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Sample records for 2d velocity field

  1. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex

    2000-01-01

    A velocity field. even one that represents a steady state flow implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives, These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunction with several examples.

  2. On Animating 2D Velocity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A velocity field, even one that represents a steady state flow, implies a dynamical system. Animated velocity fields is an important tool in understanding such complex phenomena. This paper looks at a number of techniques that animate velocity fields and propose two new alternatives. These are texture advection and streamline cycling. The common theme among these techniques is the use of advection on some texture to generate a realistic animation of the velocity field. Texture synthesis and selection for these methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are also discussed in conjunctions with several examples.

  3. Uncertainty in calculating vorticity from 2D velocity fields using circulation and least-squares approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Lonnes, S.

    1995-11-01

    The most common method for determining vorticity from planar velocity information is the circulation method. Its performance has been evaluated using a plane of velocity data obtained from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a three dimensional plane shear layer. Both the ability to reproduce the vorticity from the exact velocity field and one perturbed by a 5% random “uncertainty” were assessed. To minimize the sensitivity to velocity uncertainties, a new method was developed using a least-squares approach. The local velocity data is fit to a model velocity field consisting of uniform translation, rigid rotation, a point source, and plane shear. The least-squares method was evaluated in the same manner as the circulation method. The largest differences between the actual and calculated vorticity fields were due to the filter-like nature of the methods. The new method is less sensitive to experimental uncertainty. However the circulation method proved to be slightly better at reproducing the DNS field. The least-squares method provides additional information beyond the circulation method results. Using the correlation overline {Pω ω } and a vorticity threshold criteria to identify regions of rigid rotation (or eddies), the rigid rotation component of the least-squares method indicates these same regions.

  4. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  5. Effective filtering and interpolation of 2D discrete velocity fields with Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumier, Louis-Philippe; Khouider, Boualem; Agueh, Martial

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new variational technique to interpolate and filter a two-dimensional velocity vector field which is discretely sampled in a region of {{{R}}}2 and sampled only once at a time, on a small time-interval [0,{{Δ }}t]. The main idea is to find a solution of the Navier-Stokes equations that is closest to a prescribed field in the sense that it minimizes the l 2 norm of the difference between this solution and the target field. The minimization is performed on the initial vorticity by expanding it into radial basis functions of Gaussian type, with a fixed size expressed by a parameter ɛ. In addition, a penalty term with parameter k e is added to the minimizing functional in order to select a solution with a small kinetic energy. This additional term makes the minimizing functional strongly convex, and therefore ensures that the minimization problem is well-posed. The interplay between the parameters k e and ɛ effectively contributes to smoothing the discrete velocity field, as demonstrated by the numerical experiments on synthetic and real data.

  6. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  7. Simultaneous 2-D Measurements of Transient Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Thermal Starting Plume: Laboratory Models of Entrainment and Structure of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurita, K.

    2002-12-01

    Both numerical and experimental models of thermal plumes suggest that mantle plumes entrain surrounding mantle and their morphology (temperature and compositional fields in the plume head) evolves as they rise. Recent geochemical and isotopic studies of mantle plume products have revealed mixing of the ambient mantle with the primitive plume source. In order to make a quantitative comparison of the geophysical modeling with geological evidences, it is desired to show a precise image of spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and compositional fields in the plumes. Here, we present preliminary results of our laboratory experiments on thermal starting plumes using a quantitative technique of digital image processing. By coupling Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) we can measure simultaneous 2-dimensional transient velocity and temperature fields in a thermal plume. Our experiments were conducted in a transparent rectangular tank containing a viscous fluid. Buoyancy in the form of heat was injected into the fluid by operating a heater at the base of the tank. The flow was marked with tracer particles for velocity and with the fluorescence dye, Rhodamine B, for temperature measurements. The particles and the fluorescence dye were illuminated and exited by a thin vertical sheet of laser light that was oriented to contain the axis of symmetry. We succeeded in simultaneous measurements of ascent velocity of the plume head, precise velocity field within the plume head, and evolution of the temperature field. This makes clear their relation and is useful for considering the entrainment process of plumes. Our aim of this study is to clarify the physics of entrainment and mixing phenomena of starting plumes, and to make quantitative geophysical models of mantle plumes connecting with geological and seismic evidences. In this presentation, we will show that this quantitative technique is a powerful tool for approaching these issues.

  8. Hall-velocity limited magnetoconductivity in a 2D Wigner solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fozooni, P.; Djerfi, K.; Kristensen, Anders; Lea, M. J.; Richardson, P. J.; Santrich-Badal, A.; Blackburn, A.; van der Heijden, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetoconductivity σ( B) of a classical 2D electron crystal on superfluid4He is non-linear. Experimentally we find a contribution to σ( B) which at constant field, gives σ( B)∞ J x, the current density, while at constant current, σ( B) ∞ 1/ B. In this region the Hall velocity νH slowly approaches the ripplon velocity νI at the first reciprocal lattice vector, due to strong electron-ripplon interactions with the helium. The magnetoconductivity decreases sharply for νH>νI. Fluctuations in σ( B) are seen above the melting temperature.

  9. 2-D Drift Velocities from the IMAGE EUV Plasmaspheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D.; Adrian, M.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EUY) observes He+ plasmaspheric ions throughout the inner magnetosphere. Limited by ionizing radiation and viewing close to the Sun, images of the He+ distribution are available every 10 minutes for many hours as the spacecraft passes through apogee in its highly elliptical orbit. As a consistent constituent at about 15%, He+ is an excellent surrogate for monitoring all of the processes that control the dynamics of plasmaspheric plasma. In particular, the motion ofHe+ transverse to the ambient magnetic field is a direct indication of convective electric fields. The analysis of boundary motions has already achieved new insights into the electrodynamic coupling processes taking place between energetic magnetospheric plasmas and the ionosphere. Yet to be fulfilled, however, is the original promise that global EUY images of the plasmasphere might yield two-dimensional pictures of meso-scale to macro-scale electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. This work details the technique and initial application of an IMAGE EUY analysis that appears capable of following thermal plasma motion on a global basis.

  10. Multiple triangulation analysis: application to determine the velocity of 2-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-Z.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Zhang, X. G.; Shi, Q. Q.; Cao, J. B.

    2006-11-01

    In order to avoid the ambiguity of the application of the Triangulation Method (multi-spacecraft timing method) to two-dimensional structures, another version of this method, the Multiple Triangulation Analysis (MTA) is used, to calculate the velocities of these structures based on 4-point measurements. We describe the principle of MTA and apply this approach to a real event observed by the Cluster constellation on 2 October 2003. The resulting velocity of the 2-D structure agrees with the ones obtained by some other methods fairly well. So we believe that MTA is a reliable version of the Triangulation Method for 2-D structures, and thus provides us a new way to describe their motion.

  11. Method to Rapidly Collect Thousands of Velocity Observations to Validate Million-Element 2D Hydrodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Bratovich, P.; Massa, D.; Reedy, G.; Johnson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Two-dimensional (depth-averaged) hydrodynamic models have existed for decades and are used to study a variety of hydrogeomorphic processes as well as to design river rehabilitation projects. Rapid computer and coding advances are revolutionizing the size and detail of 2D models. Meanwhile, advances in topo mapping and environmental informatics are providing the data inputs to drive large, detailed simulations. Million-element computational meshes are in hand. With simulations of this size and detail, the primary challenge has shifted to finding rapid and inexpensive means for testing model predictions against observations. Standard methods for collecting velocity data include boat-mounted ADCP and point-based sensors on boats or wading rods. These methods are labor intensive and often limited to a narrow flow range. Also, they generate small datasets at a few cross-sections, which is inadequate to characterize the statistical structure of the relation between predictions and observations. Drawing on the long-standing oceanographic method of using drogues to track water currents, previous studies have demonstrated the potential of small dGPS units to obtain surface velocity in rivers. However, dGPS is too inaccurate to test 2D models. Also, there is financial risk in losing drogues in rough currents. In this study, an RTK GPS unit was mounted onto a manned whitewater kayak. The boater positioned himself into the current and used floating debris to maintain a speed and heading consistent with the ambient surface flow field. RTK GPS measurements were taken ever 5 sec. From these positions, a 2D velocity vector was obtained. The method was tested over ~20 km of the lower Yuba River in California in flows ranging from 500-5000 cfs, yielding 5816 observations. To compare velocity magnitude against the 2D model-predicted depth-averaged value, kayak-based surface values were scaled down by an optimized constant (0.72), which had no negative effect on regression analysis

  12. Catalog of velocity distributions around a reconnection site in 2D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Lukas; Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Nakamura, Takuma K. M.; Nakamura, Rumi; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-04-01

    The velocity distribution of electrons and ions are known to be a marker for regions where magnetic reconnection develops. Past theoretical and computational works demonstrated that non-gyrotropic and anisotropic distributions depending on particle meandering motions and accelerations are seen around the reconnection point. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is expected to resolve such kinetic scale reconnection regions. We present a catalog of velocity distribution functions that can give hints on the location within the current sheet relative to the reconnection point, which is sometimes unclear from pure spacecraft observations. We use 2D PIC simulations of anti-parallel magnetic reconnection to obtain velocity distributions at different locations, like in the center of the reconnection site, the ion and electron diffusion regions, or the reconnection inflow and outflow regions. With sufficiently large number of particles we resolve the distribution functions also in rather small regions. Such catalog may be compared with future MMS observations of the Earth's magnetotail.

  13. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  14. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  15. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  16. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  17. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasound fields of 2D therapeutic arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yuldashev, Petr V.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Farr, Navid; Partanen, Ari; Bailey, Michael R.; Khokhlova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    A current trend in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technologies is to use 2D focused phased arrays that enable electronic steering of the focus, beamforming to avoid overheating of obstacles (such as ribs), and better focusing through inhomogeneities of soft tissue using time reversal methods. In many HIFU applications, the acoustic intensity in situ can reach thousands of W/cm2 leading to nonlinear propagation effects. At high power outputs, shock fronts develop in the focal region and significantly alter the bioeffects induced. Clinical applications of HIFU are relatively new and challenges remain for ensuring their safety and efficacy. A key component of these challenges is the lack of standard procedures for characterizing nonlinear HIFU fields under operating conditions. Methods that combine low-amplitude pressure measurements and nonlinear modeling of the pressure field have been proposed for axially symmetric single element transducers but have not yet been validated for the much more complex 3D fields generated by therapeutic arrays. Here, the method was tested for a clinical HIFU source comprising a 256-element transducer array. A numerical algorithm based on the Westervelt equation was used to enable 3D full-diffraction nonlinear modeling. With the acoustic holography method, the magnitude and phase of the acoustic field were measured at a low power output and used to determine the pattern of vibrations at the surface of the array. This pattern was then scaled to simulate a range of intensity levels near the elements up to 10 W/cm2. The accuracy of modeling was validated by comparison with direct measurements of the focal waveforms using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Simulation results and measurements show that shock fronts with amplitudes up to 100 MPa were present in focal waveforms at clinically relevant outputs, indicating the importance of strong nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields generated by HIFU arrays. PMID:26203345

  18. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasound fields of 2D therapeutic arrays.

    PubMed

    Yuldashev, Petr V; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Farr, Navid; Partanen, Ari; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera

    2012-10-07

    A current trend in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technologies is to use 2D focused phased arrays that enable electronic steering of the focus, beamforming to avoid overheating of obstacles (such as ribs), and better focusing through inhomogeneities of soft tissue using time reversal methods. In many HIFU applications, the acoustic intensity in situ can reach thousands of W/cm(2) leading to nonlinear propagation effects. At high power outputs, shock fronts develop in the focal region and significantly alter the bioeffects induced. Clinical applications of HIFU are relatively new and challenges remain for ensuring their safety and efficacy. A key component of these challenges is the lack of standard procedures for characterizing nonlinear HIFU fields under operating conditions. Methods that combine low-amplitude pressure measurements and nonlinear modeling of the pressure field have been proposed for axially symmetric single element transducers but have not yet been validated for the much more complex 3D fields generated by therapeutic arrays. Here, the method was tested for a clinical HIFU source comprising a 256-element transducer array. A numerical algorithm based on the Westervelt equation was used to enable 3D full-diffraction nonlinear modeling. With the acoustic holography method, the magnitude and phase of the acoustic field were measured at a low power output and used to determine the pattern of vibrations at the surface of the array. This pattern was then scaled to simulate a range of intensity levels near the elements up to 10 W/cm(2). The accuracy of modeling was validated by comparison with direct measurements of the focal waveforms using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Simulation results and measurements show that shock fronts with amplitudes up to 100 MPa were present in focal waveforms at clinically relevant outputs, indicating the importance of strong nonlinear effects in ultrasound fields generated by HIFU arrays.

  19. Methods to determine the Orientation and Velocity of 2-D structures based on multi- spacecraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pu, Z.; Zhou, X.; Wang, J.; Zong, Q.; Shi, Q.

    2006-12-01

    Many techniques have been developed to study the axial orientation and/or velocity of 2-D structures (flux ropes), by analyzing in situ data from single or multiple spacecraft. To obtain the axial orientation, there are magnetic based MVA (BMVA), current based MVA (CMVA), Minimum Direction Derivative (MDD) and Multiple Triangulation Analysis (MTA) as a modified version of timing method. To further calculate the velocity, we have DeHoffmann-Teller analysis, Spatio-Temporal Difference (STD) and several version of timing method including MTA. After a brief introduction on the principle of these methods, we theoretically estimate their error ranges based on modeled structures to examine the validity of these techniques. Because of their different principles, their error bars are shown to be distinct, depending on the parameters (such as radius, model selected and even the satellite crossing path) of the certain structure. The error estimation thus provides us some clue on the selection of methods under different conditions. Some real events are further analyzed using these techniques as the example.

  20. Surface wave phase velocities from 2-D surface wave tomography studies in the Anatolian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Kutlu, Yusuf; Erduran, Murat; Çakır, Özcan; Vinnik, Lev; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    We study the Rayleigh and Love surface wave fundamental mode propagation beneath the Anatolian plate. To examine the inter-station phase velocities a two-station method is used along with the Multiple Filter Technique (MFT) in the Computer Programs in Seismology (Herrmann and Ammon, 2004). The near-station waveform is deconvolved from the far-station waveform removing the propagation effects between the source and the station. This method requires that the near and far stations are aligned with the epicentre on a great circle path. The azimuthal difference of the earthquake to the two-stations and the azimuthal difference between the earthquake and the station are restricted to be smaller than 5o. We selected 3378 teleseismic events (Mw >= 5.7) recorded by 394 broadband local stations with high signal-to-noise ratio within the years 1999-2013. Corrected for the instrument response suitable seismogram pairs are analyzed with the two-station method yielding a collection of phase velocity curves in various period ranges (mainly in the range 25-185 sec). Diffraction from lateral heterogeneities, multipathing, interference of Rayleigh and Love waves can alter the dispersion measurements. In order to obtain quality measurements, we select only smooth portions of the phase velocity curves, remove outliers and average over many measurements. We discard these average phase velocity curves suspected of suffering from phase wrapping errors by comparing them with a reference Earth model (IASP91 by Kennett and Engdahl, 1991). The outlined analysis procedure yields 3035 Rayleigh and 1637 Love individual phase velocity curves. To obtain Rayleigh and Love wave travel times for a given region we performed 2-D tomographic inversion for which the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) code developed by N. Rawlinson at the Australian National University was utilized. This software package is based on the multistage fast marching method by Rawlinson and Sambridge (2004a, 2004b). The

  1. Detailed temporally resolved 2-D Velocity Measurements in a Novel Heat Exchanger Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guezennec, Yann G.; Ko, Jang-Hyok; Choi, Woong-Chul

    1998-11-01

    Using flow visualization as a primary tool, a novel, high-performance heat transfer surface for compact heat exchangers was designed, specifically for low Reynolds number applications. This geometry was specifically created to enhance or generate strong three-dimensional transport even at low Reynolds number. It consists of a staggered array of "pin" mounted normal to the fins. A 15:1 model of this heat exchanger surface core was built out of Plexiglas to provide optical access and this model was placed in a 1'x1' water channel. The flow speed was adjusted to match the Reynolds based on the hydraulic diameter based on the fin pitch. The flow was seeded with small polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser sheet from an Argon Ion laser. The fluid motion was recorded using a CCD camera and an S-VHS video recorder. In post-processing, the video records were automatically digitized and processed using a cinematographic PIV technique. The temporal evolution of the 2-D flow field (side view) clearly shows the presence of unsteady, shed vortical regions behind the pins, modulated by the spatially-periodic acceleration/deceleration and meandering of the mean flow between the periodic array of staggered pins. In the perpendicular view (top view), the results show the presence of two strong cross-stream transport mechanisms, mainly the horse-shoe vortex near the pin-fin junctions and the very strong spanwise transport in the separated wake region of the pins. This transport is most likely associated with the strong interaction of the longitudinal vortices (emanating form the horseshoe) and the spanwise vortices from the pin wake. This vortex interaction sets up a strong spanwise pressure gradient inducing large cross-stream transport from the fin to the core flow. Animation of the results illustrating these effects will be presented.

  2. Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.

    2017-02-01

    Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic

  3. Characterizing the convective velocity fields in massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M.

    2014-11-01

    We apply the mathematical formalism of vector spherical harmonics decomposition to convective stellar velocity fields from multidimensional hydrodynamics simulations and show that the resulting power spectra furnish a robust and stable statistical description of stellar convective turbulence. Analysis of the power spectra helps identify key physical parameters of the convective process such as the dominant scale of the turbulent motions that influence the structure of massive evolved pre-supernova stars. We introduce the numerical method that can be used to calculate vector spherical harmonics power spectra from two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) convective shell simulation data. Using this method we study the properties of oxygen shell burning and convection for a 15 M {sub ☉} star simulated by the hydrodynamics code FLASH in 2D and 3D. We discuss the importance of realistic initial conditions to achieving successful core-collapse supernova explosions in multidimensional simulations. We show that the calculated power spectra can be used to generate realizations of the velocity fields of presupernova convective shells. We find that the slope of the solenoidal mode power spectrum remains mostly constant throughout the evolution of convection in the oxygen shell in both 2D and 3D simulations. We also find that the characteristic radial scales of the convective elements are smaller in 3D than in 2D, while the angular scales are larger in 3D.

  4. Effects of in-plane magnetic field on the transport of 2D electron vortices in non-uniform plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Justin; Richardson, Andrew; Schumer, Joseph; Pulsed Power Team

    2015-11-01

    The formation of electron vortices in current-carrying plasmas is observed in 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the plasma-opening switch. In the presence of a background density gradient in Cartesian systems, vortices drift in the direction found by crossing the magnetic field with the background density gradient as a result of the Hall effect. However, most of the 2D simulations where electron vortices are seen and studied only allow for in-plane currents and thus only an out-of-plane magnetic field. Here we present results of numerical simulations of 2D, seeded electron vortices in an inhomogeneous background using the generalized 2D electron-magneto-hydrodynamic model that additionally allows for in-plane components of the magnetic field. By seeding vortices with a varying axial component of the velocity field, so that the vortex becomes a corkscrew, it is found that a pitch angle of around 20 degrees is sufficient to completely prevent the vortex from propagating due to the Hall effect for typical plasma parameters. This work is supported by the NRL Base Program.

  5. Velocity modulation of microtubules in electric fields.

    PubMed

    Dujovne, Irene; van den Heuvel, Martin; Shen, Yi; de Graaff, Martijn; Dekker, Cees

    2008-12-01

    We show that the speed of microtubules gliding over a kinesin-coated surface can be controlled over a wide range of values by the application of an electric field. The speed can be increased by up to a factor of 5 compared to the speed at zero field when assisting forces are applied and slowed down to zero velocity for opposing fields. Sideways applied fields also induce significant motion. The kinesin surface density impacts the rate of velocity change, whereas the ATP concentration does not seem to play a major role, provided that it is nonzero. A simple grab-and-release model is presented that explains the velocity change with applied electric fields.

  6. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G. P.

    2015-03-01

    Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non

  7. Jovian cloud structure and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Terrile, R. J.; Collins, S. A.; Smith, B. A.; Muller, J.-P.; Hunt, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Beebe, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    A global view of Jovian small-scale morphologies and zonal velocity profiles has been discussed previously. In the present paper, a regional comparison is made of the structures and velocity fields (meridional and zonal velocities) in the Jovian atmosphere as observed by Voyager I imaging system. The cloud structures discussed are fairly independent of the visual wavelength. The analysis shows that although both Jovian hemispheres exhibit similar patterns of diminishing and alternating eastward and westward jets as one progresses polewards, there is a pronounced asymmetry in the structural appearance of the two hemispheres.

  8. New insights in the velocity dependency of the external mass transfer coefficient in 2D and 3D porous media for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert

    2012-03-02

    Numerical calculations of the mobile zone mass transfer rate in a variety of ordered 2D and 3D structures are presented. These calculations are in line with earlier theoretical and experimental findings made in the field of chemical engineering and suggest that the Sherwood-number (Sh(m)) appearing in the mobile phase mass transfer term of the general plate height expression of liquid chromatography is not correctly predicted by the Wilson-Geankoplis--or the Kataoka--or the penetration model expression that have been used up to now to in the field of LC, and that at least more research is needed before these expressions can be continued to be used with confidence. The aforementioned expressions were obtained by neglecting the effect of axial dispersion on the mass transfer process, and it seems that they therefore underestimate the true Sh(m)-number by a factor of 2-5 around the minimum of the van Deemter-curve. New correlations describing the variation of the Sh(m)-coefficient as a function of the reduced velocity for a number of other packing geometries (tetrahedral monolith, 2D pillar array) are proposed. These correlations are in agreement with earlier theoretical and experimental studies showing that at low velocities the local-driving force-based Sh(m)-value is of the order of 10-20 in a packed bed column with an external porosity on the order of 35-40%.

  9. Rotating field mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven Joel (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A rotating field mass and velocity analyzer having a cell with four walls, time dependent RF potentials that are applied to each wall, and a detector. The time dependent RF potentials create an RF field in the cell which effectively rotates within the cell. An ion beam is accelerated into the cell and the rotating RF field disperses the incident ion beam according to the mass-to-charge (m/e) ratio and velocity distribution present in the ion beam. The ions of the beam either collide with the ion detector or deflect away from the ion detector, depending on the m/e, RF amplitude, and RF frequency. The detector counts the incident ions to determine the m/e and velocity distribution in the ion beam.

  10. Digital phase-stepping holographic interferometry in measuring 2-D density fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanen, T. A. W. M.; Nebbeling, C.; van Ingen, J. L.

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents a holographic interferometer technique for measuring transparent (2-D or quasi 2-D) density fields. To be able to study the realization of such a field at a certain moment of time, the field is “frozen” on a holographic plate. During the reconstruction of the density field from the hologram the length of the path traversed by the reconstruction beam is diminished in equal steps by applying a computer controlled voltage to a piezo-electric crystal that translates a mirror. Four phase-stepped interferograms resulting from this pathlength variation are digitized and serve as input to an algorithm for computing the phase surface. The method is illustrated by measuring the basically 2-D density field existing around a heated horizontal cylinder in free convection.

  11. Velocity Field in a Vertical Foam Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Kervil, Ronan; Nou, Soniraks; Cantat, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern. Upward velocities up to 10 cm /s are measured close to the lateral menisci, whereas a slower velocity field is obtained in the center of the film, with comparable downwards and horizontal components. Scaling laws are proposed for all characteristic velocities, coupling gravitational effects, and capillary suction.

  12. 2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.

  13. Field effect biosensing platform based on 2D α-MoO(3).

    PubMed

    Balendhran, Sivacarendran; Walia, Sumeet; Alsaif, Manal; Nguyen, Emily P; Ou, Jian Zhen; Zhuiykov, Serge; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-11-26

    Electrical-based biosensing platforms offer ease of fabrication and simple sensing solutions. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have been proven to be excellent for the fabrication of field effect transistors (FETs) due to their large transconductance, which can be efficiently used for developing sensitive bioplatforms. We present a 2D molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) FET based biosensing platform, using bovine serum albumin as a model protein. The conduction channel is a nanostructured film made of 2D α-MoO3 nanoflakes, with the majority of nanoflake thicknesses being equal to or less than 2.8 nm. The response time is impressively low (less than 10 s), which is due to the high permittivity of the 2D α-MoO3 nanoflakes. The system offers a competitive solution for future biosensing applications.

  14. Soap film as a 2D system: Diffusion and flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric

    2014-03-01

    We use microrheology to measure the 2D (interfacial) viscosity of soap films. Microrheology uses the diffusivity of tracer particles suspended in the soap film to infer viscosity. Our tracer particles are colloids of diameters d = 0.10 and 0.18 microns. We measure the interfacial viscosity of soap films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 3 microns. The thickness of these films is measured using the infrared absorbance of the water based soap films. From film thickness, viscosity of the fluid used to make the film and particle diffusivity, we can infer the interfacial viscosity due to the surfactant layers at the film/air interfaces. We find positive constant interfacial viscosities for thin films (h/d < 5), within error. For thicker films, we find negative viscosities, indicating 3D effects begin to play a role, as air stresses become less important. The transition from 2D to 3D properties as a function of h/d is sharp at about h/d=6. Additionally, we measure larger length scale flow fields from correlated particle motions and find good agreement with what is expected from the theory of 2D fluids for all our films. In conclusion, single particle diffusion shows a sharp transition away from 2D like behavior as h/d increases, but the long-range flow fields still act as 2D.

  15. Optical Velocity Field in NGC 3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, N. A.

    1994-12-01

    NGC 3310 is a peculiar SAB(r)bc galaxy with giant Hii regions, star-burst nuclear activity, and evidence of a past merger. I present a variety of long-slit spectroscopic data covering both the nuclear region and the outer linear feature (the `arrow' in the poetic `bow-and-arrow' description of this galaxy). The spectral coverage includes several emission lines. The velocity field(s) and some line ratios derived from these data are discussed in the context of other work.

  16. Optical Velocity Field in NGC3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, N. A.

    1996-12-01

    NGC 3310 is a peculiar SAB(r)bc galaxy with giant Hii regions, star-burst nuclear activity, and evidence of a past merger. I present a variety of long-slit spectroscopic data covering both the nuclear region and the outer linear feature (the `arrow' in the poetic `bow-and-arrow' description of this galaxy). The spectral coverage includes several emission lines. The velocity field(s) and some line ratios derived from these data are discussed in the context of other work.

  17. Optical Velocity Field in NGC3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, N. A.

    2000-12-01

    NGC 3310 is a peculiar SAB(r)bc galaxy with giant Hii regions, star-burst nuclear activity, and evidence of a past merger. I present a variety of long-slit spectroscopic data covering both the nuclear region and the outer linear feature (the `arrow' in the poetic `bow-and-arrow' description of this galaxy). The spectral coverage includes several emission lines. The velocity field(s) and some line ratios derived from these data are discussed in the context of other work.

  18. The use of 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Zenkova, C. Yu.; Riabyi, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of remote objects is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce a new algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  19. 2-D Reflectometer Modeling for Optimizing the ITER Low-field Side Reflectometer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.J.; Budny, R.V.; Kessel, C.; Johnson, D.

    2005-09-02

    The response of a low-field side reflectometer system for ITER is simulated with a 2?D reflectometer code using a realistic plasma equilibrium. It is found that the reflected beam will often miss its launch point by as much as 40 cm and that a vertical array of receiving antennas is essential in order to observe a reflection on the low-field side of ITER.

  20. Measurement of temperature and velocity fields of freezing water using liquid crystal tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    A new experimental technique based on a computational analysis of the colour and displacement of thermochromic liquid crystal tracers was applied to determine both the temperature and velocity fields of freezing water. The technique combines Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Full 2-D temperature and velocity fields are determined from a pair or a longer sequence, of colour images taken for the selected cross-section of the flow.

  1. Solution of the field equations for 2-D electromagnetic direct implicit plasma simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, D. W.; Langdon, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    A direct implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with full electromagnetic (EM) effects has been implemented in 2-D Cartesian geometry. The model, implemented with the D1 time differencing scheme, was first implemented in a 1-D electrostatic (ES) version to gain some experience with spatial differencing in forms suitable for extension to the full EM field in two dimensions. The implicit EM field solve is considerably different from the implicit ES code. The EM field calculation requires an inductive part as well as the electrostatic and the B field must be self-consistently advanced.

  2. Modulating the vibronic correlation in 2D superconductor by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazempour, Ali; Morshedloo, Toktam

    2017-04-01

    Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional atomic layers has been suffered because of the strong affection dimensionality confinement on electron-phonon binding. Here, using first-principles method, we study the effect of applied perpendicular and parallel electric field on the strength of phonon renormalization and electron-phonon coupling in bi-layer MgB2 as a known 2D superconductor. The changes of phonon frequency and line-width demonstrate that important E2 g optical modes are strongly sensitive to the applied parallel electric field which directs to sharp reduction of vibronic coupling. Whereas, we show that perpendicular electric field modulates the system to the strong-coupling superconductor and predict the enhancement of critical temperature Tc . Our study opens up the use of electric filed to probe and measure the variation amount of electron-phonon renormalization as a gauge in 2D superconductivity.

  3. Axonal Velocity Distributions in Neural Field Equations

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T. J.

    2010-01-01

    By modelling the average activity of large neuronal populations, continuum mean field models (MFMs) have become an increasingly important theoretical tool for understanding the emergent activity of cortical tissue. In order to be computationally tractable, long-range propagation of activity in MFMs is often approximated with partial differential equations (PDEs). However, PDE approximations in current use correspond to underlying axonal velocity distributions incompatible with experimental measurements. In order to rectify this deficiency, we here introduce novel propagation PDEs that give rise to smooth unimodal distributions of axonal conduction velocities. We also argue that velocities estimated from fibre diameters in slice and from latency measurements, respectively, relate quite differently to such distributions, a significant point for any phenomenological description. Our PDEs are then successfully fit to fibre diameter data from human corpus callosum and rat subcortical white matter. This allows for the first time to simulate long-range conduction in the mammalian brain with realistic, convenient PDEs. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that the propagation of activity in rat and human differs significantly beyond mere scaling. The dynamical consequences of our new formulation are investigated in the context of a well known neural field model. On the basis of Turing instability analyses, we conclude that pattern formation is more easily initiated using our more realistic propagator. By increasing characteristic conduction velocities, a smooth transition can occur from self-sustaining bulk oscillations to travelling waves of various wavelengths, which may influence axonal growth during development. Our analytic results are also corroborated numerically using simulations on a large spatial grid. Thus we provide here a comprehensive analysis of empirically constrained activity propagation in the context of MFMs, which will allow more realistic studies

  4. Improving field enhancement of 2D hollow tapered waveguides via dielectric microcylinder coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongzhu; Xie, Xiangsheng; Li, Li; Chen, Gengyan; Guo, Lina; Lin, Xusheng

    2015-02-01

    We numerically study a novel scheme to improve the field enhancement of 2D hollow tapered waveguides (HTWs). A dielectric microcylinder is embedded into a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) HTW for resonant exciting gap surface plasmons (GSPs), which is different from the lowest propagating mode (TM0) excitation via the conventional fire-end coupling method. The physical mechanism of the field enhancement and the influence of critical parameters such as numerical aperture (NA) of the lens, permittivity of the microcylinder and the incident wavelength are discussed. The substantial improvement of the GSP excitation efficiency via dielectric microcylinder coupling shows potential in designing tapered MIM waveguides for nanofocusing and field enhancement.

  5. Modeling and simulation of ultrasound fields generated by 2D phased array transducers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Matrone, G; Quaglia, F; Magenes, G

    2010-01-01

    Modern ultrasound imaging instrumentation for clinical applications allows real-time volumetric scanning of the patients' body. 4D imaging has been made possible thanks to the development of new echographic probes which consist in 2D phased arrays of piezoelectric transducers. In these new devices it is the system electronics which properly drives the matrix elements and focuses the beam in order to obtain a sequence of volumetric images. This paper introduces an ultrasound field simulator based on the Spatial Impulse Response method which is being properly developed to analyze the characteristics of the ultrasound field generated by a 2D phased array of transducers. Thanks to its high configurability by the user, it will represent a very useful tool for electronics designers in developing 4D ultrasound imaging systems components.

  6. 2D crossed electric field for electrokinetic remediation of chromium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jin, Chunji; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Guobin

    2010-05-15

    Chromium contaminated soil can be remediated by electrokinetic techniques. However, in practical application, Cr(VI) may migrate with water deep into the soil, contaminating previously unpolluted layers. Both horizontal and vertical electric fields were applied simultaneously to improve traditional electrokinetic remediation. Contrasting experiments using four operation modes (none, solely horizontal, solely vertical and 2D crossed electric field) were designed and tested at the bench-scale with the practical sample of chromium contaminated soil (1.3 x 10(5)mg/kg) from a chemical plant to investigate Cr(VI) migration downward in each test and the effectiveness and feasible of the new design. During the tests, Cr(VI) could migrate deep into the soil in the solely horizontal mode. Cr(VI) migration downward could be prevented by vertical barrier in the solely vertical mode. However, using the 2D crossed mode, Cr(VI) was significantly prevented from migrating downward and the chromium contaminated soil was treated effectively. Thus, the 2D crossed electric field is a promising and practical method for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  7. The interface between ferroelectric and 2D material for a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    We have studied electrical property of ferroelectric field-effect transistor which consists of graphene on hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) gated by a ferroelectric, PMN-PT (i.e. (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) single-crystal substrate. The PMN-PT was expected to have an effect on polarization field into the graphene channel and to induce a giant amount of surface charge. The hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) flake was directly exfoliated on the PMN-PT substrate for preventing graphene from directly contacting on the PMN-PT substrate. It can make us to observe the effect of the interface between ferroelectric and 2D material on the device operation. Monolayer graphene as 2D channel material, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, was transferred on top of the hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) by using the conventional dry-transfer method. Here, we can demonstrate that the structure of graphene/hexagonal-BN/ferroelectric field-effect transistor makes us to clearly understand the device operation as well as the interface between ferroelectric and 2D materials by inserting h-BN between them. The phenomena such as anti-hysteresis, current saturation behavior, and hump-like increase of channel current, will be discussed by in terms of ferroelectric switching, polarization-assisted charge trapping.

  8. Frustrating a correlated superconductor: the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.

    2000-03-01

    At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.

  9. Field depth extension of 2D barcode scanner based on wavefront coding and projection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingyu; Ye, Zi; Zhang, Wenzi; Huang, Weiwei; Yu, Feihong

    2008-03-01

    Wavefront coding (WFC) used in 2D barcode scanners can extend the depth of field into a great extent with simpler structure compared to the autofocus microscope system. With a cubic phase mask (CPM) employed in the STOP, blurred images will be obtained in charge coupled device (CCD), which can be restored by digital filters. Direct methods are used widely in real-time restoration with good computational efficiency but with details smoothed. Here, the results of direct method are firstly filtered by hard-threshold function. The positions of the steps can be detected by simple differential operators. With the positions corrected by projection algorithm, the exact barcode information is restored. A wavefront coding system with 7mm effective focal length and 6 F-number is designed as an example. Although with the different magnification, images of different object distances can be restored by one point spread function (PSF) with 200mm object distance. A QR code (Quickly Response Code) of 31mm X 27mm is used as a target object. The simulation results showed that the sharp imaging objective distance is from 80mm to 355mm. The 2D barcode scanner with wavefront coding extends field depth with simple structure, low cost and large manufacture tolerance. This combination of the direct filter and projection algorithm proposed here could get the exact 2D barcode information with good computational efficiency.

  10. Laser characterization of the unsteady 2-D ion flow field in a Hall thruster with breathing mode oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia; Hargus, William, Jr.; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Hall thrusters are a mature form of electric propulsion for spacecraft. One commonly observed low frequency (10-50 kHz) discharge current oscillation in these E × B devices is the breathing mode, linked to a propagating ionization front traversing the channel. The complex time histories of ion production and acceleration in the discharge channel and near-field plume lead to interesting dynamics and interactions in the central plasma jet and downstream plume regions. A time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic non-intrusively measures 2-D ion velocity and relative ion density throughout the plume of a commercial BHT-600 Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. Low velocity classes of ions observed in addition to the main accelerated population are linked to propellant ionization outside of the device. Effects of breathing mode dynamics are shown to persist far downstream where modulations in ion velocity and LIF intensity are correlated with discharge current oscillations. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. M. Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  11. Measurements of density field in a swirling flame by 2D spontaneous Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Lobasov, A. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the density distribution in swirling turbulent premixed flames. The measurement principle is based on registration of spontaneous Raman scattering, when the reacting gas flow is illuminated by a laser sheet. Evaluation of 1D and 2D distributions of density and temperature were performed in a laminar Bunsen flame as a test case for validation of experimental technique. Time-averaged 2D images of the scattering during rovibronic transitions of nitrogen molecules were captured in turbulent premixed low-swirl and high-swirl (Re = 5000) propane-air flames in a wide range of equivalence ratio. The obtained density fields are useful for better understanding of heat and mass transfer in swirl-stabilized turbulent flames and for validation of CFD results.

  12. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, F. Zimbardo, G.; Artemyev, A. V. Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-09-15

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed.

  13. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  14. Dynamics of 2D Dust Clusters with a Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Franko; Carstensen, Jan; Hou Lujing; Piel, Alexander

    2008-09-07

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) dust clusters in an unmagnetized plasma sheath has been understood in dept. However, introduction of a perpendicular magnetic field into the dusty plasma sheath leads to some new effects, such as rotation and compression of dust clusters, whose mechanism is still unclear. It is found that even for a magnetic field as low as the earth magnetic field ({approx_equal}40 {mu}T), clusters rotate as rigid about their centers. It was proposed [U. Konopka, PRE 61, 1890 (2000)] that the ExB-induced ion flow drives the dust clusters into rotation. Simulations [L.-J. Hou, PoP 12, 042104 (2005)] based on the same hypothesis also reproduced the rotation of 2D clusters in a qualitative manner. However, this model cannot fully explain the experimental observations. We present detailed experimental investigations, which show that the rotation of a dust cluster critically depends on the detailed discharge geometry. In particular, the co-rotation of the background neutral gas and its role in driving dust-cluster rotation is proposed as a mechanism to set the dust cluster in rotation.

  15. Calculation of self-field coefficients for 2D magnetostatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Darren; Teyssedou, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Physics and engineering students are introduced to the notion of a demagnetizing field in classical electromagnetism courses. This concept involves a formalism based on an integral formulation for calculating the coefficients of the demagnetizing tensor, i.e., a pure geometric quantity. For self-fields, the observation point is located inside the integration region which in turn leads to discontinuous integrands. Therefore, in order to avoid mathematical inconsistencies, special care must be taken when evaluating self-field coefficients, referred to here as self-terms. Given the complexity of this approach, in particular in 3D, it is certainly interesting from a pedagogical stand point to employ 2D systems as a first step for describing these kinds of coefficients. Thus, in this paper, the generalization of self-terms of the demagnetizing tensor is proven for 2D magnetostatic systems. Nonetheless, the structure of this proof pertains to many other situations given the fact that discontinuous integrands commonly arise in physics (e.g. integral solutions of PDEs which use a Green’s function).

  16. Chiral scale and conformal invariance in 2D quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Diego M; Strominger, Andrew

    2011-10-14

    It is well known that a local, unitary Poincaré-invariant 2D quantum field theory with a global scaling symmetry and a discrete non-negative spectrum of scaling dimensions necessarily has both a left and a right local conformal symmetry. In this Letter, we consider a chiral situation beginning with only a left global scaling symmetry and do not assume Lorentz invariance. We find that a left conformal symmetry is still implied, while right translations are enhanced either to a right conformal symmetry or a left U(1) Kac-Moody symmetry.

  17. Simulating ultrasound fields for 2D phased-array probes design optimization.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Quaglia, Fabio; Magenes, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, ultrasound diagnostic imaging is one of the non-invasive techniques mostly used in the clinical practice. Recent advances in this field have brought to the development of small and portable systems. New bidimensional probes consisting of 2D phased arrays, allow to obtain real-time 3D representations of moving organs and blood vessels anatomy. Being the complexity of such 4D ultrasound imaging systems significantly increased, new challenges concerning electronics integration arise for designers. In this paper a software simulator is described, which has been developed in order to model ultrasound wave generation, pressure field distribution and echoes reception, with the aim to become a useful tool for optimizing the probe design. The paper mainly focuses on linear ultrasound field modeling; preliminary results on non-linear interactions with contrast agents are also here introduced.

  18. Effects of 2D and 3D Error Fields on the SAS Divertor Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, G. L.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    The successful design of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments is of paramount importance in both the operation of future reactors and in the modification of operating machines. Indeed, the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor concept, proposed for application on the DIII-D experiment, combines a small incident angle at the plasma strike point with a progressively opening slot, so as to better control heat flux and erosion in high-performance tokamak plasmas. Uncertainty quantification of the error fields expected around the striking point provides additional useful information in both the design and the modeling phases of the new divertor, in part due to the particular geometric requirement of the striking flux surfaces. The presented work involves both 2D and 3D magnetic error field analysis on the SAS strike point carried out using the EFIT code for 2D equilibrium reconstruction, V3POST for vacuum 3D computations and the OMFIT integrated modeling framework for data analysis. An uncertainty in the magnetic probes' signals is found to propagate non-linearly as an uncertainty in the striking point and angle, which can be quantified through statistical analysis to yield robust estimates. Work supported by contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  20. Commissioning a small-field biological irradiator using point, 2D, and 3D dosimetry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Joseph; Oldham, Mark; Thomas, Andrew; Li Yifan; Adamovics, John; Kirsch, David G.; Das, Shiva

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To commission a small-field biological irradiator, the XRad225Cx from Precision x-Ray, Inc., for research use. The system produces a 225 kVp x-ray beam and is equipped with collimating cones that produce both square and circular radiation fields ranging in size from 1 to 40 mm. This work incorporates point, 2D, and 3D measurements to determine output factors (OF), percent-depth-dose (PDD) and dose profiles at multiple depths. Methods: Three independent dosimetry systems were used: ion-chambers (a farmer chamber and a micro-ionisation chamber), 2D EBT2 radiochromic film, and a novel 3D dosimetry system (DLOS/PRESAGE registered ). Reference point dose rates and output factors were determined from in-air ionization chamber measurements for fields down to {approx}13 mm using the formalism of TG61. PDD, profiles, and output factors at three separate depths (0, 0.5, and 2 cm), were determined for all field sizes from EBT2 film measurements in solid water. Several film PDD curves required a scaling correction, reflecting the challenge of accurate film alignment in very small fields. PDDs, profiles, and output factors were also determined with the 3D DLOS/PRESAGE registered system which generated isotropic 0.2 mm data, in scan times of 20 min. Results: Surface output factors determined by ion-chamber were observed to gradually drop by {approx}9% when the field size was reduced from 40 to 13 mm. More dramatic drops were observed for the smallest fields as determined by EBT{approx}18% and {approx}42% for the 2.5 mm and 1 mm fields, respectively. PRESAGE registered and film output factors agreed well for fields <20 mm (where 3D data were available) with mean deviation of 2.2% (range 1%-4%). PDD values at 2 cm depth varied from {approx}72% for the 40 mm field, down to {approx}55% for the 1 mm field. EBT and PRESAGE registered PDDs agreed within {approx}3% in the typical therapy region (1-4 cm). At deeper depths the EBT curves were slightly steeper (2.5% at 5 cm

  1. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  2. Tunneling Between 2D Electrons and Holes in an In-plane Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Mendez, E. E.; Magno, R.; Bennett, B. R.

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the vertical transport properties of GaSb/AlSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb (system A) and InAs/AlSb/GaSb/AlSb/InAs (system B) heterostructures in a magnetic field (B<20T) parallel to the interfaces. In these systems, electrons and holes accumulate in the InAs and GaSb regions, respectively, and tunneling between the two gases gives rise to a current-voltage (I-V) characteristic that exhibits negative differential conductance even at T=300K. In both cases, the zero-bias, low-T (1.7K) magnetoconductance showed the signature of tunneling between 2D gases with different carrier densities even though in system A, the holes are barely confined. In contrast, the dependence of the I-V characteristics on magnetic field was quite different. In system A, the observed shift of the peak voltage with field is explained by simple ground-state dispersion curves for electrons and holes. However, this picture cannot explain the appearance (above 5.5T) and field dependence of a secondary peak in system B, or of additional, weaker field-induced features. Their origin may lie in the complexities of highly confined hole states in the central GaSb quantum well.

  3. Perpendicular ultrasound velocity measurement by 2D cross correlation of RF data. Part A: validation in a straight tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beulen, Bart; Bijnens, Nathalie; Rutten, Marcel; Brands, Peter; van de Vosse, Frans

    2010-11-01

    An ultrasound velocity assessment technique was validated, which allows the estimation of velocity components perpendicular to the ultrasound beam, using a commercially available ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array probe. This enables the simultaneous measurement of axial blood velocity and vessel wall position, rendering a viable and accurate flow assessment. The validation was performed by comparing axial velocity profiles as measured in an experimental setup to analytical and computational fluid dynamics calculations. Physiologically relevant pulsating flows were considered, employing a blood analog fluid, which mimics both the acoustic and rheological properties of blood. In the core region (| r|/ a < 0.9), an accuracy of 3 cm s-1 was reached. For an accurate estimation of flow, no averaging in time was required, making a beat to beat analysis of pulsating flows possible.

  4. 2D focal-field aberration dependence on time/phase screen position and correlation lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2004-05-01

    For high-frequency annular array transducers used in medical ultrasound imaging, aberrations due to tissue and body wall have a significant effect on energy transfer from the main lobe to the sidelobes of the acoustic field: that is, the aberrations make the total sidelobe level increase. This effect makes the ultrasound image poor when imaging heterogeneous organs. This study performs an analysis of the focal-field quality as a function of time/phase screen z position and time/phase screen correlation length. It establishes some rules of thumb which indicate when the focal-field sidelobe energy is at its highest. It also introduces a simple screen-scaling model which is useful as long as the screen position is not closer to the focus than a certain limit distance. The scaling model allows the real screen at a depth z=zscreen to be treated as a scaled screen at the position z=ztransd. 2D sound fields after 3D propagation from the annular arrays to the focal plane have been simulated using an angular spectrum method. The aberrators are represented by amplitude and phase/time screens.

  5. 2-D electric fields and drifts near the magnetic separatrix in divertor tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Mattor, N.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.

    1998-11-15

    A 2-D calculation is presented for the transport of plasma in the edge region of a divertor tokamak solving continuity, momentum, and energy balance fluid equations. The model uses anomalous radial diffusion, including perpendicular ion momentum, and classical cross-field drifts transport. Parallel and perpendicular currents yield a self-consistent electrostatic potential on both sides of the magnetic separatrix. Outside the separatrix, the simulation extends to material divertor plates where the incident plasma is recycled as neutral gas and where the plate sheath and parallel currents dominate the potential structure. Inside the separatrix, various radial current terms - from viscosity, charge-exchange and poloidal damping, inertia, and {triangledown}B - contribute to the determining the potential. The model rigorously enforces cancellation of gyro-viscous and magnetization terms from the transport equations. The results emphasize the importance of E x B particle flow under the X-point which depends on the sign of the toroidal magnetic field. Radial electric field (E{sub y}) profiles at the outer midplane are small with weak shear when high L-mode diffusion coefficients are used and are large with strong shear when smaller H-mode diffusion coefficients are used. The magnitude and shear of the electric field (E{sub y}) is larger both when the core toroidal rotation is co-moving with the inductive plasma current and when the ion {triangledown}B-drift is towards the single-null X-point.

  6. Simple approach for 2D-DIC with dual field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, L. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    A simple and cost-effective optical layout based on the dual field of view for the 2D digital image correlation (DIC) method is used to simultaneously measure in-plane displacement fields of large and small portions of a specimen. This optical configuration was composed of two high-resolution cameras with two different lenses and a beam splitter. The surface of a specimen was acquired simultaneously using both cameras with narrow and wide fields of view. One of the two cameras was placed directly in front of a specimen, whereas the other camera acquired the image of the same specimen reflected from the beam splitter. All stored images were appropriately processed using a digital image correlation algorithm to extract displacement and strain fields. To show the applicability and usefulness of this configuration, two tests were performed: (i) lower and upper adherends deflections of an adhesive-bonded single lap joint specimen were obtained, and shear strain in the adhesive layer at the edge of the overlap was also attained; and (ii) relatively large displacements of a cracked cantilever beam were evaluated, and maps of small deformation near crack tip were assessed. The results were obtained considering different speckle patterns and distinct subset sizes.

  7. Instantaneous velocity field imaging instrument for supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Legner, H. H.; Mcmanus, K. R.; Mulhall, P. A.; Parker, T. E.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The technical tasks conducted to develop and demonstrate a new gas velocity measurement technique for high enthalpy reacting flows is described. The technique is based on Doppler-shifted Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical. The imaging approach permits, in principle, single-shot measurements of the 2-D distribution of a single velocity component in the measurement plane, and is thus a technique of choice for applications in high enthalpy transient flow facilities. In contrast to previous work in this area, the present program demonstrated an approach which modified the diagnostic technique to function under the constraints of practical flow conditions of engineering interest, rather than vice-versa. In order to accomplish the experimental demonstrations, the state-of-the-art in PLIF diagnostic techniques was advanced in several ways. Each of these tasks is described in detail and is intended to serve as a reference in supporting the transition of this new capability to the fielded PLIF instruments now installed at several national test facilities. Among the new results of general interest in LlF-based flow diagnostics, a detailed set of the first measurements of the collisional broadening and shifting behavior of OH (1,0) band transitions in H7-air combustion environments is included. Such measurements are critical in the design of a successful strategy for PLIF velocity imaging; they also relate to accurate concentration and temperature measurements, particularly in compressible flow regimes. Furthermore, the results shed new light on the fundamental relationship between broadening and energy transfer collisions in OH A(sup 2)Sigma(+)v(sup ') = 1. The first single-pulse, spectrally-resolved measurements of the output of common pulsed dye lasers were also produced during the course of this effort. As with the OH broadening measurements, these data are a significant aspect of a successful velocity imaging strategy, and also have

  8. 2D dose distribution images of a hybrid low field MRI-γ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, A.; Agulles-Pedrós, L.

    2016-07-01

    The proposed hybrid system is a combination of a low field MRI and dosimetric gel as a γ detector. The readout system is based on the polymerization process induced by the gel radiation. A gel dose map is obtained which represents the functional part of hybrid image alongside with the anatomical MRI one. Both images should be taken while the patient with a radiopharmaceutical is located inside the MRI system with a gel detector matrix. A relevant aspect of this proposal is that the dosimetric gel has never been used to acquire medical images. The results presented show the interaction of the 99mTc source with the dosimetric gel simulated in Geant4. The purpose was to obtain the planar γ 2D-image. The different source configurations are studied to explore the ability of the gel as radiation detector through the following parameters; resolution, shape definition and radio-pharmaceutical concentration.

  9. a Field-Theoretical Investigation of 2-D Coulomb Systems with Short-Range Yukawa Repulsion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jargocki, Krzysztof Piotr

    correspond to the two-dimensional Coulomb dipole gas in the functional integral formulation. A different type of a field theory is found for the dipole gas using the collective field formalism. A comparison is made with the critical behavior in the nonlinear sigma model, the 2-D Heisenberg model, and the nonabelian gauge theories.

  10. B-V quantization and field-anti-field duality for p-form gauge fields, topological field theories and 2D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baulieu, Laurent

    1996-02-01

    We construct a framework which unifies in pairs the fields and anti-fields of the Batalin and Vilkovisky quantization method. We consider gauge theories of p-forms coupled to Yang-Mills fields. Our algorithm generates many topological models of the Chern-Simons type or of the Donaldson-Witten type. Some of these models can undergo a partial breaking of their topological symmetries. We investigate the properties of 2D gravity in the Batalin and Vilkovisky quantization scheme. We find a structure which satisfies the holomorphic factorization and also properties analogous to those existing in the topological theories of forms. New conformal fields are introduced with their invariant action.

  11. Instantaneous 2D Velocity and Temperature Measurements in High Speed Flows Based on Spectrally Resolved Molecular Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for high speed flows is described for the simultaneous, instantaneous measurement of gas temperature and velocity at a number (up to about one hundred) of locations in a plane illuminated by an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. Molecular Rayleigh scattered light is collected and passed through a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer. The resulting image is analyzed to determine the gas temperature and bulk velocity at each of the regions. The Cramer Rao lower bound for measurement uncertainty is calculated. Experimental data is presented for a free jet and for preliminary measurements in the Lewis 4 inch by 10 inch supersonic wind tunnel.

  12. Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders

    The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.

  13. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  14. 2D-3D registration for brain radiation therapy using a 3D CBCT and a single limited field-of-view 2D kV radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munbodh, R.; Moseley, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    We report results of an intensity-based 2D-3D rigid registration framework for patient positioning and monitoring during brain radiotherapy. We evaluated two intensity-based similarity measures, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Maximum Likelihood with Gaussian noise (MLG) derived from the statistics of transmission images. A useful image frequency band was identified from the bone-to-no-bone ratio. Validation was performed on gold-standard data consisting of 3D kV CBCT scans and 2D kV radiographs of an anthropomorphic head phantom acquired at 23 different poses with parameter variations along six degrees of freedom. At each pose, a single limited field of view kV radiograph was registered to the reference CBCT. The ground truth was determined from markers affixed to the phantom and visible in the CBCT images. The mean (and standard deviation) of the absolute errors in recovering each of the six transformation parameters along the x, y and z axes for ICC were varphix: 0.08(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.03(0.03)°, tx: 0.13(0.11) mm, ty: 0.08(0.06) mm and tz: 0.44(0.23) mm. For MLG, the corresponding results were varphix: 0.10(0.04)°, varphiy: 0.10(0.09)°, varphiz: 0.05(0.07)°, tx: 0.11(0.13) mm, ty: 0.05(0.05) mm and tz: 0.44(0.31) mm. It is feasible to accurately estimate all six transformation parameters from a 3D CBCT of the head and a single 2D kV radiograph within an intensity-based registration framework that incorporates the physics of transmission images.

  15. Continuous Data Assimilation for a 2D Bénard Convection System Through Horizontal Velocity Measurements Alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Aseel; Lunasin, Evelyn; Titi, Edriss S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a continuous data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm for a two-dimensional Bénard convection problem. Specifically we consider the two-dimensional Boussinesq system of a layer of incompressible fluid between two solid horizontal walls, with no-normal flow and stress-free boundary conditions on the walls, and the fluid is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. In this algorithm, we incorporate the observables as a feedback (nudging) term in the evolution equation of the horizontal velocity. We show that under an appropriate choice of the nudging parameter and the size of the spatial coarse mesh observables, and under the assumption that the observed data are error free, the solution of the proposed algorithm converges at an exponential rate, asymptotically in time, to the unique exact unknown reference solution of the original system, associated with the observed data on the horizontal component of the velocity.

  16. Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.

  17. Universal Velocity-Field Characteristics for a Nanowire Arbitrary Degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Chek, Desmond C. Y.; Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Michael Loong Peng; Arora, Vijay K.

    2011-05-25

    The effects of electric field on the carrier motion and drift velocity in nanowire (NW) are presented in this paper. When the electric field is applied in NW, the electron is expected to move in anti-parallel direction to the electric field. This is so-called randomness motion is transformed into streamlined motion in extremely high electric field. The normalized Fermi energy and relative electron population as a function of electric field are examined for various degeneracies. It was found that the electric field has lesser influence on the relative electron population with the increased degeneracy. The drift velocity in NW is shown to increase with electric field until it reaches the saturation velocity. Two approximations have been made to simplify the theoretical equation. It is also shown in this paper that when the quantum emission is taken into account, the drift and saturation velocity degrades.

  18. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax<600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  19. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax< 600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  20. Computation of nozzle flow fields using the PARC2D Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank G.

    1986-01-01

    Supersonic nozzles which operate at low Reynolds numbers and have large expansion ratios have very thick boundary layers at their exit. This leads to a very strong viscous/inviscid interaction upon the flow within the nozzle and the traditional nozzle design techniques which correct the inviscid core with a boundary layer displacement do not accurately predict the nozzle exit conditions. A full Navier-Stokes code (PARC2D) was used to compute the nozzle flow field. Grids were generated using the interactive grid generator code TBGG. All computations were made on the NASA MSFC CRAY X-MP computer. Comparison was made between the computations and in-house wall pressure measurements for CO2 flow through a conical nozzle having an area ratio of 40. Satisfactory agreement existed between the computations and measurements for a stagnation pressure of 29.4 psia and stagnation temperature of 1060 R. However, agreement did not exist at a stagnation pressure of 7.4 psia. Several reasons for the lack of agreement are possible. The computational code assumed a constant gas gamma whereas gamma for CO2 varied from 1.22 in the plenum chamber to 1.38 at the nozzle exit. Finally, it is possible that condensation occurred during the expansion at the lower stagnation pressure.

  1. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  2. Velocity fields in non-Gaussian cold dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchin, F.; Matarrese, S.; Messina, A.; Moscardini, L.; Tormen, G.

    1995-02-01

    We analyse the large-scale velocity field obtained by N-body simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models with non-Gaussian primordial density fluctuations, considering models with both positive and negative primordial skewness in the density fluctuation distribution. We study the velocity probability distribution and calculate the dependence of the bulk flow, one-point velocity dispersion and cosmic Mach number on the filtering size. We find that the sign of the primordial skewness of the density field provides poor discriminatory power on the evolved velocity field. All non-Gaussian models considered here tend to have lower velocity dispersion and bulk flow than the standard Gaussian CDM model, while the cosmic Mach number turns out to be a poor statistic in characterizing the models. We also compare the large-scale velocity field of a composite sample of optically selected galaxies as described by the Local Group properties, bulk flow, velocity correlation function and cosmic Mach number with the velocity field of mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. The comparison does not clearly single out the best model: the standard Gaussian model is, however, marginally preferred by the maximum likelihood analysis.

  3. Character relations and replication identities in 2d Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantay, P.

    2016-10-01

    We study replication identities satisfied by conformal characters of a 2D CFT, providing a natural framework for a physics interpretation of the famous Hauptmodul property of Monstrous Moonshine, and illustrate the underlying ideas in simple cases.

  4. Velocity field measurements of a laminar starting plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, J.; Shlien, D. J.

    1985-04-01

    The region of buoyant fluid resulting from the initiation of heating of an infinite fluid is called the starting plume. Here, velocity field measurements of this flow pattern are presented for the first time. The measurements were carried out by processing digitized tracer particle path photographs. Similarity of the velocity field of the starting plume as it rises was found to exist in the limited range of heat injection rates investigated. The vorticity computed from the velocity field was diffuse, there being no evidence of a distinctive core. Additional flow visualization experiments show the spiral structure in the starting plume cap.

  5. Transport simulations of the C-2 and C-2U Field Reversed Configurations with the Q2D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofri, Marco; Dettrick, Sean; Barnes, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    The Q2D code is a 2D MHD code, which includes a neutral fluid and separate ion and electron temperatures, coupled with a 3D Monte Carlo code, which is used to calculate source terms due to neutral beams. Q2D has been benchmarked against the 1D transport code Q1D and is used to simulate the evolution of the C-2 and C-2U field reversed configuration experiments [1]. Q2D simulations start from an initial equilibrium and transport coefficients are chosen to match C-2 experimental data. C-2U is an upgrade of C-2, with more beam power and angled beam injection, which demonstrates plasma sustainment for 5 + ms. The simulations use the same transport coefficients for C-2 and C-2U, showing the formation of a steady state in C-2U, sustained by fast ion pressure and current drive.

  6. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM ANISOTROPIES IN VELOCITY CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

    2015-11-20

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position–position–velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  7. Field Evaluation of a Novel 2D Preferential Flow Snowpack Hydrology Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, N.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Kinar, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of snowmelt flux is of primary importance for runoff hydrograph prediction, which is used for water management and flood forecasting. Lateral flows and preferential flow pathways in porous media flow have proven critical for improving soil and groundwater flow models, but though many physically-based layered snowmelt models have been developed, only 1D matrix flow is accounted for in these models. Therefore, there is a need for snowmelt models that include these processes so as to examine the potential to improve snowmelt hydrological modelling. A 2D model is proposed that enables an improved understanding of energy and water flows within deep heterogeneous snowpacks, including those on slopes. A dual pathway theory is presented that simulates the formation of preferential flow paths, vertical and lateral water flows through the snow matrix and flow fingers, internal energy fluxes, melt, wet snow metamorphism, and internal refreezing. The dual pathway model utilizes an explicit finite volume method to solve for the energy and water flux equations over a non-orthogonal grid. It was run and evaluated using in-situ data collected from snowpit - accessed gravimetric, thermometric, photographic, and dielectric observations and novel non-invasive acoustic observations of layering, temperature, flowpath geometry, density and wetness at the Fortress Mountain Snow Laboratory, Alberta, Canada. The melt of a natural snowpack was artificially generated after detailed observation of snowpack initial conditions such as snow layer properties, temperature, and liquid water content. Snowpack ablation and liquid water content distribution over time were then measured and used for model parameterization and validation. Energy available at the snow surface and soil slope angle were set as mondel inputs. Model verification was based on snowpack property evolution. The heterogeneous flow model can be an important tool to help understand snowmelt flow processes, how

  8. Seismic Velocity Structure Across the Quebrada and Gofar Oceanic Transform Faults from 2D Refraction Tomography - A Comparison of Faults with High and Low Seismic Slip Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; Lizarralde, D.

    2009-12-01

    We perform two 2-D tomographic inversions using data collected as a part of the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar (QDG) Transform Fault Active/Passive Experiment. The QDG transform faults are located in the southern Pacific Ocean and offset the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at approximately 4° south. In the spring of 2008, two ~100 km refraction profiles were collected, each using 8 short period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) from OBSIP and over 900 shots from the RV Marcus Langseth, across the easternmost segments of the Quebrada and Gofar transform faults. The two refraction profiles are modeled using a 2-D tomographic code that allows joint inversion of the Pg, PmP, and Pn arrivals (Korenaga et al., 2000). Variations in crustal velocity and thickness, as well as the width and depth extent of a significant low velocity zone within and below the transform valley provide some insight into the material properties of each of the fault-zones. Reduced seismic velocities that are 0.5 to over 1.0 km/s slower than velocities associated with the oceanic crust outside the fault zone may indicate the highly fractured fault zone lithology. The low velocity zone associated with the Quebrada fault also extends to the south of the active fault zone, beneath a fossil fault trace. Because Gofar is offset by an intratransform spreading center, we are able to compare ‘normal’ oceanic crust produced at the EPR to the south of the fault with crust associated with the ~15 km intratransform spreading center to the north. These two high slip rate (14 cm/yr) faults look similar morphologically and demonstrate comparable microseismicity characteristics, however their abilities to generate large earthquakes differ significantly. Gofar generates large earthquakes (Mw ~6) regularly every few years, but in the past 24 years only one large (Mw 5.6) event has been reliably located on Quebrada. The contrasting seismic behavior of these faults represents the range of behavior observed in the global

  9. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben; Gao, Bruce Z

    2012-09-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability.

  10. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben

    2013-01-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability. PMID:24307756

  11. Accuracy Progressive Calculation of Lagrangian Trajectories from Gridded Velocity Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    velocity, 29 temperature, salinity, and other variables, which are commonly represented in satellite 30 observations, modeling, simulation, and...13514. 400 401 Gandin, L.S., 1965: Objective analysis of meteorological fields, Israel Program for Scientific 402 Translation, Jerusalem , 242 pp

  12. Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from combined GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrantonio, G.; Devoti, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    2016-12-01

    A combined GPS velocity solution covering a wide area from Egypt to Middle East allowed us to infer the current rates across the main, already well known, tectonic features. We have estimated 126 velocities from time series of 90 permanent and 36 non permanent GPS sites located in Africa (Egypt), Eurasia and Arabia plates in the time span 1996-2015, the largest available for the Egyptian sites. We have combined our velocity solution in a least-squares sense with two other recent velocity solutions of networks located around the eastern Mediterranean, obtaining a final IGb08 velocity field of about 450 sites. Then, we have estimated the IGb08 Euler poles of Africa, Sinai and Arabia, analyzing the kinematics of the Sinai area, particular velocity profiles, and estimating the 2D strain rate field. We show that it is possible to reliably model the rigid motion of Sinai block only including some GPS sites located south of the Carmel Fault. The estimated relative motion with respect to Africa is of the order of 2-3 mm/yr, however there is a clear mismatch between the modeled and the observed velocities in the southern Sinai sites. We have also assessed the NNE left shear motion along the Dead Sea Transform Fault, estimating a relative motion between Arabia and Africa of about 6 mm/yr in the direction of the Red Sea opening.

  13. Influence of flow velocity on flow field's optical tomography diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-yun; Yu, Yang; Zhong, Xia; Zhang, Ying-ying

    2017-01-01

    The effect of flow velocity is usually neglected when optical computerized tomography (OCT) methods are chosen to measure the temperature distribution of the flow fields up to now. In this paper, two sets of experiment are supplied to verify the effect of flow velocity on flow field's moiré tomography. Specifically speaking, the temperature results with the assumption that it is an isobaric process (omit the effect of flow velocity) in the measured flame flow fields, manifest that the isobaric supposition is not suitable for all the flames. And then, a condition, which can be adopted to judge that when the effect of flow velocity on its temperature reconstruction can not be neglected any more, is proposed. This study would provide some reference to the temperature diagnosis by the optical methods which are based on the measurement of the refractive index.

  14. MTCLAB: A MATLAB ®-based program for traveltime quality analysis and pre-inversion velocity tuning in 2D transmission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Fernández-Alvarez, J. P.; Pedruelo-González, L. M.

    2008-03-01

    A MATLAB ®-based computer code that analyses the traveltime distribution and performs quality analysis at the pre-inversion stage for 2D transmission experiments is presented. The core tools of this approach are the so-called mean traveltime curves. For any general recording geometry, the user may select any pair of subsets of contiguous sources and receivers. The portion of the domain swept by the implied rays defines a zone of analysis, and for each source (receiver) the outcoming (incoming) ray fan is named a source (receiver) gather. The empirical mean traveltime curves are constructed, for each zone, by assigning the average and the standard deviation of the traveltimes in the gathers to the positions of the sources (receivers). The theoretical expressions assume isotropic homogeneous velocity inside each zone. The empirical counterparts use the observed traveltimes and make no assumptions. Isotropic velocity in each zone is inferred by least-squares fitting of the empirical mean traveltime curves. The user may refine the analysis considering different zones (multi-zone analysis). Initially the whole domain is modelled as a single zone. The procedure compares empirical versus theoretical curves. In addition, residuals can be plotted using source-receiver positions as plane coordinates. The results are used to unravel the possible presence of anomalous gathers, heterogeneities, anisotropies, etc. Depending on the kind of anomalies, velocity estimation and mean time residuals are different in the source and receiver gather curves. This software helps to grasp a better understanding of the data variability before the inversion and provides to the geophysicist an approximate zonal isotropic model and a range of velocity variation that can be used in the inverse problem as a priori information (regularization term). Its use is described through tutorial examples. A guided user interface leads the user through the algorithm steps.

  15. Energy spectrum of a 2D Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant magnetic field and an antidot potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Huseyin; Sever, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions of a 2D Dirac oscillator confined by an antidot potential in the presence of a magnetic field and Aharonov-Bohm flux field. Analytical solutions are obtained and compared with the results of the Schrödinger equation found in the literature. Further, the dependence of the spectrum on the magnetic quantum number and on the repulsive potential is discussed.

  16. MONTE GENEROSO ROCKFALL FIELD TEST (SWITZERLAND): Real size experiment to constraint 2D and 3D rockfall simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, F.; Matasci, B.; Carrea, D.; Pedrazzini, A.; Loye, A.; Pedrozzi, G.; Nicolet, P.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    In numerical rockfall simulation, the runout of rockfall is highly dependent of the restitution coefficients which are one of the key parameters to estimate the energy and simulate the rebounds of the blocks during their travel. Restitution coefficients values derived from literature may however not be adapted to every rockfall area as they do not integrate some of the influencing parameters as, among others, block shape rock size, soil cover… The aim is to illustrate how real size rockfall experiment can improve the reliability of computational trajectory simulations of rockfall propagation by calibrating these latter with experiment extracted results. Experimental rockfall tests were performed in the slopes of Monte Generoso area (lat 720850/ long 84830) which is located in the canton of Ticino in south Switzerland above a highway. The field site is a forested area with a thin soil cover on a bedrock characterized by massive carbonates. The elevation ranges between 894m and 322m above see level with a slope of 35 to 40° in the upper part, 60 to 89° in the medium part and 28 to 38° in the lower part. 22 blocks with different size and shape were manually released down, imparting little or no initial velocity. The failing blocks were coloured to make the impacts easier to recognize. The paths of the failing blocks are recorded using two high speed cameras and the impacts of the blocks were sampled using dGNSS. The rockfall trajectories were analysed based on the movies. As the movies have to be referenced in x and y direction, the distance between two known point in the terrain as well as the position of the cameras were measured prior to the blocks throws. Measurements of bounce height, angular and translational velocity (as well as energy) and restitution coefficients (normal kn and tangential kt) were attempt to be deduced from the movies. First, a-priori simulations are compared with the real size experiment throw. Then a-fortiori simulations taking into

  17. NLTE solar flare models with stationary velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejezchleba, T.

    1998-02-01

    A method of calculating NLTE models of a plan-parallel solar flare atmosphere with stationary plasma flows is presented. To solve the radiative transfer equation, equations of statistical equilibrium (ESE) and the stationary momentum equation, we use the multilevel approximate lambda iteration (MALI) approach. The numerical code is based on the method recently developed by \\cite[Rybicky & Hummer (1991, 1992)]{ri91} and allows to take into account macroscopic velocity fields in observer's frame formulation. The preconditioned ESE, constructed by this method, are finally linearized with respect to level populations and electron densities to treat the the hydrogen ionization balance. The numerical code based on this method is used to compute a grid of NLTE flare models with various velocity fields in order to show the influence of the velocity fields on the Hα -line asymmetries. The analysis of the results lead to conclusions that would improve interpretations of flare line asymmetries: 1) The velocities affect the level populations, 2) The type of asymmetry depends on the changes in the optical depth scales and on the run of the source function in the atmosphere. 3) A monotonous velocity affects only one wing of the line profile. 4) To get the velocity field from an observed profile the bisector method should be modified.

  18. Developing of 2D helical waves in semiconductor under the action of femtosecond laser pulse and external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Egorenkov, Vladimir A.; Loginova, Mariya M.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze laser-induced periodic structure developing in a semiconductor under the condition of both optical bistability existence and action of 2D external electric field. Optical bistability occurs because of nonlinear dependence of semiconductor absorption coefficient on charged particles concentration. The electron mobility, diffusion of electrons and laser-induced electric field are taken into account for laser pulse propagation analyzing. 2D external electric field together with electric field, induced by free electrons and ionized donors, governs the charged particle motion. Under certain conditions, the additional positive inverse loop between electron motion and electric field, caused by redistribution of free charged particles, appears. As a result, the helical wave for free charged particle concentration of electron-hole plasma in semiconductor develops under the electric field action. For computer simulation of a problem under consideration, a new finite-difference scheme is proposed. The main feature of proposed method consists in constructed two-step iteration process. We pay a special attention for calculation of initial functions distributions. For their calculation we solve the set of 2D stationary partial differential equations by using additional iteration process that is similar to the iteration process, applied for the main problem solution.

  19. Strongly Metallic Electron and Hole 2D Transport in an Ambipolar Si-Vacuum Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Binhui; Yazdanpanah, M M; Kane, B E; Hwang, E H; Das Sarma, S

    2015-07-17

    We report experiment and theory on an ambipolar gate-controlled Si(111)-vacuum field effect transistor where we study electron and hole (low-temperature 2D) transport in the same device simply by changing the external gate voltage to tune the system from being a 2D electron system at positive gate voltage to a 2D hole system at negative gate voltage. The electron (hole) conductivity manifests strong (moderate) metallic temperature dependence with the conductivity decreasing by a factor of 8 (2) between 0.3 K and 4.2 K with the peak electron mobility (∼18  m2/V s) being roughly 20 times larger than the peak hole mobility (in the same sample). Our theory explains the data well using random phase approximation screening of background Coulomb disorder, establishing that the observed metallicity is a direct consequence of the strong temperature dependence of the effective screened disorder.

  20. Tip vortex core pressure estimates derived from velocity field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinding, Kyle; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We present estimates of tip vortex core pressure derived from velocity field measurements of a high Reynolds number flow over a lifting surface. Tip vortex cavitation decreases propulsor efficiency and contributes to both unwanted noise and surface damage. Coordinated load cell, pressure, and velocity measurements were performed in the 12-inch tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State University, over a range of angles of attack and flow speeds. Stereo PIV imaging planes were oriented normal to the tunnel axis. Pressure estimates in each measurement plane were estimated from the velocity field. Visual cavitation calls were performed over the same range of conditions as the optical velocity measurements, by varying the tunnel pressure until tip vortex cavitation was observed to initiate. The pressure differences between the tip vortex and the tunnel ambient pressure obtained with these two methods were then compared.

  1. Influence of Tricuspid Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Orientation Regarding the Flow Field Inside the Left Ventricle: In Vitro Hydrodynamic Characterization Based on 2D PIV Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Ovandir; Ortiz, Jayme P; Fukumasu, Newton K; Pacifico, Antonio L; Yanagihara, Jurandir I

    2016-02-01

    The flow patterns of a prosthetic heart valve in the aortic or mitral position can change according to its type and orientation. This work describes the use of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to the in vitro flow fields characterization inside the upper part of a left ventricular model at various heart rates and as a function of two orientations of stented tricuspid mitral bioprostheses. In the ventricular model, each mitral bioprosthesis (27 and 31 mm diameter) was installed in two orientations, rotated by 180°, while the aortic bileaflet mechanical valve (27 mm diameter) remained in a fixed orientation. The results (N = 50) showed changes in the intraventricular flow fields according to the mitral bioprostheses positioning. Also, changes in the aortic upstream velocity profiles were noticed as a function of mitral orientations.

  2. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance between the equivalent sources and measurement surfaces and for the difference in magnitude between pressure and velocity. Experimental and numerical studies have been conducted to examine the methods. The double layer velocity method seems to be more robust to noise and flanking sound than the combined pressure-velocity method, although it requires an additional measurement surface. On the whole, the separation methods can be useful when the disturbance of the incoming field is significant. Otherwise the direct reconstruction is more accurate and straightforward.

  3. Polarized Line Formation in Non-monotonic Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2016-12-01

    For a correct interpretation of the observed spectro-polarimetric data from astrophysical objects such as the Sun, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer problems taking into account a realistic temperature structure, the dynamical state of the atmosphere, a realistic scattering mechanism (namely, the partial frequency redistribution—PRD), and the magnetic fields. In a recent paper, we studied the effects of monotonic vertical velocity fields on linearly polarized line profiles formed in isothermal atmospheres with and without magnetic fields. However, in general the velocity fields that prevail in dynamical atmospheres of astrophysical objects are non-monotonic. Stellar atmospheres with shocks, multi-component supernova atmospheres, and various kinds of wave motions in solar and stellar atmospheres are examples of non-monotonic velocity fields. Here we present studies on the effect of non-relativistic non-monotonic vertical velocity fields on the linearly polarized line profiles formed in semi-empirical atmospheres. We consider a two-level atom model and PRD scattering mechanism. We solve the polarized transfer equation in the comoving frame (CMF) of the fluid using a polarized accelerated lambda iteration method that has been appropriately modified for the problem at hand. We present numerical tests to validate the CMF method and also discuss the accuracy and numerical instabilities associated with it.

  4. Velocity field in a vicinity of cylinder bouncing off horizontal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chara, Z.; Kysela, B.; Dolansky, J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations of velocity fields around a circular cylinder colliding perpendicularly with a plane wall. The cylinder of the diameter D = 20 mm was moving vertically in a water tank and the motion was recorded by a fast digital camera. Reynolds numbers ranged from 3000 to 8100 and the initial positions L of the cylinder above the wall were L/D = 2.5; 3.5; 4.5 and 5.5. An evolution of fluid agitation in an area close to the impact point was based on the results of the velocity field measurements. The numerical simulations were performed using a 2D-LES model.

  5. Normalized velocity profiles of field-measured turbidity currents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Multiple turbidity currents were recorded in two submarine canyons with maximum speed as high as 280 cm/s. For each individual turbidity current measured at a fixed station, its depth-averaged velocity typically decreased over time while its thickness increased. Some turbidity currents gained in speed as they traveled downcanyon, suggesting a possible self-accelerating process. The measured velocity profiles, first in this high resolution, allowed normalizations with various schemes. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, were found to represent the field data fairly well. The best similarity collapse of the velocity profiles was achieved when the streamwise velocity and the elevation were normalized respectively by the depth-averaged velocity and the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to an empirical function Y = exp(–αXβ) for the jet region above the velocity maximum. Confirming theoretical arguments and laboratory results of other studies, the field turbidity currents are Froude-supercritical.

  6. A non-parametric model for the cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, E.; Teodoro, L.; Frenk, C. S.; Schmoldt, I.; Efstathiou, G.; White, S. D. M.; Saunders, W.; Sutherland, W.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Keeble, O.; Tadros, H.; Maddox, S.; Oliver, S.

    1999-09-01

    We present a self-consistent non-parametric model of the local cosmic velocity field derived from the distribution of IRAS galaxies in the PSCz redshift survey. The survey has been analysed using two independent methods, both based on the assumptions of gravitational instability and linear biasing. The two methods, which give very similar results, have been tested and calibrated on mock PSCz catalogues constructed from cosmological N-body simulations. The denser sampling provided by the PSCz survey compared with previous IRAS galaxy surveys allows an improved reconstruction of the density and velocity fields out to large distances. The most striking feature of the model velocity field is a coherent large-scale streaming motion along the baseline connecting Perseus-Pisces, the Local Supercluster, the Great Attractor and the Shapley Concentration. We find no evidence for back-infall on to the Great Attractor. Instead, material behind and around the Great Attractor is inferred to be streaming towards the Shapley Concentration, aided by the compressional push of two large nearby underdensities. The PSCz model velocities compare well with those predicted from the 1.2-Jy redshift survey of IRAS galaxies and, perhaps surprisingly, with those predicted from the distribution of Abell/ACO clusters, out to 140h^-1Mpc. Comparison of the real-space density fields (or, alternatively, the peculiar velocity fields) inferred from the PSCz and cluster catalogues gives a relative (linear) bias parameter between clusters and IRAS galaxies of b_c=4.4+/-0.6. Finally, we implement a likelihood analysis that uses all the available information on peculiar velocities in our local Universe to estimate beta_Omega 0 0.6 b_0.6 -0.15 +0.22 (1sigma), where b is the bias parameter for IRAS galaxies.

  7. Bayesian inversion of marine CSEM data from the Scarborough gas field using a transdimensional 2-D parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Anandaroop; Key, Kerry; Bodin, Thomas; Myer, David; Constable, Steven

    2014-12-01

    We apply a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to sample the Bayesian posterior model probability density function of 2-D seafloor resistivity as constrained by marine controlled source electromagnetic data. This density function of earth models conveys information on which parts of the model space are illuminated by the data. Whereas conventional gradient-based inversion approaches require subjective regularization choices to stabilize this highly non-linear and non-unique inverse problem and provide only a single solution with no model uncertainty information, the method we use entirely avoids model regularization. The result of our approach is an ensemble of models that can be visualized and queried to provide meaningful information about the sensitivity of the data to the subsurface, and the level of resolution of model parameters. We represent models in 2-D using a Voronoi cell parametrization. To make the 2-D problem practical, we use a source-receiver common midpoint approximation with 1-D forward modelling. Our algorithm is transdimensional and self-parametrizing where the number of resistivity cells within a 2-D depth section is variable, as are their positions and geometries. Two synthetic studies demonstrate the algorithm's use in the appraisal of a thin, segmented, resistive reservoir which makes for a challenging exploration target. As a demonstration example, we apply our method to survey data collected over the Scarborough gas field on the Northwest Australian shelf.

  8. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  9. Determining Pressure and Velocity Fields from Experimental Schlieren Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Morrison, P. J.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2015-11-01

    Internal gravity waves generated by tidal flow over bottom topography in the ocean are important because they contribute significantly to the energy composition of the ocean. Determination of the instantaneous internal wave energy flux requires knowledge of the pressure and velocity fields, each of which is difficult to measure in the ocean or the laboratory. However, the density perturbation field can be measured using a laboratory technique known as ``synthetic schlieren.'' We present an analytical method for deducing both the pressure and velocity fields from the density perturbation field. This yields the instantaneous energy flux of linear internal waves. Our method is verified in tests with data from a Navier-Stokes direct numerical simulation. The method is then applied to laboratory schlieren data obtained for the conditions in the numerical simulations. MRA and HLS were supported by ONR. FML and PJM supported by DOE contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  10. Tracing magnetic fields and identifying star formation with velocity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alex; Gonzalez Casanova, Diego; Yuen, Ka Ho

    2017-01-01

    We are presenting a new technique of tracing magnetic fields utilizing Doppler broadened spectral lines. We demonstrate that for subAlfvenic turbulence, i.e. for regions with turbulence velocities less than Alfven speed, the velocity gradients (VGs) are well aligned with magnetic fields both in 3D data cubes and in synthetic observations. For the latter case the VGs are calculated using velocity centroids and their alignment with the projected magnetic field is studied. We demonstraed this by comparing the HI data with the PLANCK polarization maps. We conclude that velocity gradients present a new promissing way of studying magnetic fields in diffuse media. We also explored the properties of VGs in dense gas and found that starting with a particular density threshold value the VGs tend to be perpendicular to magnetic fields. We also compare the alignment of VGs and the density gradients (DGs) and find that these measures are well aligned in the absense of self-gravity, although in diffuse regions the VGs trace magnetic field better than the DGs. The advantage of VGs for tracing magnetic fields gets more obvious as the Mach number increases. Self-gravity acts differently on the VGs and the DGs. For self-gravitating regions the VGs and the DGs tend to get orthogonal to each other, revealing the the regions of ongoing star formation. This misalignment of the VGs and DGs is also evident in synthetic observations. We conclude that the VGs present(a) a new promising way of tracing magnetic field in diffuse media, (b) in combination with polarimety they reveal shocked gas,(c) in combination with the DGs they reveal star forming regions.

  11. Electromagnetic induction by finite wavenumber source fields in 2-D lateral heterogeneities - The transverse electric mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction in a laterally homogeneous earth is analyzed in terms of a source field with finite dimensions. Attention is focused on a time-varying two-dimensional current source directed parallel to the strike of a two-dimensional anomalous structure within the earth, i.e., the E-parallel mode. The spatially harmonic source field is expressed as discontinuities in the magnetic (or electric) field of the current in the source. The model is applied to describing the magnetic gradients across megatectonic features, and may be used to predict the magnetic fields encountered by a satellite orbiting above the ionosphere.

  12. Sub-60 mV/decade switching in 2D negative capacitance field-effect transistors with integrated ferroelectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Felicia A.; Cheng, Zhihui; Price, Katherine; Franklin, Aaron D.

    2016-08-01

    There is a rising interest in employing the negative capacitance (NC) effect to achieve sub-60 mV/decade (below the thermal limit) switching in field-effect transistors (FETs). The NC effect, which is an effectual amplification of the applied gate potential, is realized by incorporating a ferroelectric material in series with a dielectric in the gate stack of a FET. One of the leading challenges to such NC-FETs is the variable substrate capacitance exhibited in 3D semiconductor channels (bulk, Fin, or nanowire) that minimizes the extent of sub-60 mV/decade switching. In this work, we demonstrate 2D NC-FETs that combine the NC effect with 2D MoS2 channels to extend the steep switching behavior. Using the ferroelectric polymer, poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)), these 2D NC-FETs are fabricated by modification of top-gated 2D FETs through the integrated addition of P(VDF-TrFE) into the gate stack. The impact of including an interfacial metal between the ferroelectric and dielectric is studied and shown to be critical. These 2D NC-FETs exhibit a decrease in subthreshold swing from 113 mV/decade down to 11.7 mV/decade at room temperature with sub-60 mV/decade switching occurring over more than 4 decades of current. The P(VDF-TrFE) proves to be an unstable option for a device technology, yet the superb switching behavior observed herein opens the way for further exploration of nanomaterials for extremely low-voltage NC-FETs.

  13. A universal and ultrasensitive vectorial nanomechanical sensor for imaging 2D force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lépinay, Laure Mercier; Pigeau, Benjamin; Besga, Benjamin; Vincent, Pascal; Poncharal, Philippe; Arcizet, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The miniaturization of force probes into nanomechanical oscillators enables ultrasensitive investigations of forces on dimensions smaller than their characteristic length scales. It also unravels the vectorial character of the force field and how its topology impacts the measurement. Here we present an ultrasensitive method for imaging two-dimensional vectorial force fields by optomechanically following the bidimensional Brownian motion of a singly clamped nanowire. This approach relies on angular and spectral tomography of its quasi-frequency-degenerated transverse mechanical polarizations: immersing the nanoresonator in a vectorial force field not only shifts its eigenfrequencies but also rotates the orientation of the eigenmodes, as a nanocompass. This universal method is employed to map a tunable electrostatic force field whose spatial gradients can even dominate the intrinsic nanowire properties. Enabling vectorial force field imaging with demonstrated sensitivities of attonewton variations over the nanoprobe Brownian trajectory will have a strong impact on scientific exploration at the nanoscale.

  14. Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.

    2016-09-01

    We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing-Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing-Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.

  15. 2-D Fourier transform analysis of the gravitational field of Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad; El-Kenawy, Abeer

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has fascinated the consideration of many geophysical studies as it is influenced by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Moreover, the shear zones inside Sinai have affected intensely the structure development of the northern Sinai area. 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been applied to transfer the data from space domain to frequency domain, in which basic gradients and derived gradients have been estimated. The frequency domain operations resulted in frequency filtering, first and second degree xyz gradients, horizontal, total (analytical signal) and tilt gradients, maximum horizontal gradient amplitude (total horizontal derivative), and theta map. As a result, the basic and derived gradient maps have succeeded to outline the major structure elements of Northern Sinai Peninsula. Comparisons with some well known surface structures showed a large degree of matching.

  16. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  17. Multi-field electron emission pattern of 2D emitter: Illustrated with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of laser-assisted multi-field electron emission of two-dimensional emitters is investigated theoretically. The process is basically a cold field electron emission but having more controllable components: a uniform electric field controls the emission potential barrier, a magnetic field controls the quantum states of the emitter, while an optical field controls electron populations of specified quantum states. It provides a highly orientational vacuum electron line source whose divergence angle over the beam plane is inversely proportional to square root of the emitter height. Calculations are carried out for graphene with the armchair emission edge, as a concrete example. The rate equation incorporating the optical excitation, phonon scattering, and thermal relaxation is solved in the quasi-equilibrium approximation for electron population in the bands. The far-field emission patterns, that inherit the features of the Landau bands, are obtained. It is found that the optical field generates a characteristic structure at one wing of the emission pattern.

  18. Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  19. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  20. Rotational Velocities of Field Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weafer, V. K.; Fulbright, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    This study is motivated by interest in the much-debated ``second-parameter" problem. Deep mixing, driven by angular momentum, has been proposed as a second parameter controlling horizontal-branch colour morphology (Sweigart & Mengel 1979). Observations of low-metallicity field giant stars show little evidence of deep mixing (Kraft 1994, Wallerstein et al. 1997, Gratton et al. 2000). We therefore expect that field horizontal branch stars may show little evidence of rotation. We have used high-resolution spectra from Keck and Lick observatories to find the projected rotational velocity (v sin i) of 44 blue (-0.04 <= B-V <= 0.20) horizontal branch stars in the halo field. Selected Fe and Ti absorption lines were co-added in velocity space to create an average line profile for each star. To find v sin i, the average profile was compared to similarly-averaged synthesised lines. We have compared the v sin i values of the sample to those of the blue horizontal branch stars in the second-parameter globular-cluster pair, M3 and M13 (Peterson et al. 1995). Although further work is needed to completely establish the velocity distribution of the sample, we have found that the sample has rotational velocities more similar to M13 than to M3, with at least 5 stars showing v sin i > = 25 km/s.

  1. Enhanced field emission properties from surface-modified 2D Cd(OH)2 nanocoins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagal, Vivekanand S.; Patil, Girish P.; Deore, Amol B.; Baviskar, Prashant K.; Shirale, Dhammanand J.; Chavan, Padmakar G.

    2017-02-01

    Low turn-on field of 2.1 V/µm was found for the emission current density of 10 µA/cm2 and high current density of 403 µA/cm2 was drawn at an applied field of 3.6 V/µm from Au/Cd(OH)2 nanocoins/Cd(OH)2 microsheets (Au/Cd(OH)2NC/Cd(OH)2MS). The observed low turn-on field was found superior to other gold (Au) nanoparticle decorated semiconducting nanostructures reported in the literature. Also the field emission current stability for the preset value of 1 μA over the period of 3 h is found to be good. The Cd(OH)2 nanocoins were grown on Cadmium (Cd) substrate by simple chemical bath deposition technique. Au nanoparticles with average diameter 11 nm were decorated on surface of the Cd(OH)2 nanocoins by sputtering method. Detail characterization such as structural and morphological analysis of Au/Cd(OH)2NC/Cd(OH)2MS has been carried out using X-ray Diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis and field emission studies of Au/Cd(OH)2NC/Cd(OH)2MS.

  2. Mapping near-field environments of plasmonic and 2D materials with photo-induced force imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumkur, Thejaswi U.; Doiron, Chloe; Yang, Xiao; Li, Bo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Cerjan, Benjamin W.; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Ringe, Emilie; Thomann, Isabell

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the ability to map photo-induced gradient forces in materials, using a setup akin to atomic force microscopy. This technique allows for the simultaneous characterization of topographical features and optical near-fields in materials, with a high spatio-temporal resolution. We show that the near-field gradient forces can be translated onto electric fields, enabling the mapping of plasmonic hot-spots in gold nanostructures, and the resolution of sub-10 nm features in photocatalytic materials. We further show that the dispersion-sensitive nature of near-field gradient forces can be used to image and distinguish atomically thin layers of 2-D materials, with high contrast.

  3. High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Williams, Ted; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to test ΛCDM predictions of galaxy mass distributions, we have obtained spectrophotometric observations of several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer as part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey. Utilizing the SALT FP's 8 arcmin field of view and 2 arcsec angular resolution, we have derived 2D velocity fields of the Hα emission line to high spatial resolution at large radii. We have modeled these velocity fields with the DiskFit software package and found them to be in good agreement with lower-resolution velocity fields of the HI 21 cm line for the same galaxies. Here we present our Hα kinematic map of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 578. At the distance to this galaxy (22 Mpc), our kinematic data has a spatial resolution of 185 pc and extends to galactocentric radii of 13 kpc. The high spatial resolution of this data allows us to resolve the inner rising part of the rotation curves, which is compromised by beam smearing in lower-resolution observations. We are using these Hα kinematic data, combined with HI 21 cm kinematics and broadband photometric observations, to place constraints on NGC 578's mass distribution.

  4. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

  5. Ultrasonic field profile evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing model: Numerical and experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed.

  6. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. On Barnes Beta Distributions and Applications to the Maximum Distribution of the 2D Gaussian Free Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    A new family of Barnes beta distributions on (0, ∞) is introduced and its infinite divisibility, moment determinacy, scaling, and factorization properties are established. The Morris integral probability distribution is constructed from Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2), and its moment determinacy and involution invariance properties are established. For application, the maximum distributions of the 2D gaussian free field on the unit interval and circle with a non-random logarithmic potential are conjecturally related to the critical Selberg and Morris integral probability distributions, respectively, and expressed in terms of sums of Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2).

  8. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  9. Magnetic field applied to thermochemical non-equilibrium reentry flows in 2D - five species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sávio de Góes Maciel, Edisson

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a study involving magnetic field actuation over reentry flows in thermochemical non-equilibrium is performed. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The proposed numerical algorithm is centred and second-order accurate. The hypersonic flow around a blunt body is simulated. Three time integration methods are tested. The reactive simulations involve Earth atmosphere of five species. The work of Gaitonde is the reference to couple the fluid dynamics and Maxwell equations of electromagnetism. The results have indicated that the Maciel scheme, using the Mavriplis dissipation model, yields the best prediction of the stagnation pressure.

  10. Lattice Models for Granular-Like Velocity Fields: Hydrodynamic Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manacorda, Alessandro; Plata, Carlos A.; Lasanta, Antonio; Puglisi, Andrea; Prados, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A recently introduced model describing—on a 1d lattice—the velocity field of a granular fluid is discussed in detail. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through next-neighbours inelastic collisions which conserve momentum but dissipate energy. The dynamics is described through the corresponding Master Equation for the time evolution of the probability distribution. In the continuum limit, equations for the average velocity and temperature fields with fluctuating currents are derived, which are analogous to hydrodynamic equations of granular fluids when restricted to the shear modes. Therefore, the homogeneous cooling state, with its linear instability, and other relevant regimes such as the uniform shear flow and the Couette flow states are described. The evolution in time and space of the single particle probability distribution, in all those regimes, is also discussed, showing that the local equilibrium is not valid in general. The noise for the momentum and energy currents, which are correlated, are white and Gaussian. The same is true for the noise of the energy sink, which is usually negligible.

  11. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1984-04-19

    In a field-effect transistor comprising a semiconductor having therein a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship, there is provided an improvement wherein said semiconductor is a superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers comprising a first direct gap semiconductor material which in bulk form has a certain bandgap and a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, the barrier layers comprising a second semiconductor material having a bandgap wider than that of said first semiconductor material, wherein the layer thicknesses of said quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice having a curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field which has a maximum electron velocity at a certain electric field, and wherein the thicknesses of said quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice curve of electron velocity versus applied electric field whereby, at applied electric fields higher than that at which the maximum electron velocity occurs in said first material when in bulk form, the electron velocities are higher in said superlattice than they are in said first semiconductor material in bulk form.

  12. Experimental Observation of a Metal-insulator Transition in 2D at Zero Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, S. V.

    1996-03-01

    The scaling theory of Abrahams et al. ^1 has had considerable success in describing many features of metal-insulator transitions. Within this theory, which was developed for non-interacting electrons, no such transition is possible in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in the absence of a magnetic field. However, we show experimentally that an ultra-high-mobility 2DES on the surface of silicon does exhibit the signature of a true metal-insulator phase transition at zero magnetic field at a critical electron density n_c ~10^11 cm-2. The energy of electron-electron interactions, ignored in the scaling theory,^1 is the dominant parameter in this 2DES. The resistivity, ρ, is empirically found to scale near the critical point both with temperature T and electric field E so that it can be represented by the form ρ(T,n_s)=ρ(T/T_0(n_s)) as Earrow0 or ρ(E,n_s)=ρ(E/E_0(n_s)) as Tarrow0. At the transition, the resistivity is close to 3h/e^2. Both scaling parameters, T0 and E_0, show power law behavior at the critical point. This is characteristic of a true phase transition and strongly resembles, in particular, the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered thin films,^2 as well as the transition between quantum Hall liquid and insulator.^3 Many high-mobility samples from two different sources (Institute for Metrological Service, Russia, and Siemens AG, Germany) with different oxide thicknesses and gate materials have been studied and similar results were found. Work done in collaboration with J. E. Furneaux, Whitney Mason, V. M. Pudalov, and M. D'Iorio, supported by NSF. ^1 E. Abrahams, P. W. Anderson, D. C. Licciardello, and T. V. Ramakrishnan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979). ^2 Y. Liu, K. A. McGreer, B. Nease, D. B. Haviland, G. Martinez, J. W. Halley, and A. M. Goldman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2068 (1991). ^3 T. Wang, K. P. Clark, G. F. Spencer, A. M. Mack, and W. P. Kirk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 709 (1994).

  13. Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null.

  14. 3-D heterogeneous field data versus 2-D simulations. How can it be accomplished in a sedimentary porous formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvini, G.; Salandin, P.

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the hydraulic conductivity K spatial variability in a real field case (as an example to delimitate a well catchment), numerical simulations can be reasonably developed in a two-dimensional vertical average context. Nevertheless the plume evolution is a consequence of a more complex three-dimensional heterogeneous structure whose vertical variability dominates the dispersion phenomena at local scale. In larger domains, the effect of the vertical heterogeneity combines itself with that one due to the horizontal variability of K, and only when the plume has travelled a large number of (horizontal) integral scales, its evolution can be analyzed in a regional context, under the hypothesis that the transmissivity spatial distribution prevails. Until this limit is reached, the vertical and horizontal variability of K are combined to give a fully 3-D dispersion process. In all these situations, to successfully accomplish the 3-D heterogeneous structure of the aquifer in 2-D simulations, more than the planimetric depth-averaged variability of K must be accounted for. To define the uncertainty related to the use of different planimetric schematizations of the real hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution, we present here the results of some numerical experiments that compare the 3-D plume evolution with 2-D simulations developed by tacking into account different hydraulic conductivity distribution schematization, by considering a hierarchical architecture of media also. This description of a sedimentary formation combined with the finite size of the plume requires theoretical and numerical tools able to take into account the flow field inhomogeneity and the ergodicity lack that characterize the transport phenomena. Following this way it will be possible to quantify / reduce the uncertainty related to a 2-D schematization in a large number of real cases where the domain spans between the local and the regional scale and whose dimension may lead to

  15. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  16. Electric field-controlled directed migration of neural progenitor cells in 2D and 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoting; Li, Wenfei; Young, Fraser; Gao, Runchi; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing

    2012-02-16

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) occur naturally in vivo and play a critical role during tissue/organ development and regeneration, including that of the central nervous system(1,2). These endogenous EFs are generated by cellular regulation of ionic transport combined with the electrical resistance of cells and tissues. It has been reported that applied EF treatment can promote functional repair of spinal cord injuries in animals and humans(3,4). In particular, EF-directed cell migration has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types(5,6), including neural progenitor cells (NPCs)(7,8). Application of direct current (DC) EFs is not a commonly available technique in most laboratories. We have described detailed protocols for the application of DC EFs to cell and tissue cultures previously(5,11). Here we present a video demonstration of standard methods based on a calculated field strength to set up 2D and 3D environments for NPCs, and to investigate cellular responses to EF stimulation in both single cell growth conditions in 2D, and the organotypic spinal cord slice in 3D. The spinal cordslice is an ideal recipient tissue for studying NPC ex vivo behaviours, post-transplantation, because the cytoarchitectonic tissue organization is well preserved within these cultures(9,10). Additionally, this ex vivo model also allows procedures that are not technically feasible to track cells in vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level. It is critically essential to evaluate cell behaviours in not only a 2D environment, but also in a 3D organotypic condition which mimicks the in vivo environment. This system will allow high-resolution imaging using cover glass-based dishes in tissue or organ culture with 3D tracking of single cell migration in vitro and ex vivo and can be an intermediate step before moving onto in vivo paradigms.

  17. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (VX,VY,VZ)=(10.5,18.5,7.3)+/-0.1 km s-1 not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (VX,VY,VZ)=(9.9,15.6,6.9)+/-0.2 km s-1. The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0+/-1.4, B=-13.1+/-1.2, K=1.1+/-1.8, and C=-2.9+/-1.4 km s-1 kpc-1. The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at ~-20 km s-1 kpc-1. A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z>1 kpc), but here we surmise its existence in the thin disk at z<200 pc. The most unexpected and unexplained term within

  18. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  19. Electric Field-Induced Fluid Velocity Field Distribution in DNA Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling-Yun; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2008-10-01

    We present an analytical solution for fluid velocity Geld distribution of polyelectrolyte DNA. Both the electric field force and the viscous force in the DNA solution are considered under a suitable boundary condition. The solution of electric potential is analytically obtained by using the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The fluid velocity along the electric field is dependent on the cylindrical radius and concentration. It is shown that the electric field-induced fluid velocity will be increased with the increasing cylindrical radius, whose distribution also varies with the concentration.

  20. An energy stable, hexagonal finite difference scheme for the 2D phase field crystal amplitude equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhen; Heinonen, Vili; Lowengrub, John; Wang, Cheng; Wise, Steven M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct an energy stable finite difference scheme for the amplitude expansion equations for the two-dimensional phase field crystal (PFC) model. The equations are formulated in a periodic hexagonal domain with respect to the reciprocal lattice vectors to achieve a provably unconditionally energy stable and solvable scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first such energy stable scheme for the PFC amplitude equations. The convexity of each part in the amplitude equations is analyzed, in both the semi-discrete and fully-discrete cases. Energy stability is based on a careful convexity analysis for the energy (in both the spatially continuous and discrete cases). As a result, unique solvability and unconditional energy stability are available for the resulting scheme. Moreover, we show that the scheme is point-wise stable for any time and space step sizes. An efficient multigrid solver is devised to solve the scheme, and a few numerical experiments are presented, including grain rotation and shrinkage and grain growth studies, as examples of the strength and robustness of the proposed scheme and solver.

  1. Research on reconstruction algorithms for 2D temperature field based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography(TDLAT), as a promising technique which combines Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy(TDLAS) and computer tomography, has shown the advantages of high spatial resolution for temperature measurement. Given the large number of tomography algorithms, it is necessary to understand the feature of tomography algorithms and find suitable ones for the specific experiment. This paper illustrates two different algorithms including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and simulated annealing (SA) which are implemented using Matlab. The reconstruction simulations of unimodal and bimodal temperature phantom were done under different conditions, and the results of the simulation were analyzed. It shows that for the unimodal temperature phantom, the both algorithms work well, the reconstruction quality is acceptable under suitable conditions and the result of ART is better. But for the bimodal temperature phantom, the result of SA is much better. More specifically, the reconstruction quality of ART is mainly affected by the ray coverage, the maximum deviation for the unimodal temperature phantom is 5.9%, while for the bimodal temperature field, it is up to 25%. The reconstruction quality of SA is mainly affected by the number of the transitions, the maximum deviation for the unimodal temperature phantom is 9.2% when 6 transitions are used which is a little worse than the result of ART; however, the maximum deviation for the bimodal temperature phantom is much better than ART's, which is about 5.2% when 6 transitions are used.

  2. Coupled human erythrocyte velocity field and aggregation measurements at physiological haematocrit levels.

    PubMed

    Dusting, Jonathan; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Balabani, Stavroula; Yianneskis, Michael

    2009-07-22

    Simultaneous measurement of erythrocyte (RBC) velocity fields and aggregation properties has been successfully performed using an optical shearing microscope and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Blood at 45% haematocrit was sheared at rates of 5.4< or =gamma < or = 252 s(-1) and imaged using a high speed camera. The images were then processed to yield aggregation indices and flow velocities. Negligible levels of aggregation were observed for gamma > or = 54.0 s(-1), while high levels of aggregation and network formation occurred for gamma < or = 11.7 s(-1). The results illustrate that the velocity measurements are dependent on the extent of RBC aggregation. High levels of network formation cause the velocities at gamma > or = 5.4 s(-1) to deviate markedly from the expected solid body rotation profile. The effect of aggregation level on the PIV accuracy was assessed by monitoring the two-dimensional (2D) correlation coefficients. Lower levels of aggregation result in poorer image correlation, from which it can be inferred that PIV accuracy is reduced. Moreover, aggregation is time-dependent, and consequently PIV accuracy may decrease during recording as the cells break up. It is therefore recommended that aggregation and its effects are taken into account in future when undertaking blood flow studies using PIV. The simplicity of the technique, which requires no lasers, filters, or special pretreatments, demonstrates the potential wide-spread applicability of the data acquisition system for accurate blood flow PIV and aggregation measurement.

  3. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  4. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.

  5. The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, V. L.

    2005-10-01

    The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due to a helical filament of the dipoles is obtained in the form of the Kapteyn series, which augments Hardin's [Phys. Fluids 25, 1949 (1982)] solution for the monopoles. Using a singularity-separation technique, a substantial part of the series is represented in a closed form for both the mono- and the dipoles. It is found from numerical calculation that the smaller the helix pitch is, the larger the relative influence of the dipoles is as the cylinder wound by the helix is approached.

  6. Statistical Analyses of Brain Surfaces Using Gaussian Random Fields on 2-D Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Lawrence H.; Xu, Dongrong; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the morphometric analysis of the brain and its subregions has recently intensified because growth or degeneration of the brain in health or illness affects not only the volume but also the shape of cortical and subcortical brain regions, and new image processing techniques permit detection of small and highly localized perturbations in shape or localized volume, with remarkable precision. An appropriate statistical representation of the shape of a brain region is essential, however, for detecting, localizing, and interpreting variability in its surface contour and for identifying differences in volume of the underlying tissue that produce that variability across individuals and groups of individuals. Our statistical representation of the shape of a brain region is defined by a reference region for that region and by a Gaussian random field (GRF) that is defined across the entire surface of the region. We first select a reference region from a set of segmented brain images of healthy individuals. The GRF is then estimated as the signed Euclidean distances between points on the surface of the reference region and the corresponding points on the corresponding region in images of brains that have been coregistered to the reference. Correspondences between points on these surfaces are defined through deformations of each region of a brain into the coordinate space of the reference region using the principles of fluid dynamics. The warped, coregistered region of each subject is then unwarped into its native space, simultaneously bringing into that space the map of corresponding points that was established when the surfaces of the subject and reference regions were tightly coregistered. The proposed statistical description of the shape of surface contours makes no assumptions, other than smoothness, about the shape of the region or its GRF. The description also allows for the detection and localization of statistically significant differences in the shapes of

  7. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon Alves, Andrew; Kenny, John; Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan; Kron, Tomas; Cole, Andrew

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  8. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  9. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J. J.; Hutchings, L. J.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is located in northern California and is one of the world's largest producers of electricity from geothermal energy. The resource consists of primarily dry steam which is produced from a low, porosity fractured graywacke. Over the last several years steam pressure at the Geysers has been dropping. Concern over decline of the resource has prompted research to understand its fundamental nature. A key issue is the distribution of fluid in the matrix of the reservoir rock. In this paper we interpret seismic compressional-wave velocity and attenuation data at the Geysers in terms of the geologic structure and fluid saturation in the reservoir. Our data consist of approximately 300 earthquakes that are of magnitude 1.2 and are distributed in depth between sea level and 2.5 km. Using compressional-wave arrival times, we invert for earthquake location, origin time, and velocity along a three-dimensional grid. Using the initial pulse width of the compressional-wave, we invert for the initial pulse width associated with the source, and the one-dimensional Q structure. We find that the velocity structure correlates with known mapped geologic units, including a velocity high that is correlated with a felsite body at depth that is known from drilling. The dry steam reservoir, which is also known from drilling, is mostly correlated with low velocity. The Q increases with depth to the top of the dry steam reservoir and decreases with depth within the reservoir. The decrease of Q with depth probably indicates that the saturation of the matrix of the reservoir rock increases with depth.

  10. The HII regions and the velocity field of NGC 7331

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, M.; Petrosian, A. R.; Amram, P.; Boulesteix, J.

    1994-02-01

    The galaxy NGC 7331 has been observed with an IPCS through an H alpha filter for direct imagery and through a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at H aplha wavelength with the 2.60 m Byurakan telescope to study the main physical parameters of 47 H II regions, diameter and luminosity, as well as their velocities. The cumulative diameter distribution of H II regions is well represented by an exponential function with the parameters N0 = 272 and D0 = 95 pc. The H alpha luminosity function is described by a power law with index - 1.6. The H alpha velocity field of the galaxy is in good agreement with radio observations. Much less extended but offering a higher spatial resolution, it reveals non-circular motions, like the classical wiggles of the isovelocity lines when crossing a spiral arm, or the Z shape distortions of the isovelocity lines in the center possibly revealing an unseen bar.

  11. An inversion method of 2D NMR relaxation spectra in low fields based on LSQR and L-curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guanqun; Zhou, Xiaolong; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2016-04-01

    The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) inversion method based on traditional least-squares QR decomposition (LSQR) always produces some oscillating spectra. Moreover, the solution obtained by traditional LSQR algorithm often cannot reflect the true distribution of all the components. Hence, a good solution requires some manual intervention, for especially low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. An approach based on the LSQR algorithm and L-curve is presented to solve this problem. The L-curve method is applied to obtain an improved initial optimal solution by balancing the residual and the complexity of the solutions instead of manually adjusting the smoothing parameters. First, the traditional LSQR algorithm is used on 2D NMR T1-T2 data to obtain its resultant spectra and corresponding residuals, whose norms are utilized to plot the L-curve. Second, the corner of the L-curve as the initial optimal solution for the non-negative constraint is located. Finally, a 2D map is corrected and calculated iteratively based on the initial optimal solution. The proposed approach is tested on both simulated and measured data. The results show that this algorithm is robust, accurate and promising for the NMR analysis.

  12. Velocity field and star formation in the Horsehead nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Teyssier, D.; Philipp, S.; Güsten, R.

    2005-09-01

    Using large scale maps in C18O(2-1) and in the continuum at 1.2 mm obtained at the IRAM-30 m antenna with the Heterodyne Receiver Array (HERA) and MAMBO2, we investigated the morphology and the velocity field probed in the inner layers of the Horsehead nebula. The data reveal a non-self-gravitating (m/m_vir≈ 0.3) filament of dust and gas (the “neck”, \\varnothing = 0.15-0.30 pc) connecting the Horsehead western ridge, a Photon-Dominated Region illuminated by σOri, to its parental cloud L1630. Several dense cores are embedded in the ridge and the neck. One of these cores appears particularly peaked in the 1.2 mm continuum map and corresponds to a feature seen in absorption on ISO maps around 7 μm. Its C18O emission drops at the continuum peak, suggestive of molecular depletion onto cold grains. The channel maps of the Horsehead exhibit an overall north-east velocity gradient whose orientation swivels east-west, showing a somewhat more complex structure than was recently reported by Pound et al. (2003) using BIMA CO(1-0) mapping. In both the neck and the western ridge, the material is rotating around an axis extending from the PDR to L1630 (angular velocity =1.5-4.0 km s-1). Moreover, velocity gradients along the filament appear to change sign regularly (3 km s-1 pc-1, period = 0.30 pc) at the locations of embedded integrated intensity peaks. The nodes of this oscillation are at the same velocity. Similar transverse cuts across the filament show a sharp variation of the angular velocity in the area of the main dense core. The data also suggest that differential rotation is occurring in parts of the filament. We present a new scenario for the formation and evolution of the nebula and discuss dense core formation inside the filament.

  13. Simulation and visualization of velocity fields in simple electrokinetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, Prasun; Taylor, Thomas; Cochran, Douglas; Keebaugh, Michael; Hayes, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis and similar techniques which use an electrified contracting-flow interface (gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis, electrophoretic exclusion, for examples) are widely used, but the detailed flow dynamics and local electric field effects within this zone have only recently been quantitatively investigated. The motivating force behind this work is establishing particle flow based visualization tools enabling advances for arbitrary interfacial designs beyond this traditional flow/electric field interface. These tools work with pre-computed 2-dimensional fundamental interacting fields which govern particle and(or) fluid flow and can now be obtained from various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages. The particle-flow visualization calculations implemented in the tool and are built upon a solid foundation in fluid dynamics. The module developed in here provides a simulated video particle observation tool which generates a fast check for legitimacy. Further, estimating the accuracy and precision of full 2-D and 3-D simulation is notoriously difficult and a centerline estimation is used to quickly and easily quantitate behaviors in support of decision points. This tool and the recent quantitative assessment of particle behavior within the interfacial area have set the stage for new designs which can emphasize advantageous behaviors not offered by the traditional configuration.

  14. Photon-Assisted Resonant Tunneling and 2-D Plasmon Modes in Double Quantum Wells in Intense Terahertz Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, X. G.; Allen, S. J.; Lin, S. Y.; Simmons, J. A.; Blount, M. A.; Baca, W. E.

    1998-03-01

    We explore photon-assisted resonant tunneling in double quantum well systems in intense terahertz electric fields that have separately- contacted wells. We have two goals in mind: 1) increase the basic understanding of photon assisted tunneling in semiconductors and 2) assess the potential of this structure as a detector. We can control the tunneling current by varying the electron density of each 2D electron gas or by changing the relative separation of the Fermi levels. This allows us to prepare the system in such a way that photons of the appropriate energy may induce resonant tunneling, which is monitored by a change in conductance. We also examine the possible enhancement of the resonant tunneling by resonant excitations of acoustic plasmon modes. This work is supported by ONR, the U. S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, México.

  15. Anisotropic multi-resolution analysis in 2D, application to long-range correlations in cloud mm-radar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.B.; Clothiaux, E.

    1999-03-01

    Because of Earth`s gravitational field, its atmosphere is strongly anisotropic with respect to the vertical; the effect of the Earth`s rotation on synoptic wind patterns also causes a more subtle form of anisotropy in the horizontal plane. The authors survey various approaches to statistically robust anisotropy from a wavelet perspective and present a new one adapted to strongly non-isotropic fields that are sampled on a rectangular grid with a large aspect ratio. This novel technique uses an anisotropic version of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) in image analysis; the authors form a tensor product of the standard dyadic Haar basis, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub z} = 2, and a nonstandard triadic counterpart, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub x} = 3. The natural support of the field is therefore 2{sup n} pixels (vertically) by 3{sup n} pixels (horizontally) where n is the number of levels in the MRA. The natural triadic basis includes the French top-hat wavelet which resonates with bumps in the field whereas the Haar wavelet responds to ramps or steps. The complete 2D basis has one scaling function and five wavelets. The resulting anisotropic MRA is designed for application to the liquid water content (LWC) field in boundary-layer clouds, as the prevailing wind advects them by a vertically pointing mm-radar system. Spatial correlations are notoriously long-range in cloud structure and the authors use the wavelet coefficients from the new MRA to characterize these correlations in a multifractal analysis scheme. In the present study, the MRA is used (in synthesis mode) to generate fields that mimic cloud structure quite realistically although only a few parameters are used to control the randomness of the LWC`s wavelet coefficients.

  16. The velocity field under breaking waves: coherent structures and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. Kendall; Veron, Fabrice; White, Christopher J.

    2002-03-01

    Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurements of the velocity field under breaking waves in the laboratory are presented. The region of turbulent fluid directly generated by breaking is too large to be imaged in one video frame and so an ensemble-averaged representation of the flow is built up from a mosaic of image frames. It is found that breaking generates at least one coherent vortex that slowly propagates downstream at a speed consistent with the velocity induced by its image in the free surface. Both the kinetic energy of the flow and the vorticity decay approximately as t[minus sign]1. The Reynolds stress of the turbulence also decays as t[minus sign]1 and is, within the accuracy of the measurements, everywhere negative, consistent with downward transport of streamwise momentum. Estimates of the mometum flux from waves to currents based on the measurements of the Reynolds stress are consistent with earlier estimates. The implications of the measurements for breaking in the field are discussed. Based on geometrical optics and wave action conservation, we suggest that the presence of the breaking-induced vortex provides an explanation for the suppression of short waves by breaking. Finally, in Appendices, estimates of the majority of the terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented at an early stage in the evolution of the turbulence, and comparisons with independent acoustical measurements of breaking are presented.

  17. Full field gas phase velocity measurements in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Yanis, William

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of full-field velocities via Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is common in research efforts involving fluid motion. While such measurements have been successfully performed in the liquid phase in a microgravity environment, gas-phase measurements have been beset by difficulties with seeding and laser strength. A synthesis of techniques developed at NASA LeRC exhibits promise in overcoming these difficulties. Typical implementation of PIV involves forming the light from a pulsed laser into a sheet that is some fraction of a millimeter thick and 50 or more millimeters wide. When a particle enters this sheet during a pulse, light scattered from the particle is recorded by a detector, which may be a film plane or a CCD array. Assuming that the particle remains within the boundaries of the sheet for the second pulse and can be distinguished from neighboring particles, comparison of the two images produces an average velocity vector for the time between the pulses. If the concentration of particles in the sampling volume is sufficiently large but the particles remain discrete, a full field map may be generated.

  18. Recovering the full velocity and density fields from large-scale redshift-distance samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai

    1989-01-01

    A new method for extracting the large-scale three-dimensional velocity and mass density fields from measurements of the radial peculiar velocities is presented. Galaxies are assumed to trace the velocity field rather than the mass. The key assumption made is that the Lagrangian velocity field has negligible vorticity, as might be expected from perturbations that grew by gravitational instability. By applying the method to cosmological N-body simulations, it is demonstrated that it accurately reconstructs the velocity field. This technique promises a direct determination of the mass density field and the initial conditions for the formation of large-scale structure from galaxy peculiar velocity surveys.

  19. Polymorphism, crystal nucleation and growth in the phase-field crystal model in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gyula I.; Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Tóth, Gergely; Gránásy, László

    2010-09-01

    We apply a simple dynamical density functional theory, the phase-field crystal (PFC) model of overdamped conservative dynamics, to address polymorphism, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in the diffusion-controlled limit. We refine the phase diagram for 3D, and determine the line free energy in 2D and the height of the nucleation barrier in 2D and 3D for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation by solving the respective Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations. We demonstrate that, in the PFC model, the body-centered cubic (bcc), the face-centered cubic (fcc), and the hexagonal close-packed structures (hcp) compete, while the simple cubic structure is unstable, and that phase preference can be tuned by changing the model parameters: close to the critical point the bcc structure is stable, while far from the critical point the fcc prevails, with an hcp stability domain in between. We note that with increasing distance from the critical point the equilibrium shapes vary from the sphere to specific faceted shapes: rhombic dodecahedron (bcc), truncated octahedron (fcc), and hexagonal prism (hcp). Solving the equation of motion of the PFC model supplied with conserved noise, solidification starts with the nucleation of an amorphous precursor phase, into which the stable crystalline phase nucleates. The growth rate is found to be time dependent and anisotropic; this anisotropy depends on the driving force. We show that due to the diffusion-controlled growth mechanism, which is especially relevant for crystal aggregation in colloidal systems, dendritic growth structures evolve in large-scale isothermal single-component PFC simulations. An oscillatory effective pair potential resembling those for model glass formers has been evaluated from structural data of the amorphous phase obtained by instantaneous quenching. Finally, we present results for eutectic solidification in a binary PFC model.

  20. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; ...

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals aremore » directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.« less

  1. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  2. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI's active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI's 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  3. Design and performance of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope in high magnetic field for 2D layered materials study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tien-Ming; Chung, Pei-Fang; Guan, Syu-You; Yu, Shan-An; Liu, Che-An; Hsu, Chia-Sheng; Su, Chih-Chuan; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    We will describe the design and performance of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system in a high magnetic field. A Pan-type STM is mounted on a homemade low vibration 4He pot refrigerator, which can be operated in continuous flow mode at T ~ 1.6K and in a magnetic field of up to 9 Tesla. A cleavage device at T =4.2K stage is used to cleave the 2D layered materials before inserting into STM as well as functioning as the radiation shield. The liquid helium boil rate of 4.6 liters per day is achieved due to our careful design, which allows the measurement at base temperature up to 10 days. We will demonstrate its capability of measuring atomically registered energy resolved spectroscopic maps in both real space and momentum space by our recent results on Rashba BiTeI. This work is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan and Kenda Foundation, Taiwan.

  4. An algorithm to estimate unsteady and quasi-steady pressure fields from velocity field measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, John O; Bose, Sanjeeb; Gemmell, Brad J; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H

    2014-02-01

    We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during this step and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The method is validated by using numerically simulated flow past a stationary, two-dimensional bluff body and a computational model of a three-dimensional, self-propelled anguilliform swimmer to study the effects of spatial and temporal resolution, domain size, signal-to-noise ratio and out-of-plane effects. Particle image velocimetry measurements of a freely swimming jellyfish medusa and a freely swimming lamprey are analyzed using the method to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach when applied to empirical data.

  5. Velocity field measurements in the wake of a propeller model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, R.; Kumar, A. Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Turboprop configurations are being revisited for the modern-day regional transport aircrafts for their fuel efficiency. The use of laminar flow wings is an effort in this direction. One way to further improve their efficiency is by optimizing the flow over the wing in the propeller wake. Previous studies have focused on improving the gross aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. It is known that the propeller slipstream causes early transition of the boundary layer on the wing. However, an optimized design of the propeller and wing combination could delay this transition and decrease the skin friction drag. Such a wing design would require the detailed knowledge of the development of the slipstream in isolated conditions. There are very few studies in the literature addressing the requirements of transport aircraft having six-bladed propeller and cruising at a high propeller advance ratio. Low-speed wind tunnel experiments have been conducted on a powered propeller model in isolated conditions, measuring the velocity field in the vertical plane behind the propeller using two-component hot-wire anemometry. The data obtained clearly resolved the mean velocity, the turbulence, the ensemble phase averages and the structure and development of the tip vortex. The turbulence in the slipstream showed that transition could be close to the leading edge of the wing, making it a fine case for optimization. The development of the wake with distance shows some interesting flow features, and the data are valuable for flow computation and optimization.

  6. Towards a Dense Velocity Field for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Twelve measurement campaigns between 1994 and 2011 with epoch and permanent GNSS stations make the CEGRN network one of the most regularly and accurately surveyed networks for scientific applications. Recently, the CEGRN GNSS data have been reprocessed with consistent orbits and IGS05 antenna models. On the other hand, the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) represents the backbone geodetic infrastructure for Europe and realizes the ETRS89 system prescriptions with the ETRF2000 reference frame. Recently EUREF prepared its densification of the ITRF2008 and the IGS08 reference frames and resulting in cumulative SINEX files: by stacking reprocessed weekly normal equation files from 1996 to present, high accuracy positions and velocities of IGS and EPN stations in Europe could be obtained in a consistent reference frame throughout the temporal range. It is finally worth noting that both the IAG Working Group on "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" and the EUREF Working Group on Deformation Models encourage initiatives aiming at estimating velocities of GNSS sites in a rigorous manner, both for reference frame applications and 3D tectonic deformation problems. Within this framework it is then natural to attempt a combination of the EPN and CEGRN networks with the intent to bring down to regional, i.e. Central European, scale the same standard of accuracy of the EPN long-term solution, without reprocessing the entire set of raw GNSS data. This paper presents the first results of the EPN+CEGRN combination: we review the common properties of the input SINEX files, the processing software Bernese 5.0 and CATREF, the adopted processing strategies and the results, in terms of positions, velocities and Helmert parameters. We discuss the pros and cons of three possible processing strategies: one consists in stacking the individual, weekly CEGRN campaign solutions with the cumulative EPN solution; the second consists in stacking the two cumulative solutions, CEGRN and

  7. Velocity Fields in Stellar Atmospheres Probed by Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, Alain; Van Eck, Sophie; Kravchenko, Kateryna

    A tomographic method to probe velocity fields within stellar atmospheres is described. It relies on the design of spectral masks collecting lines forming at given, pre-specified ranges of optical depths. Different masks thus probe different line-formation depths in the stellar atmosphere. The masks are cross-correlated with the observed spectrum to yield cross-correlation functions (CCFs). The cross-correlation has two advantages: (i) to overcome line crowding, and (ii) to reveal minute line asymmetries by adding together many lines. In pulsating stars (long-period variables or Cepheids), the CCFs are double-peaked around maximum light, when the shock front associated with the stellar pulsation is located in the layer probed by the considered mask. Double-peaked CCFs originate in stellar layers where upward- and downward-moving matter co-exist, on each side of the shock front. The application of the tomographic method to long-period variables and supergiants is illustrated.

  8. Maternal corticosterone but not testosterone level is associated with the ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D) in field vole offspring (Microtus agrestis).

    PubMed

    Lilley, Thomas; Laaksonen, Toni; Huitu, Otso; Helle, Samuli

    2010-03-30

    The steroid environment encountered by a foetus can strongly affect its post-natal physiology and behaviour. It has been proposed that steroid concentrations experienced in utero could be estimated from adults by measuring their second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D). However, there is still little direct evidence that intra-uterine steroid levels affect individual 2D:4D. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy testosterone and corticosterone levels (as estimates of intra-uterine testosterone and corticosterone exposure) affected the 2D:4D of pups in non-domesticated field voles (Microtus agrestis), measured by X-rays at the age of weaning (21 days). Furthermore, for the first time in a non-human species, we studied whether testosterone and corticosterone levels correlated with 2D:4D in adult females. We found that the maternal pre-pregnancy level of testosterone was not associated with offspring 2D:4D in either the left or the right paw. Instead, maternal pre-pregnancy corticosterone level was positively correlated with offspring 2D:4D in the right paw, but unrelated to 2D:4D in the left paw. In addition, the 2D:4D of adult females was not associated with either their circulating testosterone or corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that in field voles maternally administered testosterone is not a major determinant of offspring 2D:4D, whereas maternal stress appears to account for some of the variation in the 2D:4D of their offspring.

  9. Molecular Strong Field Ionization viewed with Photoelectron Velocity Map Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Peter

    In this thesis, work is presented on molecular strong-field ionization, during which an electron is removed from polyatomic molecules in the presence of strong laser fields. This is a process which is the basis of a number of experimental techniques to uncover electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale. 'Strong' refers to an electric field strength which leads to a response from the system which can not be modeled perturbatively. These fields can be easily produced in the focus of femtosecond laser radiation, as is done in this work. With the use of velocity map imaging of the photoelectron in coincidence with the fragment ion, multiple ionization--dissociation pathways can be distinguished. It is shown that as opposed to early attempts to model the process, multiple low-lying states are populated in the ion, and also the signatures of multielectron dynamics are revealed. By changing the laser pulse duration from 30 fs to below 10 fs, control is demonstrated over which quantum states of the ion are populated. It is also shown that for pulses shorter than 10 fs (which is a timescale below the shortest vibrational period in molecules), ionization pathways that involve motion of the nuclei are almost completely shut off. Finally, the origin of electrons with <1 meV kinetic energy is discussed. A two-step model is proposed for creating the electrons: the first step is population transfer to high-lying excited states of the neutral molecule by the laser field; the second step is ionization. Different ionization mechanisms are examined and their viability is checked against available data.

  10. Generalizing the wavelet-based multifractal formalism to random vector fields: application to three-dimensional turbulence velocity and vorticity data.

    PubMed

    Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain

    2004-07-23

    We use singular value decomposition techniques to generalize the wavelet transform modulus maxima method to the multifractal analysis of vector-valued random fields. The method is calibrated on synthetic multifractal 2D vector measures and monofractal 3D fractional Brownian vector fields. We report the results of some application to the velocity and vorticity fields issued from 3D isotropic turbulence simulations. This study reveals the existence of an intimate relationship between the singularity spectra of these two vector fields which are found significantly more intermittent than previously estimated from longitudinal and transverse velocity increment statistics.

  11. Reconnection and small-scale fields in 2D-3V hybrid-kinetic driven turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.

    2017-02-01

    The understanding of the fundamental properties of turbulence in collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind, is a frontier problem in plasma physics. In particular, the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasmas and its interplay with a fully-developed turbulent state is still a matter of great debate. Here we investigate the properties of small-scale electromagnetic fluctuations and the role of fast magnetic reconnection in the development of a quasi-steady turbulent state by means of 2D-3V high-resolution Vlasov–Maxwell simulations. At the largest scales turbulence is fed by external random forcing. We show that large-scale turbulent motions establish a -5/3 spectrum at {k}\\perp {d}i< 1 and, at the same time, feed the formation of current sheets where magnetic reconnection occurs. As a result coherent magnetic structures are generated which, together with the rise of the associated small-scale non-ideal electric field, mediate the transition between the inertial and the subproton-scale spectrum. A mechanism that boosts the magnetic reconnection process is identified, making the generation of coherent structures rapid enough to be competitive with wave mode interactions and leading to the formation of a fully-developed turbulent spectrum across the so-called ion break.

  12. Variable Field Analytical Ultracentrifugation: II. Gravitational Sweep Sedimentation Velocity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia; Zhao, Huaying; Sandmaier, Julia; Alexander Liddle, J; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-05

    Sedimentation velocity (SV) analytical ultracentrifugation is a classical biophysical technique for the determination of the size-distribution of macromolecules, macromolecular complexes, and nanoparticles. SV has traditionally been carried out at a constant rotor speed, which limits the range of sedimentation coefficients that can be detected in a single experiment. Recently we have introduced methods to implement experiments with variable rotor speeds, in combination with variable field solutions to the Lamm equation, with the application to expedite the approach to sedimentation equilibrium. Here, we describe the use of variable-field sedimentation analysis to increase the size-range covered in SV experiments by ∼100-fold with a quasi-continuous increase of rotor speed during the experiment. Such a gravitational-sweep sedimentation approach has previously been shown to be very effective in the study of nanoparticles with large size ranges. In the past, diffusion processes were not accounted for, thereby posing a lower limit of particle sizes and limiting the accuracy of the size distribution. In this work, we combine variable field solutions to the Lamm equation with diffusion-deconvoluted sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s), which further extend the macromolecular size range that can be observed in a single SV experiment while maintaining accuracy and resolution. In this way, approximately five orders of magnitude of sedimentation coefficients, or eight orders of magnitude of particle mass, can be probed in a single experiment. This can be useful, for example, in the study of proteins forming large assemblies, as in fibrillation process or capsid self-assembly, in studies of the interaction between very dissimilar-sized macromolecular species, or in the study of broadly distributed nanoparticles.

  13. The Effects of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on 2D Numerical Solutions for Continental Rifting: Tests and Recipes for Improved Treatment of Asthenosphere Flow and Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; de Monserrat, A.; Hall, R.; Taramon, J. M.; Perez-Gussinye, M.

    2015-12-01

    This work focuses on improving current 2D numerical approaches to modeling the boundary conditions associated with computing accurate deformation and melting associated with continental rifting. Recent models primarily use far-field boundary conditions that have been used for decades with little assessment of their effects on asthenospheric flow beneath the rifting region. All are clearly extremely oversimplified — Huismans and Buiter assume there is no vertical flow into the rifting region, with the asthenosphere flowing uniformly into the rifting region from the sides beneath lithosphere moving in the opposing direction, Armitage et al. and van Wijk use divergent velocities on the upper boundary to impose break-up within a Cartesian box, while other studies generally assume there is uniform horizontal flow away from the center of rifting, with uniform vertical flow replenishing the material pulled out of the sides of the computational region. All are likely to significantly shape the pattern of asthenospheric flow beneath the stretching lithosphere that is associated with pressure-release melting and rift volcanism. Thus while ALL may lead to similar predictions of the effects of crustal stretching and thinning, NONE may lead to accurate determination of the the asthenospheric flow and melting associated with lithospheric stretching and breakup. Here we discuss a suite of numerical experiments that compare these choices to likely more realistic boundary condition choices like the analytical solution for flow associated with two diverging plates stretching over a finite-width region, and a high-resolution 2-D region embedded within a cylindrical annulus 'whole mantle cross-section' at 5% extra numerical problem size. Our initial results imply that the choice of far-field boundary conditions does indeed significantly influence predicted melting distributions and melt volumes associated with continental breakup. For calculations including asthenospheric melting

  14. The velocity fields of gas and stars within five KPC of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovenden, M. W.; Pryce, M. H. L.; Shuter, W. L. H.

    A mathematical expression is considered for the most probable value of the line of sight velocity, Vr, of an element at a certain galactic longitude and a certain distance projected onto the plane of the galactic disk. Attention is given to the velocity field of O and B stars, the velocity field for idealized circular motion, the velocity field of 112 kinematically distinct H II regions, and the velocity field of nearby 21 cm emission. It is found that the velocity field describing the O and B stars is very close to pure circular motion. On the basis of plots presented in the investigation and an extensive statistical error analysis conducted by Pryce (1983), it is seen that the velocity fields for the nearby gas and H II regions and that of the stars are different.

  15. A new present-day velocity field for eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Jadidi, A.; Vergnolle, M.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Bellier, O.; Shabanian, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004, extensive GPS campaigns and the upcoming Iranian permanent GPS network are monitoring the present-day deformation in eastern Iran. We present a new GPS velocity field that extends from Central Iran to the Turkmen shield and the Hellmand block on the Eurasian plate. It permits to monitor the right lateral shear across the aseismic Lut block between Central Iran and the Hellmand block, and the resulting shortening across the Kopeh Dagh mountain belt limiting NE Iran towards Turkmenistan. The present-day deformation pattern is used to verify existing tectonic models. Individual instantaneous fault slip rates are compared to short term and long term geological estimates. We find that GPS slip rates are generally coherent with short term geologic determinations (from dating of geomorphologic offsets over some 10-100 ka). Some differences with respect to long term estimates (from total geologic fault offsets and onset ages of several Ma) indicate non-constant slip rates over different time scales or that the onset of the present-day deformation presumed to 3-7 Ma in eastern Iran has to be revised.

  16. Highly stable 2D material (2DM) field-effect transistors (FETs) with wafer-scale multidyad encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Kim, Eungtaek; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Youngjun; Woo, Whang Je; Lee, Myung Keun; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seong-Bae; Kim, Hyungjun; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-02-03

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of 2D materials (2DMs) such as transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials show unstable electrical characteristics in ambient air due to the high sensitivity of 2DMs to water adsorbates. In this work, in order to demonstrate the long-term retention of electrical characteristics of a TMD FET, a multidyad encapsulation method was applied to a MoS2 FET and thereby its durability was warranted for one month. It was well known that the multidyad encapsulation method was effective to mitigate high sensitivity to ambient air in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) composed of organic materials. However, there was no attempt to check the feasibility of such a multidyad encapsulation method for 2DM FETs. It is timely to investigate the water vapor transmission ratio (WVTR) required for long-term stability of 2DM FETs. The 2DM FETs were fabricated with MoS2 flakes by both an exfoliation method, that is desirable to attain high quality film, and a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, that is applicable to fabrication for a large-sized substrate. In order to eliminate other unwanted variables, the MoS2 FETs composed of exfoliated flakes were primarily investigated to assure the effectiveness of the encapsulation method. The encapsulation method uses multiple dyads comprised of a polymer layer by spin coating and an Al2O3 layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The proposed method shows wafer-scale uniformity, high transparency, and protective barrier properties against adsorbates (WVTR of 8 × 10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) over one month.

  17. Highly stable 2D material (2DM) field-effect transistors (FETs) with wafer-scale multidyad encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Gyo Jeong, Eun; Kim, Eungtaek; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Youngjun; Woo, Whang Je; Lee, Myung Keun; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seong-Bae; Kim, Hyungjun; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of 2D materials (2DMs) such as transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials show unstable electrical characteristics in ambient air due to the high sensitivity of 2DMs to water adsorbates. In this work, in order to demonstrate the long-term retention of electrical characteristics of a TMD FET, a multidyad encapsulation method was applied to a MoS2 FET and thereby its durability was warranted for one month. It was well known that the multidyad encapsulation method was effective to mitigate high sensitivity to ambient air in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) composed of organic materials. However, there was no attempt to check the feasibility of such a multidyad encapsulation method for 2DM FETs. It is timely to investigate the water vapor transmission ratio (WVTR) required for long-term stability of 2DM FETs. The 2DM FETs were fabricated with MoS2 flakes by both an exfoliation method, that is desirable to attain high quality film, and a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, that is applicable to fabrication for a large-sized substrate. In order to eliminate other unwanted variables, the MoS2 FETs composed of exfoliated flakes were primarily investigated to assure the effectiveness of the encapsulation method. The encapsulation method uses multiple dyads comprised of a polymer layer by spin coating and an Al2O3 layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The proposed method shows wafer-scale uniformity, high transparency, and protective barrier properties against adsorbates (WVTR of 8 × 10-6 g m-2 day-1) over one month.

  18. Charge balancing in GaN-based 2-D electron gas devices employing an additional 2-D hole gas and its influence on dynamic behaviour of GaN-based heterostructure field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Herwig Reuters, Benjamin; Geipel, Sascha; Schauerte, Meike; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Benkhelifa, Fouad; Ambacher, Oliver

    2015-03-14

    GaN-based heterostructure FETs (HFETs) featuring a 2-D electron gas (2DEG) can offer very attractive device performance for power-switching applications. This performance can be assessed by evaluation of the dynamic on-resistance R{sub on,dyn} vs. the breakdown voltage V{sub bd}. In literature, it has been shown that with a high V{sub bd}, R{sub on,dyn} is deteriorated. The impairment of R{sub on,dyn} is mainly driven by electron injection into surface, barrier, and buffer traps. Electron injection itself depends on the electric field which typically peaks at the gate edge towards the drain. A concept suitable to circumvent this issue is the charge-balancing concept which employs a 2-D hole gas (2DHG) on top of the 2DEG allowing for the electric field peak to be suppressed. Furthermore, the 2DEG concentration in the active channel cannot decrease by a change of the surface potential. Hence, beside an improvement in breakdown voltage, also an improvement in dynamic behaviour can be expected. Whereas the first aspect has already been demonstrated, the second one has not been under investigation so far. Hence, in this report, the effect of charge-balancing is discussed and its impact on the dynamic characteristics of HFETs is evaluated. It will be shown that with appropriate device design, the dynamic behaviour of HFETs can be improved by inserting an additional 2DHG.

  19. Formation of gyrotropic and non gyrotropic field-aligned beams in the Earth's quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: Full-particle 2D simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.

    2013-12-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's bow shock is populated with ions reflected back by the shock front with an high energy gain. In-situ spacecraft measurements have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the foreshock upstream of quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45° ≤ ΘBn≤ 90°, where ΘBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned (';FAB') ion beams characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched (';GPB') ions characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution, which exhibits a non-vanishing perpendicular bulk velocity. The purpose of the present work is to identify the possible sources of the different backstreaming ions and is based on the use of 2D PIC simulations of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. Our analysis evidences that the two populations mentionned above may have different origins identified both in terms of interaction time and distance of penetration within the shock front. In particular, ours simulations evidence that "GPB" and ';FAB' populations are characterized by a short (Δinter= 1 to 2 tci) and much larger (Δinter= 1 to 10 tci) interaction time respectively, where τci is the ion upstream gyroperiod. In addition, a deeper statistical analysis of ion trajectories evidences that: (i) both populations can be discriminated in terms of injection angle into the shock front (i.e. defined between the local normal to the shock front and the gyration velocity vector at the time ions reach the front). Such a behavior explains how reflected ions can be splitted in the observed two populations "FAB" and "GPB". (ii) ion trajectories strongly differ between the "FAB" and "GPB" populations at the shock front. In particular, ';FAB' ions suffer multi-bounces whereas ';GPB '; ions make only one bounce. Such

  20. Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences the 2D:4D ratio and open field motor activity of rat siblings in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Talarovicová, Alzbeta; Krsková, Lucia; Blazeková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the relationship between the prenatal testosterone exposure and the ratio of the second and the fourth digits (2D:4D) has been extensively studied. Surprisingly, data on this relationship have thus far been lacking in experimental animals such as rats. We studied the effect of maternal testosterone enhancement during pregnancy on the digit ratio and open field activity of adult progeny in Wistar rats. Elevated levels of maternal testosterone resulted in lower 2D:4D ratios and an elongated 4D on the left and right forepaws in both males and females. We found no sex difference in 2D:4D in control animals. In the open field test, control females were more active than control males and testosterone females, while the activity of testosterone females did not differ from that of control males. We found a positive correlation between motor activity and the right forepaw 2D:4D ratio of control males and females. Prenatal exposure to testosterone resulted in the disappearance of this correlation in both males and females. Our results show that elevated levels of testosterone during the prenatal period can influence forepaw 4D length, 2D:4D ratio, and open field motor activity of rats, and that these variables are positively correlated. Thus, this approach represents a noninvasive and robust method for evaluating the effects of prenatal testosterone enhancement on anatomical and physiological parameters.

  1. Induced velocity field of a jet in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a subsonic round jet exhausting perpendicularly from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was conducted. Velocity and pressure measurements were made in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet for ratios of jet velocity to crossflow velocity ranging from 3 to 10. The results of these measurements are presented in tabular and graphical forms. A pair of diffuse contrarotating vortices is identified as a significant feature of the flow, and the characteristics of the vortices are discussed.

  2. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories

    PubMed Central

    Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging–Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Methods: Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity©, developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. Results: The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (p<0.0001). There was a good correlation between the BI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, p<0.01 and r=0.48, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Using DBT, breast density values were lower than those obtained using 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the BI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. Advances in knowledge: On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories. PMID:24029631

  3. Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Hai; Hu, Debo; Liu, Ruina; Zhang, Shunping; Sun, Mengtao; Sun, Zhipei; Chen, Jianing; Dai, Qing

    2016-04-20

    A new hybridized plasmon-phonon polariton mode in graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures is presented, featuring the ultrahigh field confinement characteristic of the graphene plasmon and the long lifetime property of the h-BN transverse optical phonon. This enables an ultralong hybrid plasmon lifetime of up to 1.6 ps (with ultrahigh mode confinement up to >l0(2)/7000 and ultrasmall group velocity down to 0.001c, where c is the speed of light in vacuum), superior to any localized plasmon ever demonstrated.

  4. Two-dimensional, average velocity field across the Asal Rift, Djibouti from 1997-2008 RADARSAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, J.; Doubre, C.; Peltzer, G.

    2009-12-01

    Located at the western end of the Aden ridge, the Asal Rift is the first emerged section of the ridge propagating into Afar, a region of intense volcanic and tectonic activity. We construct a two-dimensional surface velocity map of the 200x400 km2 region covering the rift using the 1997-2008 archive of InSAR data acquired from ascending and descending passes of the RADARSAT satellite. The large phase signal due to turbulent troposphere conditions over the Afar region is mostly removed from the 11-year average line of sight (LOS) velocity maps, revealing a clear deformation signal across the rift. We combine the ascending and descending pass LOS velocity fields with the Arabia-Somalia pole of rotation adjusted to regional GPS velocities (Vigny et al., 2007) to compute the fields of the vertical and horizontal, GPS-parallel components of the velocity over the rift. The vertical velocity field shows a ~40 km wide zone of doming centered over the Fieale caldera associated with shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift inner floor. Differential movement between shoulders and floor is accommodated by creep at 6 mm/yr on Fault γ and 2.7 mm/yr on Fault E. The horizontal field shows that the two shoulders open at a rate of ~15 mm/yr, while the horizontal velocity decreases away from the rift to the plate motion rate of ~11 mm/yr. Part of the opening is concentrated on faults γ (5 mm/yr) and E (4 mm/yr) and about 4 mm/yr is distributed between Fault E and Fault H in the southern part of the rift. The observed velocity field along a 60 km-long profile across the eastern part of the rift can be explained with a 2D mechanical model involving a 5-9 km-deep, vertical dyke expanding horizontally at a rate of 5 cm/yr, a 2 km-wide, 7 km-deep sill expanding vertically at 1cm/yr, and down-dip and opening of faults γ and E. Results from 3D rift models describing along-strike velocity decrease away from the Goubbet Gulf and the effects of a pressurized magma chamber will be

  5. Peculiar velocity field: Constraining the tilt of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Yinzhe; Gordon, Christopher; Feldman, Hume A.

    2011-05-15

    A large bulk flow, which is in tension with the Lambda cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) cosmological model, has been observed. In this paper, we provide a physically plausible explanation of this bulk flow, based on the assumption that some fraction of the observed dipole in the cosmic microwave background is due to an intrinsic fluctuation, so that the subtraction of the observed dipole leads to a mismatch between the cosmic microwave background defined rest frame and the matter rest frame. We investigate a model that takes into account the relative velocity (hereafter the tilted velocity) between the two frames, and develop a Bayesian statistic to explore the likelihood of this tilted velocity. By studying various independent peculiar velocity catalogs, we find that (1) the magnitude of the tilted velocity u is around 400 km/s, and its direction is close to what is found from previous bulk flow analyses; for most catalogs analyzed, u=0 is excluded at about the 2.5{sigma} level; (2) constraints on the magnitude of the tilted velocity can result in constraints on the duration of inflation, due to the fact that inflation can neither be too long (no dipole effect) nor too short (very large dipole effect); (3) under the assumption of a superhorizon isocurvature fluctuation, the constraints on the tilted velocity require that inflation lasts at least 6 e-folds longer (at the 95% confidence interval) than that required to solve the horizon problem. This opens a new window for testing inflation and models of the early universe from observations of large scale structure.

  6. Global existence and uniqueness theorem to 2-D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we consider the global existence and uniqueness of the solution to the 2D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field. Our result implies that a strong enough non-equilibrium background magnetic field will guarantee the stability of the nonlinear MHD system. Beside the classical energy method, the interpolation inequalities and the algebraic structure of the equations coming from the incompressibility of the fluid are crucial in our arguments.

  7. 2D shear wave velocity mapping of the Hartoušov CO2 degassing area in the Cheb Basin, NW Bohemia (Czech Republic), using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Estrella, H.; Henke, M.

    2015-12-01

    For the characterization of the subsurface of the Hartoušov CO2 degassing area in the Cheb Basin, NW Bohemia, Czech Republic several different approaches have been made. However, no active seismic characterization has been presented, nor published. The Multi­channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) offers an useful tool to estimate vertical and horizontal velocity changes of the shallow subsurface. This can correlate to variations on rock elastic properties and/or fluid content, and represents the subsurface-layering.Surface waves were stimulated using a sledgehammer as source, and were measured with 48 vertical geophones with spacing of 1 m and the roll along method with a setup dis­placement of 2 m. Two source offsets, 10 m and 30 m, were used to increase the data quality and the resolution.The analysis of propagation velocities leads to dispersion curves from which 1D shear wave velocity profiles can be inverted. Those will be interpolated to create a 2D ground stiffness map. The measurements were taken in the NW area of the main degassing zone and are partially in the same spot of former investigations, i.e. CO2 concentration and gas flux measurements, electric and gravimetric surveys and continuous seismic noise mea­surements.Changes in the structure of the 2D velocity maps can be explained potentially with the oc­currence of fluid paths and their diffusion in the subsurface or the existence of the Počatky-Plesná fault zone, which position is not fully understood yet or both features in combination.

  8. State of the Field: Extreme Precision Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra A.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Arriagada, Pamela; Baluev, Roman V.; Bean, Jacob L.; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A.; Carroll, Thorsten; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Crepp, Justin R.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Diddams, Scott A.; Dumusque, Xavier; Eastman, Jason D.; Endl, Michael; Figueira, Pedro; Ford, Eric B.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Fournier, Paul; Fűrész, Gabor; Gaudi, B. Scott; Gregory, Philip C.; Grundahl, Frank; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hébrard, Guillaume; Herrero, Enrique; Hogg, David W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Jorden, Paul; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Latham, David W.; Laughlin, Greg; Loredo, Thomas J.; Lovis, Christophe; Mahadevan, Suvrath; McCracken, Tyler M.; Pepe, Francesco; Perez, Mario; Phillips, David F.; Plavchan, Peter P.; Prato, Lisa; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar; Robertson, Paul; Santos, Nuno C.; Sawyer, David; Segransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Tilo; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stéphane; Valenti, Jeff A.; Wang, Sharon X.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

    2016-06-01

    The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s-1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that can

  9. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  10. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  11. Magnetic field and temperature dependence of the critical vortex velocity in type-II superconducting films.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; Leo, A; Cirillo, C; Attanasio, C; Nigro, A; Pace, S

    2009-06-24

    We study the vortex dynamics in the instability regime induced by high dissipative states well above the critical current in Nb superconducting strips. The magnetic field and temperature behavior of the critical vortex velocity corresponding to the observed dynamic instability is ascribed to intrinsic non-equilibrium phenomena. The Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) theory of electronic instability in high velocity vortex motion has been applied to interpret the temperature dependence of the critical vortex velocity. The magnetic field dependence of the vortex critical velocity shows new features in the low-field regime not predicted by LO.

  12. Magnetic properties of Y0.9Gd0.1Fe2D4.2 compound under continuous magnetic field up to 310 kOe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul-Boncour, V.; Guillot, M.; Mazet, T.

    2012-04-01

    In this work are presented results on the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of the Y0.9Gd0.1Fe2D4.2 compound in which TM0 is shifted from 84 K to 110 K because of Gd influence. Magnetization measurements have been performed with a magnetic field up to 310 kOe in the 4.2-300 K temperature range with special attention paid near TM0. The spontaneous magnetization at 4.2 K (3.2 μB/mol) is smaller than for YFe2D4.2 (3.7 μB/mol), showing the contribution of Gd moments. Above 110 K, metamagnetic field-induced transitions are observed: the transition field HTR increases linearly with T. These transitions exist up to 170 K. The influence of both cell volume change and Gd magnetic contribution are finally discussed in comparison with other deuterides.

  13. The 2D method for determining the temperatures field of the gas flow at the outlet of a multi-channel heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slesareva, E. Yu; Elistratov, S. L.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The method for experimental determination of energy efficiency in the multichannel heat exchanger was tested. The visualization of a temperatures field has been performed to determine the thermal structure of gas flows with the use of fast-response fine- meshed wire. Thermograms of the temperature fields of the multi-channels assembly at the outlet were registered by thermal imaging camera. Results show that the 2D method provides a sufficient time resolution for the temperature field for the steady-state gas flow regime, heat generation, and nonsteady regime. The 2D method allows us to determine the gas stream parameters at the channel outlet in real time, which are necessary for determining the efficiency of the heat exchanger. Qualitative and quantitative characters of temperature changes in the thermograms are consistent with modern physical understanding of the gas flow in channels.

  14. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.; Fritz, I.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-06-08

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L/sub 2D/-valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley. 2 figs.

  15. Far-Field and Middle-Field Vertical Velocities Associated with Megathrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J.; Shestakov, N.; Satirapod, C.; Simons, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent megathrust earthquakes (Sumatra, Chili and Japan) have induced far-field postseismic subsidence with velocities from a few mm/yr to more than 1cm/yr at distances from 500 to 1500km from the earthquake epicentre, for several years following the earthquake. This subsidence is observed in Argentina, China, Korea, far-East Russia and in Malaysia and Thailand as reported by Satirapod et al. ( ASR, 2013). In the middle-field a very pronounced uplift is localized on the flank of the volcanic arc facing the trench. This is observed both over Honshu, in Chile and on the South-West coast of Sumatra. In Japan, the deformations prior to Tohoku earthquake are well measured by the GSI GPS network: While the East coast was slightly subsiding, the West coast was raising. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to understand the deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes. The meshes designed for each region feature a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere. They are refined close to the subduction zones. Using these finite element models, we find that the pattern of the predicted far-field vertical postseismic displacements depends upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. A low viscosity asthenosphere at shallow depth, just below the lithosphere is required to explain the subsidence at distances from 500 to 1500km. A thick (for example 600km) asthenosphere with a uniform viscosity predicts subsidence too far away from the trench. Slip on the subduction interface is unable tot induce the observed far-field subsidence. However, a combination of relaxation in a low viscosity wedge and slip or relaxation on the bottom part of the subduction interface is necessary to explain the observed postseismic uplift in the middle-field (volcanic arc area). The creep laws of the various zones used to explain the postseismic data can be injected in

  16. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-06-01

    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  17. Solar velocity field determined tracking coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajša, R.; Sudar, D.; Skokić, I.; Saar, S. H.; Žic, T.

    Preliminary data from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrumenton board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite were used to determine solar differential rotation and related phenomena. A segmentation algorithm, which uses multiple AIA channels in search for intensity enhancements in EUV and X-ray parts of the spectrum compared to the background intensity, was applied to obtain positional information of coronal bright points (CBPs). More than 60000 position measurements of more than 10000 identified CBPs from the period 1 - 2 January 2011 were analyzed. Rotational and meridional velocities were determined by tracking identified CBPs and various filters were used to exclude erroneous results. Also, proper motions of CBPs were calculated from rotation velocity residuals and meridional velocities. Proper motions of CBPs were investigated using a random walk model and the diffusion constant was calculated. These results were compared with the previous ones obtained by other instruments and methods (especially with the SOHO-EIT and Hinode data) and a striking agreement of the obtained diffusion constant with results from other studies was found.

  18. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David M.; Nikolaev, Andrey R.; Jurica, Peter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity. PMID:26953886

  19. The stellar wind velocity field of HD 77581

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, A.; Walter, R.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: The early acceleration of stellar winds in massive stars is poorly constrained. The scattering of hard X-ray photons emitted by the pulsar in the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 can be used to probe the stellar wind velocity and density profile close to the surface of its supergiant companion HD 77581. Methods: We built a high signal-to-noise and high resolution hard X-ray lightcurve of Vela X-1 measured by Swift/BAT over 300 orbital periods of the system and compared it with the predictions of a grid of hydrodynamic simulations. Results: We obtain very good agreement between observations and simulations for a narrow set of parameters, implying that the wind velocity close to the stellar surface is twice higher than usually assumed with the standard beta law. Locally a velocity gradient of β ~ 0.5 is favoured. Even if still incomplete, hydrodynamic simulations successfully reproduce several observational properties of Vela X-1.

  20. Calibration of a 1D/1D urban flood model using 1D/2D model results in the absence of field data.

    PubMed

    Leandro, J; Djordjević, S; Chen, A S; Savić, D A; Stanić, M

    2011-01-01

    Recently increased flood events have been prompting researchers to improve existing coupled flood-models such as one-dimensional (1D)/1D and 1D/two-dimensional (2D) models. While 1D/1D models simulate sewer and surface networks using a one-dimensional approach, 1D/2D models represent the surface network by a two-dimensional surface grid. However their application raises two issues to urban flood modellers: (1) stormwater systems planning/emergency or risk analysis demands for fast models, and the 1D/2D computational time is prohibitive, (2) and the recognized lack of field data (e.g. Hunter et al. (2008)) causes difficulties for the calibration/validation of 1D/1D models. In this paper we propose to overcome these issues by calibrating a 1D/1D model with the results of a 1D/2D model. The flood-inundation results show that: (1) 1D/2D results can be used to calibrate faster 1D/1D models, (2) the 1D/1D model is able to map the 1D/2D flood maximum extent well, and the flooding limits satisfactorily in each time-step, (3) the 1D/1D model major differences are the instantaneous flow propagation and overestimation of the flood-depths within surface-ponds, (4) the agreement in the volume surcharged by both models is a necessary condition for the 1D surface-network validation and (5) the agreement of the manholes discharge shapes measures the fitness of the calibrated 1D surface-network.

  1. Magnetic domain-wall velocity enhancement induced by a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jusang; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.; Knutson, Carl; Erskine, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Spin dynamics of field-driven domain walls (DWs) guided by permalloy nanowires are studied by high-speed magneto-optic polarimetry and numerical simulations. DW velocities and spin configurations are determined as functions of longitudinal drive field, transverse bias field, and nanowire width. Nanowires having cross-sectional dimensions large enough to support vortex wall structures exhibit regions of drive-field strength (at zero bias field) that have enhanced DW velocity resulting from coupled vortex structures that suppress oscillatory motion. Factor of 10 enhancements of the DW velocity are observed above the critical longitudinal drive-field (that marks the onset of oscillatory DW motion) when a transverse bias field is applied. Nanowires having smaller cross-sectional dimensions that support transverse wall structures also exhibit a region of higher mobility above the critical field, and similar transverse-field induced velocity enhancement but with a smaller enhancement factor. The bias-field enhancement of DW velocity is explained by numerical simulations of the spin distribution and dynamics within the propagating DW that reveal dynamic stabilization of coupled vortex structures and suppression of oscillatory motion in the nanowire conduit resulting in uniform DW motion at high speed. The enhanced velocity and drive field range are achieved at the expense of a less compact DW spin distribution.

  2. Disorder-induced domain wall velocity shift at high fields in perpendicularly magnetized thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, Michele; Lopez-Diaz, Luis; Torres, Luis; Moretti, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Domain wall dynamics in a perpendicularly magnetized system is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations in which disorder is introduced as a dispersion of both the easy-axis orientation and the anisotropy constant over regions reproducing a granular structure of the material. High field dynamics show a linear velocity-field relationship and an additional grain size dependent velocity shift, weakly dependent on both applied field and intrinsic Gilbert's damping parameter. We find the origin of this velocity shift in the nonhomogeneous in-plane effective field generated by the tilting of anisotropy easy axis introduced by disorder. We show that a one-dimensional analytical approach cannot predict the observed velocities and we augment it with the additional dissipation of energy arising from internal domain wall dynamics triggered by disorder. This way we prove that the main cause of higher velocity is the ability of the domain wall to irradiate energy into the domains, acquired with a precise feature of disorder.

  3. Algorithm of Shaping Multiple-beam Braggs Acousto-optic Diffraction Laser Field Into 1D and 2D Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharchenko, S.; Baturin, A.

    2015-09-01

    Algorithm of solving a direct problem of acousto-optic interaction between laser emission and acoustic signal consisting of a set of equidistant frequency components is proposed. An infinite system of coupled wave differential equations is reduced to eigenvalue problem. The contribution of the higher rediffraction orders is analyzed separately. Inverse problem of finding an optimal set of equidistant frequency components of a driving acoustic signal to form the objective diffraction pattern is also considered and a few optimization approaches are analyzed. A naïve heuristic method of splitting 2D pattern into subframes, each suitable for simultaneous projection by two acousto-optical deflectors driven by multifrequency composite signal, is developed.

  4. The effect of baryons on redshift space distortions and cosmic density and velocity fields in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.

    2016-09-01

    We use the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) galaxy formation simulation to study the effects of baryons on the power spectrum of the total matter and dark matter distributions and on the velocity fields of dark matter and galaxies. On scales k ≳ 4 h Mpc-1 the effect of baryons on the amplitude of the total matter power spectrum is greater than 1 per cent. The back-reaction of baryons affects the density field of the dark matter at the level of ˜3 per cent on scales of 1 ≤ k/( h Mpc-1) ≤ 5. The dark matter velocity divergence power spectrum at k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1 is changed by less than 1 per cent. The 2D redshift space power spectrum is affected at the level of ˜6 per cent at |k|≳ 1 h Mpc^{-1} (for μ > 0.5), but for |k|≤ 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} it differs by less than 1 per cent. We report vanishingly small baryonic velocity bias for haloes: the peculiar velocities of haloes with M200 > 3 × 1011 M⊙ (hosting galaxies with M* > 109 M⊙) are affected at the level of at most 1 km s-1, which is negligible for 1 per cent-precision cosmology. We caution that since EAGLE overestimates cluster gas fractions it may also underestimate the impact of baryons, particularly for the total matter power spectrum. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that for theoretical modelling of redshift space distortions and galaxy velocity-based statistics, baryons and their back-reaction can be safely ignored at the current level of observational accuracy. However, we confirm that the modelling of the total matter power spectrum in weak lensing studies needs to include realistic galaxy formation physics in order to achieve the accuracy required in the precision cosmology era.

  5. Properties of velocity field in the vicinity of synthetic jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelczyk, P.; Gil, P.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigation of velocity field in the vicinity of synthetic jet actuator as a function of Stokes number and for constant Reynolds number. A constant temperature hot-wire anemometer with tungsten-platinum coated single wire probe used for the velocity measurements. Synthetic jet flow visualization was presented, especially process of vortex ring development. Synthetic jet velocity profiles were compared with a solution to fully-developed pipe flow with an oscillating pressure gradient.

  6. Laser transit anemometer measurements of a JANNAF nozzle base velocity flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Russ, C. E., Jr.; Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity flow fields of a nozzle jet exhausting into a supersonic flow were surveyed. The measurements were obtained with a laser transit anemometer (LTA) system in the time domain with a correlation instrument. The LTA data is transformed into the velocity domain to remove the error that occurs when the data is analyzed in the time domain. The final data is shown in velocity vector plots for positions upstream, downstream, and in the exhaust plane of the jet nozzle.

  7. Electric field due to velocity space particle loss in field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, M.; Staudenmeier, J.L.; Chiang, P.

    1989-02-01

    Particle confinement criteria for velocity space particle loss are used to calculate the radial and axial electric potential profiles in field-reversed configurations (FRC's). Assuming Vlasov equilibrium distribution functions for both electrons and ions, the density profile and the potential profile are calculated self-consistently. With rest Maxwellian distribution functions for both species and the Hill's vortex magnetic configuration, a radial electric field of about 0--70 V/cm and an axial electric field of about 0--4 V/cm, depending on positions, have been found for a typical set of experimental parameters: electron temperature T/sub e/ = 100 eV, ion temperature T/sub i/ = 200 eV, magnetic field B/sub 0/ = 5500 G, separatrix radius r/sub s/ = 12 cm, and elongation factor k = 5. The corresponding density profile has behavior similar to profiles observed in the experiments. Cases using rigid-rotor distribution functions with different rigid rotating frequencies are also studied.

  8. Assessment of Left Ventricular 2D Flow Pathlines during Early Diastole Using Spatial Modulation of Magnetization with Polarity Alternating Velocity Encoding (SPAMM-PAV): a study in normal volunteers and canine animals with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziheng; Friedman, Daniel; Dione, Donald P.; Lin, Ben A.; Duncan, James S.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sampath, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A high temporal resolution 2D flow pathline analysis method that describes the spatio-temporal distribution of blood entering the left ventricle during early diastolic filling is presented. Filling patterns in normal volunteers (n=8) and canine animals (baseline (n=1) and infarcted (n=6)) are studied using this approach. Data is acquired using our recently reported MR technique, SPAMM-PAV, which permits simultaneous quantification of blood velocities and myocardial strain at high temporal resolution of 14 ms. Virtual emitter particles, released from the mitral valve plane every time frame during rapid filling, are tracked to depict the propagation of 2D pathlines on the imaged plane. The pathline regional distribution patterns are compared with regional myocardial longitudinal strains and regional chamber longitudinal pressure gradients. Our results demonstrate strong spatial inter-dependence between left ventricular (LV) filling patterns and LV mechanical function. Significant differences in pathline-described filling patterns are observed in the infarcted animals. Quantitative analysis of net kinetic energy for each set of pathlines is performed. Peak net kinetic energy of 0.06±0.01 mJ in normal volunteers, 0.043 mJ in baseline dog, 0.143±0.03 mJ in three infarcted dogs with nominal flow dysfunction, and 0.016±0.007 mJ in three infarcted dogs with severe flow dysfunction is observed. PMID:23044637

  9. VELOCITY-FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF A SHOCK-ACCELERATED FLUID INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    K. PRESTRIDGE; C. ZOLID; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    A cylinder of heavy gas (SF{sub 6}) in air is hit by a Mach 1.2 shock. The resultant Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is observed as it propagates through the test section of the shock tube. Six images are taken after shock impact, and the velocity field at one time is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The images of the density field show the development of a secondary instability in the cylinder. The velocity field provides us with information about the magnitudes of the velocities as well as the magnitude of the vorticity in the flow.

  10. Fast measurements of average flow velocity by Low-Field ¹H NMR.

    PubMed

    Osán, T M; Ollé, J M; Carpinella, M; Cerioni, L M C; Pusiol, D J; Appel, M; Freeman, J; Espejo, I

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a method for measuring the average flow velocity of a sample by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This method is based on the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and does not require the application of any additional static or pulsed magnetic field gradients to the background magnetic field. The technique is based on analyzing the early-time behavior of the echo amplitudes of the CPMG sequence. Measurements of average flow velocity of water are presented. The experimental results show a linear relationship between the slope/y-intercept ratio of a linear fit of the first echoes in the CPMG sequence, and the average flow velocity of the flowing fluid. The proposed method can be implemented in low-cost Low-Field NMR spectrometers allowing a continuous monitoring of the average velocity of a fluid in almost real-time, even if the flow velocity changes rapidly.

  11. High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences with efficient acquisition schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meijin; Huang, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields can be achieved by the use of intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences and shearing reconstruction of 3D data. However, the long acquisition time of 3D spectral data is generally unbearable for invivo applications. To overcome this problem, two pulse sequences dubbed as iDH-COSY and iDH-JRES were proposed in this paper. Although 3D acquisition is still required for the new sequences, the high-resolution 2D spectra can be obtained with a relatively short scanning time utilizing the manipulation of indirect evolution period and sparse sampling. The intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment combined with the raising and lowering operators was applied to derive analytical signal expressions for the new sequences. And the experimental observations agree with the theoretical predictions. Our results show that the new sequences possess bright perspective in the applications on invivo localized NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Shifted Landau ladders and low field magneto-oscillations in high-mobility GaAs 2D hole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Po; Wang, Jianli; Zhang, Chi; Du, Rui-Rui; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2017-03-01

    We present well-developed low-field magneto-resistance oscillations originating from zero-field spin splitting (ZFSS) of heavy holes in high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. This low field oscillation is 1/B-periodic and emerges before the onset of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The effect can be explained by resonant scattering between two Landau ladders shifted by the ZFSS gap, which in turn can be measured by comparing with the hole cyclotron energy. A front gate is fabricated to tune the ZFSS and hence the oscillation period.

  13. Velocity field control of a class of electrically-driven manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; Campa, Ricardo; Santibáñez, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    This article addresses the control of robotic manipulators under the assumption that the desired motion in the operational space is encoded through a velocity field. In other words, a vectorial function assigns a velocity vector to each point in the robot workspace. Thus, the control objective is to design a control input such that the actual operational space velocity of the robot end-effector asymptotically tracks the desired velocity from the velocity field. This control formulation is known in the literature as velocity field control. A new velocity field controller together with a rigorous stability analysis is introduced in this article. The controller is developed for a class of electrically-driven manipulators. In this class of manipulators, the passivity property from the servo-amplifier voltage input to the joint velocity is not satisfied. However, global exponential stability of the state space origin of the closed-loop system is proven. Furthermore, the closed-loop system is proven to be and output strictly passive map from an auxiliary input to a filtered error signal. To confirm the theoretical conclusions, a detailed experimental study in a two degrees-of-freedom direct-drive manipulator is provided. Particularly, experiments consist of comparing the performance of a simple PI controller and a high-gain PI controller with respect to the new control scheme.

  14. Hα LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L.; Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Graham, D.

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of temperature-dependent viscoelastic FG nanobeams subjected to 2D-magnetic field under periodic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirafzal, A.; Fereidoon, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, natural frequency and dynamic stability of functionally graded (FG) viscoelastic nanobeams based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory on the visco-Pasternak foundation are predicted. The material characteristics of FG nanobeam are temperature-dependent, and vary according to power-law model along thickness. The FG viscoelastic nanobeam is located on a two-dimensional magnetic field which considers the effects of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field. The uniform, linear, and sinusoidal temperature fields are applied on the FG viscoelastic nanobeam. The governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and Eringen's nonlocal theory. The equations are solved by a Navier-type method and the Bolotin method for simply supported conditions. The effect of three different temperature fields on natural frequency and dynamic stability region of the nanobeam is analyzed. The importance of various parameters such as nonlocal parameter, gradient indexes, magnitude of magnetic field, angle of magnetic field, temperature changes, and aspect ratio on both natural frequency and dynamic stability region of the FG viscoelastic nanobeam is investigated.

  16. MHD dynamo in Reversed Field Pinch Plasmas: electrostatic drift nature of the dynamo velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Susanna

    2005-10-01

    Within the framework of MHD numerical modelling, the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) has been found to develop turbulent or laminar regimes switching from the former to the latter in a continuous way depending on the strength of dissipative forces. The laminar solution corresponds to a simple global helical deformation of the current channel and is associated to an electrostatic dynamo field. In this work we show that the associated drift yields the main component of the dynamo velocity. While quite natural in the stationary helical state, this analysis is shown to extend also to the dynamic turbulent regime for a sustained RFP. The continuity of the transition between the two regimes suggests that the simple helical symmetric solution can provide a fruitful intuitive description of the RFP dynamo in general. Many of the MHD predictions are in good agreement with experimental findings. References: [1] S. Cappello and D.F. Escande, ``Bifurcation in viscoresistive MHD: the Hartmann number and the RFP,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3838 (2000) [2] S. Cappello, ``Bifurcation in the MHD behaviour of a self-organizing system: the RFP,'' Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46, B313 (2004) [3] D. Bonfiglio, S. Cappello, D.F. Escande, ``Dominant electrostatic nature of the Reversed Field Pinch dynamo,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 145001 (2005) In collaboration with D.F. Escande and D. Bonfiglio.

  17. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-06

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  18. The velocity field created by a shallow bump in a boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaster, Michael; Grosch, Chester E.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of measurements of the disturbance velocity field generated in a boundary layer by a shallow three-dimensional bump oscillating at a very low frequency on the surface of a flat plate. Profiles of the mean velocity, the disturbance velocity at the fundamental frequency and at the first harmonic are presented. These profiles were measured both upstream and downstream of the oscillating bump. Measurements of the disturbance velocity were also made at various spanwise and downstream locations at a fixed distance from the boundary of one displacement thickness. Finally, the spanwise spectrum of the disturbances at three locations downstream of the bump are presented.

  19. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, deceased, Roger J.; Dawson, Ralph; Fritz, Ian J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space which includes a lowest energy .GAMMA.-valley and a next lowest energy L-valley, each k-vector corresponding to one of the orthogonal directions defined by the planes of said layers and the directions perpendicular thereto. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L.sub.2D -valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley.

  20. Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

  1. Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

  2. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  3. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  4. Dosimetric Verification and Validation of Conformal and IMRT Treatments Fields with an Ionization Chamber 2D-Array

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelina, Figueroa M.; Gabriel, Resendiz G.; Miguel, Perez P.

    2008-08-11

    A three-dimensional treatment planning system requires comparisons of calculated and measured dose distributions. It is necessary to confirm by means of patient specific QA that the dose distributions are correctly calculated, and that the patient data is correctly transferred to and delivered by the treatment machine. We used an analysis software for bi-dimensional dosimetric verification of conformal treatment and IMRT fields using as objective criterion the gamma index. An ionization chamber bi-dimensional array was used for absolute dose measurement in the complete field area.

  5. Functionalization and fragmentation during ambient organic aerosol aging: application of the 2-D volatility basis set to field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Dall'Osto, M.; O'Dowd, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Pandis, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    Multigenerational oxidation chemistry of atmospheric organic compounds and its effects on aerosol loadings and chemical composition is investigated by implementing the Two-Dimensional Volatility Basis Set (2-D-VBS) in a Lagrangian host chemical transport model. Three model formulations were chosen to explore the complex interactions between functionalization and fragmentation processes during gas-phase oxidation of organic compounds by the hydroxyl radical. The base case model employs a conservative transformation by assuming a reduction of one order of magnitude in effective saturation concentration and an increase of oxygen content by one or two oxygen atoms per oxidation generation. A second scheme simulates functionalization in more detail using group contribution theory to estimate the effects of oxygen addition to the carbon backbone on the compound volatility. Finally, a fragmentation scheme is added to the detailed functionalization scheme to create a functionalization-fragmentation parameterization. Two condensed-phase chemistry pathways are also implemented as additional sensitivity tests to simulate (1) heterogeneous oxidation via OH uptake to the particle-phase and (2) aqueous-phase chemistry of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The model is applied to summer and winter periods at three sites where observations of organic aerosol (OA) mass and O:C were obtained during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) campaigns. The base case model reproduces observed mass concentrations and O:C well, with fractional errors (FE) lower than 55% and 25%, respectively. The detailed functionalization scheme tends to overpredict OA concentrations, especially in the summertime, and also underpredicts O:C by approximately a factor of 2. The detailed functionalization model with fragmentation agrees well with the observations for OA concentration, but still underpredicts O:C. Both heterogeneous oxidation and aqueous

  6. Functionalization and fragmentation during ambient organic aerosol aging: application of the 2-D volatility basis set to field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Dall'Osto, M.; O'Dowd, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Pandis, S. N.

    2012-11-01

    Multigenerational oxidation chemistry of atmospheric organic compounds and its effects on aerosol loadings and chemical composition is investigated by implementing the Two-Dimensional Volatility Basis Set (2-D-VBS) in a Lagrangian host chemical transport model. Three model formulations were chosen to explore the complex interactions between functionalization and fragmentation processes during gas-phase oxidation of organic compounds by the hydroxyl radical. The base case model employs a conservative transformation by assuming a reduction of one order of magnitude in effective saturation concentration and an increase of oxygen content by one or two oxygen atoms per oxidation generation. A second scheme simulates functionalization in more detail using group contribution theory to estimate the effects of oxygen addition to the carbon backbone on the compound volatility. Finally, a fragmentation scheme is added to the detailed functionalization scheme to create a functionalization-fragmentation parameterization. Two condensed-phase chemistry pathways are also implemented as additional sensitivity tests to simulate (1) heterogeneous oxidation via OH uptake to the particle-phase and (2) aqueous-phase chemistry of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The model is applied to summer and winter periods at three sites where observations of organic aerosol (OA) mass and O:C were obtained during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) campaigns. The base case model reproduces observed mass concentrations and O:C well, with fractional errors (FE) lower than 55% and 25%, respectively. The detailed functionalization scheme tends to overpredict OA concentrations, especially in the summertime, and also underpredicts O:C by approximately a factor of 2. The detailed functionalization model with fragmentation agrees well with the observations for OA concentration, but still underpredicts O:C. Both heterogeneous oxidation and aqueous

  7. Clear and Measurable Signature of Modified Gravity in the Galaxy Velocity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S.; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun

    2014-06-01

    The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v12 are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ12(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity.

  8. Anisotropic magneto-resistance of 2D holes in GaAs/Al_xGa_1-xAs heterostructure under in-plane magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, H.; Tsui, D. C.; Shayegan, M.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2000-03-01

    We report on measurements of anisotropic in-plane magneto-resistance of the 2D hole system (2DHS) in a GaAs/AlGaAs (311)A heterostructure, which exhibits both zero-field and in-plane field induced metal-insulator transitions. For high hole densities, when the direction of B field is changed relative to the current(I), which is always kept in the high mobility direction, the resistivity with B allel I is larger at low field, while the resistivity with B ⊥ I becomes larger at high field. This behavior is consistent with recent measurements(S. J. Papadakis et al.), cond-mat/9911239. on a quantum well system. That the resistivity at high field is larger for B ⊥ I than for B allel I is also consistent with a recent theoretical argument(S. Das Sarma and E. H. Hwang, cond-mat/9909452.), though the difference is smaller than that from the theory. As the density is lowered, the resistivity with B allel I gets larger at high field, and it eventually becomes greater than that with B ⊥ I at all field ranges measured. This change in anisotropy has not been seen in previous measurements. The critical field B_c, beyond which the metallic phase becomes insulating, is also different for two different directions of B, while the change in I-V characteristics across Bc remains the same.

  9. An exact solution of solute transport by one-dimensional random velocity fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cvetkovic, V.D.; Dagan, G.; Shapiro, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of one-dimensional transport of passive solute by a random steady velocity field is investigated. This problem is representative of solute movement in porous media, for example, in vertical flow through a horizontally stratified formation of variable porosity with a constant flux at the soil surface. Relating moments of particle travel time and displacement, exact expressions for the advection and dispersion coefficients in the Focker-Planck equation are compared with the perturbation results for large distances. The first- and second-order approximations for the dispersion coefficient are robust for a lognormal velocity field. The mean Lagrangian velocity is the harmonic mean of the Eulerian velocity for large distances. This is an artifact of one-dimensional flow where the continuity equation provides for a divergence free fluid flux, rather than a divergence free fluid velocity. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Low field magnetoresistance in a 2D topological insulator based on wide HgTe quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Low field magnetoresistance is experimentally studied in a two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in both diffusive and quasiballistic samples fabricated on top of a wide (14 nm) HgTe quantum well. In all cases a pronounced quasi-linear positive magnetoresistance is observed similar to that found previously in diffusive samples based on a narrow (8 nm) HgTe well. The experimental results are compared with the main existing theoretical models based on different types of disorder: sample edge roughness, nonmagnetic disorder in an otherwise coherent TI and metallic puddles due to locally trapped charges that act like local gate on the sample. The quasiballistic samples with resistance close to the expected quantized values also show a positive low-field magnetoresistance but with a pronounced admixture of mesoscopic effects.

  11. Radiography by selective detection of scatter field velocity components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A reconfigurable collimated radiation detector, system and related method includes at least one collimated radiation detector. The detector has an adjustable collimator assembly including at least one feature, such as a fin, optically coupled thereto. Adjustments to the adjustable collimator selects particular directions of travel of scattered radiation emitted from an irradiated object which reach the detector. The collimated detector is preferably a collimated detector array, where the collimators are independently adjustable. The independent motion capability provides the capability to focus the image by selection of the desired scatter field components. When an array of reconfigurable collimated detectors is provided, separate image data can be obtained from each of the detectors and the respective images cross-correlated and combined to form an enhanced image.

  12. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapor concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially scanning direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapor concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m x 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv . m (Hz)-0.5 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered as a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  13. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapour concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially direct scanning tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapour concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m × 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv · m · √Hz-1 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  14. Band structure of a 2D photonic crystal based on ferrofluids of Co(1-x)Znx Fe2O4 nanoparticles under perpendicular applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Javier; Gonzalez, Luz Esther; Quinonez, Mario; Porras, Nelson; Zambrano, Gustavo; Gomez, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Using a ferrfluid of cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Co(1 - x)ZnxFe2O4 coated with oleic acid and suspended in ethanol, we have fabricated a 2D photonic crystal (PC) by the application of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ferrofluid. The 2D PC is made by rods of nanoparticles organized in a hexagonal structure. By means of the plane-wave expansion method, we study its photonic band structure (PBS) which depends on the effective permittivity and on the area ratio of the liquid phase. Additionaly, taking into account the Maxwell-Garnett theory we calculated the effective permittivity of the rods. We have found that the effective refractive index of the ferrofluid increases with its magnetization. Using these results we calculate the band structure of the photonic crystal at different applied magnetic fields, finding that the increase of the applied magnetic field shifts the band structure to lower frequencies with the appearance of more band gaps. Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia

  15. 3D computations of flow field in a guide vane blading designed by means of 2D model for a low head hydraulic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemianowski, Z.; Puzyrewski, R.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the main parameters of the flow field behind the guide vane cascade designed by means of 2D inverse problem and following check by means of 3D commercial program ANSYS/Fluent applied for a direct problem. This approach of using different models reflects the contemporary design procedure for non-standardized turbomachinery stage. Depending on the model, the set of conservation equation to be solved differs, although the physical background remains the same. The example of computations for guide vane cascade for a low head hydraulic turbine is presented.

  16. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  17. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  18. Volumetric Velocity Fields Downstream of a 2-Bladed Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troolin, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Tip vortices of axial-flow turbines are important in understanding the mean and turbulent characteristics of the wake. Volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the flow downstream of a model two-bladed turbine in air. The turbine had a diameter of 177.8 mm and was powered by a motor operating at approximately 150 rpm. The measurement volume (50 × 50 × 20 mm) was positioned approximately 5 mm downstream of the blade tip, in order to examine the tip vortex structure. The V3V system utilized three 4MP cameras with 85 mm lenses positioned in a fixed triangular frame located at a distance of 450 mm from the back of the measurement volume. The illumination source was a 200 mJ dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 7.25 Hz and illuminating 1 micron olive oil droplets as tracer particles. The particle images were then analyzed to produce volumetric vector fields. The focus was placed on visualizing the complex interaction between the turbine tip vortices. Insights on the tip vortex dynamics and three dimensional characteristics of the wake flow will be discussed.

  19. Measuring the velocity field from type Ia supernovae in an LSST-like sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odderskov, Io; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    In a few years, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will vastly increase the number of type Ia supernovae observed in the local universe. This will allow for a precise mapping of the velocity field and, since the source of peculiar velocities is variations in the density field, cosmological parameters related to the matter distribution can subsequently be extracted from the velocity power spectrum. One way to quantify this is through the angular power spectrum of radial peculiar velocities on spheres at different redshifts. We investigate how well this observable can be measured, despite the problems caused by areas with no information. To obtain a realistic distribution of supernovae, we create mock supernova catalogs by using a semi-analytical code for galaxy formation on the merger trees extracted from N-body simulations. We measure the cosmic variance in the velocity power spectrum by repeating the procedure many times for differently located observers, and vary several aspects of the analysis, such as the observer environment, to see how this affects the measurements. Our results confirm the findings from earlier studies regarding the precision with which the angular velocity power spectrum can be determined in the near future. This level of precision has been found to imply, that the angular velocity power spectrum from type Ia supernovae is competitive in its potential to measure parameters such as σ8. This makes the peculiar velocity power spectrum from type Ia supernovae a promising new observable, which deserves further attention.

  20. Lattice models for granular-like velocity fields: finite-size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, C. A.; Manacorda, A.; Lasanta, A.; Puglisi, A.; Prados, A.

    2016-09-01

    Long-range spatial correlations in the velocity and energy fields of a granular fluid are discussed in the framework of a 1d lattice model. The dynamics of the velocity field occurs through nearest-neighbour inelastic collisions that conserve momentum but dissipate energy. A set of equations for the fluctuating hydrodynamics of the velocity and energy mesoscopic fields give a first approximation for (i) the velocity structure factor and (ii) the finite-size correction to the Haff law, both in the homogeneous cooling regime. At a more refined level, we have derived the equations for the two-site velocity correlations and the total energy fluctuations. First, we seek a perturbative solution thereof, in powers of the inverse of system size. On the one hand, when scaled with the granular temperature, the velocity correlations tend to a stationary value in the long time limit. On the other hand, the scaled standard deviation of the total energy diverges, that is, the system shows multiscaling. Second, we find an exact solution for the velocity correlations in terms of the spectrum of eigenvalues of a certain matrix. The results of numerical simulations of the microscopic model confirm our theoretical results, including the above described multiscaling phenomenon.

  1. The relationship between the instantaneous velocity field and the rate of moment release in the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Instantaneous velocity gradients within the continental lithosphere are often related to the tectonic driving forces. This relationship is direct if the forces are secular, as for the case of loading of a locked section of a subduction interface by the downgoing plate. If the forces are static, as for the case of lateral variations in gravitational potential energy, then velocity gradients can be produced only if the lithosphere has, on average, zero strength. The static force model may be related to the long-term velocity field but not the instantaneous velocity field (typically measured geodetically over a period of several years) because over short time intervals the upper lithosphere behaves elastically. In order to describe both the short- and long-term behaviour of an (elastic) lithosphere-(viscoelastic) asthenosphere system in a self-consistent manner, I construct a deformation model termed the expected interseismic velocity (EIV) model. Assuming that the lithosphere is populated with faults that rupture continually, each with a definite mean recurrence time, and that the Earth is well approximated as a linear elastic-viscoelastic coupled system, I derive a simple relationship between the instantaneous velocity field and the average rate of moment release in the lithosphere. Examples with synthetic fault networks demonstrate that velocity gradients in actively deforming regions may to a large extent be the product of compounded viscoelastic relaxation from past earthquakes on hundreds of faults distributed over large ( ≥106 km2) areas.

  2. Computer simulation of topological evolution in 2-d grain growth using a continuum diffuse-interface field model

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Geng, C.; Chen, L.Q.

    1997-03-01

    The local kinetics and topological phenomena during normal grain growth were studied in two dimensions by computer simulations employing a continuum diffuse-interface field model. The relationships between topological class and individual grain growth kinetics were examined, and compared with results obtained previously from analytical theories, experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations. It was shown that both the grain-size and grain-shape (side) distributions are time-invariant and the linear relationship between the mean radii of individual grains and topological class n was reproduced. The moments of the shape distribution were determined, and the differences among the data from soap froth. Potts model and the present simulation were discussed. In the limit when the grain size goes to zero, the average number of grain edges per grain is shown to be between 4 and 5, implying the direct vanishing of 4- and 5-sided grains, which seems to be consistent with recent experimental observations on thin films. Based on the simulation results, the conditions for the applicability of the familiar Mullins-Von Neumann law and the Hillert`s equation were discussed.

  3. An industrial light-field camera applied for 3D velocity measurements in a slot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredkin, A. V.; Shestakov, M. V.; Tokarev, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Modern light-field cameras have found their application in different areas like photography, surveillance and quality control in industry. A number of studies have been reported relatively low spatial resolution of 3D profiles of registered objects along the optical axis of the camera. This article describes a method for 3D velocity measurements in fluid flows using an industrial light-field camera and an alternative reconstruction algorithm based on a statistical approach. This method is more accurate than triangulation when applied for tracking small registered objects like tracer particles in images. The technique was used to measure 3D velocity fields in a turbulent slot jet.

  4. Numerical method for determination of resonance electron velocities in periodic electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnev, Khristo

    2014-11-18

    A Monte Carlo method is applied for modeling of a plasma source with a periodic structure of a radiofrequency electric field. The method is modified in order to detect resonance increase of the electron energy at given velocities of the electrons as expected from theoretical considerations. The numerical model is validated by comparison with known analytical results. The applicability of the method for detection of resonance velocities in plasma sources with electric field variation parallel or perpendicular to the electric field vector is proven.

  5. Creating analytically divergence-free velocity fields from grid-based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravu, Bharath; Rudman, Murray; Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel R.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method, based on B-splines, to calculate a C2 continuous analytic vector potential from discrete 3D velocity data on a regular grid. A continuous analytically divergence-free velocity field can then be obtained from the curl of the potential. This field can be used to robustly and accurately integrate particle trajectories in incompressible flow fields. Based on the method of Finn and Chacon (2005) [10] this new method ensures that the analytic velocity field matches the grid values almost everywhere, with errors that are two to four orders of magnitude lower than those of existing methods. We demonstrate its application to three different problems (each in a different coordinate system) and provide details of the specifics required in each case. We show how the additional accuracy of the method results in qualitatively and quantitatively superior trajectories that results in more accurate identification of Lagrangian coherent structures.

  6. Ensemble Monte Carlo Simulation of a Velocity-Modulation Field Effect Transistor (VMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Hess, K.

    1987-09-01

    We present numerical simulations of velocity modulated field effect transistors as proposed by Sakaki. Using self-consistent particle-field Monte Carlo analysis, we assess possible advantages of these novel device structures with respect to switching speed and show the qualitative correctness of Sakaki’s ideas. Quantitatively, delays are introduced by the redistribution of electrons in the separated channels.

  7. Numerical modeling of the 2D time-domain transient electromagnetic secondary field of the line source of the current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Xu-Ben; Wang, Yun

    2013-06-01

    To effectively minimize the electromagnetic field response in the total field solution, we propose a numerical modeling method for the two-dimensional (2D) timedomain transient electromagnetic secondary field of the line source based on the DuFort-Frankel finite-difference method. In the proposed method, we included the treatment of the earth-air boundary conductivity, calculated the normalized partial derivative of the induced electromotive force (Emf), and determined the forward time step. By extending upward the earth-air interface to the air grid nodes and the zero-value boundary conditions, not only we have a method that is more efficient but also simpler than the total field solution. We computed and analyzed the homogeneous half-space model and the flat layered model with high precision—the maximum relative error is less than 0.01% between our method and the analytical method—and the solution speed is roughly three times faster than the total-field solution. Lastly, we used the model of a thin body embedded in a homogeneous half-space at different delay times to depict the downward and upward spreading characteristics of the induced eddy current, and the physical interaction processes between the electromagnetic field and the underground low-resistivity body.

  8. Correlation algorithm for computing the velocity fields in microchannel flows with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karchevskiy, M. N.; Tokarev, M. P.; Yagodnitsyna, A. A.; Kozinkin, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    A cross-correlation algorithm, which enables the obtaining of the velocity field in the flow with a spatial resolution up to a single pixel per vector, has been realized in the work. It gives new information about the structure of microflows as well as increases considerably the accuracy of the measurement of the flow velocity field. In addition, the realized algorithm renders information about the velocity fluctuations in the flow structure. The algorithm was tested on synthetic data at a different number of test images the velocity distribution on which was specified by the Siemens star. The experimental validation was done on the data provided within the international project "4th International PIV Challenge". Besides, a detailed comparison with the Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm, which was realized previously, was carried out.

  9. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Syahputra, Ahmad; Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  10. Velocity and Vorticity Fields of a Turbulent Plume under different experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Redondo, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    flows and turbulent structure. The main aim of the research in particular is to investigate mixing processes and their efficiency for different turbulent plumes, jets and their scale to scale reactions with dominant coherent structures such as vortices. The interesting way to analyse fith multifractal [8,9] techniques the evolution of contours comparing scalar, velocity and vorticity interfaces to visualize in different parameter and phase spaces that give us an idea on local mixing influenced by velocity, vorticity and helicity for different Atwood numbers in time. [1]Csanady, G. T.: Turbulent diffusion in the environment. Reidel, 248 pp., 1973. [2] DePaolo, D. J. and Stolper, E. M.: Models of Hawaiian volcano growth and plume structure: Implications of results from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. J. of Geophysical Research, 101, B5, 11643-11654, 1996. [3] Fackrell, J. E. and Robins, A. G.: Concentration fluctuations and fluxes in plumes from a point source in a turbulent boundary layer. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 117, 1-26, 1982. [4] List, E. J.: Turbulent jets and plumes. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 14, 189-212, 1982. [5] López González-Nieto, P.: La mezcla turbulenta por convección gravitatoria: modelización experimental y aplicación a situaciones atmosféricas. PhD Thesis, Servicio de Publicaciones UCM, 2004. [6] López González-Nieto, P., Cano, J. L. and Redondo, J. M.: An experimental model of mixing processes generated by an array of top-heavy turbulent plumes. Il Nuovo Cimento, 31C (5-6), 679-698, 2008. [7] Matulka, A., The Turbulent Structure in Environmental Flows: Effects of Stratification and Rotation, 2010. PhD. Thesis UPC, Barcelona [8] Redondo J.M., R. Castilla, A. Carillo, A. Matulka and A. Babiano; Taxonomy of 2D-3D Decaying Non-Homogeneous . Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics, Prague (ISBN 978- 80-87012-19-2), 2009. [9] Vila T., S. Layzet, C. Vassilicos and J.M. Redondo; Multi-Fractal Analysis of Turbulent wakes, intermittency and mixing

  11. Fundamental steps of the group velocity for slow surface polaritons in the two-dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronov, Igor E.; Beletskii, Nikolai N.

    1996-07-01

    A new type of collective electromagnetic excitation, namely surface polaritons (SP) - in a 2D electronic layer in a high magnetic field, is predicted. We have found the spectrum, damping, and polarization of the SP over a wide range of frequencies 0953-8984/8/27/005/img1 and wavevectors k. It is shown that near the cyclotron resonance (CR) 0953-8984/8/27/005/img2 the phase velocity of the SP is drastically slowed down and the group velocity undergoes fundamental steps defined by the fine-structure constant 0953-8984/8/27/005/img3. In the vicinity of a CR subharmonic 0953-8984/8/27/005/img4, negative (anomalous) dispersion of the SP occurs. The relaxation of electrons in the 2D layer gives rise to a new dissipative collective threshold-type mode of the SP. We suggest a method for calculating the kinetic coefficients for the 2D electronic layer in a high magnetic field, using the Wigner distribution function formalism, and determining their spatial and frequency dispersions. Using this method we have calculated the lineshapes of the CR, which are in good agreement with experimental data.

  12. Spatiotemporal properties of Sub-Rayleigh and supershear rupture velocity fields: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Michael; Bhat, Harsha S.; Rosakis, Ares J.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental spatiotemporal field properties and particle velocity waveform signatures of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures were experimentally investigated through a series of laboratory earthquake experiments. We appeal to dynamic rupture theory to extract and highlight previously unnoticed aspects and results, which are of direct relevance to our new experiments. Kinematic relationships derived from both singular and non-singular solutions are applied to analyze and interpret various features observed in these experiments. A strong correspondence is demonstrated between particle velocity records obtained in lab experiments and synthetic particle velocity waveform profiles derived from theory. Predicted temporal profiles, sense of particle motion, and amplitude decay properties of sub-Rayleigh and supershear particle velocity waveforms are experimentally verified. In a particular set of supershear rupture experiments, the fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) velocity waveforms were simultaneously recorded at fixed, off-fault field points as a shear Mach front swept these locations. Particle velocity records collected over a broad range of stable supershear rupture speeds validate the predicted scaling relationship δu˙1s / δu˙2s =√{Vr2 / Cs2-1 } =βs, between the FP (δu1ṡ) and the FN (δu2ṡ) velocity jumps propagated by a shear Mach front. Additional experimental findings include detailed rupture speed measurements of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures and the observation of a supershear daughter crack with vanishing shear Mach front.

  13. Axis and velocity determination for quasi two-dimensional plasma/field structures from Faraday's law: A second look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Denton, Richard E.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Swisdak, M.

    2013-05-01

    We re-examine the basic premises of a single-spacecraft data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2005), for determining the axis orientation and proper frame velocity of quasi two-dimensional, quasi-steady structures of magnetic field and plasma. The method, which is based on Faraday's law, makes use of magnetic and electric field data measured by a single spacecraft traversing the structure, although in many circumstances the convection electric field, - v × B, can serve as a proxy for E. It has been used with success for flux ropes observed at the magnetopause but has usually failed to provide acceptable results when applied to real space data from reconnection events as well as to virtual data from numerical MHD simulations of such events. In the present paper, the reasons for these shortcomings are identified, analyzed, and discussed in detail. Certain basic properties of the method are presented in the form of five theorems, the last of which makes use of singular value decomposition to treat the special case where the magnetic variance matrix is non-invertible. These theorems are illustrated using data from analytical models of flux ropes and also from MHD simulations as well as a 2-D kinetic simulation of reconnection. The results make clear that the method requires the presence of a significant, non-removable electric field distribution in the plane transverse to the invariant direction and that it is sensitive to deviations from strict two-dimensionality and strict time stationarity.

  14. Instantaneous velocity field measurement of objects in coaxial rotation using digital image velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Park, H.

    1990-01-01

    The instantaneous velocity fields of time-dependent flows, or of a collection of objects moving with spatially varying velocities, can be measured by means of digital image velocimetry (DIV). DIV overcomes several shortcomings of such existing techniques as laser-speckle or particle-image velocimetry. Attention is presently given to numerically generated images representing objects in uniform motion which are then used for the experimental validation of DIV.

  15. The velocity field near the orifice of a Helmholtz resonator in grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Walker, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of the time-dependent velocities induced inside and outside the opening of acoustically excited, two-dimensional Helmholtz resonator imbedded in a grazing flow are presented. The remarkably clear structure of the perturbation field which evokes a pulsating source and a coherently pulsating vortex-image pair is described. The simple phenomenological "lid-model" which correlates the variation in the components of the acoustic impedance with the velocity of the grazing flow is discussed and extended.

  16. The effect of spatially varying velocity field on the transport of radioactivity in a porous medium.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soubhadra; Srinivas, C V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2016-10-01

    In the event of an accidental leak of the immobilized nuclear waste from an underground repository, it may come in contact of the flow of underground water and start migrating. Depending on the nature of the geological medium, the flow velocity of water may vary spatially. Here, we report a numerical study on the migration of radioactivity due to a space dependent flow field. For a detailed analysis, seven different types of velocity profiles are considered and the corresponding concentrations are compared.

  17. Second-order solution for determining density and velocity fields of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    In this Letter, I use second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to calculate an analytical expression relating density to velocity in a gravitating system. This solution can be used to compare peculiar velocity field measurements with observations of large-scale structure. The predictions of both linear theory and second-order theory are compared with the results of N-body simulations. While linear theory systematically overestimates the velocity flows in high-density regions, the second-order corrections calculated herein remove this systematic error.

  18. Automatic NMO Correction and Full Common Depth Point NMO Velocity Field Estimation in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedek, Mohamed; Gross, Lutz; Tyson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present a new computational method of automatic normal moveout (NMO) correction that not only accurately flattens and corrects the far offset data, but simultaneously provides NMO velocity (v_nmo) for each individual seismic trace. The method is based on a predefined number of NMO velocity sweeps using linear vertical interpolation of different NMO velocities at each seismic trace. At each sweep, we measure the semblance between the zero offset trace (pilot trace) and the next seismic trace using a trace-by-trace rather than sample-by-sample based semblance measure; then after all the sweeps are done, the one with the maximum semblance value is chosen, which is assumed to be the most suitable NMO velocity trace that accurately flattens seismic reflection events. Other traces follow the same process, and a final velocity field is then extracted. Isotropic, anisotropic and lateral heterogenous synthetic geological models were built to test the method. A range of synthetic background noise, ranging from 10 to 30 %, was applied to the models. In addition, the method was tested on Hess's VTI (vertical transverse isotropy) model. Furthermore, we tested our method on a real pre-stack seismic CDP gathered from a gas field in Alaska. The results from the presented examples show an excellent NMO correction and extracted a reasonably accurate NMO velocity field.

  19. Determining cardiac velocity fields and intraventricular pressure distribution from a sequence of Ultrafast CT cardiac images

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.M.; Napel, S. ); Leahy, R.M. . Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Brundage, B.H. . Div. of Cardiology); Boyd, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    A method of computing the velocity field and pressure distribution from a sequence of Ultrafast CT (UFCT) cardiac images is demonstrated. UFCT multi-slice cine imaging gives a series of tomographic slices covering the volume of the heart at a rate of 17 frames per second. The complete volume data set can be modeled using equations of continuum theory and through regularization, velocity vectors of both blood and tissue can be determined at each voxel in the volume. The authors present a technique to determine the pressure distribution throughout the volume of the left ventricle using the computed velocity field. A numerical algorithm is developed by discretizing the pressure Poisson equation (PPE), which is based on the Navier-Stokes equation. The algorithm is evaluated using a mathematical phantom of known velocity and pressure -- Couette flow. It is shown that the algorithm based on the PPE can reconstruct the pressure distribution using only the velocity data. Furthermore, the PPE is shown to be robust in the presence of noise. The velocity field and pressure distribution derived from a UFCT study of a patient are also presented.

  20. A Unified Geodetic Vertical Velocity Field (UGVVF), Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G.; Wdowinski, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic motion, volcanic inflation or deflation, as well as oil, gas and water pumping can induce vertical motion. In southern California these signals are inter-mingled. In tectonics, properly identifying regions that are contaminated by other signals can be important when estimating fault slip rates. Until recently vertical deformation rates determined by high precision Global Positioning Systems (GPS) had large uncertainties compared to horizontal components and were rarely used to constrain tectonic models of fault motion. However, many continuously occupied GPS stations have been operating for ten or more years, often delivering uncertainties of ~1 mm/yr or less, providing better constraints for tectonic modeling. Various processing centers produced GPS time series and estimated vertical velocity fields, each with their own set of processing techniques and assumptions. We compare vertical velocity solutions estimated by seven data processing groups as well as two combined solutions (Figure 1). These groups include: Central Washington University (CWU) and New Mexico Institute of Technology (NMT), and their combined solution provided by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through the UNAVCO website. Also compared are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and their combined solution provided as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Smaller velocity fields included are from Amos et al., 2014, processed at the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, Shen et al., 2011, processed by UCLA and called the Crustal Motion Map 4.0 (CMM4) dataset, and a new velocity field provided by the University of Miami (UM). Our analysis includes estimating and correcting for systematic vertical velocity and uncertainty differences between groups. Our final product is a unified velocity field that contains the median values of the adjusted velocity fields and their uncertainties. This product will be periodically updated when new velocity fields

  1. Dependence of resistivity of GaAs 2D holes on the magnitude and direction of an in-plane magnetic field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, S. J.; de Poortere, E. P.; Shayegan, M.; Winkler, R.

    2000-03-01

    We report experiments on (311)A GaAs 2D holes at 0.3 - 1.4 K with an in-plane magnetic field B. The density range (1.3 × 10^10 < p < 6.6 × 10^10 cm-2) is such that the temperature dependence of the resistivity is metallic-like at B = 0. In all cases the system displays positive magnetoresistance whose details depend on the relative orientations of B and the crystal axes as well as of B and the current (I) direction.(S. J. Papadakis et al.), cond-mat/9911239. We observe a feature in the magnetoresistance, associated with a spin-subband de-population, whose B-position changes when the field direction is changed from [bar233] to [01bar1]. Near this feature, there is a critical field BT beyond which the behavior changes to insulating. B_T, too, changes when the orientation of B relative to the crystal axes is changed. Changing the direction of I with respect to B also affects the positions of these features, but to a much smaller degree. The data are consistent with the idea that two spin-subbands with different populations are necessary for the existence of the B = 0 metallic behavior, and are also a clear demonstration of the anisotropy of the band structure of GaAs 2D holes grown on (311)A substrates.

  2. Regulation of adipose-tissue-derived stromal cell orientation and motility in 2D- and 3D-cultures by direct-current electrical field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Long, Haiyan; Ren, Xiaomei; Ma, Kunlong; Xiao, Zhenghua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yingqiang

    2017-02-01

    Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers. Rat ADSCs were exposed to various physiological-strength EFs in a homemade EF-bioreactor. Changes of morphology and movements of cells affected by applied EFs were evaluated by time-lapse microphotography, and cell survival rates and intracellular calcium oscillations were also detected. Results showed that EF facilitated ADSC morphological changes, under 6 V/cm EF strength, and that ADSCs in 2D-culture aligned vertically to EF vector and kept a good cell survival rate. In 3D-culture, cell galvanotaxis responses were subject to the synergistic effect of applied EF and scaffold materials. Fast cell movement and intracellular calcium activities were observed in the cells of 3D-culture. We believe our research will provide some experimental references for the future study in cell galvanotaxis behaviors.

  3. Effects of the mean velocity field on the renormalized turbulent viscosity and correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We perform renormalization group analysis of the Navier Stokes equation in the Eulerian framework in the presence of mean velocity field U0, and observe that that the renormalized viscosity ν (k) is independent of U0, where k is the wavenumber. Thus we show that ν (k) in the Eulerian field theory is Galilean invariant. We also compute ν (k) using numerical simulations and verify the above theoretical prediction. The velocity-velocity correlation function however exhibits damped oscillations whose time period of oscillation and damping time scales are given by 1 / kU0 and 1 / (ν (k) k2) respectively. In a modified form of Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation (DIA), the ``random mean velocity field'' of the large eddies sweeps the small-scale fluctuations. The DIA calculations also reveal that in the weak turbulence limit, the energy spectrum E (k) ~k - 3 / 2 , but for the strong turbulence limit, the random velocity field of the large-scale eddies is scale-dependent that leads to Kolmogorov's energy spectrum.

  4. Trace projection transformation: a new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang

    2016-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.

  5. A RADIAL VELOCITY AND CALCIUM TRIPLET ABUNDANCE SURVEY OF FIELD SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Propris, Roberto; Rich, R. Michael; Mallery, Ryan C.; Howard, Christian D.

    2010-05-10

    We present the results of a pilot wide-field radial velocity and metal abundance survey of red giants in 10 fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The targets lie at projected distances of 0.9 and 1.9 kpc from the SMC center (m - M = 18.79) to the north, east, south, and west. Two more fields are to the east at distances of 3.9 and 5.1 kpc. In this last field, we find only a few to no SMC giants, suggesting that the edge of the SMC in this direction lies approximately at 6 kpc from its center. In all eastern fields, we observe a double peak in the radial velocities of stars, with a component at the classical SMC recession velocity of {approx}160 km s{sup -1} and a high-velocity component at about 200 km s{sup -1}, similar to observations in H I. In the most distant field (3.9 kpc), the low-velocity component is at 106 km s{sup -1}. The metal abundance distribution in all fields is broad and centered at about [Fe/H] {approx}-1.25, reaching to solar and possibly slightly supersolar values and down to [Fe/H] of about -2.5. In the two innermost (0.9 kpc) northern and southern fields, we observe a secondary peak at metallicities of about {approx}-0.6. This may be evidence of a second episode of star formation in the center, possibly triggered by the interactions that created the Stream and Bridge.

  6. Mass-conservative reconstruction of Galerkin velocity fields for transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudeler, C.; Putti, M.; Paniconi, C.

    2016-08-01

    Accurate calculation of mass-conservative velocity fields from numerical solutions of Richards' equation is central to reliable surface-subsurface flow and transport modeling, for example in long-term tracer simulations to determine catchment residence time distributions. In this study we assess the performance of a local Larson-Niklasson (LN) post-processing procedure for reconstructing mass-conservative velocities from a linear (P1) Galerkin finite element solution of Richards' equation. This approach, originally proposed for a-posteriori error estimation, modifies the standard finite element velocities by imposing local conservation on element patches. The resulting reconstructed flow field is characterized by continuous fluxes on element edges that can be efficiently used to drive a second order finite volume advective transport model. Through a series of tests of increasing complexity that compare results from the LN scheme to those using velocity fields derived directly from the P1 Galerkin solution, we show that a locally mass-conservative velocity field is necessary to obtain accurate transport results. We also show that the accuracy of the LN reconstruction procedure is comparable to that of the inherently conservative mixed finite element approach, taken as a reference solution, but that the LN scheme has much lower computational costs. The numerical tests examine steady and unsteady, saturated and variably saturated, and homogeneous and heterogeneous cases along with initial and boundary conditions that include dry soil infiltration, alternating solute and water injection, and seepage face outflow. Typical problems that arise with velocities derived from P1 Galerkin solutions include outgoing solute flux from no-flow boundaries, solute entrapment in zones of low hydraulic conductivity, and occurrences of anomalous sources and sinks. In addition to inducing significant mass balance errors, such manifestations often lead to oscillations in concentration

  7. Methods of measuring velocity fields in the problem with a channel with periodic hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinkin, L. A.; Karchevskiy, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    The work studies the flow characteristics in a channel with periodic hills on the basis of three algorithms for calculating the flow velocity fields through the images: Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, and Pyramid Correlation. Descriptions of algorithms, detailed information about the experiment and parameters of the received data processing, as well as the results of calculations of instantaneous velocity fields at selected time points obtained by corresponding methods are provided. In addition, the presented techniques are compared on the basis of experimental data.

  8. Group velocity effect on resonant, long-range wake-fields in slow wave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.

    2002-03-01

    Synchronous wake-fields in a dispersive waveguide are derived in a general explicit form on the basis of a rigorous electro-dynamical approach using Fourier transformations. The fundamental role of group velocity in wake-field propagation, calculation of attenuation, amplitudes, form-factors and loss-factors is analyzed for single bunch radiation. Adiabatic tapering of the waveguide and bunch density variation is taken into account analytically for the time-domain fields. Effects of field "compression/expansion" and group delays are demonstrated. The role of these effects is discussed for single bunch wake-fields, transient beam loading, BBU and HOMs. A novel waveguide structure with central rf coupling and both positive and negative velocities is proposed. It can be used effectively in both high-energy accelerators and single-section linacs.

  9. Measurement of temperature and velocity fields in a convective fluid flow in air using schlieren images.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, A; Moreno-Hernández, D; Guerrero-Viramontes, J A

    2013-08-01

    A convective fluid flow in air could be regulated if the physical process were better understood. Temperature and velocity measurements are required in order to obtain a proper characterization of a convective fluid flow. In this study, we show that a classical schlieren system can be used for simultaneous measurements of temperature and velocity in a convective fluid flow in air. The schlieren technique allows measurement of the average fluid temperature and velocity integrated in the direction of the test beam. Therefore, in our experiments we considered surfaces with isothermal conditions. Temperature measurements are made by relating the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the schlieren system. The same schlieren images were also used to measure the velocity of the fluid flow by using optical flow techniques. The algorithm implemented analyzes motion between consecutive schlieren frames to obtain a tracked sequence and finally velocity fields. The proposed technique was applied to measure the temperature and velocity fields in natural convection of air due to unconfined and confined heated rectangular plates.

  10. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field. II. Taking anistropies and multistreaming into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the volume-weighted peculiar velocity statistics from inhomogeneously and sparsely distributed galaxies/halos, by existing velocity assignment methods, suffers from a significant sampling artifact. As an alternative, the Kriging interpolation based on Gaussian processes was introduced and evaluated [Y. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Jing, and P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 92, 083527 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.083527]. Unfortunately, the most straightforward application of Kriging does not perform better than the existing methods in the literature. In this work, we investigate two physically motivated extensions. The first takes into account of the anisotropic velocity correlations. The second introduces the nugget effect, on account of multistreaming of the velocity field. We find that the performance is indeed improved. For sparsely sampled data [nP≲6 ×10-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 ] where the sampling artifact is the most severe, the improvement is significant and is two-fold: 1) The scale of reliable measurement of the velocity power spectrum is extended by a factor ˜1.6 , and 2) the dependence on the velocity correlation prior is weakened by a factor of ˜2 . We conclude that such extensions are desirable for accurate velocity assignment by Kriging.

  11. Measurements of Dendritic Growth Velocities in Undercooled Melts of Pure Nickel Under Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jianrong; Zhang, Zongning; Zhang, Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic growth velocities in undercooled melts of pure Ni have been intensively studied over the past fifty years. However, the literature data are at marked variance with the prediction of the widely accepted model for rapid dendritic growth both at small and at large undercoolings. In the present work, bulk melts of pure Ni samples of high purity were undercooled by glass fluxing treatment under a static magnetic field. The recalescence processes of the samples at different undercoolings were recorded using a high-speed camera, and were modeled using a software to determine the dendritic growth velocities. The present data confirmed the effect of melt flow on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings below 100 K. A comparison of the present data with previous measurements on a lower purity material suggested an effect of impurities on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings larger than 200 K as well.

  12. Full-field velocity imaging of red blood cells in capillaries with spatiotemporal demodulation autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyi; Zeng, Yaguang; Dong, Nannan; Liao, Riwei; Yang, Guojian

    2016-03-01

    We propose a full-field optical method for the label-free and quantitative mapping of the velocities of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries. It integrates spatiotemporal demodulation and an autocorrelation algorithm, and measures RBC velocity according to the ratio of RBC length to lag time. Conventionally, RBC length is assumed to be a constant and lag time is taken as a variable, while our method treats both of them as variables. We use temporal demodulation and the Butterworth spatial filter to separate RBC signal from background signal, based on which we obtain the RBC length by image segmentation and lag time by autocorrelation analysis. The RBC velocity calculated now is more accurate. The validity of our method is verified by an in vivo experiment on a mouse ear. Owing to its higher image signal-to-noise ratio, our method can be used for mapping RBC velocity in the turbid tissue case.

  13. Time evolution of the lateral-velocity distribution for a strong-field-ionization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study time development of a cusp in the lateral-velocity distribution for the process of strong-field ionization. The lateral-velocity distribution is computed using an ab initio quantum mechanical procedure for the moments of time inside and after the end of the laser pulse. We show that at the moment of time corresponding to the midpoint of the laser pulse the lateral-velocity distribution is a smooth Gaussian curve, its parameters agreeing very well with the predictions of the tunelling theories. At the moment of time corresponding to the end of the pulse the lateral-velocity distribution narrows considerably, showing the initial stage of the cusp-formation process due to the Coulomb focusing effect. Following evolution of the ionized wave packet yet further in time we consider the cusp formation in detail.

  14. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  15. Velocity Fields in H II Regions Using High Resolution Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, P.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis comprises of two parts: I. Instrumentation II. Observations, results and discussion. An imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer (IFPS) is designed and constructed for the studies on kinematics of extended astronomical objects (Seema et al., 1992). IFPS comprises of a field aperture, collimating lens and a two dimensional imaging sensor called Imaging Photon Detector (IPD). It is the first time that IPD which uses a resistive anode for position determination is being used in the spectroscopic studies of astronomical objects. Observations were made on Orion and Trifid nebula covering a wide field of view using a 35cm Celestron-14 telescope (f/11 cassegrain) at Gurushikhar, Mt.Abu, India. Orion Nebula: Observations were made in [OIII] 5007A, line with a spectral resolution of 6 km/sec and spatial resolution of 4" covering a field of view of 10.5', to study (i) general velocity flow (ii) high velocity flow and (iii)random motions. Line profiles generated for about 2000 positions showed an asymmetric shape with (a)a narrow component 20 +- 3 km/sec and (b) a broad component 50 +- 3 km/sec. The two components could be interpreted in terms of the interaction of the ionized gas (from the trapezium stars) with the condensations present in the nebula, resulting in the secondary flows. The iso-velocity contour map generated for both the components showed velocity flow in agreement with the champagne flow model (Tenorio-Tagle 1982). A model emission line profile constructed assuming a champagne flow in [OIII] 5007A, line for a position 2' away from theta-1 C Ori showed a reasonably good agreement with the narrow component of the observed profile. Certain high velocity flow (~50 km/s) regions are observed to be superimposed on the main flow of the narrow component. These flows are either radiation pressure driven stellar winds or jets generated during the formation phase of Young stellar objects. The radial velocity was found to be low with no high velocity flow regions in

  16. Evaluating a campaign GNSS velocity field derived from an online precise point positioning service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, L.; Silcock, D.; Choy, S.; Cas, R.; Ailleres, L.; Fournier, N.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional processing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data using dedicated scientific software has provided the highest levels of positional accuracy, and has been used extensively in geophysical deformation studies. To achieve these accuracies a significant level of understanding and training is required, limiting their availability to the general scientific community. Various online GNSS processing services, now freely available, address some of these difficulties and allow users to easily process their own GNSS data and potentially obtain high quality results. Previous research into these services has focused on Continually Operating Reference Station (CORS) GNSS data. Less research exists on the results achievable with these services using large campaign GNSS data sets, which are inherently noisier than CORS data. Even less research exists on the quality of velocity fields derived from campaign GNSS data processed through online precise point positioning services. Particularly, whether they are suitable for geodynamic and deformation studies where precise and reliable velocities are needed. In this research, we process a very large campaign GPS data set (spanning 10 yr) with the online Jet Propulsion Laboratory Automated Precise Positioning Service. This data set is taken from a GNSS network specifically designed and surveyed to measure deformation through the central North Island of New Zealand. This includes regional CORS stations. We then use these coordinates to derive a horizontal and vertical velocity field. This is the first time that a large campaign GPS data set has been processed solely using an online service and the solutions used to determine a horizontal and vertical velocity field. We compared this velocity field to that of another well utilized GNSS scientific software package. The results show a good agreement between the CORS positions and campaign station velocities obtained from the two approaches. We discuss the implications

  17. Evaluating a campaign GNSS velocity field derived from an online precise point positioning service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, L.; Silcock, D.; Choy, S.; Cas, R.; Ailleres, L.; Fournier, N.

    2016-10-01

    Traditional processing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data using dedicated scientific software has provided the highest levels of positional accuracy, and has been used extensively in geophysical deformation studies. To achieve these accuracies a significant level of understanding and training is required, limiting their availability to the general scientific community. Various online GNSS processing services, now freely available, address some of these difficulties and allow users to easily process their own GNSS data and potentially obtain high quality results. Previous research into these services has focused on Continually Operating Reference Station (CORS) GNSS data. Less research exists on the results achievable with these services using large campaign GNSS datasets, which are inherently noisier than CORS data. Even less research exists on the quality of velocity fields derived from campaign GNSS data processed through online PPP services. Particularly, whether they are suitable for geodynamic and deformation studies where precise and reliable velocities are needed. In this research, we process a very large campaign GPS dataset (spanning ten years) with the online Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Automated Precise Positioning Service (APPS) service. This dataset is taken from a GNSS network specifically designed and surveyed to measure deformation through the central North Island of New Zealand (NZ). This includes regional CORS stations. We then use these coordinates to derive a horizontal and vertical velocity field. This is the first time that a large campaign GPS dataset has been processed solely using an online service and the solutions used to determine a horizontal and vertical velocity field. We compared this velocity field to that of another well utilised GNSS scientific software package. The results show a good agreement between the CORS positions and campaign station velocities obtained from the two approaches. We discuss the

  18. IAG Working Group on Regional Dense Velocity Fields: First Results and Steps Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyninx, Carine

    2010-05-01

    The IAG Working Group (WG) on "Regional Dense Velocity Fields" was created within IAG sub-commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" at the IUGG General Assembly in Perugia in 2007. The goal of the Working Group is to densify the latest realization of the ITRS and provide regional dense velocity information in a common global reference frame. For that purpose, working group members join efforts with the regional sub-commissions (AFREF, NAREF, SIRGAS, EUREF, …) and analysis groups processing data from local/regional continuous and episodic GNSS stations. Up to now, dedicated region coordinators have gathered velocity solutions (in accordance with the WG requirements) for their region and combined these solutions with the sub-commission regional solutions to produce a regional cumulative combined solution. Two combination coordinators performed a first test combination of these regional solutions together with global solutions in order to identify the main problems when producing a dense velocity field based on multiple cumulative position and velocity solutions. First comparisons between different velocity solutions show an RMS agreement between 0.3 mm/yr and 0.5 mm/yr resp. for the horizontal and vertical velocities. In some cases, significant disagreements between the velocities of some of the networks are seen, but these are primarily caused by the inconsistent handling of discontinuity epochs and solution numbers. Consequently, this test identified the urgent need for a consensus on the attribution of discontinuity epochs for stations common to several solutions. Due to the use of different analysis strategies and software packages by the individual contributors, finding such a consensus is a challenge as most probably not the same discontinuities are seen by different people. A possible way to go ahead for the Working Group could be to combine solutions at the weekly level. This approach is one of the alternative procedures which are presently under

  19. Studying the instantaneous velocity field in gas-sheared liquid films in a horizontal duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasques, Joao; Tokarev, Mikhail; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Hann, David; Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Azzopardi, Barry

    2016-11-01

    In annular flow, the experimental validation of the basic assumptions on the liquid velocity profile is vital for developing theoretical models of the flow. However, the study of local velocity of liquid in gas-sheared films has proven to be a challenging task due to the highly curved and disturbed moving interface of the phases, small scale of the area of interrogation, high velocity gradients and irregular character of the flow. This study reports on different optical configurations and interface-tracking methods employed in a horizontal duct in order to obtain high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) data in such types of complex flows. The experimental envelope includes successful measurements in 2D and 3D waves regimes, up to the disturbance wave regime. Preliminary data show the presence of complex structures in the liquid phase, which includes re-circulation areas below the liquid interface due to the gas-shearing action, together with non-uniform transverse movements of the liquid phase close to the wall due to the presence of 3D waves at the interface. With the aid of the moving interface-tracking, PIV, time-resolved particle-tracking velocimetry and vorticity measurements were performed.

  20. Exploiting SENTINEL-1 Amplitude Data for Glacier Surface Velocity Field Measurements: Feasibility Demonstration on Baltoro Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascetti, A.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Di Rico, C.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity through SAR imagery, in particular using the amplitude data from the new ESA satellite sensor Sentinel-1 imagery. These imagery key aspects are the free access policy, the very short revisit time (down to 6 days with the launch of the Sentinel-1B satellite) and the high amplitude resolution (up to 5 m). In order to verify the reliability of the proposed approach, a first experiment has been performed using Sentinel-1 imagery acquired over the Karakoram mountain range (North Pakistan) and Baltoro and other three glaciers have been investigated. During this study, a stack of 11 images acquired in the period from October 2014 to September 2015 has been used in order to investigate the potentialities of the Sentinel-1 SAR sensor to retrieve the glacier surface velocity every month. The aim of this test was to measure the glacier surface velocity between each subsequent pair, in order to produce a time series of the surface velocity fields along the investigated period. The necessary coregistration procedure between the images has been performed and subsequently the glaciers areas have been sampled using a regular grid with a 250 × 250 meters posting. Finally the surface velocity field has been estimated, for each image pair, using a template matching procedure, and an outlier filtering procedure based on the signal to noise ratio values has been applied, in order to exclude from the analysis unreliable points. The achieved velocity values range from 10 to 25 meters/month and they are coherent to those obtained in previous studies carried out on the same glaciers and the results highlight that it is possible to have a continuous update of the glacier surface velocity field through free Sentinel-1 imagery, that could be very useful to investigate the seasonal effects on the glaciers fluid-dynamics.

  1. FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled numerical simulation of wavefields near excavation boundaries in underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cai, M.

    2016-11-01

    A nonlinear velocity model that considers the influence of confinement and rock mass failure on wave velocity is developed. A numerical method, which couples FLAC and SPECFEM2D, is developed for ground motion modeling near excavation boundaries in underground mines. The motivation of developing the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled approach is to take merits of each code, such as the stress analysis capability in FLAC and the powerful wave propagation analysis capability in SPECFEM2D. Because stress redistribution and failure of the rock mass around an excavation are considered, realistic non-uniform velocity fields for the SPECFEM2D model can be obtained, and this is a notable feature of this study. Very large differences in wavefields and ground motion are observed between the results from the non-uniform and the uniform velocity models. If the non-uniform velocity model is used, the ground motion around a stope can be amplified up to five times larger than that given by the design scaling law. If a uniform velocity model is used, the amplification factor is only about three. Using the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled modeling approach, accurate velocity models can be constructed and this in turn will assist in predicting ground motions accurately around underground excavations.

  2. Inversion of TEM data and analysis of the 2D induced magnetic field applied to the aquifers characterization in the Paraná basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe Campaña, Julian David; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Serejo de Oliveira, Gabriela; Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando Acácio

    2017-03-01

    Results of a TEM profile by using the fixed-loop array and an analysis of the induced magnetic field are presented in this work performed in the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, Paraná Basin. The objectives of this research were to map the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the area and analyzing the behavior of the magnetic field by observation of magnetic profiles. TEM measurements in the three spatial components were taken to create magnetic profiles of the induced (secondary) magnetic field. The TEM data were acquired using a fixed transmitter loop of 200 m × 200 m and a 3D coil receiver moving along a profile line of 1000 m. Magnetic profiles of dBz, dBx and dBy components showed symmetrical spatial behavior related with loop geometry. z-component showed a behavior probably related to superparamagnetic effect (SPM). dBz data was used to perform individual 1D inversion for each position and to generate an interpolated pseudo-2D geoelectric profile. The results showed two low resistivity zones: the first shallow, between 10 m and 70 m deep, probably related to the Adamantina Formation (sedimentary aquifer). The second between 200 m and 300 m depth, probably related to a fractured zone filled with water or clay inside the basalt layer of the Serra Geral Formation (crystalline aquifer). These results agree with the well logs information available in the studied region.

  3. Effects of magnetic field and Hall current to the blood velocity and LDL transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, I.; Naser, N.; Talib, A. H.; Mahali, S.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic field and Hall current effects have been considered on blood velocity and concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). It is important to observe those effects to the flowing blood in a stenosed artery. The analysis from the obtained results may be useful to some clinical procedures, such as MRI, where the radiologists may have more information in the investigations before cardiac operations could be done. In this study, the uniform magnetic field and Hall current are applied to the Newtonian blood flow through an artery having a cosine-shaped stenosis. The governing equations are coupled with mass transfer and solved employing a finite difference Marker and Cell (MAC) method with an appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The graphical results of velocity profiles and LDL concentration are presented in this paper and the results show that the velocity increases and concentration decreases as Hall parameter increased.

  4. Arctic sea ice velocity field: General circulation and turbulent-like fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampal, P.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Bourgoin, M.

    2009-10-01

    Using buoy trajectories of the IABP data set, we analyze the Arctic sea ice velocity field as the superposition of a mean field and fluctuations. We study how the mean field can be objectively defined, using appropriate spatial and temporal averaging scales depending on the season considered: 400 km and 5 ? months for winter (i.e., approximately all the polar winter duration), and 200 km and 2 ? months for summer (i.e., approximately all the polar summer duration). The mean velocity field shows a strong intra-annual (between winter and the following summer) as well as interannual variability. The fluctuations, i.e., the remaining part of the velocity field after subtracting the mean field, are analyzed in terms of diffusion properties. Although the Arctic sea ice cover is a solid, we show that the fluctuations follow the same diffusion regimes as the ones predicted for turbulent flows, as observed in geophysical fluids like the ocean or the atmosphere. We found that the integral time and the diffusivity of sea ice are in the same ranges as those estimated for the ocean, i.e., 1.5 days in winter and 1.3 days in summer and 0.44 × 103 m2/s for winter and 0.45 × 103 m2/s in summer, respectively. However, the statistics of the sea ice fluctuating velocity deviate from classical turbulence theory, as they show exponential instead of Gaussian distributions. Sea ice velocity and acceleration are intermittent, and both are characterized by a multifractal scaling. The oceanic and atmospheric dynamic forcing cannot explain solely the statistical properties of sea ice kinematics and dynamics. We argue that sea ice dynamic is significantly influenced by the interplay of multiple fractures that are activated intermittently within the ice pack.

  5. Probing High-Velocity Transient-Field Strength Using Heavy-ions Traversing Fe and Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, E.; Georgiev, G.; Cabaret, S.; Lozeva, R.; Jungclaus, A.; Modamio, V.; Walker, J.; Balabanski, D. L.; Blazhev, A.; Clement, E.; Grevy, S.; Stodel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Danchev, M.; Daugas, J. M.; Hass, M.; Kumar, V.; Leske, J.; Pietralla, N.

    2009-08-26

    The transient field strength for {sup 76}Ge ions, passing through iron and gadolinium layers at velocities approxZv{sub 0}, has been measured. Although a sizeable value has been obtained for Gd, a vanishing strength has been observed in Fe.

  6. On Density and Velocity Fields and beta from the IRAS PSCZ Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoldt, Inga M.; Saar, Veikko; Saha, Prasenjit; Branchini, E.; Efstathiou, G. P.; Frenk, C. S.; Keeble, O.; Maddox, S.; McMahon, R.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Saunders, W.; Sutherland, W. J.; Tadros, H.; White, S. D. M.

    1999-09-01

    We present a version of the Fourier-Bessel method first introduced by Fisher and coworkers and Zaroubi and coworkers with two extensions: (1) we amend the formalism to allow a generic galaxy weight that can be constant, rather than the more conventional overweighting of galaxies at high distances, and (2) we correct for the masked zones by extrapolation of Fourier-Bessel modes rather than by cloning from the galaxy distribution in neighboring regions. We test the procedure extensively on N-body simulations and find that it gives generally unbiased results but that the reconstructed velocities tend to be overpredicted in high-density regions. Applying the formalism to the PSCz redshift catalog, we find that beta=0.7+/-0.5 from a comparison of the reconstructed Local Group velocity to the cosmic microwave background dipole. From an anisotropy test of the velocity field, we find that beta=1 cold dark matter models normalized to the current cluster abundance can be excluded with 90% confidence. The density and velocity fields reconstructed agree with the fields found by Branchini and coworkers on most points. We find a back infall into the Great Attractor region (Hydra-Centaurus region), but tests suggest that this may be an artifact. We identify all the major clusters in our density field and confirm the existence of some previously identified possible ones.

  7. Acoustic reconstruction of the velocity field in a furnace using a characteristic flow model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqin; Zhou, Huaichun; Chen, Shiying; Zhang, Yindi; Wei, Xinli; Zhao, Jinhui

    2012-06-01

    An acoustic method can provide a noninvasive, efficient and full-field reconstruction of aerodynamic fields in a furnace. A simple yet reasonable model is devised for reconstruction of a velocity field in a cross section of a tangential furnace from acoustic measurements based on typical physical characteristics of the field. The solenoidal component of the velocity field is modeled by a curved surface, derived by rotating a curve of Gaussian distribution, determined by six characteristic parameters, while the nonrotational component is governed by a priori knowledge. Thus the inverse problem is translated into determination of the characteristic parameters using a set of acoustic projection data. First numerical experiments were undertaken to simulate the acoustic measurement, so as to preliminarily validate the effectiveness of the model. Based on this, physical experiments under different operating conditions were performed in a pilot-scale setup to provide a further test. Hot-wire anemometry and strip floating were applied to compare with acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements provided satisfactory consistency with both of these approaches. Nevertheless, for a field with a relatively large magnitude of air velocities, the acoustic measurement can give more reliable reconstructions. Extension of the model to measurements of hot tangential furnaces is also discussed.

  8. Present-day velocity field and block kinematics of Tibetan Plateau from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Xuejun; Yang, Shaomin; Wang, Dijin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present a new synthesis of GPS velocities for tectonic deformation within the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, a combined data set of ˜1854 GPS-derived horizontal velocity vectors. Assuming that crustal deformation is localized along major faults, a block modelling approach is employed to interpret the GPS velocity field. We construct a 30-element block model to describe present-day deformation in western China, with half of them located within the Tibetan Plateau, and the remainder located in its surrounding areas. We model the GPS velocities simultaneously for the effects of block rotations and elastic strain induced by the bounding faults. Our model yields a good fit to the GPS data with a mean residual of 1.08 mm a-1 compared to the mean uncertainty of 1.36 mm a-1 for each velocity component, indicating a good agreement between the predicted and observed velocities. The major strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh, Xianshuihe, Kunlun and Haiyuan faults have relatively uniform slip rates in a range of 5-12 mm a-1 along most of their segments, and the estimated fault slip rates agree well with previous geologic and geodetic results. Blocks having significant residuals are located at the southern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau, suggesting complex tectonic settings and further refinement of accurate definition of block geometry in these regions.

  9. Present-day velocity field and block kinematics of Tibetan Plateau from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Xuejun; Yang, Shaomin; Wang, Dijin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we present a new synthesis of GPS velocities for tectonic deformation within the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, a combined dataset of ˜1854 GPS-derived horizontal velocity vectors. Assuming that crustal deformation is localized along major faults, a block modeling approach is employed to interpret the GPS velocity field. We construct a 30-element block model to describe present-day deformation in western China, with half of them located within the Tibetan Plateau, and the remainder located in its surrounding areas. We model the GPS velocities simultaneously for the effects of block rotations and elastic strain induced by the bounding faults. Our model yields a good fit to the GPS data with a mean residual of 1.08 mm/a compared to the mean uncertainty of 1.36 mm/a for each velocity component, indicating a good agreement between the predicted and observed velocities.The major strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh, Xianshuihe, Kunlun and Haiyuan faults have relatively uniform slip rates in a range of 5-12 mm/a along most of their segments, and the estimated fault slip rates agree well with previous geologic and geodetic results. Blocks having significant residuals are located at the southern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau, suggesting complex tectonic settings and further refinement of accurate definition of block geometry in these regions.

  10. Field assessment of noncontact stream gauging using portable surface velocity radars (SVR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welber, Matilde; Le Coz, Jérôme; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Zolezzi, Guido; Zamler, Daniel; Dramais, Guillaume; Hauet, Alexandre; Salvaro, Martino

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of a portable, commercially available surface velocity radar (SVR) for noncontact stream gauging was evaluated through a series of field-scale experiments carried out in a variety of sites and deployment conditions. Comparisons with various concurrent techniques showed acceptable agreement with velocity profiles, with larger uncertainties close to the banks. In addition to discharge error sources shared with intrusive velocity-area techniques, SVR discharge estimates are affected by flood-induced changes in the bed profile and by the selection of a depth-averaged to surface velocity ratio, or velocity coefficient (α). Cross-sectional averaged velocity coefficients showed smaller fluctuations and closer agreement with theoretical values than those computed on individual verticals, especially in channels with high relative roughness. Our findings confirm that α = 0.85 is a valid default value, with a preferred site-specific calibration to avoid underestimation of discharge in very smooth channels (relative roughness ˜ 0.001) and overestimation in very rough channels (relative roughness > 0.05). Theoretically derived and site-calibrated values of α also give accurate SVR-based discharge estimates (within 10%) for low and intermediate roughness flows (relative roughness 0.001 to 0.05). Moreover, discharge uncertainty does not exceed 10% even for a limited number of SVR positions along the cross section (particularly advantageous to gauge unsteady flood flows and very large floods), thereby extending the range of validity of rating curves.

  11. In vivo PIV measurement of red blood cell velocity field in microvessels considering mesentery motion.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Shigeru; Okamoto, Koji

    2002-05-01

    As endothelial cells are subject to flow shear stress, it is important to determine the detailed velocity distribution in microvessels in the study of mechanical interactions between blood and endothelium. Recently, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been proposed as a quantitative method of measuring velocity fields instantaneously in experimental fluid mechanics. The authors have developed a highly accurate PIV technique with improved dynamic range. spatial resolution and measurement accuracy. In this paper, the proposed method was applied to images of the arteriole in the rat mesentery using an intravital microscope and high-speed digital video system. Taking the mesentery motion into account, the PIV technique was improved to measure red blood cell (RBC) velocity. Velocity distributions with spatial resolutions of 0.8 x 0.8 microm were obtained even near the wall in the centre plane of the arteriole. The arteriole velocity profile was blunt in the centre region of the vessel cross-section and sharp in the near-wall region. Typical flow features for non-Newtonian fluid were shown. Time-averaged velocity profiles in six cross sections with different diameters were compared.

  12. The implications of groundwater velocity variations on microbial transport and wellhead protection - review of field evidence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Richard; Cronin, Aidan; Pedley, Steve; Barker, John; Atkinson, Tim

    2004-07-01

    Current strategies to protect groundwater sources from microbial contamination (e.g., wellhead protection areas) rely upon natural attenuation of microorganisms between wells or springs and potential sources of contamination and are determined using average (macroscopic) groundwater flow velocities defined by Darcy's Law. However, field studies of sewage contamination and microbial transport using deliberately applied tracers provide evidence of groundwater flow paths that permit the transport of microorganisms by rapid, statistically extreme velocities. These paths can be detected because of (i) the high concentrations of bacteria and viruses that enter near-surface environments in sewage or are deliberately applied as tracers (e.g., bacteriophage); and (ii) low detection limits of these microorganisms in water. Such paths must comprise linked microscopic pathways (sub-paths) that are biased toward high groundwater velocities. In media where microorganisms may be excluded from the matrix (pores and fissures), the disparity between the average linear velocity of groundwater flow and flow velocities transporting released or applied microorganisms is intensified. It is critical to recognise the limited protection afforded by source protection measures that disregard rapid, statistically extreme groundwater velocities transporting pathogenic microorganisms, particularly in areas dependent upon untreated groundwater supplies.

  13. Effect of Range and Angular Velocity of Passive Movement on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    To clarify characteristics of each human somatosensory evoked field (SEF) component following passive movement (PM), PM1, PM2, and PM3, using high spatiotemporal resolution 306-channel magnetoencephalography and varying PM range and angular velocity. We recorded SEFs following PM under three conditions [normal range-normal velocity (NN), small range-normal velocity (SN), and small range-slow velocity (SS)] with changing movement range and angular velocity in 12 participants and calculated the amplitude, equivalent current dipole (ECD) location, and the ECD strength for each component. All components were observed in six participants, whereas only PM1 and PM3 in the other six. Clear response deflections at the ipsilateral hemisphere to PM side were observed in seven participants. PM1 amplitude was larger under NN and SN conditions, and mean ECD location for PM1 was at primary motor area. PM3 amplitude was larger under SN condition and mean ECD location for PM3 under SS condition was at primary somatosensory area. PM1 amplitude was dependent on the angular velocity of PM, suggesting that PM1 reflects afferent input from muscle spindle, whereas PM3 amplitude was dependent on the duration. The ECD for PM3 was located in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting that PM3 reflects cutaneous input. We confirmed the hypothesis for locally distinct generators and characteristics of each SEF component.

  14. Full-field spreading velocity measurement inside droplets impinging on a dry solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Nejdet; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-11-01

    Liquid droplet impacts onto solid surfaces have attracted enormous amount of attention from wide range of research fields including experimental and numerical investigations. Unlike experimental efforts, numerical and analytical studies generated various sets of data. In this study, we investigated the spreading velocities inside the water droplets impinging onto a dry glass substrate using time-resolved PIV. The method, together with the high spatiotemporal resolution and the additional treatments improving the robustness, allowed us to resolve the radial velocity profiles efficiently in the spreading phase. Several impact velocity cases ranging from 0.40 to 0.96 m/s were studied. They correspond to low and moderate level Weber numbers (4.9-27.6). We observed that instantaneous radial velocity distributions exhibit linear and nonlinear modes. The nonlinearity is caused by the vortical flows formed at outer regions of the spreading liquid lamella. We demonstrated that even at low impact velocities the linear parts of the profiles obey a quasi-one-dimensional theory proposed in the literature. The comparison of obtained results with a literature-based numerical study, performed for high range of Weber numbers, confirmed the simultaneous existence of linear and nonlinear parts in the radial velocity profiles. In spite of the scale differences in terms of Weber number, the agreements in the tendencies of the profiles imply the validity of the mechanism considered in the numerical study even at low and moderate level range of Weber numbers.

  15. Velocity Measurements of Free Surface Liquid Metal Flows in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Scott; Ji, Hantao; Nornberg, Mark; Rhoads, John

    2008-11-01

    A potential probe diagnostic was developed and calibrated to map the velocity profile of free-surface liquid metal channel flow and quantify the effect an applied magnetic field played in shaping the velocity profile. The setup for this experiment consists of a wide aspect ratio channel sealed from the air, with argon replacing the air in the channel, placed within an electromagnet capable of producing more than a 2000 Gauss field perpendicular to the flow. An alloy of GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature, is pumped through the channel by a screw pump at a specified rate. The velocity profile is obtained by measuring the voltage across pairs of probes. Various materials were used to determine which probe material would maximize the signal from the voltage induced by the Hall effect and reduce the voltage due to thermoelectric effects. Extensive calibration was then carried out to ensure an accurate velocity measurement. After amplification and filtering this signal gives us a good measurement of the velocity of the liquid metal over the cross-section of a specific probe.

  16. Near-field Oblique Remote Sensing of Stream Water-surface Elevation, Slope, and Surface Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.; McDonald, R.; Wright, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for estimating discharges during flood events or in steep channels is the difficulty and hazard inherent in obtaining in-stream measurements. One possible solution is to use near-field remote sensing to obtain simultaneous water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities. In this test case, we utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to remotely measure water-surface elevations and slope in combination with surface velocities estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) obtained by video-camera and/or infrared camera. We tested this method at several sites in New Mexico and Colorado using independent validation data consisting of in-channel measurements from survey-grade GPS and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Preliminary results indicate that for relatively turbid or steep streams, TLS collects tens of thousands of water-surface elevations and slopes in minutes, much faster than conventional means and at relatively high precision, at least as good as continuous survey-grade GPS measurements. Estimated surface velocities from this technique are within 15% of measured velocity magnitudes and within 10 degrees from the measured velocity direction (using extrapolation from the shallowest bin of the ADCP measurements). Accurately aligning the PIV results into Cartesian coordinates appears to be one of the main sources of error, primarily due to the sensitivity at these shallow oblique look angles and the low numbers of stationary objects for rectification. Combining remotely-sensed water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities produces simultaneous velocity measurements from a large number of locations in the channel and is more spatially extensive than traditional velocity measurements. These factors make this technique useful for improving estimates of flow measurements during flood flows and in steep channels while also decreasing the difficulty and hazard associated with making measurements in these

  17. New experimental technique for the measurement of the velocity field in thin films falling over obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landel, Julien R.; Daglis, Ana; McEvoy, Harry; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2014-11-01

    We present a new experimental technique to measure the surface velocity of a thin falling film. Thin falling films are important in various processes such as cooling in heat exchangers or cleaning processes. For instance, in a household dishwasher cleaning depends on the ability of a thin draining film to remove material from a substrate. We are interested in the impact of obstacles attached to a substrate on the velocity field of a thin film flowing over them. Measuring the velocity field of thin falling films is a challenging experimental problem due to the small depth of the flow and the large velocity gradient across its depth. We propose a new technique based on PIV to measure the plane components of the velocity at the surface of the film over an arbitrarily large area and an arbitrarily large resolution, depending mostly on the image acquisition technique. We perform experiments with thin films of water flowing on a flat inclined surface, made of glass or stainless steel. The typical Reynolds number of the film is of the order of 100 to 1000, computed using the surface velocity, the film thickness and the kinematic viscosity of the film. We measure the modification to the flow field, from a viscous-gravity regime, caused by small solid obstacles, such as three-dimensional hemispherical obstacles and two-dimensional steps. We compare our results with past theoretical and numerical studies. This material is based upon work supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-12-D-0003-0001.

  18. The influence of polyvinylacetate additive in water on turbulent velocity field and drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodes, A.; Macho, V.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of polymer concentration on drag reduction was studied experimentally with diluted water solutions of polyvinylacetate in a 2.4 cm I. D. pipe. The instantaneous local velocities of the velocity fields were measured by a one-channel differential laser-Doppler anemometer DISA Mark II, with forward scattering. Concentrations of water-polyvinylacetate over the range from 10 to 2,000 ppm were used. The drag reduction coefficient is proportional to the concentration and hydrolysis degree of the saponificated polyvinylacetate (PVAC) employed. A mechanical degradation in the turbulent shear flow was not observed.

  19. Velocity fields in a low-latitude coronal hole - Results from the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.; Waldron, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite has been used to observe Doppler signatures in C IV in a low-latitude coronal hole as it crossed the central meridian (1985 February 2-8). Scatter plots of C IV emission intensity versus velocity do not show the pronounced positive correlation which has been reported in other regions on the sun. These data suggest that the coronal hole may control the gross velocity field in the solar atmosphere at the level where C IV is formed. Some localized regions of upflow coincide with EUV bright points in the coronal hole.

  20. Velocity controlled sound field reproduction by non-uniformly spaced loudspeakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mincheol; Nelson, Philip A.; Fazi, Filippo M.; Seo, Jeongil

    2016-05-01

    One approach to the reproduction of a sound field is to ensure the reproduction of the acoustic pressure on the surface bounding the volume within which reproduction is sought. However, this approach suffers from technical limitations when the loudspeakers used for the reproduction of the surface acoustic pressures are unevenly spaced. It is shown in this paper that sound field reproduction with a spatially non-uniform loudspeaker arrangement can be considerably improved by changing the physical quantity to be controlled on the bounding surface from pressure to particle velocity. One of the main advantages of the velocity control method is the simplicity with which the inverse problem can be regularized, irrespective of the direction of arrival of the sound to be reproduced. In addition, the velocity controlled sound field shows better reproduction of the time averaged intensity flow in the reproduction region which in turn appears to be closely linked with better human perception of sound localization. Furthermore, the proposed method results in smoother "panning functions" that describe the variation of the source outputs as a function of the angle of incidence of the sound to be reproduced. The performance of the velocity matching method has been evaluated by comparison to the conventional pressure matching method and through simulations with several non-uniform loudspeaker layouts. The simulated results were also verified with experiments and subjective tests.

  1. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  2. Potential, velocity, and density fields from sparse and noisy redshift-distance samples - Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Faber, Sandra M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for recovering the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and density fields from large-scale redshift-distance samples is described. Galaxies are taken as tracers of the velocity field, not of the mass. The density field and the initial conditions are calculated using an iterative procedure that applies the no-vorticity assumption at an initial time and uses the Zel'dovich approximation to relate initial and final positions of particles on a grid. The method is tested using a cosmological N-body simulation 'observed' at the positions of real galaxies in a redshift-distance sample, taking into account their distance measurement errors. Malmquist bias and other systematic and statistical errors are extensively explored using both analytical techniques and Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Synchrotron microimaging technique for measuring the velocity fields of real blood flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Guk Bae

    2005-03-15

    Angiography and Doppler methods used for diagnosing vascular diseases give information on the shape of blood vessels and pointwise blood speed but do not provide detailed information on the flow fields inside the blood vessels. In this study, we developed a method for visualizing blood flow by using coherent synchrotron x rays. This method, which does not require the addition of any contrast agent or tracer particles, visualizes the flow pattern of blood by enhancing the diffraction and interference characteristics of the blood cells. This was achieved by optimizing the sample- (blood) to-detector (charge-coupled device camera) distance and the sample thickness. The proposed method was used to extract quantitative velocity field information from blood flowing inside an opaque microchannel by applying a two-frame particle image velocimetry algorithm to enhanced x-ray images of the blood flow. The measured velocity field data showed a flow structure typical of flow in a macrochannel.

  4. Electric-field control of magnetic domain-wall velocity in ultrathin cobalt with perpendicular magnetization.

    PubMed

    Chiba, D; Kawaguchi, M; Fukami, S; Ishiwata, N; Shimamura, K; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T

    2012-06-06

    Controlling the displacement of a magnetic domain wall is potentially useful for information processing in magnetic non-volatile memories and logic devices. A magnetic domain wall can be moved by applying an external magnetic field and/or electric current, and its velocity depends on their magnitudes. Here we show that the applying an electric field can change the velocity of a magnetic domain wall significantly. A field-effect device, consisting of a top-gate electrode, a dielectric insulator layer, and a wire-shaped ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin layer with perpendicular anisotropy, was used to observe it in a finite magnetic field. We found that the application of the electric fields in the range of ± 2-3 MV cm(-1) can change the magnetic domain wall velocity in its creep regime (10(6)-10(3) m s(-1)) by more than an order of magnitude. This significant change is due to electrical modulation of the energy barrier for the magnetic domain wall motion.

  5. Conductivity, electric field and electron drift velocity within the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Chandra, H.

    2006-08-01

    Rocket-borne in-situ measurements of electron density and current density made from Thumba, India, on four occasions between 1966 and 1973 and on one flight from Peru in 1965 are studied along with the corresponding ground magnetometer data. The Cowling conductivity is computed using the yearly mean magnetic field values of 1965 and the atmospheric density values from the MSIS 1986 model. The rocket-borne measurements from Thumba cover different geophysical conditions of strong, moderate and partial counter-electrojet events. The vertical profiles of the measured current density and electron density are presented along with the computed Cowling conductivity, electron drift velocity and electric field. The peak current density occurred at 106-107 km over Thumba and at 109 km over Peru compared to 104 km over Brazil. Cowling conductivity peaks occurred at 102 km over Huancayo and 101 km over Thumba, while electron drift velocity and electric field peaks occurred at approximately 105-107 km over Thumba, 108 and 110 km over Huancayo and 104 km over Brazil, respectively. While the electron density near the level of peak current density shows some variability, electron drift velocity and electric field show large variability. We conclude that the local electric field plays an important role in the spatial and temporal variability of the strength of the electrojet.

  6. Underwater patch near-field acoustical holography based on particle velocity and vector hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Yang, DeSen; Li, SiChun; Sun, Yu; Mo, ShiQi; Shi, ShengGuo

    2012-11-01

    One-step patch near-field acoustical holography (PNAH) is a powerful tool for identifying noise sources from the partially known sound pressure field. The acoustical property to be reconstructed on the surface of interest is related to the partially measured pressure on the hologram surface in terms of sampling and bandlimiting matrices, which cost more in computation. A one-step procedure based on measuring of the normal component of the particle velocity is described, including the mathematical formulation. The numerical simulation shows that one-step PNAH based on particle velocity can obtain more accurately reconstructed results and it is also less sensitive to noise than the method based on pressure. These findings are confirmed by an underwater near-field acoustical holography experiment conducted with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results have illustrated the high performance of one-step PNAH based on particle velocity in the reconstruction of sound field and the advantages of a vector hydrophone array in an underwater near-field measurement.

  7. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  8. A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data

  9. Tracing Interstellar Magnetic Field Using Velocity Gradient Technique: Application to Atomic Hydrogen Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Ka Ho; Lazarian, A.

    2017-03-01

    The advancement of our understanding of MHD turbulence opens ways to develop new techniques to probe magnetic fields. In MHD turbulence, the velocity gradients are expected to be perpendicular to magnetic fields and this fact was used by González-Casanova & Lazarian to introduce a new technique to trace magnetic fields using velocity centroid gradients (VCGs). The latter can be obtained from spectroscopic observations. We apply the technique to GALFA-H i survey data and then compare the directions of magnetic fields obtained with our technique to the direction of magnetic fields obtained using PLANCK polarization. We find an excellent correspondence between the two ways of magnetic field tracing, which is obvious via the visual comparison and through the measuring of the statistics of magnetic field fluctuations obtained with the polarization data and our technique. This suggests that the VCGs have a potential for measuring of the foreground magnetic field fluctuations, and thus provide a new way of separating foreground and CMB polarization signals.

  10. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  11. Velocity-Field Measurements of an Axisymmetric Separated Flow Subjected to Amplitude-Modulated Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosin, Barry James

    2007-01-01

    Active flow control was applied at the point of separation of an axisymmetric, backward-facing-step flow. The control was implemented by employing a Helmholtz resonator that was externally driven by an amplitude-modulated, acoustic disturbance from a speaker located upstream of the wind tunnel. The velocity field of the separating/reattaching flow region downstream of the step was characterized using hotwire velocity measurements with and without flow control. Conventional statistics of the data reveal that the separating/reattaching flow is affected by the imposed forcing. Triple decomposition along with conditional averaging was used to distinguish periodic disturbances from random turbulence in the fluctuating velocity component. A significant outcome of the present study is that it demonstrates that amplitude-modulated forcing of the separated flow alters the flow in the same manner as the more conventional method of periodic excitation.

  12. Field measurements of the atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and velocities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global oceans.

    PubMed

    González-Gaya, Belén; Zúñiga-Rival, Javier; Ojeda, María-José; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2014-05-20

    The atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured, for the first time, in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Depositional fluxes for fine (0.7-2.7 μm) and coarse (>2.7 μm) aerosol fractions were simultaneously determined with the suspended aerosol phase concentrations, allowing the determination of PAH deposition velocities (vD). PAH dry deposition fluxes (FDD) bound to coarse aerosols were higher than those of fine aerosols for 83% of the measurements. Average FDD for total (fine + coarse) Σ16PAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) ranged from 8.33 ng m(-2)d(-1) to 52.38 ng m(-2)d(-1). Mean FDD for coarse aerosol's individual PAHs ranged between 0.13 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Perylene) and 1.96 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Pyrene), and for the fine aerosol fraction these ranged between 0.06 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Dimethyl Pyrene) and 1.25 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Chrysene). The estimated deposition velocities went from the highest mean vD for Methyl Chrysene (0.17-13.30 cm s(-1)), followed by Dibenzo(ah)Anthracene (0.29-1.38 cm s(-1)), and other high MW PAHs to minimum values of vD for Dimethyl Pyrene (<0.04 cm s(-1)) and Pyrene (<0.06 cm s(-1)). Dry depositional processes depend on the concentration of PAHs in the suspended aerosol, but also on physicochemical properties and environmental variables (vapor pressure, wind speed, and on the affinity of aerosols for depositing to the sea surface). Empirical parametrizations are proposed to predict the dry depositional velocities of semivolatile organic compounds to the global oceans.

  13. Measurement of a velocity field in microvessels using a high resolution PIV technique.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Shigeru; Okamoto, Koji

    2002-10-01

    Because endothelial cells are subject to flow shear stress, it is important to determine the velocity distribution in microvessels during studies of the mechanical interactions between the blood and the endothelium. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative method for measuring velocity fields instantaneously in experimental fluid mechanics. The authors have developed a high-resolution PIV technique that improves the dynamic flow range, spatial resolution, and measurement accuracy. The proposed method was applied to images of the arteriole in the rat mesentery, using an intravital microscope and high-speed digital video system. Taking the mesentery motion into account, the PIV technique was improved to measure red blood cell (RBC) velocity. Velocity distributions with spatial resolutions of 0.8 3 0.8 mm were obtained even near the wall in the center plane of the arteriole. The arteriole velocity profile was blunt in the center region of the vessel cross-section and sharp in the near-wall region. Typical flow features for non-Newtonian fluid are shown.

  14. An Inexpensive Field-Widened Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for Precision Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Wan, Xiaoke; DeWitt, Curtis; van Eyken, Julian C.; McDavitt, Dan

    2008-09-01

    We have constructed a thermally compensated field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer that can be used with a medium-resolution spectrograph to measure precise Doppler radial velocities of stars. Our prototype monolithic fixed-delay interferometer is constructed with off-the-shelf components and assembled using a hydrolysis bonding technique. We installed and tested this interferometer in the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope, an instrument built to demonstrate the principles of dispersed fixed-delay interferometry. An iodine cell allows the interferometer drift to be accurately calibrated, relaxing the stability requirements on the interferometer itself. When using our monolithic interferometer, the ET instrument has no moving parts (except the iodine cell), greatly simplifying its operation. We demonstrate differential radial velocity precision of a few m s-1 on well known radial velocity standards and planet bearing stars when using this interferometer. Such monolithic interferometers will make it possible to build relatively inexpensive instruments that are easy to operate and capable of precision radial velocity measurements. A larger multiobject version of the Exoplanet Tracker will be used to conduct a large scale survey for planetary systems as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). Variants of the techniques and principles discussed in this paper can be directly applied to build large monolithic interferometers for such applications, enabling the construction of instruments capable of efficiently observing many stars simultaneously at high velocity precision.

  15. Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in high-gradient streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Wilcox, A.; Wohl, E.E.; Lenzi, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We measured velocity and channel geometry in 10 reaches (bed gradient = 0.08-0.21) of a predominantly step-pool channel, the Rio Cordon, Italy, over a range of discharges (3-80% of the bankfull discharge). The resulting data were used to compute flow resistance. At-a-station hydraulic geometry relations indicate that in most reaches, the exponent describing the rate of velocity increases with discharge was between 0.48 and 0.6, which is within the range of published values for pool-riffle channels. The Rio Cordon data are also combined with published hydraulics data from step-pool streams to explore non-dimensional relationships between velocity and flow resistance and factors including unit discharge, channel gradient, and step geometry. Multiple regression analysis of this combined field dataset indicated that dimensionless unit discharge (q*) is the most important independent variable overall in explaining variations in velocity and flow resistance, followed by channel slope and the ratio of step height to step length. Empirical equations are provided both for dimensionless velocity and flow resistance, but prediction of the former variable appears more reliable. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in high-gradient streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, Francesco; Mao, Luca; Wilcox, Andrew; Wohl, Ellen E.; Lenzi, Mario A.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryWe measured velocity and channel geometry in 10 reaches (bed gradient = 0.08-0.21) of a predominantly step-pool channel, the Rio Cordon, Italy, over a range of discharges (3-80% of the bankfull discharge). The resulting data were used to compute flow resistance. At-a-station hydraulic geometry relations indicate that in most reaches, the exponent describing the rate of velocity increases with discharge was between 0.48 and 0.6, which is within the range of published values for pool-riffle channels. The Rio Cordon data are also combined with published hydraulics data from step-pool streams to explore non-dimensional relationships between velocity and flow resistance and factors including unit discharge, channel gradient, and step geometry. Multiple regression analysis of this combined field dataset indicated that dimensionless unit discharge ( q∗) is the most important independent variable overall in explaining variations in velocity and flow resistance, followed by channel slope and the ratio of step height to step length. Empirical equations are provided both for dimensionless velocity and flow resistance, but prediction of the former variable appears more reliable.

  17. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  18. Cluster Analysis of Velocity Field Derived from Dense GNSS Network of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dense GNSS networks have been widely used to observe crustal deformation. Simpson et al. (2012) and Savage and Simpson (2013) have conducted cluster analyses of GNSS velocity field in the San Francisco Bay Area and Mojave Desert, respectively. They have successfully found velocity discontinuities. They also showed an advantage of cluster analysis for classifying GNSS velocity field. Since in western United States, strike-slip events are dominant, geometry is simple. However, the Japanese Islands are tectonically complicated due to subduction of oceanic plates. There are many types of crustal deformation such as slow slip event and large postseismic deformation. We propose a modified clustering method of GNSS velocity field in Japan to separate time variant and static crustal deformation. Our modification is performing cluster analysis every several months or years, then qualifying cluster member similarity. If a GNSS station moved differently from its neighboring GNSS stations, the station will not belong to in the cluster which includes its surrounding stations. With this method, time variant phenomena were distinguished. We applied our method to GNSS data of Japan from 1996 to 2015. According to the analyses, following conclusions were derived. The first is the clusters boundaries are consistent with known active faults. For examples, the Arima-Takatsuki-Hanaore fault system and the Shimane-Tottori segment proposed by Nishimura (2015) are recognized, though without using prior information. The second is improving detectability of time variable phenomena, such as a slow slip event in northern part of Hokkaido region detected by Ohzono et al. (2015). The last one is the classification of postseismic deformation caused by large earthquakes. The result suggested velocity discontinuities in postseismic deformation of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. This result implies that postseismic deformation is not continuously decaying proportional to distance from its epicenter.

  19. The velocity and vorticity fields of the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James; Ong, Lawrence; Moin, Parviz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide a detailed experimental database of velocity and vorticity statistics in the very near wake (x/d less than 10) of a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 3900. This study has determined that estimations of the streamwise velocity component in flow fields with large nonzero cross-stream components are not accurate. Similarly, X-wire measurements of the u and v velocity components in flows containing large w are also subject to the errors due to binormal cooling. Using the look-up table (LUT) technique, and by calibrating the X-wire probe used here to include the range of expected angles of attack (+/- 40 deg), accurate X-wire measurements of instantaneous u and v velocity components in the very near wake region of a circular cylinder has been accomplished. The approximate two-dimensionality of the present flow field was verified with four-wire probe measurements, and to some extent the spanwise correlation measurements with the multisensor rake. Hence, binormal cooling errors in the present X-wire measurements are small.

  20. A computer-controlled near-field electrospinning setup and its graphic user interface for precision patterning of functional nanofibers on 2D and 3D substrates.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Gobind; Nesterenko, Sergiy; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique for production of nanofibers. However, it lacks the precision and control necessary for fabrication of nanofiber-based devices. The positional control of the nanofiber placement can be dramatically improved using low-voltage near-field electrospinning (LV-NFES). LV-NFES allows nanofibers to be patterned on 2D and 3D substrates. However, use of NFES requires low working distance between the electrospinning nozzle and substrate, manual jet initiation, and precise substrate movement to control fiber deposition. Environmental factors such as humidity also need to be controlled. We developed a computer-controlled automation strategy for LV-NFES to improve performance and reliability. With this setup, the user is able to control the relevant sensor and actuator parameters through a custom graphic user interface application programmed on the C#.NET platform. The stage movement can be programmed as to achieve any desired nanofiber pattern and thickness. The nanofiber generation step is initiated through a software-controlled linear actuator. Parameter setting files can be saved into an Excel sheet and can be used subsequently in running multiple experiments. Each experiment is automatically video recorded and stamped with the pertinent real-time parameters. Humidity is controlled with ±3% accuracy through a feedback loop. Further improvements, such as real-time droplet size control for feed rate regulation are in progress.

  1. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  2. Comment on "Diffusion by a random velocity field" [Phys. Fluids 13, 22 (1970)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Tony; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-11-01

    This comment aims at addressing a mass conservation issue in a paper published in the physics of fluids. The paper [R. H. Kraichnan, "Diffusion by a random velocity field," Phys. Fluids 13(1), 22 (1970)] introduces a novel method to generate synthetic isotropic turbulence for computational purposes. The method has been used in the literature to generate inlet boundary conditions and to model aeroacoustic noise as well as for validation and verification purposes. However, the technique uses a continuous formulation to derive the mass conservation constraint. In this comment, we argue that the continuous constraint is invalid on a discrete grid and provide an alternative derivation using the discrete divergence. In addition, we present an analysis to quantify the impact of a pressure projection on the kinetic energy of a non-solenoidal velocity field.

  3. Lift distribution and velocity field measurements for a three-dimensional, steady blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Norman, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment simulating a steady three-dimensional helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction is reported. The experimental configuration consisted of a vertical semispan vortex-generating wing, mounted upstream of a horizontal semispan rotor blade airfoil. A three-dimensional laser velocimeter was used to measure the velocity field in the region of the blade. Sectional lift coefficients were calculated by integrating the velocity field to obtain the bound vorticity. Total lift values, obtained by using an internal strain-gauge balance, verified the laser velocimeter data. Parametric variations of vortex strength, rotor blade angle of attack, and vortex position relative to the rotor blade were explored. These data are reported (with attention to experimental limitations) to provide a dataset for the validation of analytical work.

  4. Large-scale peculiar velocity field in flat models of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Vittorio, N.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The inflationary universe scenario predicts a flat universe and both adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations with the Zel'dovich spectrum. The two simplest realizations, models dominated by hot or cold dark matter, seem to be in conflict with observations. Flat models with two components of mass density, where one of the components of mass density is smoothly distributed, are examined, and the large-scale peculiar velocity field for these models is computed. For the smooth component the authors consider relativistic particles, a relic cosmological term, and light strings. At present the observational situation is unsettled, but, in principle, the large-scale peculiar velocity field is a very powerful discriminator between these different models. 66 references.

  5. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  6. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D.; Hong, Mei

    2017-01-01

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of uniformly 13C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose 13C chemical shifts differ significantly from the 13C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D 13C-13C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Cellulose f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, cellulose a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of bacterial, algal

  7. VLA Observations of the Magnetic Field of the Smith High Velocity Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, Sarah; Hill, Alex S.; Mao, Sui Ann; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2017-01-01

    High velocity clouds (HVCs) are hydrogen gas clouds around galaxies with velocities inconsistent with Galactic rotation. HVCs may fuel future star formation and drive galaxy evolution. The Smith Cloud is an HVC with an orbit suggesting it has made at least one passage through the disk. A measured magnetic field suggests how it survived passage through the Galactic halo. The Faraday rotation measure (RM) provides information about the strength and direction of the magnetic field. We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to obtain reliable RMs towards ~950 background point sources to measure the geometry of the magnetic field of the Smith Cloud. These RMs constrain the strength of the magnetic field at the head, tail, and body of the Smith Cloud while RMs directly behind the Smith Cloud suggest there is ionized gas associated with the cloud that has not previously been detected. The confirmation of the magnetic field of the Smith Cloud along with a detailed morphology of the magnetic field structure will constrain how HVCs pass through the Galactic halo without losing their gas and survive the passage through the intergalactic and interstellar media.

  8. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  9. Transmission of acoustic waves through mixing layers and 2D isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juve, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Comte-Bellot, G.

    Ray tracing and parabolic equation methods have been used to study the properties of acoustic waves transmitted through turbulent velocity fields. A numerical simulation permits individual realizations of the turbulent field, which then allow, if desired, an ensemble averaging of the fields. Two flows have been considered, 2D isotropic turbulence and a 2D mixing layer. The following complementary aspects are developed: the occurrence of caustics, the reinforced or weakened zones of the acoustic field, the eigenrays between a source and a receiver, and the associated travel times, variances, and scintillation index.

  10. Kernel Bundle Diffeomorphic Image Registration Using Stationary Velocity Fields and Wendland Basis Functions.

    PubMed

    Pai, Akshay; Sommer, Stefan; Sorensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-scale, multi-kernel shape, compactly supported kernel bundle framework for stationary velocity field-based image registration (Wendland kernel bundle stationary velocity field, wKB-SVF). We exploit the possibility of directly choosing kernels to construct a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) instead of imposing it from a differential operator. The proposed framework allows us to minimize computational cost without sacrificing the theoretical foundations of SVF-based diffeomorphic registration. In order to recover deformations occurring at different scales, we use compactly supported Wendland kernels at multiple scales and orders to parameterize the velocity fields, and the framework allows simultaneous optimization over all scales. The performance of wKB-SVF is extensively compared to the 14 non-rigid registration algorithms presented in a recent comparison paper. On both MGH10 and CUMC12 datasets, the accuracy of wKB-SVF is improved when compared to other registration algorithms. In a disease-specific application for intra-subject registration, atrophy scores estimated using the proposed registration scheme separates the diagnostic groups of Alzheimer's and normal controls better than the state-of-the-art segmentation technique. Experimental results show that wKB-SVF is a robust, flexible registration framework that allows theoretically well-founded and computationally efficient multi-scale representation of deformations and is equally well-suited for both inter- and intra-subject image registration.

  11. A consistent solution for the velocity field and mass-loss rate of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, P. E.; Vink, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    Stellar winds are an important aspect of our understanding of the evolution of massive stars and their input into the interstellar medium. Here we present solutions for the velocity field and mass-loss rates for stellar outflows as well as for the case of mass accretion through the use of the so-called Lambert W-function. For the case of a radiation-driven wind, the velocity field is obtained analytically using a parameterised description for the line acceleration that only depends on radius, which we obtain from Monte-Carlo multi-line radiative transfer calculations. In our form of the equation of motion the critical point is the sonic point. We also derive an approximate analytical solution for the supersonic flow which closely resembles our exact solution. For the simultaneous solution of the mass-loss rate and velocity field, we describe a new iterative method. We apply our theoretical expressions and our iterative method to the stellar wind from a typical O5-V main sequence star, and find good agreement with empirical values. Our computations represent a self-consistent mass-loss calculation including the effect of multi-line scattering for an O-type star, opening up the possibility of applying Monte Carlo mass-loss calculations in regions of the Universe for which empirical constraints cannot be readily obtained.

  12. Image registration using stationary velocity fields parameterized by norm-minimizing Wendland kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Sommer, Stefan; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-03-01

    Interpolating kernels are crucial to solving a stationary velocity field (SVF) based image registration problem. This is because, velocity fields need to be computed in non-integer locations during integration. The regularity in the solution to the SVF registration problem is controlled by the regularization term. In a variational formulation, this term is traditionally expressed as a squared norm which is a scalar inner product of the interpolating kernels parameterizing the velocity fields. The minimization of this term using the standard spline interpolation kernels (linear or cubic) is only approximative because of the lack of a compatible norm. In this paper, we propose to replace such interpolants with a norm-minimizing interpolant - the Wendland kernel which has the same computational simplicity like B-Splines. An application on the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative showed that Wendland SVF based measures separate (Alzheimer's disease v/s normal controls) better than both B-Spline SVFs (p<0.05 in amygdala) and B-Spline freeform deformation (p<0.05 in amygdala and cortical gray matter).

  13. Kernel bundle diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields and Wendland basis functions.

    PubMed

    Pai, Akshay; Sommer, Stefan; Sorensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-12-23

    In this paper, we propose a multi-scale, multi-kernel shape, compactly supported kernel bundle framework for stationary velocity field-based image registration (Wendland kernel bundle stationary velocity field, wKB-SVF). We exploit the possibility of directly choosing kernels to construct a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) instead of imposing it from a differential operator. The proposed framework allows us to minimize computational cost without sacrificing the theoretical foundations of SVF-based diffeomorphic registration. In order to recover deformations occurring at different scales, we use compactly supported Wendland kernels at multiple scales and orders to parameterize the velocity fields, and the framework allows simultaneous optimization over all scales. The performance of wKB-SVF is extensively compared to the 14 non-rigid registration algorithms presented in a recent comparison paper. On both MGH10 and CUMC12 datasets, the accuracy of wKB-SVF is improved when compared to other registration algorithms. In a disease-specific application for intra-subject registration, atrophy scores estimated using the proposed registration scheme separates the diagnostic groups of Alzheimer's and normal controls better than the state-of-the-art segmentation technique. Experimental results show that wKB-SVF is a robust, flexible registration framework that allows theoretically well-founded and computationally efficient multi-scale representation of deformations and is equally well-suited for both inter- and intra-subject image registration.

  14. Uncertainty of InSAR velocity fields for measuring long-wavelength displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.

    2014-12-01

    Long-wavelength artifacts in InSAR data are the main limitation to measure long-wavelength displacement; they are traditionally attributed mainly to the inaccuracy of the satellite orbits (orbital errors). However, most satellites are precisely tracked resulting in uncertainties of orbits of 2-10 cm. Orbits of these satellites are thus precise enough to obtain precise velocity fields with uncertainties better than 1 mm/yr/100 km for older satellites (e.g. Envisat) and better than 0.2 mm/yr/100 km for modern satellites (e.g. TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1) [Fattahi & Amelung, 2014]. Such accurate velocity fields are achievable if long-wavelength artifacts from sources other than orbital errors are identified and corrected for. We present a modified Small Baseline approach to measure long-wavelength deformation and evaluate the uncertainty of these measurements. We use a redundant network of interferograms for detection and correction of unwrapping errors to ensure the unbiased estimation of phase history. We distinguish between different sources of long-wavelength artifacts and correct those introduced by atmospheric delay, topographic residuals, timing errors, processing approximations and hardware issues. We evaluate the uncertainty of the velocity fields using a covariance matrix with the contributions from orbital errors and residual atmospheric delay. For contributions from the orbital errors we consider the standard deviation of velocity gradients in range and azimuth directions as a function of orbital uncertainty. For contributions from the residual atmospheric delay we use several approaches including the structure functions of InSAR time-series epochs, the predicted delay from numerical weather models and estimated wet delay from optical imagery. We validate this InSAR approach for measuring long-wavelength deformation by comparing InSAR velocity fields over ~500 km long swath across the southern San Andreas fault system with independent GPS velocities and

  15. Crustal velocity field near the big bend of California's San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snay, R.A.; Cline, M.W.; Philipp, C.R.; Jackson, D.D.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.-K.; Lisowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    We use geodetic data spanning the 1920-1992 interval to estimate the horizontal velocity field near the big bend segment of California's San Andreas fault (SAF). More specifically, we estimate a horizontal velocity vector for each node of a two-dimensional grid that has a 15-min-by-15-min mesh and that extends between latitudes 34.0??N and 36.0??N and longitudes 117.5??W and 120.5??W. For this estimation process, we apply bilinear interpolation to transfer crustal deformation information from geodetic sites to the grid nodes. The data include over a half century of triangulation measurements, over two decades of repeated electronic distance measurements, a decade of repeated very long baseline interferometry measurements, and several years of Global Positioning System measurements. Magnitudes for our estimated velocity vectors have formal standard errors ranging from 0.7 to 6.8 mm/yr. Our derived velocity field shows that (1) relative motion associated with the SAF exceeds 30 mm/yr and is distributed on the Earth's surface across a band (> 100 km wide) that is roughly centered on this fault; (2) when velocities are expressed relative to a fixed North America plate, the motion within our primary study region has a mean orientation of N44??W ?? 2?? and the surface trace of the SAF is congruent in shape to nearby contours of constant speed yet this trace is oriented between 5?? and 10?? counterclockwise relative to these contours; and (3) large strain rates (shear rates > 150 nrad/yr and/or areal dilatation rates < -150 nstr/yr) exist near the Garlock fault, near the White Wolf fault, and in the Ventura basin.

  16. Pulse-shape-dependent strong-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C.; Rozgonyi, Tamas; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus

    2011-11-15

    We explore strong field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape dependence. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how strong field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.

  17. Effects of Data Sampling on the Results of Fourier Analysis of Radial-Velocity Fields in Spiral-Galaxy Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, A. N.; Zasov, A. V.; Fridman, A. M.; Khoruzhi, O. V.

    2000-12-01

    Our main goal is to investigate the effects of data incompleteness on the results of Fourier analysis of line-of-sight velocity fields in the disks of spiral galaxies. We have carried out a number of numerical experiments, first with an artificially created simple velocity field and then with the velocity fields of two real galaxies, which qualitatively differ in data filling: NGC 157 and NGC 3631 with good and bad data filling, respectively. The field of purely circular velocities is chosen as the simplest artificial velocity field, because the circular velocities of spiral galaxies are much high than the residual (noncircular) velocities. Superimposing a "mask" simulating blank spots (holes) in the map of observational data on this artificial field has no effect on the results of Fourier analysis of this simplest field. A similar result is obtained for real galaxies with good data filling of the observed velocity fields. Superimposing arbitrarily shaped masks on the observed velocity field of NGC 157 in such a way that the field was filled by a mere 50% (at each radius) could not change appreciably the radial variations of large-scale Fourier harmonics. The situation qualitatively changes in attempting to fill the holes in the observed velocity field of NGC 3631 in some way. When missing velocities are artificially introduced by using the simplest model of purely circular gas rotation, the amplitudes and phases of the principal Fourier harmonics are distorted. In particular, a substantial distortion of the third harmonic also causes an increase in the error when determining the corotation radius from data of the filled field. When the filling of the velocity field is increased by degrading the spatial resolution, the amplitudes of most harmonics decrease throughout the entire disk region; as a result, their radial variations are smoothed out and the behavior of harmonic phases in the range of moderately high initial amplitudes can be distorted. An abnormal

  18. Velocity dependence of the dynamic magnetic field acting on swift O and Sm ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, N. K. B.; Melnik, D.; Brennan, J. M.; Semmler, W.; Benczer-Koller, #.

    1980-05-01

    The hyperfine dynamic field acting on fast ions traversing polarized iron foils has been measured as a function of the ion velocity in the region 0.03field increases with velocity but not linearly. The same conclusions were obtained from measurements on oxygen ions traversing thin iron foils or stopping in thick iron foils. All available data on dynamic-field measurements at ions with 8field. The region of validity of this parametrization of the dynamic field, as well as possible explanations of its origin, are discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 150,152Sm(16O, 16O')150,152Sm(2+1), 150,152Sm(32S, 32S')150,152Sm(2+1), and 16O(α,α')16O(3-1): E0~40 MeV, Es~70-80 MeV, Eα=17.55 MeV; measured W(θ,B,∞) through polarized iron; deduced BDYNAMIC(v); compiled existing data to obtain general parametrization for BDYNAMIC(v,Z).

  19. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame.

  20. Rapid analysis of non-uniformly sampled pulsed field gradient data for velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Park, J C; Pavlovskaya, G E; Gibbs, S J

    2001-06-01

    Bretthorst's recent generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram shows that a sufficient statistic for frequency estimation from non-uniformly, but simultaneously sampled quadrature data is equivalent to the FFT of those data with the missing samples replaced by zeros. We have applied this concept to the rapid analysis of pulsed field gradient MRI data which have been non-uniformly sampled in the velocity encoding wave vector q. For a small number of q samples, it is more computationally efficient to calculate the periodogram directly rather than using the FFT algorithm with a large number of zeros. The algorithm we have implemented for finding the peak of the generalized periodogram is simple and robust; it involves repeated apodization and grid searching of the periodogram until the desired velocity resolution is achieved. The final estimate is refined by quadratic interpolation. We have tested the method for fully developed Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid and have demonstrated substantial improvement in the precision of velocity measurement achievable in a fixed acquisition time with non-uniform sampling. The method is readily extendible to multidimensional data. Analysis of a 256 by 256 pixel image with 8 q samples and an effective velocity resolution of better than 1/680 of the Nyquist range requires approximately 1 minute computation time on a 400 MHz SUN Ultrasparc II processor.

  1. On the velocity in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mercolli, Lorenzo; Pajer, Enrico E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    We compute the renormalized two-point functions of density, divergence and vorticity of the velocity in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. Because of momentum and mass conservation, the corrections from short scales to the large-scale power spectra of density, divergence and vorticity must start at order k{sup 4}. For the vorticity this constitutes one of the two leading terms. Exact (approximated) self-similarity of an Einstein-de Sitter (ΛCDM) background fixes the time dependence so that the vorticity power spectrum at leading order is determined by the symmetries of the problem and the power spectrum around the non-linear scale. We show that to cancel all divergences in the velocity correlators one needs new counterterms. These fix the definition of velocity and do not represent new properties of the system. For an Einstein-de Sitter universe, we show that all three renormalized cross- and auto-correlation functions have the same structure but different numerical coefficients, which we compute. We elucidate the differences between using momentum and velocity.

  2. High-speed non-intrusive measurements of fuel velocity fields at high-pressure injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürtler, Johannes; Schlüßler, Raimund; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Using a single high-speed camera and a frequency modulated laser, a novel approach is presented for fast velocity field measurements in unsteady spray flows. The velocity range is from zero up to several 100 m/s, which requires a high measurement rate and a large dynamic. Typically, flow measurements require to seed tracer particles to the fluid. A paradigm shift to seeding-free measurements is presented. The light scattered at the phase boundaries of the fluid droplets is evaluated. In order to validate the high-speed measurement system, a detailed uncertainty analysis is performed by means of measurements as well as simulations. Thereby, variations of the scattered light intensity, which are based on the high temporal velocity gradients, are found to be the main contribution to the uncertainty. The eventually measurement results, obtained at a measurement rate of 500 kHz, exhibit spray velocities ranging from 0 m/s up to 400 m/s in less than 1 ms, and the detection of unsteady and irregular flow phenomena with a characteristic time of several μs is achieved. This demonstrates the high measurement rate, the high temporal resolution and the large measurement range of the proposed high-speed measurement system.

  3. PIV, 2D-LIF and 1D-Raman measurements of flow field, composition and temperature in premixed gas turbine flames

    SciTech Connect

    Stopper, U.; Aigner, M.; Ax, H.; Meier, W.; Sadanandan, R.; Stoehr, M.; Bonaldo, A.

    2010-04-15

    Several laser diagnostic measurement techniques have been applied to study the lean premixed natural gas/air flames of an industrial swirl burner. This was made possible by equipping the burner with an optical combustion chamber that was installed in the high-pressure test rig facility at the DLR Institute of Combustion Technology in Stuttgart. The burner was operated with preheated air at various operating conditions with pressures up to p = 6 bar and a maximum thermal power of P = 1 MW. The instantaneous planar flow field inside the combustor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals on a single-shot basis was used to determine the shape and the location of the flame front as well as the spatial distribution of reaction products. 1D laser Raman spectroscopy was successfully applied for the measurement of the temperature and the concentration of major species under realistic gas turbine conditions. Results of the flow field analysis show the shape and the size of the main flow regimes: the inflow region, the inner and the outer recirculation zone. The highly turbulent flow field of the inner shear layer is found to be dominated by small and medium sized vortices. High RMS fluctuations of the flow velocity in the exhaust gas indicate the existence of a rotating exhaust gas swirl. From the PLIF images it is seen that the primary reactions happened in the shear layers between inflow and the recirculation zones and that the appearance of the reaction zones changed with flame parameters. The results of the multiscalar Raman measurements show a strong variation of the local mixture fraction allowing conclusions to be drawn about the premix quality. Furthermore, mixing effects of unburnt fuel and air with fully reacted combustion products are studied giving insights into the processes of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. (author)

  4. Long-term decoding stability of local field potentials from silicon arrays in primate motor cortex during a 2D center out task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Li, Yue; Wang, Yiwen; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Many serious concerns exist in the long-term stability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) based on spike signals (single unit activity, SUA; multi unit activity, MUA). Some studies showed local field potentials (LFPs) could offer a stable decoding performance. However, the decoding stability of LFPs was examined only when high quality spike signals were recorded. Here we aim to examine the long-term decoding stability of LFPs over a larger time scale when the quality of spike signals was from good to poor or even no spike was recorded. Approach. Neural signals were collected from motor cortex of three monkeys via silicon arrays over 230, 290 and 690 days post-implantation when they performed 2D center out task. To compare long-term stability between LFPs and spike signals, we examined them in neural signals characteristics, directional tuning properties and offline decoding performance, respectively. Main results. We observed slow decreasing trends in the number of LFP channels recorded and mean LFP power in different frequency bands when spike signals quality decayed over time. The number of significantly directional tuning LFP channels decreased more slowly than that of tuning SUA and MUA. The variable preferred directions for the same signal features across sessions indicated non-stationarity of neural activity. We also found that LFPs achieved better decoding performance than SUA and MUA in retrained decoder when the quality of spike signals seriously decayed. Especially, when no spike was recorded in one monkey after 671 days post-implantation, LFPs still provided some kinematic information. In addition, LFPs outperformed MUA in long-term decoding stability in a static decoder. Significance. Our results suggested that LFPs were more durable and could provide better decoding performance when spike signals quality seriously decayed. It might be due to their resistance to recording degradation and their high redundancy among channels.

  5. Brain histamine depletion enhances the behavioural sequences complexity of mice tested in the open-field: Partial reversal effect of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Andrea; Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Blandina, Patrizio; Ricca, Valdo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Casarrubea, Maurizio; Passani, M Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Markers of histaminergic dysregulation were found in several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by repetitive behaviours, thoughts and stereotypies. We analysed the effect of acute histamine depletion by means of i. c.v. injections of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a blocker of histidine decarboxylase, on the temporal organization of motor sequences of CD1 mice behaviour in the open-field test. An ethogram encompassing 9 behavioural components was employed. Durations and frequencies were only slightly affected by treatments. However, as revealed by multivariate t-pattern analysis, histamine depletion was associated with a striking increase in the number of behavioural patterns. We found 42 patterns of different composition occurring, on average, 520.90 ± 50.23 times per mouse in the histamine depleted (HD) group, whereas controls showed 12 different patterns occurring on average 223.30 ± 20.64 times. Exploratory and grooming behaviours clustered separately, and the increased pattern complexity involved exclusively exploratory patterns. To test the hypothesis of a histamine-dopamine interplay on behavioural pattern phenotype, non-sedative doses of the D2/D3 antagonist sulpiride (12.5-25-50 mg/kg) were additionally administered to different groups of HD mice. Sulpiride counterbalanced the enhancement of exploratory patterns of different composition, but it did not affect the mean number of patterns at none of the doses used. Our results provide new insights on the role of histamine on repetitive behavioural sequences of freely moving mice. Histamine deficiency is correlated with a general enhancement of pattern complexity. This study supports a putative involvement of histamine in the pathophysiology of tics and related disorders.

  6. Spatially selective 2D RF inner field of view (iFOV) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the pediatric spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Chris J.; Middleton, Devon M.; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Raunig, David L.; Faro, Scott H.; Shah, Pallav; Krisa, Laura; Sinko, Rebecca; Delalic, Joan Z.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Mohamed, Feroze B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS); namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV) imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI):5). Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01) and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01) between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation algorithms

  7. GPS Velocity and Strain Rate Fields in Southwest Anatolia from Repeated GPS Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Saffet; Şahin, Muhammed; Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Gülal, Engin; Telli, Ali Kazım

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006 to estimate current crustal deformation of this tectonically active region. GPS data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and velocity and strain rate fields were estimated in the study area. The measurements showed velocities of 15–30 mm/yr toward the southwest and strain values up to 0.28–8.23×10−8. Results showed that extension has been determined in the Burdur-Isparta region. In this study, all of strain data reveal an extensional neotectonic regime through the northeast edge of the Isparta Angle despite the previously reported compressional neotectonic regime. Meanwhile, results showed some small differences relatively with the 2006 model of Reilinger et al. As a result, active tectonic movements, in agreement with earthquake fault plane solutions showed important activity. PMID:22573998

  8. Magnetic Field Strength in an Intermediate-velocity Ionized Filament in the First Galactic Quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stil, J. M.; Hryhoriw, A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the magnetic field in an intermediate-velocity filament for which the Hα intensity in the WHAM survey correlates with excess Faraday rotation of extragalactic radio sources over the length of the filament from b ≈ 20° to b ≈ 55°. The density-weighted mean magnetic field is 2.8 +/- 0.8 μ {{G}}, derived from rotation measures and an empirical relation between Hα emission measure and dispersion measure from Berkhuijsen et al. In view of the uncertainties in the derived magnetic field strength, we propose an alternative use of the available data, rotation measure, and emission measure, to derive a lower limit to the Alfvén speed, weighted by electron density {n}e3/2. We find lower limits to the Alfvén speed that are comparable to or larger than the sound speed in a {10}4 {{K}} plasma, and conclude that the magnetic field is dynamically important. We discuss the role of intermediate-velocity gas as a locus of Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium, and propose that this lower limit to the Alfvén speed may also be applicable to Faraday rotation by galaxy clusters.

  9. Effects of light illumination on electron velocity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures under high electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Sang, Ling; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Feng, Zhihong; Lv, Yuanjie; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, B.; Ge, Weikun

    2014-12-15

    We have investigated the variation of electron velocity in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures depending on illuminating light intensity and wavelength. It is shown that the electron velocity at high electric field increases under above-band light illumination. This electron velocity enhancement is found to be related to the photo-generated cold holes which interact with hot electrons and thus accelerate the energy relaxation at high electric field. The results suggest an alternative way to improve the electron energy relaxation rate and hence the electron velocity in GaN based heterostructures.

  10. Experimental analysis of the velocity field of the air flowing through the swirl diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaszczur, M.; Branny, M.; Karch, M.; Borowski, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies of flow of air through diffusers. Presented laboratory model is a simplification of the real system and was made in a geometric scale 1:10. Simplifying refer both to the geometry of the object and conditions of air flow. The aim of the study is to determine the actual velocity fields of air flowing out of the swirl diffuser. The results obtained for the diffuser various settings are presented. We have tested various flow rates of air. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) method was used to measure all velocity vector components. The experimental results allow to determine the actual penetration depth of the supply air into the room. This will allow for better definition of the conditions of ventilation in buildings.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding fluid velocity field in complex flows.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Deepak; Gemmell, Brad J; Hallberg, Michael P; Longmire, Ellen K; Buskey, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    We describe an automated, volumetric particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tracking method that measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively. The method is demonstrated for groups of copepods flowing past a wall-mounted cylinder. We show that copepods execute escape responses when subjected to a strain rate threshold upstream of a cylinder, but the same threshold range elicits no escape responses in the turbulent wake downstream. The method was also used to document the instantaneous slip velocity of zooplankton and the resulting differences in trajectory between zooplankton and non-inertial fluid particles in the unsteady wake flow, showing the method's capability to quantify drift for both passive and motile organisms in turbulent environments. Applications of the method extend to any group of organisms interacting with the surrounding fluid environment, where organism location, larger-scale eddies and smaller-scale fluid deformation rates can all be tracked and analyzed.

  12. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  13. Experimental investigation of the velocity field and skin friction for convecting vortex/boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacRorie, Michael; Pauley, Wayne R.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between propagating spanwise vortices and a turbulent boundary layer was studied experimentally. The experimental techniques include hotwire anemometry and smoke visualization. The results focus on the relationship between the passage of vortex structures and the response of the boundary layer in terms of unsteady mean velocity, wall shear, and turbulence quantities. Both positive and negative circulation vortices were studied at three different heights above the test surface. The results indicate that the height of the vortex above the surface has an effect on the wall shear response. However, vortex height and strength are related in this experiment. A phase lag between the passage of the vortex center and the peak wall shear stress response is demonstrated. This phase lag was found to increase with streamwise distance. An examination of the response of the mean and turbulent velocity fields in the boundary layer shows that the phase lag is confined to a region close to the wall.

  14. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.G.; Davis, S.J.; Kessler, W.J.; Sonnenfroh, D.M. )

    1992-07-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties. 13 refs.

  15. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}-6p[3]{sub 5/2} xenon ion excited state transition centered at {lambda}=834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  16. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. III - Reconstruction of the velocity and density fields in N-body model universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; Yahil, Amos

    1991-01-01

    N-body simulations of a 'cold dark matter' universe are presently used to calibrate the accuracy, and assess the limitations, of the procedure previously employed to predict the velocity field within 8000 km/sec of the Local Group through the application of linear gravitational theory to a full-sky, flux-limited sample of IRAS galaxies. The rms difference between the one-dimensional acceleration and velocity of field particles is an increasing function of local density; linear theory can in this way account for all but one-sixth of kinetic energy. A series of artificial IRAS catalogs closely matching the real sample in space density and clustering amplitude is constructed. Velocity correlation functions are used to demonstrate that the predicted velocity fields are in good agreement with the true velocity fields on large scales.

  17. River-ice and sea-ice velocity fields from near-simultaneous satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeaeb, A.; Leprince, S.; Prowse, T. D.; Beltaos, S.; Lamare, M.; Abrams, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite stereo and satellites that follow each other on similar orbits within short time periods produce near-simultaneous space imagery, a kind of data that is little exploited. In this study, we track river-ice and sea-ice motion over time periods of tens of seconds to several minutes, which is the typical time lag between the two or more images of such near-simultaneous acquisition constellations. Using this novel approach, we measure and visualize for the first time the almost complete two-dimensional minute-scale velocity fields over several thousand square-kilometers of sea ice cover or over up to several hundred kilometers long river reaches. We present the types of near-simultaneous imagery and constellations suitable for the measurements and discuss application examples, using a range of high and medium resolution imagery such as from ASTER, ALOS PRISM, Ikonos, WorldView-2, Landsat and EO-1. The river ice velocities obtained provide new insights into ice dynamics, river flow and river morphology, in particular during ice breakup. River-ice breakup and the associated downstream transport of ice debris is often the most important hydrological event of the year, producing flood levels that commonly exceed those for the open-water period and dramatic consequences for river infrastructure and ecology. We also estimate river discharge from ice/water surface velocities using near-simultaneous satellite imagery. Our results for sea ice complement velocity fields typically obtained over time-scales of days and can thus contribute to better understanding of a number of processes involved in sea ice drift, such as wind impact, tidal currents and interaction of ice floes with each other and with obstacles.

  18. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  19. Axisymmetric electromagnetic field influence on the characteristic velocity of an arc-jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oggero, M.; Gennuso, D.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for determining the influence of an axisymmetric EM field on the characteristic velocity of an arc jet are presented. The experimental set up is briefly described. Tests were performed with rotation induced by the centrifugal and magnetic fields in the same sense. The fuels used were HE and N2 and the results are discussed. It is found that by variation of the induction, current, and arc jet strength, the behavior is determined essentially by the shape of the cathodic and anodic blobs on the electrodes together with their movement under the combined effect of the aerodynamic and magnetic fields. In view of the different characteristics of He and N2 in respect to the dissociation heat and ionization, it is expected that the regime of the arc jet when used with H2 fuel will be similar to that with He.

  20. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF VELOCITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN AND AROUND UMBRAL DOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; De la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc

    2012-09-20

    We study the temporal evolution of umbral dots (UDs) using measurements from the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. Scans of the magnetically sensitive 630 nm iron lines were performed under stable atmospheric conditions for 71 minutes with a cadence of 63 s. These observations allow us to investigate the magnetic field and velocity in and around UDs at a resolution approaching 0.''13. From the analysis of 339 UDs, we draw the following conclusions: (1) UDs show clear hints of upflows, as predicted by magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By contrast, we could not find systematic downflow signals. Only in very deep layers, we detect localized downflows around UDs, but they do not persist in time. (2) We confirm that UDs exhibit weaker and more inclined fields than their surroundings, as reported previously. However, UDs that have strong fields above 2000 G or are in the decay phase show enhanced and more vertical fields. (3) There are enhanced fields at the migration front of UDs detached from penumbral grains, as if their motion were impeded by the ambient field. (4) Long-lived UDs travel longer distances with slower proper motions. Our results appear to confirm some aspects of recent numerical simulations of magnetoconvection in the umbra (e.g., the existence of upflows in UDs), but not others (e.g., the systematic weakening of the magnetic field at the position of UDs).

  1. Temporal Evolution of Velocity and Magnetic Field in and around Umbral Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc

    2012-09-01

    We study the temporal evolution of umbral dots (UDs) using measurements from the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. Scans of the magnetically sensitive 630 nm iron lines were performed under stable atmospheric conditions for 71 minutes with a cadence of 63 s. These observations allow us to investigate the magnetic field and velocity in and around UDs at a resolution approaching 0farcs13. From the analysis of 339 UDs, we draw the following conclusions: (1) UDs show clear hints of upflows, as predicted by magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By contrast, we could not find systematic downflow signals. Only in very deep layers, we detect localized downflows around UDs, but they do not persist in time. (2) We confirm that UDs exhibit weaker and more inclined fields than their surroundings, as reported previously. However, UDs that have strong fields above 2000 G or are in the decay phase show enhanced and more vertical fields. (3) There are enhanced fields at the migration front of UDs detached from penumbral grains, as if their motion were impeded by the ambient field. (4) Long-lived UDs travel longer distances with slower proper motions. Our results appear to confirm some aspects of recent numerical simulations of magnetoconvection in the umbra (e.g., the existence of upflows in UDs), but not others (e.g., the systematic weakening of the magnetic field at the position of UDs).

  2. Decay of passive scalars under the action of single scale smooth velocity fields in bounded two-dimensional domains: from non-self-similar probability distribution functions to self-similar eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Sukhatme, Jai; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T

    2002-11-01

    We examine the decay of passive scalars with small, but nonzero, diffusivity in bounded two-dimensional (2D) domains. The velocity fields responsible for advection are smooth (i.e., they have bounded gradients) and of a single large scale. Moreover, the scale of the velocity field is taken to be similar to the size of the entire domain. The importance of the initial scale of variation of the scalar field with respect to that of the velocity field is strongly emphasized. If these scales are comparable and the velocity field is time periodic, we see the formation of a periodic scalar eigenmode. The eigenmode is numerically realized by means of a deterministic 2D map on a lattice. Analytical justification for the eigenmode is available from theorems in the dynamo literature. Weakening the notion of an eigenmode to mean statistical stationarity, we provide numerical evidence that the eigenmode solution also holds for aperiodic flows (represented by random maps). Turning to the evolution of an initially small scale scalar field, we demonstrate the transition from an evolving (i.e., non-self-similar) probability distribution function (pdf) to a stationary (self-similar) pdf as the scale of variation of the scalar field progresses from being small to being comparable to that of the velocity field (and of the domain). Furthermore, the non-self-similar regime itself consists of two stages. Both stages are examined and the coupling between diffusion and the distribution of the finite time Lyapunov exponents is shown to be responsible for the pdf evolution.

  3. Velocity and magnetic field measurements of Taylor plumes in SSX under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manjit; Brown, M. R.; Han, J.; Shrock, J. E.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    The SSX device has been modified by the addition of a 1 m long glass extension for accommodating pulsed theta pinch coils. The Taylor plumes are launched from a magnetized plasma gun and flow to an expansion volume downstream. The time of flight (TOF) measurements of these plumes are carried out using a linear array of Ḃ probes (separated by 10cm). TOF of the plasma plumes from one probe location to the next is determined by direct comparison of the magnetic field structures as well as by carrying out a cross-correlation analysis. With the glass boundary, the typical velocity of the Taylor plumes is found to be 25km /s , accompanied by a fast plasma (>= 50km /s) at the leading edge. Magnetic field embedded in the Taylor plumes is measured in the expansion chamber using a three-dimensional array of Ḃ probes and is found to be 700G . Some flux conservation of the Taylor plumes is provided by using a resistive (soak time 3 μs) and a mesh (soak time 170 μs > discharge time) liner around the glass tube for improving the downstream Taylor state velocity as well as the magnetic field. The results from these different boundary conditions will be presented. Work supported by DOE OFES and ARPA-E ALPHA programs.

  4. Stationary electron velocity distribution function in crossed electric and magnetic fields with collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shagayda, Andrey

    2012-08-15

    Analytical studies and numerical simulations show that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster discharge with crossed electric and magnetic fields is not Maxwellian. This is due to the fact that the mean free path between collisions is greater than both the Larmor radius and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge channel. However in numerical models of Hall thrusters, a hydrodynamic approach is often used to describe the electron dynamics, because discharge simulation in a fully kinetic approach requires large computing resources and is time consuming. A more accurate modeling of the electron flow in the hydrodynamic approximation requires taking into account the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function and finding its moments, an approach that reflects the properties of electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields better than the commonly used Euler or Navier-Stokes approximations. In the present paper, an expression for the electron velocity distribution function in rarefied spatially homogeneous stationary plasma with crossed electric and magnetic fields and predominance of collisions with heavy particles is derived in the relaxation approximation. The main moments of the distribution function including longitudinal and transversal temperatures, the components of the viscous stress tensor, and of the heat flux vector are calculated. Distinctive features of the hydrodynamic description of electrons with a strongly non-equilibrium distribution function and the prospects for further development of the proposed approach for calculating the distribution function in spatially inhomogeneous plasma are discussed.

  5. Evolution of Mass and Velocity Field in the Cosmic Web: Comparison between Baryonic and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weishan; Feng, Long-Long

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the evolution of the cosmic web since z = 5 in grid-based cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the mass and velocity fields of both baryonic and cold dark matter. The tidal tensor of density is used as the main method for web identification, with λ th = 0.2–1.2. The evolution trends in baryonic and dark matter are similar, although moderate differences are observed. Sheets appear early, and their large-scale pattern may have been set up by z = 3. In terms of mass, filaments supersede sheets as the primary collapsing structures from z ∼ 2–3. Tenuous filaments assembled with each other to form prominent ones at z < 2. In accordance with the construction of the frame of the sheets, the cosmic divergence velocity, v div, was already well-developed above 2–3 Mpc by z = 3. Afterwards, the curl velocity, v curl, grew dramatically along with the rising of filaments, becoming comparable to v div, for <2–3 Mpc at z = 0. The scaling of v curl can be described by the hierarchical turbulence model. The alignment between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the shear tensor in the baryonic matter field resembles that in the dark matter field, and is even moderately stronger between {\\boldsymbol{ω }} and {{\\boldsymbol{e}}}1, and ω and {{\\boldsymbol{e}}}3. Compared with dark matter, there is slightly less baryonic matter found residing in filaments and clusters, and its vorticity developed more significantly below 2–3 Mpc. These differences may be underestimated because of the limited resolution and lack of star formation in our simulation. The impact of the change of dominant structures in overdense regions at z ∼ 2–3 on galaxy formation and evolution is shortly discussed.

  6. Note: Device for obtaining volumetric, three-component velocity fields inside cylindrical cavities.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, G; Núñez, J; Hernández, G N; Hernández-Cruz, G; Ramos, E

    2015-11-01

    We describe a device designed and built to obtain the three-component, steady state velocity field in the whole volume occupied by a fluid in motion contained in a cavity with cylindrical walls. The prototype comprises a two-camera stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system mounted on a platform that rotates around the volume under analysis and a slip ring arrangement that transmits data from the rotating sensors to the data storage elements. Sample observations are presented for natural convection in a cylindrical container but other flows can be analyzed.

  7. Note: Device for obtaining volumetric, three-component velocity fields inside cylindrical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, G.; Núñez, J.; Hernández, G. N.; Hernández-Cruz, G.; Ramos, E.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a device designed and built to obtain the three-component, steady state velocity field in the whole volume occupied by a fluid in motion contained in a cavity with cylindrical walls. The prototype comprises a two-camera stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system mounted on a platform that rotates around the volume under analysis and a slip ring arrangement that transmits data from the rotating sensors to the data storage elements. Sample observations are presented for natural convection in a cylindrical container but other flows can be analyzed.

  8. Observations of the dust radial velocity field in the F-corona on March 29, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Demchenko, B. I.; Rspaev, F. K.; Chalabaev, A.

    2011-12-01

    The results of interferometer observations of the dust radial velocity field in the F-corona during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, are presented. The observations were performed in the Mugalzhar settlement, Aqtobe region, Kazakhstan. The observation results indicated that the dust orbital motion is opposite to the planetary motion and is inclined at an angle of about 105° with respect to the ecliptic plane. It is assumed that the observed dust is genetically related to Kreutz comets falling on the Sun and registered with the SOHO spacecraft on March 28 and 31, 2006.

  9. Electrostatic mode associated with the pinch velocity in reversed field pinch simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M.; Chacon, Luis

    2008-12-15

    The existence of a new phenomenon in reversed field pinch (RFP) simulations related to the equilibrium pinch flow is discussed. This behavior is due to the inward equilibrium flow, but is strongly affected by boundary conditions on the perturbed azimuthal flow. It is important to understand and control this mechanism in single helicity simulations of RFPs. This mechanism can be explained in terms of an electrostatic instability related to a mode which can occur in fluid dynamics. In a simple linear model, it is shown that the mode, which is related to the inward advection of angular momentum from the edge, can be stabilized by using homogeneous Dirichlet (no-slip) boundary conditions at the wall. Behavior due to this mode is present in nonlinear simulations with zero-viscous-stress boundary conditions on the tangential velocity at the wall and, even in the presence of the usual magnetohydrodynamic modes, this mode can dominate the nonlinear dynamics of the velocity. In nonlinear simulations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the tangential velocity, behavior associated with this electrostatic mode is not observed.

  10. Electrostatic mode associated with the pinch velocity in reversed field pinch simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Chacon, Luis; Finn, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of a new phenomenon in reversed field pinch (RFP) simulations related to the equilibrium pinch flow is discussed. This behavior is due to the inward equilibrium flow, but is strongly affected by boundary conditions on the perturbed azimuthal flow. It is important to understand and control this mechanism in single helicity simulations of RFPs. This mechanism can be explained in terms of an electrostatic instability related to a mode which can occur in fluid dynamics. In a simple linear model, it is shown that the mode, which is related to the inward advection of angular momentum from the edge, can be stabilized by using homogeneous Dirichlet (no-slip) boundary conditions at the wall. Behavior due to this mode is present in nonlinear simulations with zero-viscous-stress boundary conditions on the tangential velocity at the wall and, even in the presence of the usual magnetohydrodynamic modes, this mode can dominate the nonlinear dynamics of the velocity. In nonlinear simulations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the tangential velocity, behavior associated with this electrostatic mode is not observed.

  11. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  12. Advantages and Limitations of Cluster Analysis in Interpreting Regional GPS Velocity Fields in California and Elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. Cluster analysis, a venerable data analysis method, offers a simple, visual exploratory tool for the initial organization and investigation of GPS velocities (Simpson et al., 2012 GRL). Here we describe the application of cluster analysis to GPS velocities from three regions, the Mojave Desert and the San Francisco Bay regions in California, and the Aegean in the eastern Mediterranean. Our goal is to illustrate the strengths and shortcomings of the method in searching for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence for and against block-like behavior in these 3 regions. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, is subjective and usually guided by the distribution of known faults. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities provides a completely objective method for identifying groups of observations ranging in size from 10s to 100s of km in characteristic dimension based solely on the similarities of their velocity vectors. In the three regions we have studied, statistically significant clusters are almost invariably spatially coherent, fault bounded, and coincide with elastic, geologically identified structural blocks. Often, higher order clusters that are not statistically significant are also spatially coherent, suggesting the existence of additional blocks, or defining regions of other tectonic importance (e.g. zones of localized elastic strain accumulation near locked faults). These results can be used to both formulate tentative tectonic models with testable consequences and to suggest focused new measurements in under-sampled regions. Cluster analysis applied to GPS velocities has several potential limitations, aside from the

  13. MTF characterization in 2D and 3D for a high resolution, large field of view flat panel imager for cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil; Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Richmond, Michelle; Zentai, George

    2014-03-01

    The 2D and 3D modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a custom made, large 40x30cm2 area, 600- micron CsI-TFT based flat panel imager having 127-micron pixellation, along with the micro-fiber scintillator structure, were characterized in detail using various techniques. The larger area detector yields a reconstructed FOV of 25cm diameter with an 80cm SID in CT mode. The MTFs were determined with 1x1 (intrinsic) binning. The 2D MTFs were determined using a 50.8 micron tungsten wire and a solid lead edge, and the 3D MTF was measured using a custom made phantom consisting of three nearly orthogonal 50.8 micron tungsten wires suspended in an acrylic cubic frame. The 2D projection data was reconstructed using an iterative OSC algorithm using 16 subsets and 5 iterations. As additional verification of the resolution, along with scatter, the Catphan® phantom was also imaged and reconstructed with identical parameters. The measured 2D MTF was ~4% using the wire technique and ~1% using the edge technique at the 3.94 lp/mm Nyquist cut-off frequency. The average 3D MTF measured along the wires was ~8% at the Nyquist. At 50% MTF, the resolutions were 1.2 and 2.1 lp/mm in 2D and 3D, respectively. In the Catphan® phantom, the 1.7 lp/mm bars were easily observed. Lastly, the 3D MTF measured on the three wires has an observed 5.9% RMSD, indicating that the resolution of the imaging system is uniform and spatially independent. This high performance detector is integrated into a dedicated breast SPECT-CT imaging system.

  14. Retrieval of Hydrometeor Drop Size Distributions from TRMM Field Campaign Profiler Doppler Velocity Spectra Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Christopher R.; Gage, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the original proposal and work plan, this project focused on estimating the raindrop size distributions (DSDs) retrieved from vertically pointing Doppler radar profilers and analyzing the relationship of the retrieved DSDs with the dynamics of the precipitation processes. The first phase of this project focused on developing the model to retrieve the DSD from the observed Doppler velocity spectra. The second phase used this model to perform DSD retrievals from the profiler observations made during the TRMM Ground Validation Field Campaigns of TEFLUN-B, TRMM-LBA, and KWAJEX. The third phase of this project established collaborations with scientists involved with each field campaign in order to validate the profiler DSD estimates and to enable the profiler retrievals to be used in their research. Through these collaborations, the retrieved DSDs were placed into context with the dynamical processes of the observed precipitating cloud systems.

  15. A 3D radiative transfer framework . VII. Arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelmann, A. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: A solution of the radiative-transfer problem in 3D with arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame is presented. The method is implemented in our 3D radiative transfer framework and used in the PHOENIX/3D code. It is tested by comparison to our well-tested 1D co-moving frame radiative transfer code, where the treatment of a monotonic velocity field is implemented in the Lagrangian frame. The Eulerian formulation does not need much additional memory and is useable on state-of-the-art computers, even large-scale applications with 1000's of wavelength points are feasible. Methods: In the Eulerian formulation of the problem, the photon is seen by the atom at a Doppler-shifted wavelength depending on its propagation direction, which leads to a Doppler-shifted absorption and emission. This leads to a different source function and a different Λ^* operator in the radiative transfer equations compared to the static case. Results: The results of the Eulerian 3D spherical calculations are compared to our well-tested 1D Lagrangian spherical calculations, the agreement is, up to vmax = 1 × 103 km s-1 very good. Test calculation in other geometries are also shown.

  16. Numerical validation of velocity gradient tensor particle tracking velocimetry for highly deformed flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masa-aki; Murai, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Fujio

    2000-06-01

    Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has recently been recognized as quite an effective engineering research tool for understanding multi-dimensional fluid flow structures. There are, however, still a number of unsettled problems in the practical use of PTV, i.e. the lack of generality of the PTV algorithm for various types of flows and the measurement uncertainty with respect to spatial resolution. The authors have developed a generalized PTV algorithm named the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) method in order to accurately track the tracer particles in a flow field with strong local deformation rates. The performance of the VGT method has already been examined for several simple flow fields, such as linear shearing and Taylor-Green vortex flows. In this paper, the applicability of the VGT method for complicated flows, which include a wide dynamic range in wavenumber, is quantitatively examined by simulation of Rankine vortex flows, Karman vortex-shedding flows around a rectangular cylinder and homogeneous turbulent flows, which are numerically solved by using the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the VGT technique, using only two frames to estimate velocity, performs better than does the four-frame PTV technique and has a remarkably higher tracking performance than those of typical conventional PTV algorithms.

  17. Velocity and pressure fields associated with near-wall turbulence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Arne V.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Kim, John

    1990-01-01

    Computer generated databases containing velocity and pressure fields in three-dimensional space at a sequence of time-steps, were used for the investigation of near-wall turbulence structures, their space-time evolution, and their associated pressure fields. The main body of the results were obtained from simulation data for turbulent channel flow at a Reynolds number of 180 (based on half-channel height and friction velocity) with a grid of 128 x 129 x and 128 points. The flow was followed over a total time of 141 viscous time units. Spanwise centering of the detected structures was found to be essential in order to obtain a correct magnitude of the associated Reynolds stress contribution. A positive wall-pressure peak is found immediately beneath the center of the structure. The maximum amplitude of the pressure pattern was, however, found in the buffer region at the center of the shear-layer. It was also found that these flow structures often reach a maximum strength in connection with an asymmetric spanwise motion, which motivated the construction of a conditional sampling scheme that preserved this asymmetry.

  18. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.

  19. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  20. Gyrokinetic full f analysis of electric field dynamics and poloidal velocity in the FT2-tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.

    2008-09-15

    The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.

  1. A test field for Gaia. Radial velocity catalogue of stars in the South Ecliptic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frémat, Y.; Altmann, M.; Pancino, E.; Soubiran, C.; Jofré, P.; Damerdji, Y.; Heiter, U.; Royer, F.; Seabroke, G.; Sordo, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jasniewicz, G.; Martayan, C.; Thévenin, F.; Vallenari, A.; Blomme, R.; David, M.; Gosset, E.; Katz, D.; Viala, Y.; Boudreault, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Lobel, A.; Meisenheimer, K.; Nordlander, T.; Raskin, G.; Royer, P.; Zorec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The sixth parameter in phase space (i.e., radial velocity) is also measured thanks to medium-resolution spectroscopy that is being obtained for the 150 million brightest stars. During the commissioning phase, two fields, one around each ecliptic pole, have been repeatedly observed to assess and to improve the overall satellite performances, as well as the associated reduction and analysis software. A ground-based photometric and spectroscopic survey was therefore initiated in 2007, and is still running to gather as much information as possible about the stars in these fields. This work is of particular interest to the validation of the radial velocity spectrometer outputs. Aims: The paper presents the radial velocity measurements performed for the Southern targets in the 12-17 R magnitude range on high- to mid-resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs. Methods: Comparison of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) GIRAFFE data to spectroscopic templates observed with the HERMES (Mercator in La Palma, Spain) spectrograph enabled a first coarse characterisation of the 747 SEP targets. Radial velocities were then obtained by comparing the results of three different methods. Results: In this paper, we present an initial overview of the targets to be found in the 1 sq. deg SEP region that was observed repeatedly by Gaia ever since its commissioning. In our representative sample, we identified one galaxy, six LMC S-stars, nine candidate chromospherically active stars, and confirmed the status of 18 LMC Carbon stars. A careful study of the 3471 epoch radial velocity measurements led us to identify 145 RV constant stars with radial velocities varying by less than 1 km s-1. Seventy-eight stars show significant RV scatter, while nine stars show a composite spectrum

  2. Velocity measurements and concentration field visualizations in copper electrolysis under the influence of Lorentz forces and buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.; Huller, J.; Gerbeth, G.

    2006-12-01

    Velocity measurements and shadowgraph visualizations for copper electrolysis under the influence of a magnetic field are reported. Experiments in a rectangular cell show the expected strong correlation between flow features and limiting current density. The flow can be understood as driven by the interplay of Lorentz force and buoyancy. For a cylindrical cell with only slightly non-parallel electric and magnetic field lines, the presence and importance of the Lorentz force is demonstrated by velocity measurements. Figs 6, Refs 13.

  3. Scalings of scalar structure functions in a velocity field with coherent vortical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    In planar turbulence modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous collection of two-dimensional noninteracting compact vortices, the structure functions Sp(r) of a statistically stationary passive scalar field have the following scaling behavior in the limit where the Péclet number Pe-->∞: Sp(r)~const+ln(r/L Pe-1/3) for L Pe-1/3<2<=D<2/3). Note that L Pe-1/2 is the scalar Taylor microscale that stems naturally from our analytical treatment of the advection-diffusion equation. The essential ingredients of our theory are the locality of interscale transfer and Lundgren's time average assumption. A phenomenological theory explicitly based only on these two ingredients reproduces our results and a generalization of this phenomenology to spatially smooth chaotic flows yields (k ln k)-1 generalized power spectra for the advected scalar fields.

  4. ICEG2D (v2.0) - An Integrated Software Package for Automated Prediction of Flow Fields for Single-Element Airfoils With Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson David S.; Soni, Bharat K.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated geometry/grid/simulation software package, ICEG2D, is being developed to automate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for single- and multi-element airfoils with ice accretions. The current version, ICEG213 (v2.0), was designed to automatically perform four primary functions: (1) generate a grid-ready surface definition based on the geometrical characteristics of the iced airfoil surface, (2) generate high-quality structured and generalized grids starting from a defined surface definition, (3) generate the input and restart files needed to run the structured grid CFD solver NPARC or the generalized grid CFD solver HYBFL2D, and (4) using the flow solutions, generate solution-adaptive grids. ICEG2D (v2.0) can be operated in either a batch mode using a script file or in an interactive mode by entering directives from a command line within a Unix shell. This report summarizes activities completed in the first two years of a three-year research and development program to address automation issues related to CFD simulations for airfoils with ice accretions. As well as describing the technology employed in the software, this document serves as a users manual providing installation and operating instructions. An evaluation of the software is also presented.

  5. Application of acoustic tomography to reconstruct the horizontal flow velocity field in a shallow river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kaneko, Arata; Nistor, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    A novel acoustic tomographic measurement system capable of resolving sound travel time in extremely shallow rivers is introduced and the results of an extensive field measurements campaign are presented and further discussed. Acoustic pulses were transmitted over a wide frequency band of 20-35 kHz between eight transducers for about a week in a meandering reach of theBāsen River, Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the field experiment was validating the concept of acoustic tomography in rivers for visualizing current fields. The particular novelty of the experiment resides in its unusual tomographic features: subbasin scale (100 m × 270 m) and shallowness (0.5-3.0 m) of the physical domain, frequency of the transmitted acoustic signals (central frequency of 30 kHz), and the use of small sampling intervals (105 s). Inverse techniques with no a priori statistical information were used to estimate the depth-average current velocity components from differential travel times. Zeroth-order Tikhonov regularization, in conjunction with L-curve method deployed to stabilize the solution and to determine the weighting factor appearing in the inverse analysis. Concurrent direct environmental measurements were provided in the form of ADCP readings close to the right and left bank. Very good agreement found between along-channel velocities larger than 0.2 m/s obtained from the two techniques. Inverted quantities were, however, underestimated, perhaps due to vicinity of the ADCPs to the banks and strong effect of river geometry on the readings. In general, comparing the visualized currents with direct nodal measurements illustrate the plausibility of the tomographically reconstructed flow structures.

  6. Smooth full field reconstruction of velocity and its gradients from noisy scattered velocimetry data in a cross-slot flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sadati, Monirosadat; Luap, Clarisse; Kroeger, Martin; Gusev, Andrei A.; Oettinger, Hans Christian

    2011-03-15

    We present a method combining generalized Tikhonov regularization with a finite element approximation for reconstructing smooth velocity and velocity gradient fields from spatially scattered and noisy velocity data in a two-dimensional complex flow domain. Synthetic velocity data for a cross-slot geometry are generated using the Oldroyd-B solution, subsequently perturbed by random noise. Performances of diverse finite element continuity-regularization criterion combinations are tested against noise-free data, while the optimum regularization parameter is determined using generalized cross-validation. The best performance is achieved for the velocity field and its gradients simultaneously by C{sup 2} continuous Hermite finite elements and minimization of a norm of the velocity's third derivative. The standard regularization criterion based on the second derivative is shown to lead to systematic distortions in boundary regions, allowing therefore a lower reduction in the statistical error. Furthermore, optical fields are calculated by applying a differential constitutive equation directly to the reconstructed flow kinematics; high quality velocity gradient fields are shown to be an essential prerequisite for their reliable prediction. Overall, the method is expedient to implement and does not require boundary conditions.

  7. Testing the velocity field in non-scale-invariant cold dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardini, Lauro; Tormen, Giuseppe; Matarrese, Sabino; Lucchin, Francesco

    1995-04-01

    We analyze the cosmic peculiar velocity field as traced by a sample of 1184 spiral, elliptical and SO galaxies, grouped in 704 objects. We perform a statistical analysis, by calculating the bulk flow, cosmic Mach number and velocity correlation function for this sample and for mock catalogs extracted from a set of N-body simulations. We run four cold dark matter (CDM) simulations: two tilted models (with spectral index n = 0.6 and n = 0.8), the standard model (n = 1) and a 'blue' one (n = 1.2), with different values of the linear bias parameter b. By means of a maximum-likelihood analysis we estimate the ability of our models to fit the observations, as measured by the above statistics, and to reproduce the Local group properties. On the basis of this analysis we conclude that the best model is the unbiased standard model (n, b) = (1, 1), even though the overall flatness of the joint likelihood function implies that one cannot strongly discriminate models in the range 0.8 less than or = n less than or equal to 1, and 1 less than or = b less than or = 1.5. Models with b greater than or = 2.5 are rejected at the 95% confidence level. For n = 0.8 the values of b preferred by the present analysis, together with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) data, require a negligible contribution to Delta T/T by gravitational waves. Finally, the blue model, normalized to COBE, does not provide a good fit to the velocity data.

  8. Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley; Hellman, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Boundary layers around moving underwater vehicles or other platforms can be a limiting factor for optical communication. Turbulence in the boundary layer of a body moving through a stratified medium can lead to small variations in the index of refraction, which impede optical signals. As a first step towards investigating this boundary layer effect on underwater optics, we study the flow near the boundary in the Rayleigh-Bénard laboratory tank at the Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center. The tank is set up to generate temperature-driven, i.e., convective turbulence, and allows control of the turbulence intensity. This controlled turbulence environment is complemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations to visualize and quantify multi-scale flow patterns. The boundary layer dynamics in the laboratory tank are quantified using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system to examine the boundary layer velocities and turbulence parameters. The velocity fields and flow dynamics from the PIV are compared to the numerical model and show the model to accurately reproduce the velocity range and flow dynamics. The temperature variations and thus optical turbulence effects can then be inferred from the model temperature data. Optical turbulence is also visible in the raw data from the PIV system. The newly collected data are consistent with previously reported measurements from high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers (Nortek Vectrino), as well as fast thermistor probes and novel next-generation fiber-optics temperature sensors. This multi-level approach to studying optical turbulence near a boundary, combining in-situ measurements, optical techniques, and numerical simulations, can provide new insight and aid in mitigating turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission.

  9. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  10. Whole-field, time resolved velocity measurements of flow structures on insect wings during free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, Kenneth; Thomson, Scott; Truscott, Tadd

    2012-11-01

    The development of micro air vehicles (MAVs) that are propelled using flapping flight necessitates an understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics that enable this mode of flight. Flapping flight has been studied using a variety of methods including computational models, experimentation and observation. Until recently, the observation of natural flyers has been limited to qualitative methods such as smoke-line visualization. Advances in imaging technology have enabled the use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to gain a quantitative understanding of the unsteady nature of the flight. Previously published PIV studies performed on insects have been limited to velocities in a single plane on tethered insects in a wind tunnel. We present the three-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields of flight around a butterfly, using an array of high-speed cameras at 1 kHz through a technique known as 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). These results are useful in understanding the relationship between wing kinematics and the unsteady aerodynamics generated.

  11. Multilayer scaling of mean velocity and thermal fields of compressible turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weitao; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yousheng; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su

    2014-11-01

    Recently, a symmetry based structural ensemble dynamics (SED) theory was proposed by She et al. for canonical wall bounded turbulent flows, yielding prediction of the mean velocity profile at an unprecedented accuracy (99%). Here, we extend the theory to compressible turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at supersonic and hypersonic Mach numbers. The flows are acquired by spatially evolving direct numerical simulations (DNS). A momentum mixing length displays a four layer structure and quantitatively obeys the dilation group invariance as for the incompressible TBL. In addition, a temperature mixing length behaves very similarly to the momentum mixing length when the wall is adiabatic, with a small difference in the scaling exponents in the buffer layer - consistent with the strong Reynolds analogy. The Lie group based formulization of the two mixing lengths yields a multilayer model for the turbulent Prandtl number, along with predictions to the mean thermal and velocity profiles, both in good agreement with the DNS. Thus, we assert that the compressible TBLs are governed by the same symmetry principle as that in the canonical wall bounded turbulent flows, and its mean fields can be accurately described by the SED theory.

  12. Filaments from the galaxy distribution and from the velocity field in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Tempel, Elmo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène

    2015-10-01

    The cosmic web that characterizes the large-scale structure of the Universe can be quantified by a variety of methods. For example, large redshift surveys can be used in combination with point process algorithms to extract long curvilinear filaments in the galaxy distribution. Alternatively, given a full 3D reconstruction of the velocity field, kinematic techniques can be used to decompose the web into voids, sheets, filaments and knots. In this Letter, we look at how two such algorithms - the Bisous model and the velocity shear web - compare with each other in the local Universe (within 100 Mpc), finding good agreement. This is both remarkable and comforting, given that the two methods are radically different in ideology and applied to completely independent and different data sets. Unsurprisingly, the methods are in better agreement when applied to unbiased and complete data sets, like cosmological simulations, than when applied to observational samples. We conclude that more observational data is needed to improve on these methods, but that both methods are most likely properly tracing the underlying distribution of matter in the Universe.

  13. An experimental investigation of velocity fields in divergent glottal models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    In speech, sound production arises from fluid-structure interactions within the larynx as well as viscous flow phenomena that is most likely to occur during the divergent orientation of the vocal folds. Of particular interest are the flow mechanisms that influence the location of flow separation points on the vocal folds walls. Physiologically scaled pulsatile flow fields in 7.5 times real size static divergent glottal models were investigated. Three divergence angles were investigated using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV). The pulsatile glottal jet exhibited a bi-modal stability toward both glottal walls, although there was a significant amount of variance in the angle the jet deflected from the midline. The attachment of the Coanda effect to the glottal model walls occurred when the pulsatile velocity was a maximum, and the acceleration of the waveform was zero. The location of the separation and reattachment points of the flow from the glottal models was a function of the velocity waveform and divergence angle. Acoustic analogies show that a dipole sound source contribution arising from the fluid interaction (Coanda jet) with the vocal fold walls is expected. [Work funded by NIH Grant RO1 DC03577.

  14. Velocity field investigation inside a bulb turbine runner using endoscopic PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, S.; Aeschlimann, V.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G. D.; Deschênes, C.

    2015-06-01

    The flow in the inter-blade channels of a bulb turbine was measured using endoscopic cameras integrated to a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) system. This paper presents results from the measurement campaign and also provides some key conclusions based on the dataset. The technical aspect of the measurement configuration is addressed. The main focus is on the novelties and challenges brought by the use of endoscopic cameras to achieve S-PIV measurements between the runner blades. For the first time in hydraulic rotating machinery, velocity measurements covered 62 % of a rotor inter-blade flow. After outlining the techniques used, comparison with laser Doppler velocimetry measurements allows assessing the intrusiveness of the endoscopes. Then, some velocity field analyses are shown. First, the rotor-stator interaction is outlined as the influence of the guide vane wakes on the runner flow. The size, localization, strength and dissipation of those structures are inferred from the information coming from measurements. Finally, the PIV data allow the identification of a vortex located near the suction side of the blades and originating from the corner between the leading edge and the hub when operating the bulb turbine at part-load.

  15. Computer simulations of pressure and velocity fields in a human upper airway during sneezing.

    PubMed

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad; Haghighi, Abdalrahman; Dastan, Alireza; Abouali, Omid; Farid, Mehrdad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the airflow field including the velocity, pressure and turbulence intensity distributions during sneezing of a female subject was simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model of realistic upper airways including both oral and nasal cavities. The effects of variation of reaction of the subject during sneezing were also investigated. That is, the impacts of holding the nose or closing the mouth during sneezing on the pressure and velocity distributions were studied. Few works have studied the sneeze and therefore different aspects of this phenomenon have remained unknown. To cover more possibilities about the inlet condition of trachea in different sneeze scenarios, it was assumed that the suppressed sneeze happens with either the same inlet pressure or the same flow rate as the normal sneeze. The simulation results showed that during a normal sneeze, the pressure in the trachea reaches about 7000Pa, which is much higher than the pressure level of about 200Pa during the high activity exhalation. In addition, the results showed that, suppressing the sneeze by holding the nose or mouth leads to a noticeable increase in pressure difference in the tract. This increase was about 5 to 24 times of that during a normal sneeze. This significant rise in the pressure can justify some reported damage due to suppressing a sneeze.

  16. Difference between the Lagrangian trajectories and Eulerian residual velocity fields in the southwestern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Hirose, Naoki; Moon, Jae-Hong; Yuan, Dongliang

    2013-05-01

    The responses to tidal and/or wind forces of Lagrangian trajectories and Eulerian residual velocity in the southwestern Yellow Sea are investigated using a high-resolution circulation model. The simulated tidal harmonic constants agree well with observations and existing studies. The numerical experiment reproduces the long-range southeastward Eulerian residual current over the sloping bottom around the Yangtze Bank also shown in previous studies. However, the modeled drifters deployed at the northeastern flank of the Yangtze Bank in the simulation move northeastward, crossing over this strong southeastward Eulerian residual current rather than following it. Additional sensitivity experiments reveal that the influence of the Eulerian tidal residual currents on Lagrangian trajectories is relatively weaker than that of the wind driven currents. This result is consistent with the northeastward movement of ARGOS surface drifters actually released in the southwestern Yellow Sea. Further experiments suggest that the quadratic nature of the bottom friction is the crucial factor, in the southwestern Yellow Sea, for the weaker influence of the Eulerian tidal residual currents on the Lagrangian trajectories. This study demonstrates that the Lagrangian trajectories do not follow the Eulerian residual velocity fields in the shallow coastal regions of the southwestern Yellow Sea.

  17. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  18. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins

    PubMed Central

    Aschinger, Gerold C.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; Werkmeister, René M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an algorithm to reconstruct the velocity vector field from measured phase data. In a next step, measurements were performed at a straight vessel section and at a venous convergence; the obtained phase data were evaluated by means of the new approach. For the straight vessel section, the reconstructed flow velocity vector field yielded a parabolic flow. For the venous convergence, however, the reconstructed vector field deviated from a parabolic profile, but was in very good accordance with the simulated vector field for the given vessel geometry. The proposed algorithm allows predictions of the velocity vector field. Moreover, the algorithm is also sensitive to directional changes of the flow velocity as small as <1°, thereby offering insight in the flow characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid blood in microvessels. PMID:26137367

  19. LADCP Observations of the 3-Dimensional Velocity Field Associated with Internal Waves and Boundary-Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurnherr, A.; St Laurent, L.; Jacobs, S. S.; Kanzow, T.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ledwell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    While low-frequency processes in the ocean are primarily associated with (quasi-)horizontal, i.e. 2-dimensional, flows energetic high-frequency finescale processes, such as internal waves, hydraulic and other boundary-layer currents, are much more 3-dimensional. Due to recent advances in LADCP processing, it is now possible to derive full-depth snapshots of the 3-dimensional velocity field from standard CTD/LADCP casts. Applying the new method to data obtained in energetic regions of the ocean reveals velocity fields associated with vertical speeds ranging from a few cm/s to more than 20cm/s. Outside boundary layers, the vertical velocities are dominated by high-frequency (near-N) internal waves associated with small horizontal scales and the shapes of the corresponding vertical-velocity spectra in the finescale band are consistent with the Garrett-Munk model. In individual data sets the vertical-velocity spectral levels are correlated with coincident dissipation measurements derived from velocity microstructure, suggesting that a new finescale parameterization method for oceanic turbulence and diapycnal mixing based on LADCP-derived vertical velocities is possible. Near boundaries, there is evidence for large vertical velocities associated not just with waves, but also with seawater upwelling from beneath a fast-melting Antarctic ice shelf, with hydraulic overflow processes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and even with very large "overturns" over the flank of a ridge in Luzon strait.;

  20. DSD2D-FLS 2010: Bdzil's 2010 DSD Code Base; Computing tb and Dn with Edits to Reduce the Noise in the Dn Field Near HE Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, John Bohdan

    2016-09-21

    The full level-set function code, DSD3D, is fully described in LA-14336 (2007) [1]. This ASCI-supported, DSD code project was the last such LANL DSD code project that I was involved with before my retirement in 2007. My part in the project was to design and build the core DSD3D solver, which was to include a robust DSD boundary condition treatment. A robust boundary condition treatment was required, since for an important local “customer,” the only description of the explosives’ boundary was through volume fraction data. Given this requirement, the accuracy issues I had encountered with our “fast-tube,” narrowband, DSD2D solver, and the difficulty we had building an efficient MPI-parallel version of the narrowband DSD2D, I decided DSD3D should be built as a full level-set function code, using a totally local DSD boundary condition algorithm for the level-­set function, phi, which did not rely on the gradient of the level-­set function being one, |grad(phi)| = 1. The narrowband DSD2D solver was built on the assumption that |grad(phi)| could be driven to one, and near the boundaries of the explosive this condition was not being satisfied. Since the narrowband is typically no more than10*dx wide, narrowband methods are discrete methods with a fixed, non-­resolvable error, where the error is related to the thickness of the band: the narrower the band the larger the errors. Such a solution represents a discrete approximation to the true solution and does not limit to the solution of the underlying PDEs under grid resolution.The full level-­set function code, DSD3D, is fully described in LA-14336 (2007) [1]. This ASCI-­supported, DSD code project was the last such LANL DSD code project that I was involved with before my retirement in 2007. My part in the project was to design and build the core DSD3D solver, which was to include a robust DSD boundary condition treatment. A robust boundary condition treatment was required, since for an important local

  1. Propagation of a squeezed optical field in a medium with superluminal group velocity.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Gleb; Horrom, Travis; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the propagation of a squeezed optical field, generated via the polarization self-rotation effect, with a sinusoidally modulated degree of squeezing through an atomic medium with anomalous dispersion. We observed the advancement of the signal propagating through a resonant Rb vapor compared to the reference signal, propagating in air. The measured advancement time grew linearly with atomic density, reaching a maximum of 11±1  μs, which corresponded to a negative group velocity of v(g)≈-7,000  m/s. We also confirmed that the increasing advancement was accompanied by a reduction of output squeezing levels due to optical losses, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  2. The Lyman alpha bulge of Jupiter - Effects of non-thermal velocity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Jaffel, Lotfi; Clarke, John T.; Prange, Renee; Gladstone, G. R.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    We outline for the first time the effect of such nonthermal line broadening processes as turbulence, random waves, convection, etc., on the shape and intensity of the H Ly-alpha line resonance scattered from the atmosphere of Jupiter. We show how a nonthermal velocity field confined to the bulge region, in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, may account for most of the H Ly-alpha bulge features. Both the shape and the brightness of the Ly-alpha line from the bulge region as reported by the IUE instrument and the Voyager UV Spectrometer can be recovered assuming resonant scattering with a total atomic hydrogen of about 4 x 10 exp 17/sq cm, and a nonthermal component H of about 2 x 10 exp 15/sq cm above the thermopause.

  3. Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli

    2012-01-01

    A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.

  4. Time-resolved reconstruction of the full velocity field around a dynamically-scaled flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelma, C.; Dickson, W. B.; Dickinson, M. H.

    2006-08-01

    The understanding of the physics of flapping flight has long been limited due to the obvious experimental difficulties in studying the flow field around real insects. In this study the time-dependent three-dimensional velocity field around a flapping wing was measured quantitatively for the first time. This was done using a dynamically-scaled wing moving in mineral oil in a pattern based on the kinematics obtained from real insects. The periodic flow is very reproducible, due to the relatively low Reynolds number and precise control of the wing. This repeatability was used to reconstruct the full evolving flow field around the wing from separate stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements for a number of spanwise planes and time steps. Typical results for two cases (an impulsive start and a simplified flapping pattern) are reported. Visualizations of the obtained data confirm the general picture of the leading-edge vortex that has been reported in recent publications, but allow a refinement of the detailed structure: rather than a single strand of vorticity, we find a stable pair of counter-rotating structures. We show that the data can also be used for quantitative studies, such as lift and drag prediction.

  5. Numerical studies of light-matter interaction driven by plasmonic fields: The velocity gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional theoretical approaches to model strong field phenomena driven by plasmonic fields are based on the length gauge formulation of the laser-matter coupling. Obviously, from the physical point of view, there exists no preferable gauge and, consequently, the predictions and outcomes should be independent of this choice. The use of the length gauge is mainly due to the fact that the quantity obtained from finite-element simulations of plasmonic fields is the plasmonic enhanced laser electric field rather than the laser vector potential. We develop, from first principles, the velocity gauge formulation of the problem and we apply it to the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms. A comparison to the results obtained with the length gauge is made. As expected, it is analytically and numerically demonstrated that both gauges give equivalent descriptions of the emitted HHG spectra resulting from the interaction of a spatially inhomogeneous field and the single active electron model of the helium atom. We discuss, however, advantages and disadvantages of using different gauges in terms of numerical efficiency, which turns out to be very different. In order to understand it, we analyze the quantum mechanical results using time-frequency Gabor distributions. This analysis, combined with classical calculations based on solutions of the Newton equation, yields important physical insight into the electronic quantum paths underlying the dynamics of the harmonic generation process. The results obtained in this way also allow us to assess the quality of the quantum approaches in both gauges and put stringent limits on the numerical parameters required for a desired accuracy.

  6. Investigation of the dynamics of spiral galaxies on the base of 3D vector velocity field of their gaseous disks reconstructed from observed line-of-sight velocity field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, A. M.; Khoruzhii, O. V.; Lyakhovich, V. V.; Silchenko, O. K.; Zasov, A. V.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Dodonov, S. N.

    The method is based on Fourier analysis of observed velocity field. The Fourier harmonics are interpreted in the frame of the consensus on the wave nature of spiral arms. We measured the line-of-sight velocity fields in five spiral galaxies. In grand design galaxies NGC 157, NGC 6181 and NGC 3893 we determined with high accuracy all basic parameters: corotation radius, velocity amplitudes in spiral pattern, the rotation velocity curve with account for motions in spiral arms. The analysis of the flocculent galaxy NGC 2841 helped us to understand the nature of the flocculent spirals. The analysis of grand design galaxy NGC 3631 which is seen face on gave the possibility to explain the nature of vertical motion along the disk rotation axis.

  7. Concurrent field measurements of turbulent velocities, plant reconfiguration and drag forces on Ranunculus penicillatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Maike; Thomas, Robert E.; Keevil, Gareth M.

    2013-04-01

    In lowland rivers, seasonal patterns of in-stream macrophyte growth and decay have significant implications for flood risk. For a given discharge, flood risk is increased when dense macrophyte canopies reduce flow areas, increase blockage ratios and alter reach-scale roughness values. These factors combine and can increase the flow depth. Conversely, submerged vegetation is exposed to drag forces exerted by the flow, which may be sufficient to damage limbs or dislodge plants. The classical drag equation suggests that the force exerted by fluid flows upon submerged vegetation is a function of the fluid properties, the projected area of the vegetation, and the square of the flow velocity. However, very few studies have simultaneously monitored all of these parameters, resulting in significant uncertainty in the estimation of the coefficient that relates these parameters to the drag force and also the related roughness parameters that control the flow depth for a given discharge. To our knowledge, this study presents the first concurrent field measurements of turbulent velocities, plant reconfigurations and drag forces acting on Ranunculus penicillatus ssp. pseudofluitans (Syme) S.D.Webster. Measurements were undertaken in an artificially straightened reach of the chalk-bed River Wylye, near Longbridge Deverill, Wiltshire, UK. The reach is 5.7 m wide and during measurements there was a mean flow depth of 0.28 m and an average discharge of 0.28 m³s-1. The reach is cleared of vegetation up to three times a year for flood defence purposes, but Ranunculus p. grows back within several weeks. Measurements were carried out after re-growth, when plants were fully developed with a mean length of 0.75 m and on average 6 nodes along the stem. The distances between the nodes increased from the base towards the tip and each node produced a capillary leaf, sometimes in conjunction with a branch. Floating leaves and flowers were not present. Plants were attached to a custom

  8. A Experimental Study of the Velocity Field of a Transverse Jet Injected Into a Supersonic Crossflow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Juan Gabriel

    The design of a supersonic combustor which uses transverse jet injection into a supersonic flow (TJISF) as a means of fuel injection and mixing requires a fundamental understanding of these flows. Such knowledge may also serve studies of the thrust vector control of rocket nozzles, the cooling of nozzle walls, and jet reaction force prediction. The present investigation is a quantitative, experimental study of a single, sonic, underexpanded, transverse jet injected into a Mach 1.6 crossflow. The motivation for this research program is to improve the fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamic mechanisms and mixing processes in this flow. Schlieren/shadowgraph photography, surface flow visualization, and two-component, frequency pre-shifted laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) data have been obtained. Four LDV optical arrangements have been used to measure all three mean velocity components, five of the six kinematic Reynolds stresses, and the turbulent kinetic energy. The LDV system is equipped with a computer-controlled traverse system and has been used to provide velocity measurements at over 4,000 locations throughout the TJISF flowfield. The study focuses on the transverse, midline plane and two crossflow planes. The majority of the measurements in these planes has been made in the high gradient regions of the jet plume. Measurements of the mean and turbulent velocity fields helped resolve important issues in the study of the TJISF flowfield. These issues include the size and orientation of the recirculation regions upstream and downstream of the jet (including the horseshoe vortex just upstream of the jet); the structure and strength of the bow shock, barrel shock, and Mach disk; the structure, strength, and development of the kidney-shaped, counter-rotating vortex pair; the growth of the annular shear layer between the jet plume and the crossflow; the growth of the boundary layer beneath the jet plume; the Reynolds stress fields of the flow; the production of

  9. Field observations of seismic velocity changes caused by shaking-induced damage and healing due to mesoscopic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, M.; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Eulenfeld, T.; Bartsch, M.; Victor, P.; Tilmann, F.; Korn, M.

    2016-03-01

    To investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing in Northern Chile, we analyse 8 yr of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC). By autocorrelating the ambient seismic noise field measured on the vertical components, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved and velocity changes are measured with Coda Wave Interferometry. At station PATCX, we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity caused by thermal stress as well as transient velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. Sudden velocity drops occur at the time of mostly earthquake-induced ground shaking and recover over a variable period of time. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. The model assumes that not only the shaking of large earthquakes causes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over the discretization interval of the velocity measurements, which is one day. In our model, the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with two free scaling parameters fits the data of the shaking induced velocity variation in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. A clear relationship between ground shaking and induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking and thermal stress to the special geological setting of the station, where the subsurface material

  10. Critical points of the cosmic velocity field and the uncertainties in the value of the Hubble constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Mohayaee, Roya; Naselsky, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The existence of critical points for the peculiar velocity field is a natural feature of the correlated vector field. These points appear at the junctions of velocity domains with different orientations of their averaged velocity vectors. Since peculiar velocities are the important cause of the scatter in the Hubble expansion rate, we propose that a more precise determination of the Hubble constant can be made by restricting analysis to a subsample of observational data containing only the zones around the critical points of the peculiar velocity field, associated with voids and saddle points. On large-scales the critical points, where the first derivative of the gravitational potential vanishes, can easily be identified using the density field and classified by the behavior of the Hessian of the gravitational potential. We use high-resolution N-body simulations to show that these regions are stable in time and hence are excellent tracers of the initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that the variance of the Hubble flow can be substantially minimized by restricting observations to the subsample of such regions of vanishing velocity instead of aiming at increasing the statistics by averaging indiscriminately using the full data sets, as is the common approach.

  11. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Down-Hole Tests in the Archeological "Palatine Hill" Area (Rome, Italy): Evaluation and Influence of 2D Effects on the Shear Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, V.; Cavuoto, G.; Tarallo, D.; Punzo, M.; Evangelista, L.

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of down-hole (DH) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements offers a complete evaluation of shear wave velocity profiles, especially for sites where a strong lateral variability is expected, such as archeological sites. In this complex stratigraphic setting, the high "subsoil anisotropy" (i.e., sharp lithological changes due to the presence of anthropogenic backfill deposits and/or buried man-made structures) implies a different role for DH and MASW tests. This paper discusses some results of a broad experimental program conducted on the Palatine Hill, one of the most ancient areas of the city of Rome (Italy). The experiments were part of a project on seismic microzoning and consisted of 20 MASW and 11 DH tests. The main objective of this study was to examine the difficulties related to the interpretation of the DH and MASW tests and the reliability limits inherent in the application of the noninvasive method in complex stratigraphic settings. As is well known, DH tests provide good determinations of shear wave velocities (Vs) for different lithologies and man-made materials, whereas MASW tests provide average values for the subsoil volume investigated. The data obtained from each method with blind tests were compared and were correlated to site-specific subsurface conditions, including lateral variability. Differences between punctual (DH) and global (MASW) Vs measurements are discussed, quantifying the errors by synthetic comparison and by site response analyses. This study demonstrates that, for archeological sites, VS profiles obtained from the DH and MASW methods differ by more than 15 %. However, the local site effect showed comparable results in terms of natural frequencies, whereas the resolution of the inverted shear wave velocity was influenced by the fundamental mode of propagation.

  12. Relating the kick velocities of young pulsars with magnetic field growth time-scales inferred from braking indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güneydaş, A.; Ekşi, K. Y.

    2013-03-01

    A nascent neutron star may be exposed to fallback accretion soon after the proto-neutron star stage. This high-accretion episode can submerge the magnetic field deep in the crust. The diffusion of the magnetic field back to the surface will take hundreds to millions of years depending on the amount of mass accreted and the consequent depth the field is buried. Neutron stars with large kick velocities will accrete less amount of fallback material leading to shallower submergence of their fields and shorter time-scales for the growth of their fields. We obtain the relation τOhm ∝ v-1 between the space velocity of the neutron star and Ohmic time-scale for the growth of the magnetic field. We compare this with the relation between the measured transverse velocities, v⊥, and the field growth time-scales, μ /skew4dot{μ }, inferred from the measured braking indices. We find that the observational data are consistent with the theoretical prediction though the small number of data precludes a strong conclusion. Measurement of the transverse velocities of pulsars B1509-58, J1846-0258, J1119-6127 and J1734-3333 would increase the number of the data and strongly contribute to understanding whether pulsar fields grow following fallback accretion.

  13. Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancewicz, Kacper

    2014-06-01

    The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the Śnieżnik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity

  14. Measurement of diffusion length and surface recombination velocity in Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) and Front Surface Field (FSF) solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, Pierre; Van de Wiele, Fernand

    1985-03-01

    A method is proposed for measuring the diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) solar cells by means of a simple linear regression on experimental quantum efficiency values versus the inverse of the absorption coefficient. This method is extended to the case of Front Surface Field (FSF) solar cells. Under certain conditions, the real or the effective surface recombination velocity may be measured.

  15. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  16. Transient rheology of the upper mantle beneath central Alaska inferred from the crustal velocity field following the 2002 Denali earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2005-01-01

    The M7.9 2002 Denali earthquake, Alaska, is one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded. The postseismic GPS velocity field around the 300-km-long rupture is characterized by very rapid horizontal velocity up to ???300 mm/yr for the first 0.1 years and slower but still elevated horizontal velocity up to ???100 mm/yr for the succeeding 1.5 years. I find that the spatial and temporal pattern of the displacement field may be explained by a transient mantle rheology. Representing the regional upper mantle as a Burghers body, I infer steady state and transient viscosities of ??1 = 2.8 ?? 1018 Pa s and ??2 = 1.0 ?? 1017 Pa s, respectively, corresponding to material relaxation times of 1.3 and 0.05 years. The lower crustal viscosity is poorly constrained by the considered horizontal velocity field, and the quoted mantle viscosities assume a steady state lower crust viscosity that is 7??1. Systematic bias in predicted versus observed velocity vectors with respect to a fixed North America during the first 3-6 months following the earthquake is reduced when all velocity vectors are referred to a fixed site. This suggests that the post-Denali GPS time series for the first 1.63 years are shaped by a combination of a common mode noise source during the first 3-6 months plus viscoelastic relaxation controlled by a transient mantle rheology.

  17. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  18. The distribution of spectral index of magnetic field and ion velocity in Pi2 frequency band in BBFs: THEMIS statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Du, A. M.; Volwerk, M.; Wang, G. Q.

    2016-09-01

    A statistical study of the THEMIS FGM and ESA data is performed on turbulence of magnetic field and velocity for 218 selected 12 min intervals in BBFs. The spectral index α in the frequency range of 0.005-0.06 Hz are Gaussian distributions. The peaks indexes of total ion velocity Vi and parallel velocity V‖ are 1.95 and 2.07 nearly the spectral index of intermittent low frequency turbulence with large amplitude. However, most probable α of perpendicular velocity V⊥ is about 1.75. It is a little bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The peak indexes of total magnetic field BT is 1.70 similar to V⊥. Compression magnetic field B‖ are 1.85 which is smaller than 2 and bigger than 5/3 of Kolmogorov (1941). The most probable spectral index of shear B⊥ is about 1.44 which is close to 3/2 of Kraichnan (1965). Max V⊥ have little effect on the power magnitude of VT and V‖ but is positively correlated to spectral index of V⊥. The spectral power of BT, B‖ and B⊥ increase with max perpendicular velocity but spectral indexes of them are negatively correlated to V⊥. The spectral index and the spectral power of magnetic field over the frequency interval 0.005-0.06 Hz is very different from that over 0.08-1 Hz.

  19. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  20. NDEA FIELD SUMMER LANGUAGE INSTITUTE FOR SECONDARY FRENCH AND SPANISH (2D WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY, JUNE 27 TO AUGUST 19, 1966). FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STILWELL, ROBERT

    PARTICIPANTS IN THE 1966 NDEA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE HELD AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY WERE THOSE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS WHO HAD PREVIOUSLY ATTENDED AN NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED TRAINING IN THEIR PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE TEACHING FIELD, BUT WHO FROM CHOICE OR NECESSITY HAD BEEN ASSIGNED FRENCH OR SPANISH AS A SECOND TEACHING FIELD. THE REPORT OF THIS…

  1. Magnetic field driven 2D-3D crossover in the S =1/2 frustrated chain magnet LiCuVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prozorova, L. A.; Sosin, S. S.; Svistov, L. E.; Büttgen, N.; Kemper, J. B.; Reyes, A. P.; Riggs, S.; Prokofiev, A.; Petrenko, O. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a heat-capacity study of high-quality single-crystal samples of LiCuVO4—a frustrated spin S =1/2 chain system—in a magnetic field amounting to 3/4 of the saturation field. A detailed examination of magnetic phase transitions observed in this field range shows that although the low-field helical state clearly has three-dimensional properties, the field-induced spin-modulated phase turns out to be quasi-two-dimensional. The model proposed in this paper allows one to qualitatively understand this crossover, thus eliminating the presently existing contradictions in the interpretations of NMR and neutron-scattering measurements.

  2. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2002-04-01

    The fault study continues to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation has been used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new GC laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review was held March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer. A request was made to extend the scope of the project to include the Willison Basin. A demonstration well has been suggested in Burke County, N. Dakota, following a review of 2D seismic and surface geochem. A 3D seismic survey is scheduled for the prospect.

  3. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-10-01

    One of the principal objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, microbial samples were collected from the Trusty Steed prospect area in Grand Traverse County, Michigan. The samples were analyzed using the Microbial Oil Surveying Technique (MOST) technique and revealed only a local (1-point) anomaly. A decision to resample over that point is pending, but drilling has been postponed for the time being. The main news this reporting period is that in the Bear Lake area, northwest Michigan, Federated Oil & Gas Properties' Charlich-Fauble 2-9HD horizontal lateral, has cumulative production of more than 72,000 barrels of oil and is still producing 50 to 75 bopd from a Silurian Niagaran reef reservoir eighteen months after the well was completed. Surface geochemical surveys conducted in the demonstration area were consistent with production results although the ultimate decision to drill was based on interpretation of conventional subsurface and 2D seismic data. The surface geochemical techniques employed were Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) and MOST. The geochemical results have been submitted to World Oil for publication. New geochemical surveys are planned for November in the Springdale quadrangle in Manistee County, Michigan. These surveys will concentrate on sampling over the trace of the proposed horizontal wells rather than a broad grid survey.

  4. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul Khotimah, Siti; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered.

  5. Detecting planets around active stars: impact of magnetic fields on radial velocities and line bisectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, É. M.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Boisse, I.; Moutou, C.; Hébrard, G.

    2014-09-01

    Although technically challenging, detecting Earth-like planets around very low mass stars is in principle accessible to the existing velocimeters of highest radial-velocity (RV) precision. However, low-mass stars being active, they often feature dark spots and magnetic regions at their surfaces generating a noise level in RV curves (called activity jitter) that can severely limit our practical ability at detecting Earth-like planets. Whereas the impact of dark spots on RV data has been extensively studied in the literature, that of magnetic features only received little attention up to now. In this paper, we aim at quantifying the impact of magnetic fields (and the Zeeman broadening they induce) on line profiles, line bisectors and RV data. With a simple model, we quantitatively study the RV signals and bisector distortions that small magnetic regions or global magnetic dipoles can generate, especially at infrared wavelengths where the Zeeman broadening is much larger than that in the visible. We report in particular that the impact of magnetic features on line bisectors can be different from that of cool spots when the rotational broadening is comparable to or larger than the Zeeman broadening; more specifically, we find in this case that the top and bottom sections of the bisectors are anticorrelated, i.e. the opposite behaviour of what is observed for cool spots. We finally suggest new options to show and ultimately filter the impact of the magnetic activity on RV curves.

  6. Micro-PIT/V --- Simultaneous temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2008-11-01

    The use of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices has been demonstrated. Implementation of TLC thermometry at the micro-scale is significantly different than at the macro-scale due to the constraints on imaging and illumination configurations and the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light will scatter. Unlike in micro-PIV, wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) cannot be used to remove undesired reflections, because the temperature information is carried by the particle color. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of TLC. Micro-PIT/V will enable new investigations into the physics of microfluidic devices involving temperature gradients, such as thermocapillary actuated devices and many ``lab-on-a-chip'' applications involving temperature sensitive chemical and biological processes. In addition, the design of operational devices can be improved by applying micro-PIT/V to the characterization of prototypes.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in convective air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Wagner, Claus

    2014-03-01

    Thermal convective air flows are of great relevance in fundamental studies and technical applications such as heat exchangers or indoor ventilation. Since these kinds of flow are driven by temperature gradients, simultaneous measurements of instantaneous velocity and temperature fields are highly desirable. A possible solution is the combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle image thermography (PIT) using thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as tracer particles. While combined PIV and PIT is already state of the art for measurements in liquids, this is not yet the case for gas flows. In this study we address the adaptation of the measuring technique to gaseous fluids with respect to the generation of the tracer particles, the particle illumination and the image filtering process. Results of the simultaneous PIV/PIT stemming from application to a fluid system with continuous air exchange are presented. The measurements were conducted in a cuboidal convection sample with air in- and outlet at a Rayleigh number Ra ≈ 9.0 × 107. They prove the feasibility of the method by providing absolute and relative temperature accuracies of σT = 0.19 K and σΔT = 0.06 K, respectively. Further open issues that have to be addressed in order to mature the technique are identified.

  8. Tensor-based morphometry with stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration: Application to ADNI

    PubMed Central

    Bossa, Matias; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations mapping a customized template with the observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerequisite for both template estimation and image warping. Subsequent statistical analysis on the spatial transformations is performed to highlight voxel-wise differences. Most of previous TBM studies did not explore the influence of the registration parameters, such as the parameters defining the deformation and the regularization models. In this work performance evaluation of TBM using stationary velocity field (SVF) diffeomorphic registration was performed in a subset of subjects from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A wide range of values of the registration parameters that define the transformation smoothness and the balance between image matching and regularization were explored in the evaluation. The proposed methodology provided brain atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance level compared with results recently published on the same data set using a non-linear elastic registration method. PMID:20211269

  9. Event Detection and Visualization of Ocean Eddies based on SSH and Velocity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Daisuke; Araki, Fumiaki; Inoue, Yumi; Sasaki, Hideharu

    2016-04-01

    Numerical studies of ocean eddies have been progressed using high-resolution ocean general circulation models. In order to understand ocean eddies from simulation results with large amount of information volume, it is necessary to visualize not only distribution of eddies of each time step, but also events or phenomena of eddies. However, previous methods cannot precisely detect eddies, especially, during the events such as eddies' amalgamation, bifurcation. In the present study, we propose a new approach of eddy's detection, tracking and event visualization based on sea surface height (SSH) and velocity field. The proposed method detects eddies region as well as streams and currents region, and classifies detected eddies into several types. By tracking the time-varying change of classified eddies, it is possible to detect not only eddies event such as amalgamation and bifurcation but also the interaction between eddy and ocean current. As a result of visualizing detected eddies and events, we succeeded in creating the movie which enables us to intuitively understand the region of interest.

  10. DNS of the Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Model of a Small Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, John; Jia, Xinli; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Derksen, Jos

    2010-03-01

    This talk presents the results of a numerical study of the velocity and temperature fields in a model of a small room containing a seated mannequin. Results are also presented for the trajectories and ultimate fate of small particles that are introduced through the air inlet as well as particles that are entrained by the mannequin's thermal plume. The study was motivated by an experimental study performed at Syracuse University. In the experimental study, air entered the room through a floor vent and exited through a ceiling vent on the other side of the room. A mannequin was seated facing the floor vent. The mannequin could be electrically heated so that its surface temperature was 31C. The objective of the simulations was to obtain a more detailed understanding of the flow in the room. Of specific interest were the effects of the mannequin on the ultimate fates of small particles. The importance of the thermal plume around the mannequin was of particular interest since the thermal plume plays a role in transporting particles from near the floor to the breathing zone. The simulations were performed with a single phase version of a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that was originally developed for two-phase flows by Inamuro et al.

  11. Magnetic and Velocity Field of Sunspots in the Photosphere and Upper Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Jayant

    2014-03-01

    Sunspots, the dark blemishes on the solar surface have been widely studied for the past 400 years. Sunspots are the most readily identifiable manifestation of magnetic field concentrations on the solar surface. Interaction of the sunspot magnetic field with the plasma makes them one of the most interesting objects for research in solar physics. This thesis presents a study of the photospheric and upper chromospheric velocity and magnetic field structure of sunspots by analyzing spectro-polarimetric observations. These observations comprise different spectral lines obtained with two ground based telescopes and a space borne telescope. The lower brightness of sunspots on the solar surface is due to the presence of strong magnetic fields (up to 4 kG in the umbra), which makes the overturning convection inefficient. Convection is the main heat transport mechanism in the quiet Sun. The Penumbra, the annular part around the umbra has a brightness of about 75% of that in the quiet Sun. At the same time it has an average magnetic field strength of around 1.5 kG. The brightness of penumbrae has been an enigma for solar physicists for a long time. Theoretical models like the gappy penumbra model and the convective roll model as well as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations suggest that the heat transport in penumbrae is based on the presence of overturning convection. Direct observational evidence for the presence of convective flows in penumbral filaments was missing so far. In Chapter 3 we present observations of a penumbra in the C i 5380 Å spectral line formed in the deep photosphere. These high spatial resolution observations (0. '' 14) are obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST). Doppler map clearly shows the presence of several dark downflow lanes at the edges of the penumbral filaments which surround the bright upflows at the center of the filaments, supporting overturning convection as a mechanism of heat transport in penumbrae. Chapter 4 analyses the

  12. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-01-01

    Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.

  13. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  14. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  15. Settling Velocity Specific SOC Distribution along Hillslopes - A field investigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The net effects of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2, are decisively affected by the spatial re-distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC). The deposition position of eroded SOC, into terrestrial or aquatic systems, is actually decided by the transport distances of soil fractions where the SOC is stored. In theory, the transport distances of aggregated soil fractions are related to their settling velocities under given layer conditions. Yet, little field investigation has been conducted to examine the actual movement of eroded soil fractions along hillslopes, let alone the re-distribution pattern of functional SOC fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events from different topographic positions along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples from difference topographic positions along the slope were fractionated into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The SOC content, 13C signature, and C:N ratios of all settling fractions were measured. Our results show that: 1) the spatial distribution of soil settling classes along the slope clearly shows a coarsening effect at the deposition area immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend on the deposition area at the slope tail. This proves the validity of the conceptual model in Starr et al. 2000 to predict SOC redistribution patterns along eroding hillslopes. 2) The isotopically enriched 13C on the slope back suggests greater decomposition rates possibly experienced by eroded SOC during transport, while the pronounced respiration rates at the slope tail indicate a great potential of CO2 emissions after deposition. Overall, our results illustrate that immediate deposition of fast settling soil fractions, and the thus induced preferential deposition of SOC at foot slope and potential CO2 emissions during transport, must be appropriately accounted for in

  16. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group-velocity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Kinos, Adam; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, the slow-light effect, and the linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group-velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er-doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  17. H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.

  18. Study of flow field of burning particles in a pyrotechnic flame based on particle image and particle velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, R.; Xu, H. Q.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    Studying the burning particles in the pyrotechnic flame is important to acquire the decomposition mechanism and spectral radiance of pyrotechnics. The high speed video (HSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used in this paper to analyze the flow field and velocity of burning particles in the flame of pyrotechnics. The binary image was obtained through gray scale treatment and adaptive threshold segmentation from HSV and PIV data, by which the coordinate of each particle was marked. On the basis, the movement trajectory of each particle during combustion was pursued by the most recent guidelines algorithm of cancroids matching. Through the method proposed in this study, the velocity variation of each particle was obtained, the approximate distribution of particle quantity at each zone was visualized and the mathematical model of pyrotechnic particle velocity flow field was established.

  19. 4D Surface Velocity Fields of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Inferred From Continuous Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Riel, B. V.; Milillo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanics of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) beds impose fundamental constraints on ice flow and help set the timescale of potential WAIS collapse. Understanding basal mechanics requires a variety of observational and modeling approaches, among them using synoptic-scale observations of surface velocities as constraints on numerical ice flow models. This approach has been developed and employed over the past few decades using available surface velocity data, which often amount to snapshots of ice flow at sporadic times. The next major step in the evolution of geodetic methods for glacier dynamics is capturing synoptic-scale, time-dependent ice-flow characteristics. Here, using spatially and temporally dense synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations, we extend to the time domain existing methods for inferring velocity fields in three spatial dimensions from SAR and optical data. Our approach yields some of the first-ever truly 4D velocity fields. We briefly outline the underlying methodology before detailing the resulting velocity fields, which consist of a mean velocity vector, a user-defined set of temporal functions, and a DEM correction factor. Rutford Ice Stream (RIS), WAIS, provides an ideal proof-of-concept location because of its strong, well-documented, tidal-timescale ice flow variations. Existing GPS observations of RIS ice flow constrain the dominant periods of sinusoidal ice flow variability, which we use to define a set of sinusoidal functions used in the 4D velocity fields. COSMO-SkyMed, a 4-satellite constellation, collected SAR data for approximately 9 months beginning in late summer 2013 at sampling rates sufficient to distinguish the primary periods of tidally induced ice flow variability. The results, obtained using more than 1000 SAR-derived displacement fields, provide a map-view of tidally induced flow variations and tidal-timescale grounding line migration that indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in the response of the ice stream to

  20. Magnetic-field-induced stripe order and a 2D vortex glass phase in La1.905 Ba 0.095 CuO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, John; Wen, Jinsheng; Jie, Qing; Han, Su Jung; Li, Qiang; Huecker, Markus; Xu, Zhijun; Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Genda; Zimmermann, M. V.; Singh, D. K.

    2011-03-01

    We have measured the resistivity parallel and perpendicular to the Cu O2 planes in La 1.905 Ba 0.095 Cu O4 (Tc = 32 K) as a function of perpendicular magnetic field. We have discovered a significant regime of field and temperature where the perpendicular resistivity is finite (and large) but the parallel resistivity is zero. This regime appears to correspond to a quasi-two-dimensional vortex glass phase, a state that theory predicts cannot exist at finite temperature. It seems to be stabilized by field-induced charge and spin stripe order, which we have detected with x-ray and neutron diffraction, respectively. Supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  1. Wide-Field Measurements of the Velocity Field of the Circumsolar Dusty Plasma During the Total Solar Eclipse on July 22, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Rspaev, F. K.; Chalabaev, A.; Bram, D.; Dubovitskij, A. I.; Bonev, T.; Golev, V.; Le Coarer, E.

    2010-09-01

    We describe preliminary results of the wide-field (up to 20 div 30 R_⊙ heliocentric distance) spectro-imaging of the dusty plasma grains in the solar F-corona carried out during the total solar eclipse (TSE2009) of July 22, 2009 at Yuexi, China. The aim of the measurements was to measure the radial velocity field of the circumsolar dusty plasma using the Ca II K line λ 383.4 nm in absorption. The instrument used was a spectro-imaging camera with a Fabry-Perot etalon. The resulting radial velocity in the selected strips is ≈ -100 km s^{-1}. The definite conclusions on the velocity field will be drawn when the final analysis of the data will be completed.

  2. Heat Transfer to Anode of Arc as Function of Transverse Magnetic Field and Lateral Gas Flow Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zama, Yoshiyuki; Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding has useful joining technology because of high-energy and high-current characteristics. It can be flexible from the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity. In this case, the weld defect occurs. In this research, the heat transfer to the anode of the arc as a function of the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity is elucidated. That magnetic flux density and lateral gas velocity were varied from 0 to 3 mT and 0 to 50?m?s -1, respectively. The axial plasma gas argon flow rates were 3?slm. A transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc using Helmholtz coil. The anode is used by a water-cooled copper plate, and the heat transfer is measured by temperature of cooled water. As a result, the arc is deflected by the Lorentz force and lateral gas convection. Thus, the heat transfer to the anode of the arc decreases with increasing the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity. In addition, the heat transfer to the anode changes with different attachments modes. The lateral gas flow causes a convective heat loss from the arc to the chamber walls.

  3. Results of interferometric observations of the F-corona radial velocity field at the distances (3 - 7) R_sun;.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, P. V.; Shestakova, L. I.; Ajmanov, A. K.

    The results of observations of the F-corona radial velocity field during July 31, 1981 are briefly given. The prograde and retrograde Keplerian motion of the circumsolar dust, the radial motion directed to the Sun and some ejections were obtained.

  4. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  5. Measurement of Correlation Between Flow Density, Velocity, and Density*velocity(sup 2) with Far Field Noise in High Speed Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2002-01-01

    To locate noise sources in high-speed jets, the sound pressure fluctuations p', measured at far field locations, were correlated with each of radial velocity v, density rho, and phov(exp 2) fluctuations measured from various points in jet plumes. The experiments follow the cause-and-effect method of sound source identification, where correlation is related to the first, and correlation to the second source terms of Lighthill's equation. Three fully expanded, unheated plumes of Mach number 0.95, 1.4 and 1.8 were studied for this purpose. The velocity and density fluctuations were measured simultaneously using a recently developed, non-intrusive, point measurement technique based on molecular Rayleigh scattering. It was observed that along the jet centerline the density fluctuation spectra S(sub rho) have different shapes than the radial velocity spectra S(sub v), while data obtained from the peripheral shear layer show similarity between the two spectra. Density fluctuations in the jet showed significantly higher correlation, than either rhov(sub 2) or v fluctuations. It is found that a single point correlation from the peak sound emitting region at the end of the potential core can account for nearly 10% of all noise at 30 to the jet axis. The correlation, representing the effectiveness of a longitudinal quadrupole in generating noise 90 to the jet axis, is found to be zero within experimental uncertainty. In contrast rhov(exp 2) fluctuations were better correlated with sound pressure fluctuation at the 30 location. The strongest source of sound is found to lie at the centerline and beyond the end of potential core.

  6. Velocity profiles, Reynolds stresses and bed roughness from an autonomous field deployed Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler in a mixed sediment tidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boyle, Louise; Thorne, Peter; Cooke, Richard; Cohbed Team

    2014-05-01

    Estuaries are among some of the most important global landscapes in terms of population density, ecology and economy. Understanding the dynamics of these natural mixed sediment environments is of particular interest amid growing concerns over sea level rise, climate variations and estuarine response to these changes. Many predictors exist for bed form formation and sand transport in sandy coastal zones; however less work has been published on mixed sediments. This paper details a field study which forms part of the COHBED project aiming to increase understanding of bed forms in a biotic mixed sediment estuarine environment. The study was carried out in the Dee Estuary, in the eastern Irish Sea between England and Wales from the 21st May to 4th June 2013. A state of the art instrumentation frame, known as SEDbed, was deployed at three sites of differing sediment properties and biological makeup within the intertidal zone of the estuary. The SEDbed deployment consisted of a suite of optical and acoustic instrumentation, including an Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP), Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and a three dimensional acoustic ripple profiler, 3D-ARP. Supplementary field samples and measurements were recorded alongside the frame during each deployment. This paper focuses on the use of new technological developments for the investigation of sediment dynamics. The hydrodynamics at each of the deployment sites are presented including centimetre resolution velocity profiles in the near bed region of the water column, obtained from the ADVP, which is presently the only autonomous field deployed coherent Doppler profiler . Based on these high resolution profiles variations in frictional velocity, bed shear stress and roughness length are calculated. Comparisons are made with theoretical models and with Reynolds stress values obtained from ADV data at a single point within the ADVP profile and from ADVP data itself. Predictions of bed roughness at each

  7. Field-tracing approach to determine flow velocity and hydraulic conductivity in saturated peat soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gafni, A.

    1986-01-01

    A tracing methodology based on the point dilution concept was developed to quantify groundwater velocities in saturated peat soils. Groundwater velocity was measured in four different peatlands. The steepest hydraulic gradient and the dominant direction of groundwater flow were determined for each peatland. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of selected peat layers was estimated from measured groundwater velocity and hydraulic gradient using Darcy's equation. The effective porosity of three peat layers was determined using the pressure plate technique. The estimated hydraulic parameters of one of the bags were further evaluated by analyzing a rainfall-runoff event that exhibited groundwater discharge.

  8. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  9. Velocity field near the jet orifice of a round jet in a crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Benson, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Experimentally determined velocities at selected locations near the jet orifice are presented and analyzed for a round jet in crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of four and eight were studied experimentally for a round subsonic jet of air exhausting perpendicularly through a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature. Velocity measurements were made in cross sections to the jet plume located from one to four jet diameters from the orifice. Jet centerline and vortex properties are presented and utilized to extend the results of a previous study into the region close to the jet orifice.

  10. Quantification of cellular properties from external fields and resulting induced velocity: cellular hydrodynamic diameter.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J J; Haam, S; Zhao, Y; McCloskey, K; Moore, L; Zborowski, M; Williams, P S

    1999-09-05

    An experimental technique is discussed in which the size distribution of a population of cells is determined by calculating each cell's settling velocity. The settling velocity is determined from microscopically obtained images which were recorded on SVHS tape. These images are then computer imaged and processed, and the cell's location and velocity are determined using a computer algorithm referred to as cell tracking velocimetry (CTV). Experimental data is presented comparing the distribution of human lymphocytes and a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, determined using a Coulter counter and the CTV approach.

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittichk; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical sampling team collected additional 148 samples at Vernon Field along 5 new traverses. Most of the locations were sampled for three types of analyses: microbial, iodine and enzyme leach; no results from the second batch of samples were available in time for this report. In addition to the sampling, a study was begun on the feasibility of collecting and analyzing hydrocarbon gases (C1-C8) directly. Although several companies offer these services, the cost ($200-300/sample w/o sampling fee) is high, on par with the cost of a 3D seismic survey, and may not include the raw data. However direct sampling of reservoir gases collecting in the soil appear to offer the best approach and should be included in this study. It would probably work well at Vernon Field. It may be possible to lower costs considerably; initial estimates of $20/sample for GCMS (Gas Chromatography--mass spectrometry) analysis are attractive and might induce to Michigan producers to include soil surveys in their routine field work-ups. A complete set of digital data was assembled for Vernon Field and nearby locations. The set consists of well locations, formation top picks, lithologies and scanned images of driller's reports and scout tickets. Well logs are still being located. The annual meeting for the Class Revisit work group is tentatively scheduled for the week of March 1-7 in Tampa, Fl. By that time all of the geochemical data will be available and final decisions regarding drilling can be made.

  12. Correlation of throwing velocity to the results of lower-body field tests in male college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Graeme; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2013-04-01

    Baseball-specific athleticism, potential, and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower-body field testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests: medicine ball (MB) scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10- and 60-yd sprints, and both left and right single-leg 10-yd hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower-body field test results determined that right-handed throwing velocity from the stretch position was most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW; R = 0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL; R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and MB scoop (R = 0.338), whereas LMJL, BW, and LMJR all contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R = 0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left-handed and right-handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride.

  13. Global positioning system data analysis: velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dan B; Gabbett, Tim J

    2012-03-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sport athletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men's and women's field hockey, men's and women's soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sport athletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sport athletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints.

  14. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-07-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, a field demonstration was undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a strong anomaly in the Myrtle Beach area that would justify drilling by itself and even more so in conjunction with the structural interpretation from the 3D seismic data. The Myrtle Beach geochemical survey indicated a good to excellent prospect which was confirmed by drilling. Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Myrtle Beach area in Burke County, North Dakota. This case history presents the important technical details regarding the geochemistry and the two vertical wells that are part of this field demonstration, and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and is being used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion.

  15. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-04-01

    The principal objective of the study was to test a new analytical technique, Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME), for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This involved measuring the effectiveness of SPME to extract hydrocarbons under controlled conditions in the laboratory. As part of the study, a field demonstration was undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the laboratory results. Presented in this quarterly report is the condensed version of the Case History and Well Summary for the Bear Lake area in Manistee County, Michigan. The full version will be in the annual report. The condensed case history presents the important technical details regarding the geochemistry and horizontal lateral for Bear Lake, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion.

  16. 2D modeling and simulation of the flow dynamics, electric field and reactions in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration and CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray; Lorant, Christophe; Descamps, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In atmospheric-pressure plasma reactors, the flow dynamics can be complex, determine the reactor performance and complicate scale-up. Coupling computational fluid dynamics to the calculation of the electric field and plasma chemistry is challenging because of the numerical stiffness introduced by the difference in time scale of the different phenomena involved. Focusing on low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure pure nitrogen plasma, a model and model reduction based solution strategy to deal with the numerical stiffness are presented and evaluated. The influence of the electric field on the flow dynamics and species concentration fields is first qualitatively studied by means of 2D simulations of a sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration. Next, a specific reactor prototype for low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for in-line surface treatments is simulated to illustrate the importance of accounting for the detailed flow dynamics.

  17. Spectral diffusion model of heavy inertial particles in a random velocity field of the continuous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevich, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the spectral expansion of Euler correlation of the carrier medium the authors have obtained a closed system of functional equations for the Lagrange spectra of heavy inertial particles and the velocity fluctuations of the carrier medium on the particle trajectory. To split the fourth moments the approximation of quasinormality and velocity fluctuations of particles is performed by a random Gaussian process. The approximate self-consistent method is proposed for solving the resulting system of functional equations. The spectrum of Euler correlations of medium velocity fluctuations is modeled by Saffman and Karman distributions. The influence of the spatial microstructure of turbulence, the particles inertia and velocity slip on the intensity of chaotic motion and the coefficient of turbulent diffusion of dispersed particles has been studied.

  18. Satellite-image-derived velocity field of an Antarctic ice stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.; Scambos, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    The surface velocity of a rapidly moving ice stream has been determined to high accuracy and spatial density with the use of sequential satellite imagery. Variations of ice velocity are spatially related to surface undulations, and transverse velocity variations of up to 30 percent occur. Such large variations negate the concept of plug flow and call into question earlier mass-balance calculations for this and other ice streams where sparse velocity data were used. The coregistration of images with the use of the topographic undulations of the ice stream and the measurement of feature displacement with cross-correlation of image windows provide significant improvements in the use of satellite imagery for ice-flow determination.

  19. A genetic algorithm particle pairing technique for 3D velocity field extraction in holographic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Meng, H.

    This research explores a novel technique, using Genetic Algorithm Particle Pairing (GAPP) to extract three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields of complex flows. It is motivated by Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV), in which intrinsic speckle noise hinders the achievement of high particle density required for conventional correlation methods in extracting 3D velocity fields, especially in regions with large velocity gradients. The GA particle pairing method maps particles recorded at the first exposure to those at the second exposure in a 3D space, providing one velocity vector for each particle pair instead of seeking statistical averaging. Hence, particle pairing can work with sparse seeding and complex 3D velocity fields. When dealing with a large number of particles from two instants, however, the accuracy of pairing results and processing speed become major concerns. Using GA's capability to search a large solution space parallelly, our algorithm can efficiently find the best mapping scenarios among a large number of possible particle pairing schemes. During GA iterations, different pairing schemes or solutions are evaluated based on fluid dynamics. Two types of evaluation functions are proposed, tested, and embedded into the GA procedures. Hence, our Genetic Algorithm Particle Pairing (GAPP) technique is characterized by robustness in velocity calculation, high spatial resolution, good parallelism in handling large data sets, and high processing speed on parallel architectures. It has been successfully tested on a simple HPIV measurement of a real trapped vortex flow as well as a series of numerical experiments. In this paper, we introduce the principle of GAPP, analyze its performance under different parameters, and evaluate its processing speed on different computer architectures.

  20. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  1. Wide-field investigation of the velocity field of the circumsolar dust during the total solar eclipse on July 22, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Rspaev, F. K.; Chalabaev, A.; Bram, D.; Dubovitskiy, A. I.; Bonev, T.; Golev, V.; Le Coarer, E.

    We describe preliminary results of the wide-field (up to 30 div 40 R_⊙ heliocentric distance) spectro-imaging of the dust grains in the solar F-corona carried out during the total solar eclipse (TSE) of July 22, 2009 at Yuexi, China. The aim of the observations was to measure the radial velocities of the circumsolar dust grains. The field of radial velocities of dust was obtained by Doppler shifts of the Ca II K λ383.4 nm absorption line. The instrument used was a spectro-imaging camera with a Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon. Thin clouds during the eclipse modulated the intensity of the dust scattered light but the experiment was successful giving the valuable data on the dust radial velocity of the Ca II K line in absorption (no emission in this line was seen in the FP data). The resulting mean radial velocity in the selected strips of the interferogram images is ≈ -100 km/s. The definite conclusions on the radial velocity field will be drawn only when the on-going thorough data reduction and final analysis of the data will be completed.

  2. Rapid Fielding: Case Study Concerning the Fielding of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 to 2d Battalion 4th Field Artillery Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    benchmark them against improper fielding? Determine if the process asks the tactical commander to accept risks . 47 The acquisition framework establishes...capability within the strategic framework . Tactical risk becomes an issue for discussion at this point because of the nature of the overall strategy...package fielding and placement of the Multiple Launch Rocket System case study within the acquisition framework . Literary review briefly details rapid

  3. SPECT Imaging of 2-D and 3-D Distributed Sources with Near-Field Coded Aperture Collimation: Computer Simulation and Real Data Validation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhiping; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    The imaging of distributed sources with near-field coded aperture (CA) remains extremely challenging and is broadly considered unsuitable for single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This study proposes a novel CA SPECT reconstruction approach and evaluates the feasibilities of imaging and reconstructing distributed hot sources and cold lesions using near-field CA collimation and iterative image reconstruction. Computer simulations were designed to compare CA and pinhole collimations in two-dimensional radionuclide imaging. Digital phantoms were created and CA images of the phantoms were reconstructed using maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). Errors and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated and image resolution was evaluated. An ex vivo rat heart with myocardial infarction was imaged using a micro-SPECT system equipped with a custom-made CA module and a commercial 5-pinhole collimator. Rat CA images were reconstructed via the three-dimensional (3-D) MLEM algorithm developed for CA SPECT with and without correction for a large projection angle, and 5-pinhole images were reconstructed using the commercial software provided by the SPECT system. Phantom images of CA were markedly improved in terms of image quality, quantitative root-mean-squared error, and CNR, as compared to pinhole images. CA and pinhole images yielded similar image resolution, while CA collimation resulted in fewer noise artifacts. CA and pinhole images of the rat heart were well reconstructed and the myocardial perfusion defects could be clearly discerned from 3-D CA and 5-pinhole SPECT images, whereas 5-pinhole SPECT images suffered from severe noise artifacts. Image contrast of CA SPECT was further improved after correction for the large projection angle used in the rat heart imaging. The computer simulations and small-animal imaging study presented herein indicate that the proposed 3-D CA SPECT imaging and reconstruction approaches worked reasonably

  4. Approach for simultaneous determination of thickness and sound velocity in layered structures based on sound field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnicke, Elfgard; Wolf, Mario; Kümmritz, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive, nondestructive method for the simultaneous determination of sound velocity and thickness of the different layers of a layered structure by means of ultrasound. It will be demonstrated how further information about the reflected sound field, in addition to the time of flight, is acquired by using annular arrays. Because of this supplementary information, reflectors or other probes at known distances are not necessary and the specimen does not have to be placed in a medium with known sound velocity. Two different evaluation methods combined with a geometric model are explained. To improve the accuracy, measured signals are also evaluated by a wave propagation model.

  5. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2005-04-01

    In this reporting period two main accomplishments stand out. The Springdale task is in play in the northern Michigan Basin and the geochemical survey work over the Springdale prospect continued to progress. We still need to characterize the play in terms of the type of trap (basal reef diagenetic (?)) and its relation to the well documented pinnacle reef play. Also, we have become aware that Capac Field in the southern reef trend (Figure 1) is a possible analog to Springdale and so will be looking more closely at the literature on that field, particularly the work by Bowers (1987). Future work is directed toward further defining the Springdale project via more wells and examination and characterization of well cuttings. One to two more geochemical surveys are planned, one this spring and a final one in early fall. Based on current oil prices and Springdale production as of January 2005, an ROI, (defined as Total liquids revenue, $5.45m/DOE support, $1.45m) better than 3.75. This does not include gas revenues, which have not yet been calculated.

  6. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan is now

  7. Estimating mechanical blood trauma in a centrifugal blood pump: laser Doppler anemometer measurements of the mean velocity field.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, M; Paone, N

    1996-06-01

    A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) was used to obtain the mean velocity and the Reynolds stress fields in the inner channels of a well-known centrifugal vaneless pump (Bio-pump). Effects of the excessive flow resistance against which an occlusive pump operates in some surgical situations, such as cardiopulmonary bypass, are illustrated. The velocity vector field obtained from LDA measurements reveals that the constraint-forced vortex provides pumping action in a restricted area in the core of the pump. In such situations, recirculating zones dominate the flow and consequently increase the damage to blood cells and raise the risk of thrombus formation in the device. Reynolds normal and shear stress fields were obtained in the entry flow for the channel formed by two rotating cones to illustrate the effects of flow disturbances on the potential for blood cell damage.

  8. Mathematical model for prediction of currents, magnetic fields, melt velocities, melt topography and current efficiency in Hall-Heroult cells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Zundelevich, Y.; Sharma, D.

    1981-06-01

    The magnetic fields, current densities, metal and electrolyte velocities, current efficiencies and topography of the electrolyte-metal interface within the Hall-Heroult cell used to produce aluminum have been predicted from first principles. The computation of current densities was carried out by solving Ohms law enabling the calculation of magnetic field vectors from the Biot-Savart law. The cross product of the current densities and magnetic fields then yielded the electromagnetic stirring forces acting on the molten metal and electrolyte. By employing a turbulence model and the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations, velocities within these two liquids could be calculated. The solution of the fluid flow equations yielded the pressure distribution within both electrolyte and metal, permitting the calculation of the shape of the interface betweeen these two liquids.

  9. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  10. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-10-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, a new field demonstration, Springdale Prospect in Manistee County, Michigan was begun to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path. The surface geochemistry sampling at the original Bear Lake demonstration site was updated several months after the prospect was confirmed and production begun. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir.

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittick; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2001-10-31

    Two major accomplishments resulted from Phase I. One is the success of the surface geochemistry program, which collected over 800 samples from the site of the 1st demonstration well in Vernon Field and has pretty well provided us with the tools to delineate favorable ground from unfavorable. The second is the recent detailed mapping of the Central Michigan Basin that for the first time revealed the presence of at least two major faults that control the location of many of the reservoirs in the Michigan Basin. These faults were located from structure maps obtained by contouring the surface of the Dundee Formation using top picks from 9861 wells in 14 counties. Faults were inferred where the contour lines were most dense (''stacked'').

  12. Pitot survey of exhaust flow field of a 2-D scramjet nozzle at Mach 6 with air or freon and argon used for exhaust simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A pitot-rake survey of the simulated exhaust of a half-span scramjet nozzle model was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel to provide an additional data set for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code comparisons. A wind-tunnel model was tested with a 26-tube pitot rake that could be manually positioned along the mid-semispan plane of the model. The model configuration had an external expansion surface of 20 degrees and an internal cowl expansion of 12 degrees; tests were also performed with a flow fence. Tests were conducted at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot and a model angle of attack of -0.75 degrees. The two exhaust gas mediums that were tested were air and a Freon 12-argon mixture. Each medium was tested at two jet total pressures at approximately 28 and 14 psia. This document presents the flow-field survey results in graphical as well as tabular form, and several observations concerning the results are discussed. The surveys reveal the major expected flow-field characteristics for each test configuration. For a 50-percent freon 12 and 50-percent argon mixture by volume (Fr-Ar), the exhaust jet pressures were slightly higher than those for air. The addition of a flow fence slightly raised the pitot pressure for the Fr-Ar mixture, but it produced little change for air. For the Fr-Ar exhaust, the plume was larger and the region between the shock wave and plume was smaller.

  13. Pilot Study on the Detection of Simulated Lesions Using a 2D and 3D Digital Full-Field Mammography System with a Newly Developed High Resolution Detector Based on Two Shifts of a-Se.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bani, M; Lux, M P; Schwab, S; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Beckmann, M W; Uder, M; Fasching, P A; Adamietz, B; Meier-Meitinger, M

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Experimental study of a new system for digital 2D and 3D full-field mammography (FFDM) using a high resolution detector based on two shifts of a-Se. Material and Methods: Images were acquired using the new FFDM system Amulet® (FujiFilm, Tokio, Japan), an a-Se detector (receptor 24 × 30 cm(2), pixel size 50 µm, memory depth 12 bit, spatial resolution 10 lp/mm, DQE > 0.50). Integrated in the detector is a new method for data transfer, based on optical switch technology. The object of investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152A (Radiation Measurement Inc., Middleton, WI, USA) and the same parameters and exposure data (Tungsten, 100 mAs, 30 kV) were consistently used. We acquired 3 different pairs of images in the c-c and ml planes (2D) and in the c-c and c-c planes with an angle of 4 degrees (3D). Five radiologists experienced in mammography (experience ranging from 3 months to more than 5 years) analyzed the images (monitoring) which had been randomly encoded (random generator) with regard to the recognition of details such as specks of aluminum oxide (200-740 µm), nylon fibers (0.4-1.6 mm) and round lesions/masses (diameters 5-14 mm), using special linear glasses for 3D visualization, and compared the results. Results: A total of 225 correct positive decisions could be detected: we found 222 (98.7 %) correct positive results for 2D and 3D visualization in each case. Conclusion: The results of this phantom study showed the same detection rates for both 2D and 3D imaging using full field digital mammography. Our results must be confirmed in further clinical trials.

  14. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  15. Effect of Noise and Flow Field Resolution on the Evaluation of Fluid Dynamic Forces on Bodies Using only the Velocity Field and its Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Maria Cecilia; Krueger, Paul S.

    2010-11-01

    Determining unsteady fluid dynamic forces on bodies using only measurements of the velocity field and its derivatives is essential in many investigations, including studies of freely swimming or flying animals. In this project, all terms in a control-volume force equation utilizing only the velocity field and its derivatives discussed by Noca et al. (J. Fluids Struct., 13, 551 - 578) will be analyzed with regard to the influence of flow field noise and resolution to determine which terms dominate the error in the computed force and which factor has the greatest effect on the error. Using analytical and computational flow fields for which the lift and drag forces are known, irregularities found in real experimental results including noise and reduced spatial/temporal resolution will be added to assess their effect on the computed forces. Results for several canonical flows will be presented.

  16. 3D mechanical modeling of the GPS velocity field along the North Anatolian fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Ann-Sophie; Chéry, Jean; Hassani, Riad

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) extends over 1500 km in a complex tectonic setting. In this region of the eastern Mediterranean, collision of the Arabian, African and Eurasian plates resulted in creation of mountain ranges (i.e. Zagros, Caucasus) and the westward extrusion of the Anatolian block. In this study we investigate the effects of crustal rheology on the long-term displacement rate along the NAF. Heat flow and geodetic data are used to constrain our mechanical model, built with the three-dimensional finite element code ADELI. The fault motion occurs on a material discontinuity of the model which is controlled by a Coulomb-type friction. The rheology of the lithosphere is composed of a frictional upper crust and a viscoelastic lower crust. The lithosphere is supported by a hydrostatic pressure at its base (representing the asthenospheric mantle). We model the long-term deformation of the surroundings of the NAF by adjusting the effective fault friction and also the geometry of the surface fault trace. To do so, we used a frictional range of 0.0-0.2 for the fault, and a viscosity varying between 10 19 and 10 21 Pa s. One of the most striking results of our rheological tests is that the upper part of the fault is locked if the friction exceeds 0.2. By comparing our results with geodetic measurements [McClusky et al., J. Geophys. Res. B 105 (2000) 5695-5719] and tectonic observations, we have defined a realistic model in which the displacement rate on the NAF reaches ˜17 mm/yr for a viscosity of 10 19 Pa s and a fault friction of 0.05. This strongly suggests that the NAF is a weak fault like the San Andreas fault in California. Adding topography with its corresponding crustal root does not induce gravity flow of Anatolia. Rather, it has the counter-intuitive effect of decreasing the westward Anatolian escape. We find a poor agreement between our calculated velocity field and what is observed with GPS in the Marmara and the Aegean regions. We suspect that the

  17. 2-D inner-shelf current observations from a single VHF WEllen RAdar (WERA) station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Gurgel, K.-W.; Warner, J.C.; List, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of High Frequency (HF) radars used worldwide operate at medium to high frequencies (8 to 30 MHz) providing spatial resolutions ranging from 3 to 1.5 km and ranges from 150 to 50 km. This paper presents results from the deployment of a single Very High Frequency (VHF, 48 MHz) WEllen RAdar (WERA) radar with spatial resolution of 150 m and range 10-15 km, used in the nearshore off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA. It consisted of a linear array of 12 antennas operating in beam forming mode. Radial velocities were estimated from radar backscatter for a variety of wind and nearshore wave conditions. A methodology similar to that used for converting acoustically derived beam velocities to an orthogonal system is presented for obtaining 2-D current fields from a single station. The accuracy of the VHF radar-derived radial velocities is examined using a new statistical technique that evaluates the system over the range of measured velocities. The VHF radar velocities showed a bias of 3 to 7 cm/s over the experimental period explainable by the differences in radar penetration and in-situ measurement height. The 2-D current field shows good agreement with the in-situ measurements. Deviations and inaccuracies are well explained by the geometric dilution analysis. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  18. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, A. J.; Ryan, E. H.; Huntley, H. S.; Laurindo, L. C.; Coelho, E.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D.; Chen, S. S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K. L.; Gough, M.; Haus, B. K.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Iskandarani, M.; Jacobs, G.; Kirwan, A. D.; Laxague, N.; Lipphardt, B.; Magaldi, M. G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.; Restrepo, J. M.; Smith, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.