. Firstly, NPE and LPP are two popular manifold learning techniques which can optimally preserve the local geometry structures of the original samples from different angles. Secondly, image based projection enables us to directly extract the optimal projection vectors from twodimensional image matrices rather than vectors, which avoids the small sample size problem as well as reserves useful structural information embedded in the original images. Finally, the Fisher criterion applied in 2DDNPE can boost face recognition rates by minimizing the within-class distance, while maximizing the between-class distance. To evaluate the performance of 2DDNPE, several experiments are conducted on the ORL and Yale face datasets. The results corroborate that 2DDNPE outperforms the existing 1D feature extraction methods, such as NPE, LPP, LDA and PCA across all experiments with respect to recognition rate and training time. 2DDNPE also delivers consistently promising results compared with other competing 2D methods such as 2DNPP, 2DLPP, 2DLDA and 2DPCA.
Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.
2015-12-01
Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.
Lagrangian statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence.
Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E
2016-01-01
Measurements of Lagrangian single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. Lagrangian correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of Lagrangian velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed. PMID:26826855
Quantum Criticality in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Itinerant Antiferromagnets.
Varma, C M
2015-10-30
Quasi-two-dimensional itinerant fermions in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum-critical region of their phase diagram, such as in the Fe-based superconductors or in some of the heavy-fermion compounds, exhibit a resistivity varying linearly with temperature and a contribution to specific heat or thermopower proportional to TlnT. It is shown, here, that a generic model of itinerant anti-ferromagnet can be canonically transformed so that its critical fluctuations around the AFM-vector Q can be obtained from the fluctuations in the long wavelength limit of a dissipative quantum XY model. The fluctuations of the dissipative quantum XY model in 2D have been evaluated recently, and in a large regime of parameters, they are determined, not by renormalized spin fluctuations, but by topological excitations. In this regime, the fluctuations are separable in their spatial and temporal dependence and have a spatial correlation length which is proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length, i.e., for some purposes, the effective dynamic exponent z=∞. The time dependence gives ω/T scaling at criticality. The observed resistivity and entropy then follow. Several predictions to test the theory are also given. PMID:26565482
Robust algorithm for aligning two-dimensional chromatograms.
Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; Rutler, Rebecca; Arey, J Samuel
2012-11-01
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) chromatograms typically exhibit run-to-run retention time variability. Chromatogram alignment is often a desirable step prior to further analysis of the data, for example, in studies of environmental forensics or weathering of complex mixtures. We present a new algorithm for aligning whole GC × GC chromatograms. This technique is based on alignment points that have locations indicated by the user both in a target chromatogram and in a reference chromatogram. We applied the algorithm to two sets of samples. First, we aligned the chromatograms of twelve compositionally distinct oil spill samples, all analyzed using the same instrument parameters. Second, we applied the algorithm to two compositionally distinct wastewater extracts analyzed using two different instrument temperature programs, thus involving larger retention time shifts than the first sample set. For both sample sets, the new algorithm performed favorably compared to two other available alignment algorithms: that of Pierce, K. M.; Wood, Lianna F.; Wright, B. W.; Synovec, R. E. Anal. Chem.2005, 77, 7735-7743 and 2-D COW from Zhang, D.; Huang, X.; Regnier, F. E.; Zhang, M. Anal. Chem.2008, 80, 2664-2671. The new algorithm achieves the best matches of retention times for test analytes, avoids some artifacts which result from the other alignment algorithms, and incurs the least modification of quantitative signal information. PMID:23082816
Fast and stable two-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lugao, Patricia Pastana
1997-07-01
The two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem still poses difficult challenges in spite of efforts to develop fast and efficient methods for its solution. In this work, a new approach based on regularization theory and the quasi-analytic calculation of the Frechet derivatives is presented. For the forward solution, a fast and efficient finite difference formulation to the solution of the MT equations in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes based on the balance method is used. The Frechet derivative matrix is obtained as a solution to simple forward and back substitution of the LU decomposed matrix of coefficients from the forward problem utilizing the principle of reciprocity. The magnetotelluric inverse problem is ill-posed. In order to constrain the solution to a set of acceptable models, Tikhonov regularization is applied based on the minimization of a parametric functional. The regularized cojugate gradient method is then utilized to minimize the parametric functional. Inversion results of a set of synthetic data and of a set of CSAMT data from Kennecott Exploration show that the method is fast, stable and produces geologically reasonable models.
Fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography
Stoll, Dwight R.; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoli; Carr, Peter W.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rutan, Sarah C.
2011-01-01
The absolute need to improve the separating power of liquid chromatography, especially for multi-constituent biological samples, is becoming increasingly evident. In response, over the past few years, there has been a great deal of interest in the development of two dimension liquid chromatography (2DLC). Just as 1DLC is preferred to 1DGC based on its compatibility with biological materials we believe that ultimately 2DLC will be preferred to the much more highly developed 2DGC for such samples. The huge advantage of 2D chromatographic techniques over 1D methods is inherent in the tremendous potential increase in peak capacity (resolving power). This is especially true of comprehensive 2D chromatography wherein it is possible, under ideal conditions, to obtain a total peak capacity equal to the product of the peak capacities of the first and second dimension separations. However, the very long timescale (typically several hours to tens of hours) of comprehensive 2DLC is clearly its chief drawback. Recent advances in the use of higher temperatures to speed up isocratic and gradient elution liquid chromatography have been used to decrease the time needed to do the second dimension LC separation of 2DLC to about 20 seconds for a full gradient elution run. Thus fast, high temperature LC is becoming a very promising technique. Peak capacities of over 2000 and rates of peak capacity production of nearly 1 peak/s have been achieved. In consequence, many real samples showing more than 200 peaks with signal to noise ratios of better than 10:1 have been run in total times of under 30 minutes. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive review of 2DLC, but is deliberately focused on the issues involved in doing fast 2DLC by means of elevating the column temperature; however, many issues of broader applicability will be discussed. PMID:17888443
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kisam; Cho, Minhaeng
1998-12-01
A theoretical description of the coherent two-dimensional IR spectroscopy is presented. Two consecutive IR pulses can be used to create two consecutive vibrational coherence states. The third off-resonant optical pulse is used to probe the two-dimensional transient grating thus created and then the scattered field is measured. The corresponding nonlinear response functions are obtained in the analytic forms by assuming that the vibrational modes are weakly anharmonic Brownian oscillators. Since one can experimentally control the two delay times as well as the two IR field frequencies, it is possible to extract vital information on the vibrational relaxation in time domain as well as the intra- and intermolecular vibrational mode couplings in frequency domain. Numerical calculations are carried out to clarify the quantitative features of the coherent 2D IR spectroscopic phenomenon.
Defect states of acoustic waves in a two-dimensional lattice of solid cylinders
Sigalas, M.M.
1998-09-01
Using the plane-wave expansion method, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through two-dimensional (2D) periodic composites consisting of solid cylinders in air. Defect in those structures create localized states inside the band gaps. We study both single and line defects. Line defects can act as a waveguide for acoustic waves while single defects can be used as acoustical filters. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Physics of blob displacement in a two-dimensional porous medium
Lenormand, R.; Zarcone, C.
1988-03-01
The evolution of the geometry of blobs is observed during displacements in a two-dimensional (2D) transparent micromodel, and such macroscopic parameters as pressure drop and recovery are monitored simultaneously. The results are in good agreement with experiments performed in real media and with theoretical calculations of the conditions required for blob mobilization when the presence of loops in the structure is taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, Keunhwi; Kim, Soo-Yong; Jeong, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang Woo
2014-09-01
This study introduces a two-dimensional (2D) partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) method to reconstruct a degraded data page having 2D inter-symbol interference for holographic data storage. The proposed 2D PRML method consists of 2D partial response (PR) target, 2D equalizer using least mean square algorithm, and 2D soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) having just two one-dimensional (1D) SOVAs in horizontal and vertical directions. To accurately organize a trellis diagram of the 1D SOVA in structural accordance with the 2D PR target, this study proposes the self-reference process for the extrinsic information in the 1D SOVA. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed method has bit error rate performance similar to that of modified 2D SOVA having four 1D SOVAs despite the relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, parallel processing is possible in the two 1D SOVAs through the self-reference process.
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E
2016-06-24
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743
Pan, Jeng-Jong
1989-01-01
An equation to compute the gravity anomalies of two-dimensional (2-D) bodies with density contrast varying with depth (z axis) was developed by Murthy and Rao (1979). I develop an equation for computing the gravity anomalies of 2-D bodies with constant horizontal density gradient. By combining this equation with the equation of Murthy and Rao, I estimate the depth of the sedimentary basin which is adjacent to the master fault associated with the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, where the density is assumed to decrease basinward from the fault (Cordell, 1979).
Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou
2015-01-01
Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold-gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen. PMID:25902034
Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas under subterahertz radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Q.; Martin, P. D.; Hatke, A. T.; Zudov, M. A.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2015-08-01
We report on magnetotransport measurements in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas subject to subterahertz radiation in the regime where Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) and microwave-induced resistance oscillations (MIROs) coexist over a wide magnetic field range, spanning several harmonics of the cyclotron resonance. Surprisingly, we find that the SdHO amplitude is modified by the radiation in a nontrivial way, owing to the oscillatory correction which has the same period and phase as MIROs. This finding challenges our current understanding of microwave photoresistance in 2D electron gas, calling for future investigations.
Electron- and photon-induced plasmonic excitations in two-dimensional silver nanostructures
Hoang, C. V.; Rana, M.; Nagao, T.
2014-06-23
Plasmons are the quasi particles of collective oscillations of electrons and form the basis of plasmonics and optical metamaterials. We combined electron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques to study plasmons in atomically smooth Ag films and in epitaxial Ag nanodisks to map the momentum-energy dispersion curves of the two-dimensional (2D) sheet plasmon and the quasi-2D plasmons to clarify the essential differences between them. Our experimental results combined with the results of numerical electromagnetic simulations showed that the bulk-like nature of the silver plasmon starts in layers that are only two atoms thick.
Wang, Liang; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Fudong; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Basset, Jean-Marie; Han, Yu; Xiao, Feng-Shou
2015-01-01
Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold–gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen. PMID:25902034
Novel relativistic plasma excitations in a gated two-dimensional electron system.
Muravev, V M; Gusikhin, P A; Andreev, I V; Kukushkin, I V
2015-03-13
The microwave response of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) covered by a conducting top gate is investigated in the relativistic regime for which the 2D conductivity σ_{2D}>c/2π. Weakly damped plasma waves are excited in the gated region of the 2DES. The frequency and amplitude of the resulting plasma excitations show a very unusual dependence on the magnetic field, conductivity, gate geometry, and separation from the 2DES. We show that such relativistic plasmons survive for temperatures up to 300 K, allowing for new room-temperature microwave and terahertz applications. PMID:25815956
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.
2016-06-01
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.
Number of phase levels in a two-dimensional separable Talbot array illuminator.
Zhao, S; Zhou, C; Xi, P; Wang, H; Liu, L
2001-01-01
The number of phase levels in a Talbot array illuminator (TAIL) is an important factor for estimation of practical fabrication complexity and cost. We show that the number of phase levels in a two-dimensional TAIL (2D-TAIL) has a simple relation to the prime number. When the output array is alternatively pi phase modulated, there are similar simple relations. These simple relations should be highly interesting for practical use. An experiment with the 2D-TAIL based on the joint-Talbot effect is given as well. PMID:11151985
Verification of the HRQAR two-dimensional approach for NCT microdosimetry
Yam, C.S.; Solares, G.R.; Zamenhof, R.G.
1994-12-31
A unique approach to the microdosimetry of neutron capture therapy (NCT), which combines the high-resolution quantitative autoradiography (HRQAR) technique, and two-dimensional (2-D) Monte Carlo methods, has been developed by our group. Using this approach, actual cell morphology (ie., cell nuclei and cytoplasm structures) and microdistribution of the capture element (e.g., {sup 10}B) can be obtained; therefore, microdosimetry can be carried out without making any assumptions regarding either cell architecture or {sup 10}B distribution. This paper shows that results obtained by this 2-D approach are equivalent to the {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} 3-D approach.
Two-dimensional femtosecond optical spectroscopy of trapping dynamics in a charge-transfer process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keß, Martin; Engel, Volker
2016-04-01
We study charge-transfer dynamics monitored by two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy. The often used model consisting of two coupled diabatic electronic states in a single reaction coordinate is used to demonstrate the relation between the vibronic dynamics and the 2D-spectra. Within the employed wave-function approach, dissipation is included via a quantum-jump algorithm with explicit treatment of dephasing. States with long lifetimes which decay slowly due to the interaction with the environment are identified. Using filtered Fourier transforms, energy and time resolved information about the dissipative system dynamics can be obtained.
Solitary waves in two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal: Effects of weak magnetic field
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M. R.
2010-03-15
It is shown that in the presence of weak magnetic field, the dust lattice solitary wave in two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal dusty plasma crystal is governed by a gyration-modified 2D Korteweg-de Vries equation due to the action of Lorentz force on the dust particles. Numerical solutions reveal that only for weak magnetic field an apparently single hump solitary wave solution exist. But, for strong magnetic field dust lattice solitary wave becomes unstable showing repetitive solitary hump of increasing magnitude with time.
Effective viscosity of dilute bacterial suspensions : a two-dimensional model.
Haines, B. M.; Aranson, I. S.; Berlyand, L.; Karpeev, D. A.; Pennsylvania State Univ.
2008-01-01
Suspensions of self-propelled particles are studied in the framework of two-dimensional (2D) Stokesean hydrodynamics. A formula is obtained for the effective viscosity of such suspensions in the limit of small concentrations. This formula includes the two terms that are found in the 2D version of Einstein's classical result for passive suspensions. To this, the main result of the paper is added, an additional term due to self-propulsion which depends on the physical and geometric properties of the active suspension. This term explains the experimental observation of a decrease in effective viscosity in active suspensions.
Essential finite-size effect in the two-dimensional XY model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, S. G.
1999-10-01
The thermodynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) XY model is formulated by a transfer-matrix method and analyzed by a density-matrix renormalization group. The finite-size scaling and the beta function of the model are studied by the Roomany-Wyld renormalization-group theory. It is found that the 2D XY model has an essential finite-size effect and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition with the critical temperature TBKT=0.892 appears in a finite system of 2000-3000 spins as a massless to massive transition with the effective critical temperature Tc=1.07+/-0.01.