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  1. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360

  2. The Wisdom Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Speck, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Physicians may often wonder about the basis on which dentists advocate removal of third molars. This article outlines indications for removal and for leaving the tooth in place. It also describes postoperative experiences according to the nature of the extractions. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289716

  3. Presentation and management of aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    The aetiology and pathology of aneurysms, their sites of occurrence, and their general management are outlined. Since the abdominal aortic aneurysm is the type most commonly encountered by the surgeon its presentation, assessment, and operative and postoperative management are discussed in detail. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1259327

  4. The role of the skin bank.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts,, M.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a skin bank is discussed and various indications for the use of viable homografts and lyophilized skin as a temporary biological cover for open wounds are described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:769648

  5. Urinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    The present incidence, clinical features and classification of urinary tuberculosis are discussed. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. The indications for surgical intervention are reviewed and procedures briefly described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5169185

  6. Inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Jayson, M. I. V.; Salmon, P. R.; Harrison, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Routine detailed gastroenterological investigations were performed in a series of 47 ankylosing spondylitics. Evidence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease was found in eight patients, a prevalence of 17%. Unsuspected bowel disease was found in the absence of symptoms in three of these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5430378

  7. The morbid anatomy of high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205

  8. Dermatitis herpetiformis and leiomyomas with HLA-B8, a marker of immune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, R.; Rostas, A.; Wilkinson, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) were found in the same patient. This association has not been previously described, although the association of malignant tumours and DH is well known. HLA-B8 was found in this patient as well as in an older brother with polymyositis; this antigen is known to be associated with other immune diseases. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:991036

  9. The Medical and Human Performance Problems of Living Under the Sea

    PubMed Central

    MacInnis, Joseph B.

    1966-01-01

    Recent undersea experiments in the United States and France showed that divers can live and work effectively for many days from dwellings placed on the continental shelf to depths down to 432 feet. If prolonged exposure to the hostile underwater environment is to be tolerated successfully, existing physical, biological and equipment hazards must be recognized, prepared for and, when possible, circumvented. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:4380341

  10. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  11. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  12. Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, R. G.; Hill, G. S.; Murray, G.; Ramsden, P. W.; Heptinstall, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Reserpine is able to exert a pronounced inhibitory effect on the development of papillary necrosis following the administration of bromoethylamine hydrobromide to the rat. This inhibitory effect has been observed using light microscopy, histochemistry, indigo carmine excretion and urine output. These observations suggest that vasoconstriction may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis, but the evidence for this is incomplete. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4114974

  13. The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1980-01-01

    The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

  14. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  15. The adjuvant activity of a non-toxic, water-soluble glycopeptide present in large quantities in the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain DT.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Tull, D E; Shimono, T; Kotani, S; Kato, M; Ogawa, Y; Yamamura, Y; Koga, T; Pearson, C M

    1975-01-01

    A water-soluble mycobacterial glycopeptide was obtained in large quantities from the culture supernatant fluid of M. tuberculosis strain DT. This glycopeptide was strongly adjuvant-active when injected, in a water-in-oil emulsion contianing ovalbumin, into guinea-pigs. In addition, it was devoid of cord factor toxicity in mice, polyarthritogenic activity in rats and cavity stimulating activity in rabbit lungs. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:806515

  16. The fine structure of macrophage granules in experimental granulomas in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, I; Wright, J

    1979-01-01

    Macrophages in granulomas in four rodent species contain cytoplasmic granules with an ordered substructure similar to those previously described in human granuloma macrophages. These appearances, as well as other ultrastructural features of the cells, are compatible with the view that those macrophages have a secretory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:572823

  17. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  18. Endemic skeletal fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Teotia, M.; Teotia, S. P. S.; Kunwar, K. B.

    1971-01-01

    Endemic skeletal fluorosis is described in 6 children aged 11 or over. Four cases were crippled with severe deformities in the spine, hips, and knees. All showed positive phosphorus, magnesium, and nitrogen balances and excessively positive calcium balances. The skeletal x-rays, histology, and chemical composition of the bones revealed diagnostic changes in each case. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5118057

  19. Oesophageal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A wide variety of benign conditions affecting the oesophagus which have long been recognized in association with hiatus hernia are now known to be attributable to reflux oesophagitis. The development of modern methods of treatment of these conditions is described with reference to a number of illustrative cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1103697

  20. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  1. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  2. A Family Physician's Approach to Acne

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Eugene

    1981-01-01

    Because of the potential for permanent physical and psychological sequelae, acne vulgaris should be regarded as a true disease—not the “normal” physiologic response one might infer from its near universal prevalence in adolescence. Effective therapy reduces pilosebaceous unit obstruction, minimizes secondary inflammation, and lessens the chance of significant scarring. This article reviews current therapeutic modalities, and suggests a sequence for implementation of specific agents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289790

  3. Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five cases of haemochromatosis with particular regard to the pancreatic circulation

    PubMed Central

    Scuro, L. A.; Curri, G.; Monti, G.; Zuin, R.; Romani, S.

    1968-01-01

    Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five patients with haemochromatosis revealed a constant deficit of pancreatic vascularization as shown by reduced visualization of the arterial circle. These consistent results appear to be significant. There was no correlation between the existence and severity of diabetes mellitus and the pancreatic vascular involvement. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5665746

  4. Metastatic cystosarcoma phylloides in an adolescent girl: an unusually malignant tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, H C; Trestioreanu, A; Ketcham, A S

    1975-01-01

    The first case of metastatic cystosarcoma phylloides in an adolescent is reported. This case also represents the first reported response of this tumor to chemotherapy and irradiation. This tumor showed an unusually rapid rate of cell division probably making it more susceptible to these agents. The importance of an early diagnosis and definitive excision is stressed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:165788

  5. Absorption and Transport of Fluorescent Brighteners by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Darken, Marjorie A.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of brighteners by living cells and their transport to subsequent growth is described. Brighteners are highly fluorescent, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds which appear to be essentially nontoxic, stable biological markers. They have been effectively absorbed by growing cultures of bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, and higher fungi, with active growth centers evidencing the greatest flourescence. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10-11 PMID:14025111

  6. Aneurysm of the aorta treated by wiring: case report of a 38-year survival.

    PubMed Central

    Altman, P; Voorhees, A B

    1976-01-01

    A patient with a syphilitic aneurysm of the aorta treated by the insertion of wire is presented. The patient remained well for almost 40 years, but finally succumbed after rupture. The autopsy findings are discussed. To our knowledge, this represents the longest reported survival after treatment of an aortic aneurysm by wiring. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:999350

  7. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  8. Yeast global transcriptional regulators Sin4 and Rgr1 are components of mediator complex/RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Bjorklund, S; Jiang, Y W; Kim, Y J; Lane, W S; Stillman, D J; Kornberg, R D

    1995-01-01

    Sin4 and Rgr1 proteins, previously shown by genetic studies to play both positive and negative roles in the transcriptional regulation of many genes, are identified here as components of mediator and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complexes. Results with Sin4 deletion and Rgr1 truncation strains indicate the association of these proteins in a subcomplex comprising Sin4, Rgr1, Gal11, and a 50-kDa polypeptide. Taken together with the previous genetic evidence, our findings point to a role of the mediator in repression as well as in transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479899

  9. Experimental herpetic keratitis in rabbit corneal organ cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, D. H.; Creighton, M. O.; Hatch, L. A.; De Clercq, E.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro method for maintaining rabbit corneal organ cultures for short periods of time is described. These cultures supported replication of strains of type 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus, and changes typical of herpetic infections of the cornea in vivo were observed by light microscopy, and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Infectious virus was readily recovered from inoculated corneal organ cultures. For practical, economic and humanitarian reasons, the full potential of this system warrants further investigation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6320856

  10. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  11. Freeze-etching studies on the ciliary necklace in the rat and chick.

    PubMed Central

    Breipohl, W; Mendoza, A S; Miragall, F

    1980-01-01

    The existence of a ciliary necklace in kinocilia, atypical cilia and mature and differentiating sensory cilia is described in rat and chicken. In addition to parallel horizontally oriented rows of the ciliary necklace, irregular forms of intramembranous particle (IMP) aggregations are also described. The function of the ciliary necklace is discussed, special attention being given to the appearance of circular rows of IMP prior to the outgrowth of olfactory cilia and to the existence of dynein arms in these. Evidence is provided for the motility of olfactory cilia in the chick. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7429968

  12. Facial Sinuses from Dental Pathosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, A.; Chasmar, L. R.; Lanigan, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Sinus tracts presenting on the face may be the result of dental pathosis. This etiologic possibility should be ruled out before such lesions are treated by prolonged antibiotic therapy or surgical excision. The diagnosis can often be confirmed by a good clinical intraoral examination supplemented by appropriate radiographs. Four cases are presented in which treatment of the underlying pathology resulted in resolution of the sinus tract. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21286180

  13. Specialized contacts of astrocytes with astrocytes and with other cell types in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Najera, I; Fernandez Ruiz, B; Garcia Segura, L M

    1980-01-01

    Adult hamsters were used for this electron microscopic study of the hypothalamic region. Specialized contacts between astrocytes and astrocytes, and between astrocytes and other cellular elements, are described and illustrated. The specialized inter-astrocytic junctions occur primarily in perivascular and subpial regions, but also in areas of high synaptic density. The junctions between astrocytic processes are of hemidesmosomal type. Astrocytes are connected to oligodendroglial cells by means of desmosomes, and to neuronal processes by means of zonulae occludens. The functional significance of these arrangements is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7364663

  14. Individual antigenic specificity and cross-reactions among amyloid preparations from different individuals

    PubMed Central

    Husby, G.; Natvig, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated from eleven amyloid-laden organs of six patients. By alkaline degradation, soluble units were obtained which gave antibody formation in rabbits. Gel precipitation and haemagglutination inhibition were used to characterize antigens of the amyloid. Evidence was obtained that amyloids from different organs of the same individual were identical in the antigenicity. In contrast, amyloids from different individuals each showed unique individual specificity. Besides this, antigenic cross-reactions were noted between the amyloid preparations. Finally, evidence for antigenic cross-reactivity between certain amyloid preparations and immunoglobulin light chains was obtained. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4624554

  15. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  16. Blue rubber bleb naevus disease: an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, M; Ward, P; Maddocks, J L

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman presented with facial pain, a right parotid tumour and iron deficiency anaemia. She had several cutaneous venous swellings and tumours with a similar appearance were found in the large bowel. Histological examination of the parotid tumour and angiography of the skin and gut lesions confirmed that they were venous in origin. The aetiology, classification, and complications of disorders of the venous system and the importance of using a tourniquet to examine the peripheral veins is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3264257

  17. Endobronchial lipoma: two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, D. W.; Copland, G. M.; Donevan, R. E.; Gourlay, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Endobronchial lipoma is a benign tumour of the large bronchi occurring in middle-aged men. To the 38 successfully treated cases in the English literature a further 2 are added. The symptoms are those of obstructive pneumonitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma, and the result of delayed therapy may be bronchiectasis. Treatment includes local resection through a bronchoscope or a bronchotomy incision, or removal, if necessary, of the obstructed lobe or lung at thoracotomy. Smoking may be important in the pathogenesis of this tumour. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:953901

  18. The enigma of vestigial tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B.

    1976-01-01

    There are several structures and various tissues in the human body that appear to be functionless relics of ancestral or embryonic development. As such they have long been of interest and have been cited in support of theories of evolution and of oncogenesis. Evidence can be adduced to show that these remnants are not necessarily degenerate, nor are they inevitably functionless. Vestigial tissues are especially common in tooth-bearing areas of the mouth, and the span of tooth development from early embryonic life until adolescence affords unique opportunities for studying the part played by embryonic remnants in later life. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:817639

  19. Sonar and its Use in Kidney Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, E. A.; Murphy, A. V.; Arneil, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of diagnostic ultrasound or sonar are given, together with the special technique required for scanning newborn infants and small children for kidney abnormalities. Illustrative examples of the potential of this procedure, both in diagnosis and in monitoring changes include a normal neonatal and preadolescent kidney, unilateral renal agenesis, duplex kidney, renal cyst, polycystic disease, nephroblastoma, and examples of mild and severe hydronephrosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:4343783

  20. Apical disease: an analysis of diagnosis and management with special reference to root lesion resection and pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Winstock, D.

    1980-01-01

    Apical disease is discussed against a background of a hitherto assumed high percentage of cystic and bacteriologically sterile lesions, both these concepts being challenged by the author's own investigations. Techniques are described for posterior root resection with emphasis on the conservability of apically diseased teeth, even in the presence of systemic diseases. Open operation is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of apical disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7396345

  1. Purification and characterization of Xenopus laevis topoisomerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, P; Baldi, M I; Mattoccia, E; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    1983-01-01

    We have purified to apparent homogeneity a type II DNA topoisomerase from Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei (germinal vesicles, or GV). The most pure preparations contain a single polypeptide of 175,000 daltons as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme changes the linking number of DNA circles in steps of two and reversibly knots or catenates DNA rings. No gyrase activity is detectable and ATP is required. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:10872324

  2. The in vivo effects of quartz on rat thoracic lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Klempman, S.; Miller, K.

    1977-01-01

    The histological changes in the regional thoracic lymph nodes of rats exposed to silica dust by inhalation are recorded. A dual response is noted involving both inflammatory and immune mechanisms, resulting in a fibroblastic connective tissue reaction and a plasma-cell-macrophage interaction. It is proposed that the progressive silicotic lesions obstruct the lymphatic channels in the lymph nodes, thus interfering with the lymph drainage from the lung and aggravating the silicotic process in the lung itself. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:201263

  3. Splenic Vein Thrombosis with Oesophageal Varices: A Late Complication of Umbilical Vein Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Vos, L. J. M.; Potocky, V.; Bröker, F. H. L.; Vries, J. A. De; Postma, L.; Edens, E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of observations made on three infants, a description is given of a late complication of umbilical vein catheterization not hitherto reported. The children showed the symptoms of thrombosis of the splenic vein with secondary splenomegaly and marked gastric and/or esophageal varices, while the portal vein showed no abnormality. The diagnosis was preoperatively established by means of selective angiography of the superior mesenteric artery and the splenic artery. Treatment in these three cases consisted of splenectomy, with good clinical and radiological results. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4842977

  4. Presidential Address: a history of appendicitis. With anecdotes illustrating its importance.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G R

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred years after its anatomical description, the appendix was observed to be the site of inflammatory disease. This was not widely accepted until the publication by Fitz 120 years later. American surgeons led in demonstrating that early appendectomy was safe and life saving. Perforation of the appendix with peritonitis continues to be a significant problem, but the mortality rate has dramatically declined. Appendiceal disease has clearly affected the course of history. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 15. PMID:6342553

  5. Catenation of DNA by eucaryotic topoisomerase II associated with simian virus 40 minichromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, W; Theobald, M; Zentgraf, H

    1983-01-01

    After incubation of purified SV40 minichromosomes with superhelical DNA molecules either of SV40 or plasmid origin, a catenation of monomeric DNA via dimers and multimers to large networks was observed. The catenation reaction was stimulated by the DNA condensing agent spermidine with ATP as an energy donor and was dependent on the presence of magnesium ions. The reaction could be blocked by inhibitors of topoisomerase II such as novobiocin and nalidixic acid. Relaxed covalently closed circular DNA was catenated to networks in the presence of ATP as the energy donor. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:10872317

  6. Porcine Hemophilus parahemolyticus Pneumonia in Saskatchewan I. Natural Occurrence and Findings

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, B.; Moffatt, Ruth E.; Majka, J. A.; Greenfield, J.; Agar, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    An outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia was observed in October 1971 in Saskatchewan on a farm of 900 feeder pigs. Morbidity and mortality were low. Pathologic-anatomic findings included fibrinous pleuritis, pulmonary vascular thrombosis and necrotizing fibrinous pneumonia. Hemophilus parahemolyticus was isolated from the lungs of affected animals. In addition pulmonary lesions were found which suggested an adenovirus infection. It was speculated that the viral infection possibly predisposed the pigs to the Hemophilus infection. The H. parahemolyticus isolate was sensitive to common antibiotics. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4274828

  7. Molecular parasitism in the Escherichia coli-Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus system: translocation of the matrix protein from the host to the parasite outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, F; Romano, V; Valenzi, M; Di Giulio, M; Mupo, M R; Sacco, M

    1982-01-01

    During the intracellular maturation in Escherichia coli of the parasite Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus the outer membrane, major protein I of E. coli (i.e., the matrix protein) becomes associated with the outer membrane of the emerging parasite cells. The binding properties of this protein with the outer membrane of the host and of the parasite are identical. An analogous phenomenon also occurs during Bdellovibrio parasitism on Klebsiella pneumoniae and on Salmonella typhimurium. Possible roles for this scavenging action of Bdellovibrio, and similar phenomena in other parasitic systems, are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6765198

  8. A Standardized Procedure for Echoencephalography and for Analyzing Echoencephalograms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. E.

    1967-01-01

    Although echoencephalography is a simple, convenient and atraumatic diagnostic technique, the accuracy and reliability of this test and whether it is reproducible can be greatly influenced by the way in which the examination is performed and subsequently analyzed. Echoencephalography in 850 patients has led to the development of a standardized technique which takes into account the positioning of the patient, the application of the transducer, the identification of the midline-echo-complex, and the elimination of observer bias. Once performed the test must meet rigid standards of acceptability. If acceptable the test is analyzed according to an established format. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:6023146

  9. An autoradiographic study of the afferent innervation of the trachea, syrinx and extrapulmonary primary bronchus of Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, A J; Parker, S; Molony, V

    1978-01-01

    A method for injecting a small quantity of tritiated leucine directly into the nodose ganglion of the adult hen is described. The presence of an inner and an outer nerve plexus in the trachea and extrapulmonary primary bronchus is confirmed. Structures in the luminal epithelium of the trachea, syrinx and extrapulmonary primary bronchus having an afferent innervation are described and their possible function is discussed. The question of positive chemography in autoradiographic studies is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:649496

  10. Diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D; Allison, D J; Modlin, I M; Neale, G

    1978-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients presenting with unexplained recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding were investigated by selective visceral angiography. A cause for the bleeding was shown in all 12 cases, and in eight the lesion responsible was diagnosed radiologically as an area of angiodysplasia. Abnormal areas were pinpointed by fluoroscopy and examination of the resected bowel with a dissecting microscope after injecting the vessels with barium. Histologically these areas had various microvascular abnormalities. Angiodysplasia is a useful descriptive radiological term, but does not seem to represent a single pathological entity. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:308828

  11. The Mouth: A Window on Systemic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joel B.

    1980-01-01

    The oral cavity often presents signs and symptoms of systemic disease—frequently the earliest and perhaps the only signs and symptoms. This article presents a brief description of oral signs and symptoms of some hematologic, metabolic, dermatologic, connective tissue and nutritional diseases, together with a discussion of clinical diagnostic problems. Diagnosis of systemic disease may be facilitated by awareness of the oral presentation of systemic disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:21293558

  12. PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Marcellin; Gaumond, Emile

    1965-01-01

    Eight cases of xeroderma pigmentosum are described-six in family B. and two in family T. The criteria used in making this diagnosis are indicated. The occurrence of epitheliomas and melanoma was observed. In family B. five of the six patients are alive at time of reporting, their ages varying from 40 to 55 years. In family T. the two affected children died at ages 8 and 14 years. The differential diagnosis between xeroderma pigmentosum and other conditions is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14261153

  13. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  14. Fetal monitoring during maternal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K. S.; Friesen, R. M.; Livingstone, R. A.; Peddle, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fetal cardiac activity was monitored with an external ultrasound transducer in two patients with clinical class III heart disease due to severe mitral stenosis complicated by pulmonary hypertension, undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal distress was detected in one patient, who had mitral valvuloplasty, and was corrected by increasing the rate of blood flow, and the other patient had a mitral valve replacement but no fetal distress was noted. The postoperative course of both mothers and fetuses was uneventful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1125921

  15. Familial non-cystic fibrosis mucus inspissation of respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, M; Williams, J; Hirsch, M; Bar-Ziv, J

    1975-01-01

    Perlman, M., Williams, J., Hirsch, M., and Bar-Ziv, J. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 727. Familial non-cystic fibrosis mucus inspissation of respiratory tract. Two sibs, whose parents are first cousins, have had chronic obstructive airways disease from birth with recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and mastoiditis. The disease, associated with clinically abnormal mucus, differs from other familial obstructive airways diseases and probably constitutes a new entity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:1190822

  16. Cronkhite Canada syndrome: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, K; Anthony, P P; Miller, D S; Warin, A P

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of Cronkhite Canada syndrome in a 78 year old man is described. The presence of total gastrointestinal mucosal atrophy with nail loss is reported for the first time. It is suggested that the polyps represent residues of aged cells with no absorptive function and that the condition results from the loss of normal proliferative stimuli or acquired resistance to them. The primary biochemical abnormality may be in the affected epithelia but the changes here could alternatively be secondary to failure of synthesis or release of growth factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3996943

  17. Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

  18. Cystosarcoma phylloides. A steroid receptor and ultrastructure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kesterson, G H; Georgiade, N; Seigler, H F; Barton, T K; McCarty, K S; McCarty, K S

    1979-01-01

    Six cases of cystosarcoma phylloides were evaluated by ultrastructure and steroid receptor analysis. Electron microscopy of the lesions supported previous reports of a heterogeneous tumor consisting of pleomorphic mesenchyme and normal or proliferative epithelium. In each case estrogen and progesterone receptor analysis indicated the presence of a nonsaturable estrogen and progesterone 4S binding protein rather than a specific steroid receptor as suggested by previous studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. PMID:228617

  19. Emergency diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding by fiberoptic endoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Villar, H V; Roberts Fender, H; Watson, L C; Thompson, J C

    1977-01-01

    Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy has been performed in 192 consecutive patients admitted with massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Accurate endoscopic diagnosis was made in 184 or 96%; 58 patients underwent emergency operations to control bleeding with an overall operative mortality of 26%. Excluding 16 patients who underwent emergency portacaval shunting, the operative mortality was 7%. In 6 patients, the bleeding was controlled by endoscopic electrocoagulation. There were no complications. Emergency endoscopy should be done routinely as the primary diagnostic approach in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:300236

  20. Ligament of the head of the femur in the orangutan and Indian elephant.

    PubMed Central

    Crelin, E. S.

    1988-01-01

    A literature search revealed that for over 100 years there has been a consensus that the ligament of the head of the femur (LHF) is absent in the orangutan and elephant. A dissection of the hip joints of an adult orangutan and an adult Indian elephant exposed, in each joint, a robust LHF that is functionally important. These LHFs are easily overlooked during a cursory examination of the hip joints because of the way they differ from the human LHF. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:3201784

  1. Anal sphincter injury. Management and results of Parks sphincter repair.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G G; Motson, R W

    1984-01-01

    The surgical management of a consecutive series of 97 patients with complete division of the anal sphincter musculature is reported. The sphincter damage followed operative, traumatic, or obstetric injury and resulted in frank fecal incontinence or the urgent necessity of a defunctioning colostomy. All patients were treated by delayed sphincter repair using an overlapping technique; in 93 the repair was protected by a temporary defunctioning stoma. There were no deaths. The repair was completely successful in 65 (78%) and partially successful in 11 (13%) of the 83 patients assessed from 4 to 116 months after surgery. Complications occurred in 27 patients but did not usually affect the eventual clinical outcome. Provided there has been no major neurological damage to the sphincter complex, surgical reconstruction can be expected to restore continence in most patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6703796

  2. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  3. Study of childhood renal tumours using a monoclonal antibody to Tamm-Horsfall protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Marsden, H B; Jasani, B; Kumar, P

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein was used for the immuno-localization of Tamm-Horsfall protein in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of childhood renal tumours, normal children's kidneys, and human fetal kidneys. The procedure was a dinitrophenyl hapten sandwich staining method. The antibody, diluted 1/100,000, gave a very strong and specific staining of the loop of Henle and distal tubules of normal and fetal kidneys. No staining was seen in Wilms' tumour, mesoblastic nephroma, and bone metastasizing renal tumour of childhood. In contrast, two of seven renal carcinomas and three of four rhabdoid renal tumours were positive for Tamm-Horsfall protein. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3429675

  4. Left lobe amoebic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Rasaretnam, Rudra; Wijetilaka, Shelton E.

    1976-01-01

    For reasons which are not quite clear amoebic liver abscesses in the left lobe are relatively uncommon. On account of the lesser bulk of the left lobe, and the potentially greater space under the left hemidiaphragm, expansive lesions within it remain less obtrusive than corresponding lesions in the right. Sixteen such cases are analysed and five distinct modes of clinical presentation have been found. Eight of the patients presented late with perforation into either the peritoneal or pleural cavities. In seven of eight remaining cases, an abdominal mass suggestive of a left lobe lesion was present. Anaemia, leucocytosis and a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate were usually present, and in the five cases seen in the last year a positive reaction was obtained to the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Confirmatory radiological features were present only in advanced cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:959101

  5. Mitochondrial structure in the rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Merry, B J

    1975-01-01

    Two distinct classes of mitochondria are described in the normal adrenal cortex of the Sprague Dawley CFY rat. Polyaminar mitochondria were frequently observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, particularly after ACTH stimulation of the cortex resulting from cold-stress exposure. It is uncertain whether such organelles are degenerating forms, or whether they have a specific functional role related to steroidogenesis in the normal cortical cell. In both normal and stressed adrenal cortices, protrusions of the outer membrane of mitochondria were evident, and were often seen penetrating lipid droplets. It is suggested that these protrusions may have some significance in the transport of cholesterol from the lipid droplet to the inner mitochondrial memrane 'desmolase complex', thus facilitating side-chain cleavage of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:166969

  6. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773

  7. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Biomphalaria and Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37 PMID:13479768

  8. Plantar Fasciitis—Heel Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jeffery A.; Kolodin, Eric L.

    1992-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent hind foot problem that affects runners. It occurs when repetitive stress is placed on the heel from a chronic or acute condition. Athletes with biomechanical imbalances are most susceptible to this condition. They exhibit pain in the morning upon weight bearing and, frequently, in the acute stage, have discoloration of the injured area. Management includes preventive and therapeutic exercise, physical therapy, strengthening routines, taping, and the use of orthotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although injections and NSAIDs bring relief, their effects are often only temporary. This condition is best treated with therapeutic exercises and orthotics in order to correct the athlete's biomechanical faults. This article presents principles and techniques that can be used to effectively prevent and treat plantar fasciitis. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 11. PMID:16558136

  9. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  10. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  11. A maturation change detected in the semilunar cartilages with the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Moshurchak, E M; Ghadially, F N

    1978-01-01

    The surface of rabbit, cat, monkey and human semilunar cartilages was examined with the scanning electron microscope. A common feature was the occurrence of numerous ridges, undulations and furrows on the surface, but this was thought to be due to marked shrinkage and distortion of cartilage not firmly attached to bone. Humps were seen on the semilunar cartilages of young animals, but pits occurred in adults. This is thought to reflect a maturation change. Humps were seen in a young human semilunar cartilage, but pits were not seen in adult specimens. It is not clear whether pits are truly absent or just masked by the severe ridging produced during the preparation of large human specimens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:99411

  12. Pouch Method for the Isolation and Enumeration of Clostridia

    PubMed Central

    Bladel, B. O.; Greenberg, Richard A.

    1965-01-01

    An anaerobic film-pouch method has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of clostridia. Fabrication of the pouch is described. Counts of spore suspensions of Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 and of Clostridium botulinum strains 41-B and 33-A in pouches were compared with those obtained by anaerobic-jar and agar-deep techniques. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in favor of the pouch over the tube and anaerobic-jar methods. Tests performed with C. welchii, both in spore suspension and added to chicken pot pie in culture form, also demonstrated the pouch to be at least as proficient as the other, more cumbersome, techniques. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:14325895

  13. Dolphin pox: a skin disease of cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, J R; Hicks, B D; St Aubin, D J

    1979-01-01

    Poxvirus has been identified morphologically from skin lesions in captive and free-ranging bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. The lesions, commonly referred to as ring or pinhole lesions, appear as solitary or coalesced circular grey blemishes. Advanced ring lesions may take the form of black punctiform stippled patterns known as "tattoo". Histologically, the stratum externum is thickened, and there is ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intractyoplasmic inclusions in the stratum intermedium. These includions contain virus particles which exhibit typical poxvirus morphology. Stress, environmental conditions and general health appear to play a major role in the clinical manifestation of dolphin pox. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:232852

  14. Arthritis in Flemish paintings (1400-1700).

    PubMed Central

    Dequeker, J

    1977-01-01

    A close examination of the hands of people depicted in paintings of the Flemish school showed that in five paintings there were figures with hand lesions resembling those of rhematoid arthritis. Although none of the deformities or swellings are indisputable examples of rheumatoid arthritis, they do at least suggest that the painters must have been confronted with rheumatoid-like lesions in their models. In two other paintings there were signs of rheumatic fever and of temporal arteritis. No arthritic lesions were found in the works of painters of the Italian Renaissance, probably because they are less detailed. The finding of rheumatoid deformities in the Flemish paintings does, however, question the general belief that rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that has arisen relatively recently. Images FIGS 1-2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 PMID:324568

  15. Lysis and protoplast formation of group B streptococci by mutanolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Calandra, G B; Cole, R M

    1980-01-01

    Group B streptococci, refractory to previously tested muralysins under physiological conditions, were successfully converted to protoplasts by use of a recently describede N-acetyl muramidase, mutanolysin, derived from a streptomycete. Purified enzyme was effective, but crude preparations, although degrading cell walls, simultaneously produced peculiar effects of cytoplasmic coagulation, retention of cell shape, loss of some intracellular enzymes, and a rise in optical density. Addition of purified mutanolysin to the array of muralysins (group C streptococcal phage-associated lysin, lysozyme), previously successful in preparing protoplasts of different streptococci, now makes possible enzymatic preparation of protoplasts of streptococci of groups A, B, C. D. G, and H. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995317

  16. YY1 and c-Myc associate in vivo in a manner that depends on c-Myc levels.

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, A; Yu, J; Artandi, S; Calame, K

    1996-01-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein has previously been shown to associate with transcription regulator YY1 and to inhibit its activity. We show herein that endogenous c-Myc and YY1 associate in vivo and that changes in c-Myc levels, which accompany mitogenic stimulation or differentiation of cultured cells, affect the ratio of free to c-Myc-associated YY1. We have also investigated the mechanism by which association with c-Myc inhibits YY1's ability to regulate transcription. c-Myc does not block binding of YY1 to DNA. However, protein association studies suggest that c-Myc interferes with the ability of YY1 to contact basal transcription proteins TATA-binding protein and TFIIB. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8855231

  17. Expression of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) in fetal and adult liver: changes in liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, A D; Stewart, J A; Aitchison, M; MacSween, R N

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of tissue polypeptide antigen (40 kD molecular weight) in normal adult and fetal liver, and in liver disease was investigated and compared with the distribution of low and high molecular weight cytokeratins. In normal liver tissue polypeptide antigen was found only in bile duct epithelium; this distribution is similar to that of high molecular weight cytokeratin, but differs from that of low molecular weight cytokeratins. In liver disease it was found in areas of ductular transformation; in Mallory's bodies; and in alcoholic liver disease and primary biliary cirrhosis in some hepatocytes that did not contain Mallory's bodies. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2442199

  18. Approaches for genetic purity testing of live recombinant viral vaccines using a human adenovirus:rabies model.

    PubMed Central

    Lutze-Wallace, C; Sapp, T; Nadin-Davis, S A; Wandeler, A

    1992-01-01

    A two part purity testing regimen for genetically engineered live viral vaccines is described using a human adenovirus 5: rabies glycoprotein gene recombinant as a model vaccine. Initially, restriction endonuclease analysis of the recombinant viral genome verified the integrity of the recombinant construct and identified the vector genome. The second stage employed the polymerase chain reaction to facilitate a more detailed study of the target rabies glycoprotein cassette. The size of the target region was predicted from known nucleic acid sequence information and compared to that obtained after electrophoresis with molecular weight standards. Digestion of the polymerase chain reaction product with a second restriction endonuclease cleaved the target into a number of small fragments. Resolution of the fragments by gel electrophoresis allowed analysis of the target region alone, verifying its identity and integrity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1477804

  19. Histological and ultrastructural evaluation of cardiac lesions in idiopathic cardiomyopathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sandusky, G E; Capen, C C; Kerr, K M

    1984-01-01

    Described are pathological studies of eight dogs which died in congestive heart failure, with a clinical diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy. Examination revealed marked dilatation and enlargement of all four chambers of the heart. The ventricular walls were thin with small atrophic papillary muscles. Histological studies on the myocardium revealed scattered areas of myocardial necrosis, especially around the papillary muscles of the left ventricle and random scattered areas of fibrosis. Electron microscopic studies revealed fewer and disoriented myofibrils, myocytolysis, increased numbers of mitochondria with swelling and inclusions, increased glycogen granules and increased numbers of lysosomes, lipofuscin granules and lipid droplets. Mild Z-band abnormalities were found throughout the myofibers. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6713261

  20. Haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Soorae, A S; Bharucha, H

    1980-01-01

    A case of haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung, occurring as a peripheral, solitary nodule in an asymptomatic 54-year-old man is presented. The tumour was well-demarcated and microscopically it was characterised by the presence of vascular spaces with endothelial, pericytic, and, predominantly, smooth muscle proliferation. Islands of cartilage and slit-like spaces lined by bronchial epithelium make this a hamartomatous lesion of a quite distinctive and unusual variety, which does not fit any of the well-recognised patterns of hamartomas previously described. The long-term prognosis after limited excision is considered to be favourable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7358861

  1. Information processing in the human brain: magnetoencephalographic approach.

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, O V; Hämäläinen, M; Hari, R; Salmelin, R

    1996-01-01

    Rapid progress in effective methods to image brain functions has revolutionized neuroscience. It is now possible to study noninvasively in humans neural processes that were previously only accessible in experimental animals and in brain-injured patients. In this endeavor, positron emission tomography has been the leader, but the superconducting quantum interference device-based magnetoencephalography (MEG) is gaining a firm role, too. With the advent of instruments covering the whole scalp, MEG, typically with 5-mm spatial and 1-ms temporal resolution, allows neuroscientists to track cortical functions accurately in time and space. We present five representative examples of recent MEG studies in our laboratory that demonstrate the usefulness of whole-head magnetoencephalography in investigations of spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical signal processing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8799107

  2. Spina Bifida Cystica

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, John

    1972-01-01

    The disappointing results of treatment in 270 consecutive unselected cases of spina bifida admitted during a 27-month period are detailed. Massive effort has led to much avoidable suffering at an exorbitant cost in manpower and money. This study confirms the validity of those adverse prognostic criteria defined in an earlier study and which form a basis for selection. These are (1) thoracolumbar lesions, (2) severe paraplegia, (3) gross enlargement of head, (4) kyphosis, and (5) other severe congenital defects, or birth injuries. It is shown again that selection is possible on the first day of life on purely objective criteria; that it is essential for the benefit of all those affected—whether they are for treatment or no treatment; and that it is in the interest of their families and the community. ImagesFIG. 2.FIG. 3.FIG. 4.FIG. 5.FIG. 6.FIG. 7. PMID:4567074

  3. Joubert's syndrome with retinal dysplasia: neonatal tachypnoea as the clue to a genetic brain-eye malformation.

    PubMed Central

    King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B

    1984-01-01

    Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867

  4. Neurologic disease induced in transgenic mice by cerebral overexpression of interleukin 6.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, I L; Abraham, C R; Masliah, E; Kemper, P; Inglis, J D; Oldstone, M B; Mucke, L

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines are thought to be important mediators in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). To explore this hypothesis, transgenic mice were generated in which the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), under the regulatory control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene promoter, was overexpressed in the CNS. A number of transgenic founder mice and their offspring exhibited a neurologic syndrome the severity of which correlated with the levels of cerebral IL-6 expression. Transgenic mice with high levels of IL-6 expression developed severe neurologic disease characterized by runting, tremor, ataxia, and seizure. Neuropathologic manifestations included neuro-degeneration, astrocytosis, angiogenesis, and induction of acute-phase-protein production. These findings indicate that cytokines such as IL-6 can have a direct pathogenic role in inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative CNS diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7694279

  5. Effects of Malignant Effusions on the Mitotic Index of L Strain Mouse Cells Grown in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hrushovetz, S. B.; Ewaniuk, Meriam H.

    1963-01-01

    By employing a clone of L strain mouse fibroblasts (LE) which does not exhibit cell clumping and lysis (cytolytic antibody reaction), it was possible to screen for the presence of growth-regulating factors in human sera and effusions, exclusive of an antigen-antibody reaction. Under conditions of the test a mitotic index greater than 20% indicated the presence of a growth-promoting factor. A total of 11 pleural effusions was tested. Four of the eight malignant effusions possessed a growth-promoting factor, while none of the three non-malignant effusions or the one sample of human umbilical cord serum possessed such a factor. Overnight storage of the unfiltered effusions at 5° C. resulted in complete loss of the growthpromoting activity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14052976

  6. The nucleus of the tractus solitarius of the dog. A morphological and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Pesini, P; Cifuentes, J M; Fernandez-Troconiz, P

    1991-01-01

    The neuronal and fibrous architecture of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) of the dog has been studied in transversely cut Nissl, myelin and reduced silver stained serial sections. Eight distinct subdivisions, clearly delimited both by their cytoarchitectonic and fibrous characteristics, have been identified. They are: the commissural, gelatinous, lateral, interstitial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, intermediate and medial subdivisions. Their rostrocaudal extensions and locations in relation to the obex are summarised in Table 1. A morphometric analysis was additionally done. The frequency distributions of cell areas and cell form factor of each subdivision are represented by histograms in Figures 8 and 9 respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717419

  7. A village-sclae trial with dichlorvos as a residual fumigant insecticide in southern Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Bracha, P.; Carmichael, A.

    1963-01-01

    Hut and village-scale trials with solid and liquid-type dichlorvos dispensers were carried out in 1961 in the vicinity of Lagos, Nigeria, by the WHO Insecticide Testing Unit. Bioassay results indicated that with a single application satisfactory mortalities of caged mosquitos could be obtained for a period of 12-13 weeks in mud-walled huts, whether with galvanized corrugated-iron roofs or with thatched roofs. Chemical analysis of air samples showed that satisfactory concentrations of dichlorvos vapour were maintained throughout the huts for about 12 weeks, after which time sublethal concentrations were observed first near the floors of the dwellings. No depression in blood or plasma cholinesterase was noted in the exposed inhabitants ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14056280

  8. The surgical management of the arthritic hand.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The surgical management of the arthritic hand is very largely concerned with rheumatoid arthritis and Still's disease and less frequently with psoriatic and degenerative arthritis. In the rheumatoid hand the surgeon may be called upon to intervene at any point in the chain reaction leading to total deformity, performing synovectomies of joints or tendons to relieve pain or prevent further deformity, repairing ruptured tendons, restoring the mechanism of injured joints, and correcting deformities when they have been allowed to occur. The great variety of operations that may be necessary to achieve these ends, with varying degrees of success, are discussed with reference to a personal series of 970 cases and 2002 operations. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:420491

  9. A study of the rete testis epithelium in several wild birds.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, S G; Kendall, M D

    1984-01-01

    Material from six wild non-breeding starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), twelve adult wild quelea (Quelea quelea) in prenuptial, full and post-breeding condition and one wild puffin (Fratercula arctica) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Contrary to previous accounts of avian material, the epithelium of the rete testis was composed of a mixture of numerous non-ciliated and fewer ciliated cells. Both cell types contained many inclusions in the cytoplasm all of which indicated that the cells could modify the luminal contents. All rete testis epithelial cells showed a strong reaction with stains for alkaline phosphatase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6706832

  10. The presence of erythroid cells in the thymus gland of man.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M D; Singh, J

    1980-01-01

    Biopsies of the right lobe of normal thymus glands without signs of neoplasia or germinal centre formation from 35 patients ranging in age from 20 to 60 years of age, and from 3 children aged 6, 7 and 12, showed on electron microscopic examination of the material from 14 patients that in 12 cases erythroid cells of all stages of development past the beginning of haemoglobinisation were present in some degree. Earlier erythroid cells could not be identified on morphological grounds with certainty, but cells which could have been lymphoblasts, proerythroblasts and stem cell were all observed. A section of a megakaryocyte was seen in one thymus. The importance of erythropoiesis within the thymus gland is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7364659

  11. Pathogenesis of ovine pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) following intratracheal inoculation.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S P; Hagemoser, W A; Kluge, J P; Hill, H T

    1987-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus was inoculated intratracheally into sheep to investigate the pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus infection. Clinical signs of pyrexia, depression, frequent swallowing, facial fasciculations, chorea, excessive salivation, mild tympanites, labored breathing and focal pruritus were followed by death Macroscopic lesions were severe focal facial trauma, petechiae in cervicothoracic ganglia and dilated esophaguses. The medulla oblongata and the trigeminal, cranial cervical, cervicothoracic and parabronchial ganglia contained pseudorabies virus and pronounced nonsuppurative inflammatory changes. The neural distribution of lesions and virus suggests that the virus travelled from the respiratory mucosa to the central and sympathetic nervous system by two routes: 1) in the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves to the medulla oblongata and 2) in the postganglionic fibers to the sympathetic ganglia. The presence of virus in the nasal mucus indicated that horizontal transmission of pseudorabies virus may occur among sheep. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2820559

  12. Tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

  13. Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Groh, V; Bahram, S; Bauer, S; Herman, A; Beauchamp, M; Spies, T

    1996-01-01

    Conventional major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes encode molecules that present intracellular peptide antigens to T cells. They are ubiquitously expressed and regulated by interferon gamma. Two highly divergent human MHC class I genes, MICA and MICB, are regulated by promoter heat shock elements similar to those of HSP70 genes. MICA encodes a cell surface glycoprotein, which is not associated with beta 2-microglobulin, is conformationally stable independent of conventional class I peptide ligands, and almost exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium. Thus, this MHC class I molecule may function as an indicator of cell stress and may be recognized by a subset of gut mucosal T cells in an unusual interaction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901601

  14. Development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix by a sulphated glycoprotein in Volvox carteri

    PubMed Central

    Wenzl, Stephan; Thym, Detlef; Sumper, Manfred

    1984-01-01

    We report the chemical characterization of the highly sulphated glycoprotein SSG 185 from Volvox carteri. SSG 185 is a hydroxyproline-containing, extracellular glycoprotein. The sulphate residues are clustered within the parent saccharide structure of SSG 185, since on mercaptolysis all the sulphate residues are recovered in a small saccharide fragment containing mannose, arabinose and sulphate (in a molar ratio of 1̇1̇2). SSG 185 is a short-lived molecule, serving as a precursor for a high mol. wt. component of the extracellular matrix. Synthesis of SSG 185 is developmentally controlled. Different SSG 185 variants, with unknown modifications in the sulphated saccharide fragment, are synthesized at different developmental stages or under the influence of the sexual inducer. These modifications remain conserved in the aggregated state of SSG 185, indicating the development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:16453512

  15. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  16. Hepatoportography via the Umbilical Vein

    PubMed Central

    White, J. J.; Skinner, G. B.; MacLean, L. D.

    1966-01-01

    The umbilical vein in adults is patent but collapsed. There is a membranous valve at its entrance into the left portal vein. Cannulation of the portal vein via the umbilical vein permits direct access to the portal system for portography and hepatography. This procedure was performed under local or general anesthesia in 30 patients and was successful in 22. It is useful in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension, and suspected intrahepatic tumours or abscesses. It gives excellent contrast visualization of the liver and definition of lesions as small as 1.0 cm. This technique is superior to both hepatic scanning and splenoportography. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5924949

  17. Interrelations of humoral and cellular immune responses in experimental canine gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, K. J. E.; Finlayson, N. D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental canine gastritis is an animal model with features similar to the gastritis of human pernicious anaemia. In this study eight mongrel dogs immunized with autologous or homologous gastric juice in Freund' scomplete adjuvant developed gastritis whereas four mongrel dogs immunized with the adjuvant alone did not. Cellular immunity to gastric juice antigens demonstrated by skin testing and peripheral leucocyte migration inhibition coincided with the appearance of gastritis, whereas parietal cell antibodies appeared some 2 weeks later. The work demonstrates the combined humoral and cellular immune response of the dogs to gastric juice, and suggests that the cellular response may be of primary importance in the development of gastritis. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4717915

  18. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, J. D.; van Tongeren, H. A. E.; Pattyn, S. R.; Rosenzweig, A.

    1955-01-01

    Two virus strains were isolated from the central nervous systems of two fatal human cases during an epidemic of encephalomyelitis in Austria. Monkeys, mice, and chick embryos proved susceptible; rabbits and guinea-pigs were refractory. The experimental disease in monkeys was characterized by acute meningo-encephalomyelitis, which was localized particularly in the grey matter of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the medulla, and the anterior horns of the spinal cord. The virus produced discrete lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In monkeys, viraemia was demonstrated for a period of at least 6-8 days before the development of the clinical illness. The virus was shown to be closely related to that of Russian spring-summer encephalitis. Neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies could be demonstrated in patients' sera. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14378999

  19. Phosphorylation at threonine-235 by a ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is essential for transcription factor NF-IL6.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, T; Kinoshita, S; Sasagawa, T; Sasaki, K; Naruto, M; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1993-01-01

    NF-IL6, a member of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family transcription factors, is involved in expression of inducible genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. We observed that coexpression of oncogenic p21ras stimulated the transactivating activity of NF-IL6 and induced phosphorylation of Thr-235 located just N-terminal to the DNA binding domain of NF-IL6. Recently, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been shown to be implicated in the cellular response to activated ras. Purified MAP kinases specifically phosphorylated Thr-235 of NF-IL6 in vitro. Mutation of Thr-235 abolished the ras-dependent activation of NF-IL6. From these results, we conclude that NF-IL6 is regulated through phosphorylation by MAP kinases in response to activated ras. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8384717

  20. Spectrum and Possible Mechanism of Carrageenan Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Phillip J.; Schwartz, Howard J.; Graham, Richard C.

    1971-01-01

    Carrageenan, a sulfated polygalactose which suppresses established delayed hypersensitivity in vivo, is shown to be cytotoxic to macrophages but not to lymphocytes in vitro. This cytotoxicity depends on the carrageenan concentration and degree of lysosomal differentiation but is independent of serum. Survival of macrophages in the presence of carrageenan can be enhanced temporarily by corticosteroids. Ultrastructural studies reveal that carrageenan is readily taken up by macrophages and stored in lysosomes, which subsequently swell and rupture, apparently resulting in cell death. The presence of corticosteroids temporarily retards lysosome swelling. It is suggested that carrageenan may exert its cytotoxic effect by causing osmotic rupture of lysosomes. The possible immunologic significance of these findings is discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 2Fig 5Fig 6Fig 1 PMID:5142272

  1. Xylem Development in Prunus Flower Buds and the Relationship to Deep Supercooling

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Edward N.

    1984-01-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663523

  2. Selection of a Microbiological Corrosion System for Studying Effects on Structural Aluminum Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, H. G.; Miller, C. E.; Halkias, J. E.; Hildebrand, J. E.

    1964-01-01

    Two laboratory methods, a metal-strip test and a tank test, were evaluated as microbiological corrosion systems for producing corroded test specimens on a structural aluminum alloy. The results show that corrosion of the test alloy occurred best in the metal-strip test in a deionized water-fuel medium inoculated with a mixture of microorganisms under aerated conditions. The metal-strip test was more successful for producing large numbers of corroded test specimens and proved more economical than the tank-type test, since less structural material is needed to obtain a specimen with sufficient corrosion areas, and since the corrosion can more easily be restricted by maskants to certain areas for specific test purposes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 PMID:16349646

  3. Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gazin, C; Rigolet, M; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Galibert, F

    1986-01-01

    Published sequence data of the human c-myc gene indicate the presence of a coding capacity for a polypeptide of 188 residues within the first exon. Using antibodies raised against five synthetic peptides corresponding to different non-over-lapping parts of this polypeptide, two proteins of 32 kd and 58 kd antigenically related to the synthetic peptides have been detected in extracts of human cells. The confidence of this detection has been reinforced by showing that epitopes corresponding to different peptides were indeed located on the same molecule and that the 58 kd protein appears to be a dimeric form of the 32 kd protein. That these proteins originate from the first exon was indicated by: hybrid-arrested translation experiments followed by immunodetection of the translation products; in vitro translation of messenger RNA derived from cloned exon 1 by SP6 polymerase transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2430795

  4. The vasa vasorum of the rabbit carotid artery.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, S G; Causton, B E; Baskerville, P A; Gent, S; Martin, J F

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy of the vasa vasorum of the carotid arteries was assessed by light and electron microscopy in a series of 25 New Zealand White male rabbits. The low viscosity acrylic resin, LR White, was used to cast the microvasculature. The carotid artery was found to have an endothelial monolayer placed directly upon a broad fenestrated internal elastic lamina. The media consisted of 12-18 laminae comprised of smooth muscle cells, elastin, collagen and ground substance. Vasa vasorum were confined to the adventitial layer, with no penetration into the media. They arose directly from the lumen of the carotid artery in addition to the arterial branching points. The potential role of the vasa vasorum in the aetiology of atherosclerotic plaques is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1506278

  5. The Distribution Patterns of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. C.

    1962-01-01

    Observation of the Koebner response was used in the clinical evaluation, determination of prognosis and management of seven patients with psoriasis. The Koebner response may be observed in patients with progressive and eruptive psoriasis; it is not the etiological factor but determines the localization of lesions when a psoriatic reaction is active. The eliciting stimuli for response are varied and non-specific; a common factor is cutaneous injury. Other skin diseases may provoke suitable eliciting cutaneous injury and determine the distribution patterns of sebo-psoriasis, psoriasis inversus, and psoriasiform neurodermatitis. Cutaneous injury is followed by repair or an attempt at repair. Psoriasis is a reaction pattern to non-specific stimuli in which psoriatic defect is brought to light by the increased rate of metabolism in cells regenerating after injury. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20327334

  6. Innervation of the lacrimal gland in the cynomolgous monkey: a retrograde tracing study.

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, F; Baljet, B; Prins, M; Otto, J A

    1996-01-01

    Retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was used to study the localisation of neurons that innervate the lacrimal gland of the cynomolgous monkey. WGA-HRP-labelled neurons were localised in the ipsilateral trigeminal, superior cervical and ciliary ganglia and in the ipsilateral and contralateral pterygopalatine ganglia. In the trigeminal ganglion WGA-HRP-labelled somata were found in the ophthalmic part (18%) and the maxillary part (5%). Identification of labelled neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia indicates a dual parasympathetic innvervation of the lacrimal gland. There is no known pathway to account for the contralateral location or pterygopalatine neurons. These novel findings are incorporated in a concept of a neural control mechanism for the lacrimal gland. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:8763476

  7. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  8. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  9. Enzootic Pneumonia in Pigs: Propagation of a Causative Mycoplasma in Cell Cultures and in Artificial Medium

    PubMed Central

    L'Ecuyer, C.

    1969-01-01

    Three strains of a new species of mycoplasma were recovered from pneumonic pig lungs, known free of Mycoplasma hyorhinis, by prolonged incubation in pig testicle cell cultures. The three strains produced a characteristic cytopathic effect in the cell cultures. A highly enriched meat-infusion-broth medium was evolved and permitted regular propagation of these organisms. Pneumonia could consistently be produced by intratracheal inoculation of pigs with the mycoplasma propagated in the enriched broth medium or in cell cultures. The mycoplasma were recovered from the lungs of experimentally infected pigs by inoculation into the broth medium. Comparative studies of the pneumonia producing mycoplasma and of M. hyorhinis were carried out in cell cultures, broth media, and in pigs infected experimentally by different routes. The morphological characteristics of the mycoplasma, grown in the different media, are described and illustrated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4237289

  10. New structural aspects of the synaptic contacts on Purkinje cells in an elasmobranch cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Otero, R; Regueira, S D; Anadon, R

    1993-01-01

    Nerve fibre contacts on Purkinje cell perikarya in the cerebellum of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were studied using the Cajal reduced silver technique, Golgi methods and electron microscopy. Silver staining revealed axons with thick swellings close to the base of Purkinje cells. Golgi methods demonstrated the presence of 'pincushions' of somatic spines on Purkinje cells. Electron microscopy revealed flattened fibres that formed extensive synaptic contacts with the Purkinje cell 'pincushions'. It is proposed, on the basis of the ultrastructural features, that these fibres are climbing fibres. Their possible significance in terms of the evolution of cerebellar circuitry is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8509296

  11. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of the pancreas: advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Kocjan, G; Rode, J; Lees, W R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed in 62 patients with radiological suspicion of malignancy. All fine needle aspirates were taken under computed tomography or ultrasound guidance. Fine needle aspirates were positive in 31 of 41 patients with histologically or clinically confirmed pancreatic carcinoma. There were no false positive results. The sensitivity of this method for detecting malignant disease was 86%. Cytology was not able to provide conclusive results of benign conditions. Difficulties were encountered in diagnosing well differentiated carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours and distinguishing them from reactive epithelium and islet cell hyperplasia, respectively. This resulted in a 12.1% false negative rate. There were no complications in our series. Percutaneous fine needle aspiration proved a reliable method of diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2541174

  12. Five cases of alpha chain disease

    PubMed Central

    Doe, William F.; Henry, K.; Hobbs, J. R.; Jones, F. Avery; Dent, C. E.; Booth, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Five patients suffering from alpha chain disease are described. Clinically the patients presented with clubbing and the symptoms of malabsorption. There was a characteristic, predominantly plasma cell infiltrate of the wall of the small intestine. Spread of the plasmacytosis beyond the small intestine to bone marrow (1), peripheral blood (1), and probably the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue (1) is described. Fragments of the heavy chain of IgA (alpha chain) were found in serum (5), urine (3), jejunal fluid (2), and saliva (1). The jejunal biopsy of one patient was shown to synthesize free alpha chain in tissue culture. A new and simple immunoselection technique for the identification of free alpha chain is described. Marked clinical remissions were achieved in two patients treated with intermittent cytotoxic and steroid therapy, and in a third patient who received intermittent cytotoxic therapy and tetracycline. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4119805

  13. Left atrial myxoma: new perspectives in the diagnosis of murmur free cases.

    PubMed Central

    Nihoyannopoulos, P; Venkatesan, P; David, J; Hackett, D; Valantine, H; Oakley, C M

    1986-01-01

    No cardiological signs or symptoms were seen in three patients with left atrial myxomas. The diagnosis was established by cross sectional echocardiography. In two patients this investigation was performed to exclude a cardiac source of systemic emboli. The third patient had constitutional signs only. All three had raised erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C reactive protein concentrations. In two patients the myxomas were successfully excised; the third patient who had presented with massive peripheral and central embolisation died during emergency operation. Cross sectional echocardiography is the technique of choice for detecting atrial myxomas and the absence of the cardiological signs should not preclude referral for diagnostic echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3801247

  14. Yeast RNA polymerase II initiates transcription in vitro at TATA sequences proximal to potential non-B forms of the DNA template.

    PubMed Central

    Lescure, B; Arcangioli, B

    1984-01-01

    Pure yeast RNA polymerase II selectively initiates an abortive in vitro transcript within a TATA box of the yeast iso-1 cytochrome c gene promoter. Using a series of promoter deletions we show that a DNA sequence located upstream of the TATA box is needed for an efficient in vitro transcription. Supercoiling of the DNA template is an absolute requirement for the specific in vitro transcription. Examination of the DNA structure near several in vitro initiation sites shows that the common features observed are the presence of a TATA sequence in which RNA synthesis is initiated, and which is proximal to a potential non-B form of the DNA (a B to Z transition or a cruciform structure). Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6376116

  15. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  16. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  17. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  18. The similarity of the two high-molecular-weight polypeptides of erythrocyte spectrin.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, M J; Kemp, R B; Maddy, A H

    1978-01-01

    1. The two major polypeptides (P1 and P2) of erythrocyte-membrane spectrin were isolated by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The two polypeptides were shown to possess similar amino acid compositions, both with the characteristically high glutamate and leucine contents of the parent spectrin. 3. The tryptic-peptide 'maps' of the two polypeptides were prepared by a combination of t.l.c. and electrophoresis. 4. Radioactive peptides were prepared by [14C]carboxymethylation and chloramine-T-catalysed [125I]iodination. 5. 'Maps' of both sets of peptides demonstrate a marked similarity between the two polypeptides. 6. These new data confirm earlier evidence for the similarity of the two chains. 7. The number of peptides in the 'maps' of carboxymethylated peptides suggest that polypeptides P1 and P2 are not aggregates. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:687367

  19. Stickler's syndrome (hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy)

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, James S.; Polomeno, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    The clinical features of Stickler's syndrome are described in two families with a total of 22 affected members and compared with those of the three previously reported families. Progressive joint degeneration (85%), myopia (83%) and retinal detachment (61%) are the most frequent manifestations. Cleft palate (28%), micrognathia (17%) and sensorineural hearing loss (9%) are also liable to occur in affected individuals. Inheritance is autosomal dominant with virtually complete penetrance. Genetic counselling is extremely important and relatively straightforward since most of the findings are manifest in the first two decades of life and represent severe incapacities to the affected families. All six of the affected individuals tested had increased urinary hydroxyproline excretion, a feature that may lead to earlier postnatal and possibly prenatal diagnosis. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4429933

  20. Portal hypertension in kala-azar

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D. V.; Saha, S.; Grover, S. L.; Singh, Samant A.; Chakravarti, R. N.; Chhuttani, P. N.

    1972-01-01

    The present study records haemodynamic studies in three patients with kala-azar, a parasitic disease. All the three patients had high intrasplenic pressure, mild to moderate elevation of wedged hepatic vein pressure, and increased or normal estimated hepatic blood flow. Liver histology showed marked proliferation and swelling of Kupffer cells in the sinusoids. One patient was studied serially for nine months following treatment which showed persistent elevation of intrasplenic pressure though wedge pressure and liver blood flow touched normal levels. Liver biopsy was essentially normal at this stage. These findings may have some relevance to the role of different parasitic infections in the pathogenesis of a heterogeneous group of non-cirrhotic portal fibroses. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:5045707

  1. Thermography in Occlusive Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, C.; Samuel, E.; Sumerling, M. D.; Young, G. B.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of the skin over the medial supraorbital region in 80% of patients who have an occlusion or severe stenosis of a carotid artery can be demonstrated by facial thermography. Minor stenotic lesions in the carotid arteries do not produce characteristic thermographic changes, while thermography is of no help in the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar arterial disease. Thermographic changes suggestive of carotid arterial lesions are found occasionally in patients whose angiograms are normal, owing to variations in the size of the frontal sinuses, or factors such as fever or inflammatory lesions. It is suggested that facial thermography is of value in the preliminary investigation of patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5676953

  2. Spontaneous Atherosclerosis in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Robert F.; Wight, Thomas N.; Smith, Samuel C.; Brannigan, David

    1972-01-01

    The interpretation of metabolic studies related to early changes in spontaneous atherosclerosis has been hampered by the focal nature of the disease and by the lack of a well-defined model system of the disease process. Gross, histologic and ultrastructural observations of lesion development at the celiac bifurcation of the aorta in atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau and atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer pigeons are compared and discussed in terms of hemodynamics, muscular aggregation and altered metabolism of smooth muscle cells. Detailed knowledge of the morphologic sequence of events in lesion localization makes the celiac bifurcation in White Carneau and Show Racer pigeons a useful model for genetic comparisons of arterial wall metabolism and for investigating metabolic alterations occurring with atherogenesis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 1Fig 2Fig 10Fig 11Fig 3Fig 4Fig 12Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:4261591

  3. Rethinking cell structure.

    PubMed Central

    Penman, S

    1995-01-01

    Cell structure, emerging from behind the veil of conventional electron microscopy, appears far more complex than formerly realized. The standard plastic-embedded, ultrathin section can image only what is on the section surface and masks the elaborate networks of the cytoplasm and nucleus. Embedment-free electron microscopy gives clear, high-contrast micrographs of cell structure when combined with removal of obscuring material such as soluble proteins. The resinless ultrathin section is the technique of choice; it is simple and inexpensive, and it uses ordinary electron microscopes. The resulting pictures reveal a world of complex cell structure and function. These images necessarily change our conception of the cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, mitosis, and the relation of membranes to cytostructure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7777493

  4. Use and Fabrication of Temporary Orthotics

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Denise L.

    1994-01-01

    Orthotics are effective for altering compensatory motions which result from abnormalities in the foot and lower extremity. In specific cases, temporary use of an orthosis is beneficial for reducing abnormal stresses while allowing involved structures to heal. Additionally, a temporary orthotic may provide a trial period to determine if the athlete would benefit from a permanent orthosis. A step-by-step procedure is presented for the fabrication of a temporary semirigid orthotic. Used as an adjunct to the treatment and rehabilitation program, temporary orthotics are effective in encouraging early weight-bearing tolerance, while placing the foot near the subtalar joint neutral position. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8. PMID:16558293

  5. Suppression of heat-induced hsp70 expression by the 70-kDa subunit of the human Ku autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G C; Yang, S H; Kim, D; Nussenzweig, A; Ouyang, H; Wei, J; Burgman, P; Li, L

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the 70-kDa polypeptide of human Ku autoantigen in rat cells is shown to suppress specifically the induction of hsp70 upon heat shock. Thermal induction of other heat shock proteins is not significantly affected, nor is the state of phosphorylation or the DNA-binding ability of the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. These findings support a model in which hsp70 gene expression is controlled by a second regulatory factor in addition to the positive activator HSF1. The Ku autoantigen, or a protein closely related to it, is likely to be involved in the regulation of hsp70 expression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753835

  6. Heterotypic and homotypic associations between ezrin and moesin, two putative membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1993-01-01

    Ezrin and moesin are components of actin-rich cell surface structures that are thought to function as membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins. Here we show that a stable complex of ezrin and moesin can be isolated from cultured cells by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. The capacity of these two proteins to interact directly was confirmed with a blot-overlay procedure in which biotin-tagged proteins in solution were incubated with immobilized binding partners. In addition to the heterotypic association of ezrin and moesin, homotypic binding of ezrin to ezrin and of moesin to moesin was also demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest mechanisms by which ezrin and moesin might participate in dynamic aspects of cortical cytoskeletal structure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8248180

  7. Studies on the introduction and mobility of the maize Activator element in Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota.

    PubMed Central

    Van Sluys, M A; Tempé, J; Fedoroff, N

    1987-01-01

    We have co-transformed carrot (Daucus carota) and Arabidopsis thaliana with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens non-tumorigenic T-DNA carrying the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) and an Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri T-DNA. We present evidence that the Ac element transposes in transformed root or root-derived callus cultures of both species. We show that fertile plants can be regenerated from transformed, root-derived callus cultures of Arabidopsis, demonstrating the utility of the Ri plasmid for introducing the maize Ac element into plants. We also present evidence that Ac elements that excise from the transforming T-DNA early after transformation continue to be mobile in carrot root cultures. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2832144

  8. Structural alterations in mutant precursors of the yeast tRNALeu3 gene which behave as defective substrates for a highly purified splicing endoribonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Attardi, D G; Margarit, I; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    1985-01-01

    We have produced a highly purified preparation of the Xenopus laevis splicing endonuclease (XlaI RNase). The purified enzyme correctly cleaves tRNA precursors, creating substrates for subsequent ligation. The 5'-half molecules have a 2',3' cyclic phosphate at their 3' termini. Assuming that splicing enzymes recognize primarily structural elements in the 'mature domain', we have been studying the conformation of three splicing-defective precursors made from mutants of the yeast tRNALeu3 gene. The mutations alter base-pairing in the D-stem region and two of the mutants are absolute defectives. Enzymatic probing of the structures of the altered tRNA precursors shows that the structural perturbations in these mutants are localized on the 'inside' of the 'L'-shaped three-dimensional structure. The implications of this finding for the recognition process are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3937725

  9. Laparoscopic injuries to the bile duct. A cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Moossa, A R; Easter, D W; Van Sonnenberg, E; Casola, G; D'Agostino, H

    1992-01-01

    The authors report six patients who had injuries to their common hepatic bile duct at laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 16-month period. Five of the six complications could be attributed to laser injuries during dissection in the region of Calot's triangle. The authors discuss the possible mechanism of these injuries, their perioperative management, and the methods of surgical reconstruction. The follow-up period ranges from 3 months to 21 months. Liver function parameters and isotope biliary excretion scans are back to normal in all six patients. The potential hazards of laparoscopic surgery demand that extraordinary care be used not only during the actual surgical procedure, but also in the preoperative decision concerning the dissection method to be employed. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. PMID:1531914

  10. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  11. Role of polyamines in the transport in vitro of the precursor of ornithine transcarbamylase.

    PubMed Central

    González-Bosch, C; Marcote, M J; Hernández-Yago, J

    1991-01-01

    Polyamines induce the transport in vitro of the rat liver precursor of ornithine transcarbamylase (pOTC) into isolated rat liver mitochondria. The accumulation of this precursor at the level of binding to the mitochondrial surface has allowed us to establish that polyamines are involved in the interaction of the precursor with the mitochondrial surface. Transport of a chimeric protein having the signal sequence of pOTC fused to a fragment of the cytosolic protein human arginosuccinate lyase was also induced by polyamines. The sensitivity of the pOTC synthesized in vitro and of the chimeric protein to proteinases decreases in the presence of polyamines. This result suggests that polyamines may play a role in modulating the folding of precursors to favour their binding to mitochondria. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1953676

  12. Recent experiences with autotransplantation of the kidney, jejunum, and pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, J C; Rohr, M S; Tucker, W Y

    1983-01-01

    Ten autotransplants are presented. Renal autografts were performed in the correction of renal artery stenosis, renal artery aneurysm, and intrarenal arteriovenous fistula. All were successful. Jejunal autografts were used to replace the cervical esophagus twice and the entire esophagus once. All grafts were successful, although one patient with advanced cancer died. Pancreatic segmental autografts were used to prevent diabetes following three subtotal pancreatectomies for chronic pancreatitis and one total pancreatectomy for carcinoma. Two patients have functioning grafts, require no insulin, and are free of disease at present. One patient is free of pancreatitis but is diabetic, and one patient died of probable pulmonary embolus. These experiences suggest that organ autografts can be used with greater frequency in clinical surgery and may alter standard therapy for several problems. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6344817

  13. Is water structure around hydrophobic groups clathrate-like?

    PubMed Central

    Head-Gordon, T

    1995-01-01

    The term "clathrate structure" is quantified for solvation of nonpolar groups by enumerating hydrogen-bonded ring sizes both in the solvation shell and through the shell-bulk interface and comparing it to a bulk control using the ST4 water model. For clathrate-like structure to be evident, the distributions along the hydrophobic surface are expected to be dominated by pentagons, with significant depletion of hexagons and larger polygons. While the distribution in this region is indeed distinguished by a large number of pentagons, there are significant contributions from hexagons and larger rings as well. Calculated polygon distributions through the shell-bulk interface indicate that when water structure is highly cooperative along the hydrophobic surface, hydrogen-bonded pathways leading back into bulk are then reduced. These results are qualitatively consistent with the observation that hydrophobicity is proportional to the nonpolar solute surface area. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:11607575

  14. Encephalopathy in Acute Leukaemia Associated with Methotrexate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kay, H. E. M.; Knapton, P. J.; O'Sullivan, J. P.; Wells, D. G.; Harris, Ruth F.; Innes, Elizabeth M.; Stuart, J.; Schwartz, F. C. M.; Thompson, Eileen N.

    1972-01-01

    Seven patients are described in whom dementia developed during treatment with methotrexate for meningeal leukaemia. The patients presented with confusion, tremor, ataxia, irritability, and somnolence. There were major epileptic fits in two cases and in one case there was progression to coma and death. Necropsy findings in the latter showed infarcted areas in the temporal and parietal lobes, with no evidence of active leukaemic disease or of viral encephalitis. The condition has not responded to radiotherapy and no positive evidence of viral encephalitis has been obtained. On the other hand, when treated with folinic and folic acid the deterioration has been arrested and there has been some improvement; thus the condition appears to be due to methotrexate. The occurrence of so many cases within the past year of a condition not previously described is probably attributable to the introduction of intensive cytotoxic therapy directed against meningeal leukaemia. ImagesFIG. 2.FIG. 3.FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4504035

  15. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  16. Xenopus cytoskeletal actin and human c-fos gene promoters share a conserved protein-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Mohun, T; Garrett, N; Treisman, R

    1987-01-01

    Xenopus laevis cytoskeletal actin gene promoters contain a 20-bp sequence homologous to the serum response element (SRE) required for transient human c-fos gene transcription in response to serum factors. Both sequences bind the same factor in HeLa cell extracts, as shown by binding competition, DNase I and dimethylsulphate (DMS) protection and DMS interference assays. A similar protein is present in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sequences containing the SRE homology are essential for constitutive activity of the actin promoter in both Xenopus and mouse cells, and a synthetic SRE functions as a promoter element in these cells. In mouse cells, transcription of both transfected Xenopus actin and actin/c-fos fusion genes is activated following serum stimulation. These data suggest that the SRE and its cognate protein form part of a regulatory pathway that has been highly conserved during evolution. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3582369

  17. Sclerosing cholangitis after continuous hepatic artery infusion of FUDR.

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, M M; Battifora, H; Blayney, D W; Cecchi, G; Goldberg, D A; Leong, L A; Margolin, K A; Terz, J J

    1985-01-01

    Eight of 46 (17.4%) patients treated in our trial of continuous hepatic artery infusion (CHAI) of fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) by Infusaid pump developed biliary strictures. The lesions were clinically, radiographically, and pathologically identical to the idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis frequently seen in association with inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment included immediate cessation of intraarterial FUDR, and surgical or percutaneous drainage of the biliary tree if it was dilated. Two of the eight patients died of the complication. Three patients stabilized after biliary system drainage, and two patients improved on observation only. The pathogenesis of this complication is not understood. This report details the clinical and pathological features of this entity. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. PMID:3160313

  18. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  19. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339

  20. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  1. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  2. The Spleen in Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrans, Victor J.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Roberts, William C.; Fredrickson, Donald S.

    1971-01-01

    Histochemical, biochemical, microfluorometric and electron microscopic studies were made of the spleen of a patient with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. Foam cells were observed that contained a material identified as ceroid on the basis of its autofluorescence, acid-fastness, sudanophilia, PAS-positivity and insolubility in organic solvents. Electron microscopy showed that the ceroid was organized in the form of granules with concentric lamellae of irregular periodicity. The process of formation of these granules is described in detail. The ceroid was considered to represent nondigestible end products of the metabolism of chylomicrons taken up by macrophages in splenic sinusoids. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 25Fig 26Fig 27Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 15Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 14Fig 16Fig 17Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23Fig 24Fig 28Fig 29 and 30 PMID:4326635

  3. Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements.

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R. E.; Scott, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:7820006

  4. The nature and origins of synovium: experimental approaches to the study of synoviocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J C

    1994-01-01

    Synovium is characterised by an intimal layer of cells, now recognised to be a mixture of bone marrow-derived macrophages and specialised fibroblast-like cells. The fibroblast-like cells, or synoviocytes, differ from other fibroblasts in a number of respects, including high activity of uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) and constitutive expression of VCAM-1. Experiments have been devised to try to establish the factors that control these specialised features. Both high UDPGD activity and VCAM-1 expression can be seen in adventitious or regenerate connective tissue linings tissue under certain circumstances. Mechanical factors may be implicated in the induction of UDPGD activity and VCAM-1 expression, but there is evidence that they are controlled independently. The factors involved in synoviocyte differentiation both in the embryo and under conditions of regeneration or generation ab initio at adventitious sites in the adult require further investigation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7928638

  5. Medicine Among New Immigrants and Arab Minorities in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, Seymour

    1965-01-01

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14285305

  6. The role of lung imaging in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, Fred S.; Johnson, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    The advantages of lung scanning in suspected pulmonary embolism are its diagnostic sensitivity, simplicity and safety. The ability to delineate regional pulmonary ischaemia, to quantitate its extent and to follow its response to therapy provides valuable clinical data available by no other simple means. The negative scan effectively excludes pulmonary embolism but, although certain of its features favour the diagnosis of embolism, the positive scan inherently lacks specificity and requires angiographic confirmation when embolectomy, caval plication or infusion of a thrombolytic agent are contemplated. The addition of simple ventilation imaging techniques with radioxenon overcomes this limitation by providing accurate analog estimation or digital quantitation of regional ventilation: perfusion (V/Q) ratios fundamental to understanding the pathophysiologic consequences of embolism and other diseases of the lung. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7p495-bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602128

  7. The action of very low concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate on freshly laid eggs of Australorbis glabratus*

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Louis; Haskins, Willard T.; Gurian, Joan

    1962-01-01

    This paper describes experiments to test the action of low concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate against freshly laid eggs of Australorbis glabratus, the principal intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in the western hemisphere. Techniques for collecting the eggs without damage and for conducting the tests are described. This compound was found to be 4-10 times more toxic for the eggs than for the adult snails. Strain differences in susceptibility of the eggs were also found. The demonstration of greater susceptibility of the eggs to the compound suggests that snail control might be accomplished more economically in some situations if the chemical were directed primarily against the eggs. The possibility of using eggs instead of adults for screening potential molluscicides is also discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14481844

  8. Heterophile Antibodies and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Taichman, Norton S.; Pulver, Wayne H.; Schönbaum, Eduard

    1973-01-01

    Platelets appear to be pathogenetic determinants in the development of lethal Forssman shock, which was provoked in guinea pigs by an intravenous injection of rabbit antiserum to sheep erythrocyte stromata. Within moments, circulating platelets (prelabeled with 14C-serotonin) were removed from the blood stream and impacted in the lungs, where they liberated 14C into the tissues. When animals were depleted of platelets prior to the production of shock, they survived for prolonged periods of time or were protected against death. Pretreatment with antiinflammatory compounds capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and release phenomena had a similar protective influence. It would appear, therefore, that Forssman shock is a convenient and accessible model for investigating the mechanisms whereby platelets mediate immune vascular damage. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4740636

  9. Observations on the source of embryonic myocardioblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E W

    1976-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic appearance of mesenchymal and myoblastic tissue in the embryonic heart is described. The similarity in the morphological appearance of all mesenchymal cells is pointed out, whether they occur in atrioventricular cushion tissue, the ridge tissue of the bulbus, cordis, sub-epicardial tissue or in mesenchyme elsewhere in the embryo. Cells intermediate in their ultrastructure between mesenchymal cells and myoblasts are found. The significance of such cells is discussed and the suggestion made that their appearance is consistent with their representing stages in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into myoblasts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:1254531

  10. PubMed Central

    Tremblay, G. M.; Sasahara, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    Pulmonary angiographic studies were performed on 100 patients with suspected pulmonary embolic disease. In the majority, the contrast medium was injected through a catheter located in the outflow tract of the right ventricle or the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary embolic disease should be suspected in the presence of the following unexplained symptoms or signs: (1) dyspnea, (2) thoracic pain, (3) hemoptysis, (4) left ventricular failure, (5) global ventricular failure, and (6) pulmonary function deterioration. Pulmonary angiography is a simple, specific and objective method by which to diagnose thromboembolic disease of the lung. Acute myocardial infarction and terminal illness were the only contraindications to the procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5926268

  11. PubMed Central

    Paulin, R.; Lamonica, J.

    1966-01-01

    A case of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas is reported. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a characteristic associated finding, and in this instance affected 10 members of the patient's family over four generations. This association suggests that the pulmonary condition in its congenital form is part of a generalized vascular dysplasia. Clinically, the patient experienced increased dyspnea and fatigue but cyanosis and polycythemia were not noted. After surgical excision of the fistula with conservation of as much pulmonary tissue as possible, prompt relief of symptoms was obtained. Furthermore, angiographic studies revealed that the small fistulas in the other lung did not enlarge. The presence of multiple fistulas is not a contraindication to surgery, and such fistulas should be excised to improve the patient's condition and prevent further complications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5903711

  12. Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D.; Pettigrew, J.; Udupa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Interpretational difficulties experienced with currently used diagnostic radiation techniques can be reduced via the use of 3-D images constructed from conventional CT data. Each 1.5 mm CT section yields interpolated sections (6 or 8) containing cubile voxels. Structures to be imaged separately are masked in the interpolated sections prior to windowing for the appropriate tissue. A special algorithm detects the surface boundary of the selected structure. The surface pixels are assigned gray levels based on their distance and attitude from the observer. When displayed, this produces a simulated 3-D image. The image can be rotated and sectioned. Rotations permit otherwise hidden surfaces to be examined. Images of two temporomandibular joints are presented, a) bony components; b) bony components + meniscus. It is concluded that the 3-D imaging process is potentially useful in diagnosing TMJ pathology. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

  13. T-cell alpha beta + and gamma delta + deficient mice display abnormal but distinct phenotypes toward a natural, widespread infection of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S J; Smith, A L; West, A B; Wen, L; Findly, R C; Owen, M J; Hayday, A C

    1996-01-01

    Vertebrate immune systems contain T cells bearing either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs). alpha beta T cells perform all well-characterized T-cell effector functions, while the biological functions of gamma delta + cells remain unclear. Of particular interest is the role of gamma delta + cells during epithelial infections, since gamma delta + cells are commonly abundant within epithelia. Eimeria spp. are intracellular protozoa that infect epithelia of most vertebrates, causing coccidiosis. This study shows that in response to Eimeria vermiformis, mice lacking alpha beta T cells display defects in protective immunity, while mice lacking gamma delta + cells display exaggerated intestinal damage, apparently due to a failure to regulate the consequences of the alpha beta T cell response. An immuno-downregulatory role during infection, and during autoimmune disease, may be a general one for gamma delta + cells. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8876213

  14. Congenital syphilis and glomerulonephritis with evidence for immune pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wiggelinkhuizen, J.; Kaschula, R. O. C.; Uys, C. J.; Kuijten, R. H.; Dale, J.

    1973-01-01

    In 3 infants with congenital syphilis the dominant clinical manifestation of syphilitic kidney disease was the nephrotic syndrome. Mesangioendothelial proliferation was present in 2 cases and mixed proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent formation in the third. The severity of the clinical and histopathological abnormalities could be related to the apparent duration of the illness. In all 3 cases immune complex deposition could be shown within and along the epithelial aspect of the glomerular basement membrane on light, electron, and immunofluorescent microscopy. These features, together with a reduced total serum haemolytic complement, suggest an immune pathogenesis of the glomerulonephritis associated with early congenital syphilis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4267344

  15. Ultrastructural observations on the caecum of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J A; Scott, A; Gardner, I C

    1989-01-01

    The caecal mucosa of the rabbit has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and its fine structure is considered in the light of its known secretory and absorptive capacities. The luminal surface consists of columnar absorptive epithelium while the crypts are lined with glandular epithelium comprising undifferentiated cells, goblet cells containing dark and light mucigenous granules, and intra-epithelial cells. Endocrine cells occur more commonly in the cryptal epithelium and two cell types have been recognised which correspond to EC and L cells respectively. The lamina propria includes lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cell and smooth muscle cells. There is little ultrastructural variation within mucosal cells along the length of the caecum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2606789

  16. A survey of malformed aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates for abnormal karyotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Schmutz, S M; Rousseaux, C G

    1988-01-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 30 morphologically abnormal aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates. Fibroblasts from the pericardium were cultured for chromosome analysis. Karyotypes were successfully completed on 18 animals, of which three were trisomic, one was mosaic monosomic and one was chimeric. All aneuploid calves had multisystemic anomalies. Using chromosomal banding techniques, the abnormal karyotypes were determined to be: 61,XY,+27; 61,XX,+21; 61,XY,+?; 59,XY,-?/60,XY; and 60,XX/60,XY. Bacterial contamination or nonviability of tissues prevented the growth of fibroblasts in culture and cytogenetic analysis of the other 12 animals. It was estimated that 2.0% of all late gestation abortuses and stillbirths may have chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy. The findings of this study suggest chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy are a significant cause of multisystemic anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses and nonviable neonates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3370561

  17. Carcinomas arising in cystic conditions of the bile ducts. A clinical and pathologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, R L; Silverman, M L; Braasch, J W; Munson, J L; ReMine, S G

    1987-01-01

    Thirty patients with cystic disease of the bile ducts operated on between 1965 and 1985 were reviewed. Three patients (10%) had a synchronous adenocarcinoma, and in three patients (10%) a metachronous carcinoma developed for a total incidence of malignancy of 20%. All patients died within 1 year of the diagnosis of malignancy. Of 19 benign cysts available for pathologic examination, one third had proliferative epithelial changes, and in two of these patients a metachronous carcinoma developed. Goblet cell metaplasia was prominent in four patients. This suggests the possibility that dysplastic changes and metaplasia of the epithelium could give rise to carcinoma. Resection of benign cysts of the bile ducts is favored, when feasible, in an attempt to decrease the incidence of malignancy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3566373

  18. Experiences with a sac-type artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David T.; Couves, Cecil M.

    1971-01-01

    A total replacement artificial heart is described having in vitro performance satisfying human requirements up to and including moderate work. The in vitro design has been modified to make its implantation into the chests of experimental animals technically feasible. The heart has been tested in vivo for up to six hours, and has been found to provide the experimental animals with adequate blood flow and pressures. Preliminary tests have shown major problems of air embolism and red blood cell hemolysis. The heart design and technique of implantation are undergoing further improvement. Performance will be more comprehensively examined with the use of larger experimental animals in order more accurately to evaluate the heart's potential. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:5112120

  19. The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Harold W.; Maeda, William K.

    1965-01-01

    A euploid/aberrant double stem line mosaicism was found in two cases of the de Lange syndrome with severe abnormalities. In both cases the structural heterozygosity of the aberrant stem line involved, apparently, the loss of chromosomal material from a smaller autosome of Group (6-12) X, probably No. 11. Differences in the cultural characteristics of de Lange cells suggest that the aberrant stem line may not proliferate in culture, so that mosaicism may not be detected. Moreover, the mosaicism may not be present in all tissues, resulting in normal cytogenetic findings as noted in a third case studied. Our findings suggest that the de Lange syndrome is the phenotypic expression of chromosomal mosaicism. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5825977

  20. Chemical cross-linking of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase from bovine heart.

    PubMed Central

    Cleeter, M W; Banister, S H; Ragan, C I

    1985-01-01

    The structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase was investigated by using two cleavable cross-linking agents, disuccinimidyl tartrate and (ethylene glycol)yl bis-(succinimidyl succinate). Cross-linking was analysed primarily by immunoblotting to detect products containing subunits of the iron-protein fraction from chaotropic resolution of the enzyme, namely those of 75, 49, 30 and 13 kDa. By using both the isolated iron-protein fraction and the intact dehydrogenase, cross-links were identified between these four subunits, from these subunits to the largest subunit of the flavoprotein fraction, which contains the active site for NADH, and from these subunits to polypeptides in the hydrophobic shell, which surrounds the hydrophilic iron-protein and flavoprotein fractions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4004775

  1. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  2. Five human tumour cell lines derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, two subsequent local recurrences and two nodal metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Pittam, M. R.; James, T.

    1981-01-01

    Five tumour cell lines have been derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, from 2 subsequent local recurrences, and from 2 lymph-node metastases--all from the same patient. While the cell lines shared many morphological and biochemical characteristics, those derived from recurrences and metastases appeared to be less differentiated, were less well organized in culture, and displayed fewer desmosomes and tonofilaments than cells in the primary tumour line. A recurrent line showing greatest morphological divergence from the primary tumour line also demonstrated the greatest differences at the ultrastructural level, in increased production of plasminogen activator and in the composition of cell-surface glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7284233

  3. The applied anatomy of the arterial blood supply to the heart in man.

    PubMed Central

    Allwork, S P

    1987-01-01

    The applied anatomy of the coronary arterial and collateral circulations has been reviewed together with some of the more important variants of origin, branching and disposition. There is a very wide range of variability among coronary artery patterns, and some of them can of themselves give rise to illness and even death. Others may exacerbate acquired disease. The increasing use of coronary arteriography and other forms of imaging will continue to reveal hitherto undescribed variants, while the study of coronary artery disease, so common in the Western world, will eventually elucidate the natural history of the coronary collateral circulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3323153

  4. The organisation of collagen fibrils in the superficial zones of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J M

    1990-01-01

    The origin and structure of collagen fibres in the surface of articular cartilage were studied using SEM. Cryofracture was used to create orthogonal fracture surfaces in three planes. Fibres which originated in the radial zone could be traced into the surface where they flattened and overlapped in a common direction. Thick fibres from the periosteum ran into the surface as well, but apparently ended there and did not enter the radial zone. The tangential fibres were covered by a dense, separate layer of small fibrils. The fundamental aspects of the model proposed by Benninghoff are supported by these findings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081698

  5. Intracranial venous thrombosis complicating oral contraception

    PubMed Central

    Dindar, F.; Platts, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Four days after the onset of a severe headache a 22-year-old woman who had been taking oral contraceptives for less than three weeks had a convulsion, followed by right hemiparesis. Other focal neurologic signs and evidence of raised intracranial pressure appeared, and she became comatose on the seventh day. A left craniotomy revealed extensive cerebral venous thrombosis. She died the next day. On postmortem examination extensive thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus and draining cerebral veins, and multiple areas of cerebral hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction were seen. Some of the superficial cerebral veins showed focal necrosis of their walls, and the lateral lacunae of the superior sagittal sinus contained proliferating endothelial cells. The adrenal veins were also thrombosed. The significance of these findings is discussed. The literature on cerebrovascular complications of oral contraception, particularly cerebral venous thrombosis, is reviewed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4413961

  6. Identification of a common oncofoetal protein in x-ray and chemically induced rat gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R. H.; Cole, D. A.; Cheng, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    An apparently unique circulating common oncofoetal protein has been identified in rat small-bowel, colonic and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The tumours were induced by ionizing radiation (small bowel), an alkyl hydrocarbon, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (colon) and a polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (pancreas). The oncofoetal protein was identified by the use of specific xenogenic antitumour rabbit sera generated to the X-ray-induced neoplasm. In addition, the foetal protein was also found always to occur in the liver and lungs of those animals bearing the chemically induced tumours as well as in their serum. These results suggest the existence of a close relationship at the molecular level in the tumorigenic processes, even though induction is by apparently different mechanisms, for cancers arising in tissue or common embryonic origin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6788060

  7. Ultrastructure of the adrenocortical homologue in dexamethasone-treated eels.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, T K; Butler, D G

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructural modifications of the adrenocortical homologue (AH) in the North American eel (Anguilla rostrata) were studied following a 10 day treatment with dexamethasone (20 mg/day). The principal changes were: disorganization of smooth endoplasmic reticlum, regression and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, and a lowering of matrix density in the mitochondria. Steroid treatment also induced the appearance of numerous cytoplasmic inclusions: (a) lamellated bodies with electron-lucent cores; (b) membranous whorls isolating cytoplasmic regions containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and (c) complex aggregates showing whorls of membranes, residues of cytoplasmic organelles, and dense matrix. The non-accumulation of lipid droplets in repressed AH cells was noteworthy. These subcellular changes indicate endogenous cellular autophagy in the AH as a result of steroid-induced suppression of ACTH production by the pituitary. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7400039

  8. Some aspects of neuroendocrine pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The advent of modern microscopical investigative methods for the determination of neuroendocrine differentiation has increasingly given credence to the original concept of a "diffuse endocrine system". These methods include a variety of silver impregnation techniques, technologically advanced light and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry, and, lately, the ability to localise specific binding sites by in vitro autoradiography and mRNA species by in situ hybridisation. Further insight has been gained into the possible role of regulatory peptides contained in the so called "diffuse endocrine system" and into the nature of disease processes by investigating the role of the system in benign and malignant disease. Images Fig 13 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312297

  9. The Primary Implantation of Human Tumours to the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dorothy E.; Evans, D. M. D.; Blamey, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch is an immunologically privileged site. The present study is of simple implantation of human tumours direct from operative specimen to cheek pouch, in particular to determine whether tumour type influences the rate of successful implant. All implants were studied 10 or 20 days later. The use of cortisone significantly improved the number of implants growing. Carcinomas of the cervix were found to show growth in 55% of implants, in animals conditioned with cortisone. Growth from tumours of the uterine body, or from colorectal carcinomas, occurred in 25-30% of implants. Breast cancer gave poor results. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5144526

  10. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  11. Clotting Problems with the Teflon-Silastic Arteriovenous Shunt in Patients on Regular Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, M.; Carroll, R. N. P.; Kulatilake, A. E.

    1969-01-01

    Episodes of clotting that occurred in 22 patients on regular haemodialysis were studied over a six-month period. The venous pressure during dialysis and the radiology of the Teflon-Silastic arteriovenous shunt were found to be satisfactory guides for the management of the shunt. The failure of the shunt during the early stage was mainly due to technical reasons. Histological study of the excised vessels in removed long-term shunts showed that these had failed because of rigidity and thickening of the vessel wall due to calcium and iron deposits or chronic inflammation, or both. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5776208

  12. Proposals for the classification of chronic (mature) B and T lymphoid leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) Cooperative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, J M; Catovsky, D; Daniel, M T; Flandrin, G; Galton, D A; Gralnick, H R; Sultan, C

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral blood, bone marrow films, and bone marrow biopsy specimens from 110 patients, well characterised by clinical and laboratory studies, including electron microscopy, were reviewed, to determine proposals for the classification of chronic (mature) B and T cell leukaemias. On the basis of cytology and membrane phenotype the following disorders were defined: (i) B cell type: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); CLL of mixed cell type, which includes cases with more than 10% and less than 55% prolymphocytes (CLL/PL), and a less well defined form with pleomorphic lymphocytes but less than 10% prolymphocytes; prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL); hairy cell leukaemia (HCL); HCL variant; splenic lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes; leukaemic phase of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (follicular lymphoma, intermediate, or mantle zone lymphoma and others); lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with peripheral blood disease (mostly Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia); and plasma cell leukaemia. (ii) T cell type: T/CLL, which was differentiated from reactive T/lymphocytosis; T/PLL; adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma; and Sézary's syndrome. The recognition of distinct entities within the B and T cell leukaemias seems to have clinical and epidemiological connotations. It is hoped that these proposals may serve as the basis for further work, discussion, and improved management of patients. Images Fig 1 Fig 1 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2738163

  13. Human babesiosis in ireland: Further observations and the medical significance of this infection

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.; Donnelly, Joseph; Hoogstraal, Harry; Kennedy, C. Cotton; Walton, Gerald A.

    1969-01-01

    Three splenectomized persons in Yugoslavia, California, and Ireland have been reported to be infected by three different Babesia species; two cases were fatal. In a study of the site where the fatal infection was contracted in Ireland, blood samples from 36 persons who had recently been bitten by ticks were inoculated into two splenectomized calves; no response to Babesia divergens was detected. Field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks inoculated into another splenectomized calf resulted in fever and recovery of the agent of tick-borne fever (Cytoecetes phagocytophilia). This attempt to determine the presence of latent infection in human beings with intact spleens should be repeated on a larger scale in areas with a demonstrably high incidence of Babesia in ticks and animals. Few places in the world are free of piroplasms; their presence may present a hazard to splenectomized persons or to those whose splenic function is deficient. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4902496

  14. Evaluation of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer shelf arthroplasty for the surgical correction of hip dysplasia in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, B; Lanthier, T; Martineau-Doizé, B

    1994-01-01

    Biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (BOP) shelf arthroplasty was performed on ten nondysplastic dogs, divided into five groups. Each group was evaluated at 6, 13, 17, 26 or 39 weeks postsurgery. Evaluation consisted of clinical, radiological and histological studies. The dogs were injected with three fluorochrome markers, 28 days, 14 days and 6 hours before euthanasia. Transverse sections of undecalcified arthroplasty site were examined by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy; surface-stained sections were evaluated by light microscopy. The BOP shelf arthroplasty was not technically difficult. Minimal mineralization of the shelf was noted by radiography, 26 and 39 weeks postop. A moderate to large amount of fibrous mature connective tissue was observed around the BOP fibers throughout the study. Bone ingrowth occurred around the BOP fibers, but was minimal within them. This osseous proliferation of the arthroplasty was very slow to take place; it was first noted microscopically 17 weeks postsurgery and was still minimal 39 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that there may be interference to the osteoconductive properties of BOP by fibrous tissue. Ossification of the shelf arthroplasty was too unsatisfactory to recommend its use for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7954118

  15. Short-Distance Low-Voltage X-Ray Therapy

    PubMed Central

    1936-01-01

    Short distance X-ray therapy is characterized by the application of a very high dose to the diseased area only; the surrounding and underlying healthy tissue, being spared irradiation, is therefore able to assist the process of repair. Distribution of the dose is obtained by providing for a steep energy gradient within the tissue and by using metal applicators with fields of entry from 9 to 25 sq. cm. The short focal distance required is made possible by a monopolar X-ray tube of unusual design run at a constant potential of 60 kv., the total filtration amounting to 0.2 mm. of copper. Doses of 300 to 500 “r” are administered every day for from two to four minutes. The total dose applied to the patient during two to four weeks is from 5,000 to 10,000 “r”. From these data it is apparent that the new X-ray therapy has many features in common with ordinary radium therapy. Up to the end of 1935 231 cases had been treated by this method, the time of observation extending up to four years. The statistics include cases of cancer of the lips, the oral cavity, the eyelids, forehead, nose and ear, and on the surface of the trunk and limbs. The possibilities of the method are, however, by no means restricted to tumours located on, or near, the surface of the body or in body cavities. Recently its scope has been extended to the treatment of deep-seated tumours, notably tumours of the rectum, made accessible by surgical operation. The results obtained in these cases are very encouraging. For instance, the first patient treated by this method two years ago has enjoyed perfect health and is pursuing his normal occupation. In the case of tumours of large size or with many metastases, or having previously undergone intensive X-ray or radium treatment, the method is contra-indicated. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5aFig. 5bFig. 5cFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19990712

  16. A military surgical team in Belfast.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper details the experiences of a military surgical team in Belfast from 1972 to early 1974. The overall picture of the problem is given and the current management of 'war' injuries discussed. Up to February 1974 over 1000 servicemen have been injured in Northern Ireland as a result of the vivil disturbance. Over 200 have died. Because of the close proximity of the hospital to many battle areas, casualties may arrive with massive injuries, requiring major resuscitation. Limb wounds have predominated. There is no short cut to adequate wound debridement, especially in the surgery of high-velocity missile injury. Missile wounds of the large bowel require a colostomy. Formal thoracotomy is increasingly used for the through-and-through gunshot wounds of the chest. Controlled ventilation is playing an increasingly important role in the management of some missile wounds of the head. Mine and bomb explosions frequently cause multiple injuries, requiring extensive surgery on any one patient. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 16 PMID:238456

  17. Reactions of Blood with Nonbiologic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Reginald G.; Shermer, Richard W.; Rodman, Nathaniel F.

    1972-01-01

    Interaction of normal and coagulation factor deficient bloods with glass, Teflon and silicone-coated glass surfaces have been studied. The morphology of the blood-surface interaction was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Activation of the intrinsic coagulation system and progression of these changes, monitored by use of the partial thromboplastin time test, were influenced by both the type of surface to which blood was exposed and the deficiencies of coagulation Factors I, VIII, IX, or XII. Deficiency of fibrinogen appears to enhance, minimally, activation of the coagulation sequences by test materials. However, deficiency of fibrinogen markedly reduces adhesion of platelets to foreign surfaces. Deficiency of Factor XII, but not of Factors VIII or IX, decreases platelet adhesion to nonbiologic surfaces but to a lesser extent than does deficiency of fibrinogen. Roughness of test surfaces appears to encourage cellular deposition from blood. An ex vivo model designed for screening materials for their compatibility with blood is described. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:4634736

  18. Shape and motion from image streams: a factorization method.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, C; Kanade, T

    1993-01-01

    Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but it is an ill-conditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2F x P measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. Under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Using this observation, the factorization method uses the singular value decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices, which represent object shape and camera motion, respectively. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filled-in measurement matrix, which occurs when features appear and disappear in the image sequence due to occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:11607434

  19. New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.

    PubMed Central

    David, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

  20. Selective response of ternary complex factor Sap1a to different mitogen-activated protein kinase subgroups.

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, T; Gille, H; Shaw, P E

    1996-01-01

    Mitogenic and stres signals results in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (SAPK/JNKs), respectively, which are two subgroups of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. A nuclear target of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is the ternary complex factor Elk-1, which underlies its involvement in the regulation of c-fos gene expression by mitogenic and stress signals. A second ternary complex factor, Sap1a, is coexpressed with Elk-1 in several cell types and shares attributes of Elk-1, the significance of which is not clear. Here we show that Sap1a is phosphorylated efficiently by ERKs but not by SAPK/JNKs. Serum response factor-dependent ternary complex formation by Sap1a is stimulated by ERK phosphorylation but not by SAPK/JNKs. Moreover, Sap1a-mediated transcription is activated by mitogenic signals but not by cell stress. These results suggest that Sap1a and Elk-1 have distinct physiological functions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8876175

  1. Reversible and irreversible cross-linking of immunoglobulin heavy chains through their carbohydrate residues.

    PubMed Central

    Heimgartner, U; Kozulić, B; Mosbach, K

    1990-01-01

    After periodate oxidation and incubation with a dihydrazide, cross-linking of the two heavy chains of immunoglobulins G from several species proceeds specifically through their oligosaccharides. We have used malonic acid dihydrazide, adipic acid dihydrazide and dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide. The last compound is introduced in this work as a cleavable-carbohydrate-specific cross-linker. It was found that in rabbit and human immunoglobulins the degree of cross-linking was strongly dependent on the oxidation conditions but only very weakly dependent on the concentration and size of the dihydrazides. Papain cleavage of the cross-linked rabbit IgG indicated that the cross-linking occurred predominantly, if not exclusively, in the Fc region, probably through the two glycans linked to Asn-297 in the CH2 domain of each of the two heavy chains. The immunoglobulins from sheep, pig, goat and guinea pig show a comparable cross-linking pattern, indicating that the sugar chains from these immunoglobulins have a spatial structure closely related to that of rabbit and human IgG. When dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide was used as the cross-linker, the cross-link could be cleaved by mercaptoethanol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2111130

  2. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  3. Characteristics and biosynthesis of membrane proteins of lipid bodies in the scutella of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Qu, R; Wang, S M; Lin, Y H; Vance, V B; Huang, A H

    1986-01-01

    Storage lipid bodies, which are prominent organelles present in the storage tissues of most seeds, have not been subjected to intensive biochemical investigation. In the present studies the major proteins in lipid bodies isolated from eleven taxonomically diverse species were shown to be distinctly different, as revealed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The lipid-body membrane of maize (Zea mays L.) contained three major proteins of low Mr (19,500, 18,000 and 16,500), and they were chosen for further study. They all had alkaline pI values and behaved as hydrophobic integral proteins, as shown by their resistance to solubilization after repeated washing, amino acid composition and partitioning in a Triton X-114 system. Labelling in vivo with [35S]methionine and translation in vitro using extracted RNA in a wheat-germ system showed that the proteins were synthesized during seed maturation and not germination. The proteins synthesized in vivo and in vitro exhibited no appreciable difference in their mobilities in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing and molecular sieving). The most abundant protein, that of Mr 16,500, was shown to be synthesized predominantly, if not exclusively, by RNA derived from bound polyribosomes and not from free polyribosomes. The implication of the results on the biosynthesis of the lipid bodies is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3741390

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of goat oviductal epithelial cells at the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrus cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, H; Onodera, M; Sugawara, S

    1993-01-01

    The luminal surfaces of epithelial cells in various regions of the oviducts of the goats at the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Marked cyclic changes were observed on the surface of the epithelium in the fimbriae, ampulla and ampullar-isthmic junction, but few changes were found in the isthmus or uterotubal junction. The epithelium of the fimbriae, ampulla, and ampullar-isthmic junction of oviducts in the follicular phase was extensively ciliated and most of the cilia extended above the apical processes of the nonciliated cells. In the luteal phase, many ciliated cells were hidden by the bulbous processes of the nonciliated cells. In the isthmus and at the uterotubal junction, the apical surfaces of the nonciliated cells were flat or gently rounded at both phases of the oestrous cycle. The results demonstrate that regional variations are associated with the cyclic changes in the epithelial cells of the goat oviduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8300425

  5. Morphology and immunology of circulating cells in leukaemic phase of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Melo, J V; Robinson, D S; De Oliveira, M P; Thompson, I W; Lampert, I A; Ng, J P; Galton, D A; Catovsky, D

    1988-01-01

    Ten patients with follicular lymphoma presented with a high white cell count (45-220 x 10(9)/l) which resembled chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CCL): all had pronounced splenomegaly and, except one, generalised lymphadenopathy. The blood lymphocytes were small with scanty cytoplasm, densely condensed nuclear chromatin, and deep clefts originating in sharp angles from the nuclear surface. CLL cells are larger, have more cytoplasm, a different pattern of chromatin condensation, and may have shallow nuclear indentations or foldings rather than clefts. The circulating follicular lymphoma cells had moderate to strong membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg), low mouse (M)-rosettes, strong reactivity with the monoclonal antibody FMC7, and occasional expression of the CD5-antigen; at least one third of cells in each case were positive with anti-cALLa (J5,CD10). Half the cases were referred as B-CLL but none had the typical B-CLL immunophenotype: weak SmIg, M-rosettes of greater than 50%, CD5 positive, FMC7 and J5 negative. The diagnosis of follicular lymphoma was confirmed by lymph node biopsy in seven of the 10 cases. The overall response to treatment was poor and five patients died within three years of diagnosis. This aggressive form of follicular lymphoma needs to be distinguished from B-CLL as different management is required. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3056987

  6. Rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in human T leukaemic cells shows preferential utilization of the D segment (DQ52) nearest to the J region.

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, S; Ford, A M; Wiedemann, L M; Chan, L C; Furley, A J; Greaves, M F; Molgaard, H V

    1986-01-01

    The DNA rearrangements leading to the assembly of genes coding for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) in B cells and the T cell receptor for antigen in T cells are not completely lineage specific. This probably reflects the use of a common recombinase by IgH and the T cell receptor. This paper describes novel observations on the nature of these cross-lineage rearrangements. A high proportion (though not all) IgH rearrangements in human T leukaemic cells involve the D segment nearest to the J region (DQ52). This same D segment is not involved in B cell IgH rearrangements with one important exception, namely a proportion of B cell leukaemic clones with the most primitive B cell precursor phenotype. These observations have potentially important implications for early lymphoid cell differentiation and in particular support the idea that the 3' D plus J region might lie within a limited window of accessibility of the IgH gene in precursor lymphocytes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3030728

  7. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  8. Rectal biopsy in patients presenting to an infectious disease unit with diarrhoeal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R J; Gilmour, H M; McClelland, D B

    1979-01-01

    The role of sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy was investigated in patients referred to an infectious diseases unit with diarrhoea. Seventy-four patients were studied. Nine patients (12%) had inflammatory bowel disease, either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Thirty-six patients (48%) had infective diarrhoea. A wide variety of conditions accounted for the diarrhoea in the remaining patients. Sigmoidoscopy was abnormal in 25 patients and rectal biopsy in 56. The abnormalities in rectal mucosal histology were classified into six grades. Some patients with infective diarrhoea showed rather characteristic histological changes which may be of diagnostic value. Eight showed features which suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, repeat rectal biopsy in the convalescent period showed a striking improvement in the patients with infective diarrhoea. In contrast, the histological changes persisted in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Repeat rectal biopsy may be essential before making a firm diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in some patients who present with diarrhoea and apparently typical histological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:428826

  9. Pathological changes in the navicular bone and associated structures of the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C E; Hoffer, M A

    1983-01-01

    Navicular bones from 74 horses were examined at necropsy. Animals ranged in age from eight months to 30 years. Eight horses had a clinical history of navicular disease. Degenerative lesions in the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone and of the surface of the deep flexor tendons were age related changes not necessarily related to lameness. These lesions were more extensive in horses with a history of navicular disease, and were often accompanied by adhesions and subchondral cavitation of the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone. Osteophytes, present in 12 of the 74 horses, appeared to be age-related and were uncommon in horses with a history of navicular disease. Nutrient foramina on the distal border of the navicular bone were highly variable in size and shape; in horses with a history of navicular disease they often had a small external opening that became larger as it penetrated the bone. Occlusive vascular disease (arteriosclerosis) was found in sound horses and in horses with a history of navicular disease. Thrombosis of arteries or ischemic necrosis of bone was not identified in any case. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:6667428

  10. Detection and differentiation of the six Brucella species by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes-Rincón, A. M.; Revol, A.; Barrera-Saldaña, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucelosis is a severe acute febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Its current diagnosis is based on clinical observations that may be complemented by serology and microbiological culture tests; however, the former is limited in sensitivity and specificity, the latter is time consuming. To improve brucelosis diagnosis we developed a test which is specific and sensitive and is capable of differentiating the six species of Brucella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four primers were designed from B. abortus sequences at the well-conserved Omp2 locus that are able to amplify the DNAs of all six species of Brucella. RESULTS: Our test detected all six species of Brucella. Their differentiation resulted directly from differences in the amplification patterns or was achieved indirectly using a RFLP present in one of the PCR products. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test were then determined; it was applied successfully in confirming the diagnosis of a patient whose clinical history and serology indicated infection with Brucella. CONCLUSIONS: The results make possible the use of a PCR test for Brucella detection and differentiation without relying on the measurement of the antibodies or microorganism culture. Our first results showed that the PCR test can confirm the presence of Brucella in blood samples of infected patients. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:9407549

  11. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  12. Disruption of the keratin filament network during epithelial cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, E B; Goodman, S L; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of keratin filaments during cell division was examined in a wide range of epithelial lines from several species. Almost half of them show keratin disruption as described previously: by immunofluorescence, filaments are replaced during mitosis by a 'speckled' pattern of discrete cytoplasmic dots. In the electron microscope these ' speckles ' are seen as granules around the cell periphery, just below the actin cortical mesh, with no detectable 10 nm filament structure inside them and no keratin filament bundles in the rest of the cytoplasm. A time course of the filament reorganization was constructed from double immunofluorescence data; filaments are disrupted in prophase, and the filament network is intact again by cytokinesis. The phenomenon is restricted to cells rich in keratin filaments, such as keratinocytes; it is unrelated to the co-existence of vimentin in many of these cells, and vimentin is generally maintained as filaments while the keratin is restructured. Some resistance to the effect may be conferred by an extended cycle time. Filament reorganization takes place within minutes, so that a reversible mechanism seems more likely than one involving de novo protein synthesis, at this metabolically quiet stage of the cell cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6202508

  13. Characterization of the cell adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM and J1 in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Thor, G; Probstmeier, R; Schachner, M

    1987-01-01

    To gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial cell surface interactions in the adult mouse intestine, we have characterized the cell adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM and J1 by immunocytological, biochemical and cell biological methods. Whereas N-CAM and J1 expression was found to be confined to the mesenchymal and neuroectodermally-derived parts of the intestine, L1 was localized in the proliferating epithelial progenitor cells of crypts, but not in the more differentiated epithelial cells of villi. L1 was detected in crypt cells by Western blot analysis in the molecular forms characteristic of peripheral neural cells, with apparent mol. wts of 230, 180 and 150 kd. Aggregation of single, enriched crypt, but not villus cells, was strongly inhibited in the presence of Fab fragments of polyclonal L1 antibodies. These observations show that L1 is not confined to the nervous system and that it may play a functional role in the histogenesis of the intestine in the adult animal. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3315649

  14. Suppression of the pathogenic effects of Strongylus edentatus larvae with thiabendazole.

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M

    1975-01-01

    Four pony foals were inoculated with Strongylus edentatus infective larvae and on days 3 and 4 postinfection two of the ponies were treated with thiabendazole, each at the rate of 440 mg/kg of body weight. Total circulating eosinophil counts in untreated ponies increased to over 1700 per cu mm after the second week postinfection. In the treated ponies as well as in an uninfected untreated pony eosinophil counts did not increase beyond 100 per cu mm. At necropsy on day 35 postinfection the cecum, colon and omentum of treated ponies were normal and few tracks were present on the surface of the liver. In untreated ponies nodules were observed on the serosal surface of the cecum and right ventral colon and white foci and tracks were numerous on the surface of the liver. A total of 53 fourth stage larvac was recovered from the livers of the thiabendazole treated ponies and 1194 from the untreated ones. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1139410

  15. Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818

  16. Strongylus edentatus: development and lesions from ten weeks postinfection to patency.

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B M; Slocombe, J O

    1978-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were examined at necropsy from ten to 72 weeks postinfection. At ten weeks postinfection larvae were visible retroperitoneally in the liver and flanks and were recovered from the ligaments of the liver. The fourth molt was detected at 16 weeks postinfection and larvae were also recovered from the wall of the cecum at this time. By 40 weeks adult S. edentatus containing eggs were found in the contents of the cecum and colon. While many larvae migrate to remote parts of the body, it is likely that only those that attain the base of the cecum are successful in establishing in the cecum and colon as adult forms. By 36 weeks postinfection no larvae were found in the liver and up to this time none were found in the peritoneal cavity. Larvae were not recovered from the parenchyma of the lungs. Adhesions and disruption of omental architecture were frequent changes observed throughout infection. Casts of necrotic eosinophils enclosing tracks and larvae were observed beneath the intima of major veins of the cecum and colon. The liver was rough and the capsule thickened at 16 and 20 weeks postinfection and the flanks remained edematous until 36 weeks postinfection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:688075

  17. Candida albicans Ultrastructure: Colonization and Invasion of Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.

    1980-01-01

    The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338

  18. Microfabricated structures for integrated DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, M A; Mastrangelo, C H; Sammarco, T S; Man, F P; Webster, J R; Johnsons, B N; Foerster, B; Jones, D; Fields, Y; Kaiser, A R; Burke, D T

    1996-01-01

    Photolithographic micromachining of silicon is a candidate technology for the construction of high-throughput DNA analysis devices. However, the development of complex silicon microfabricated systems has been hindered in part by the lack of a simple, versatile pumping method for integrating individual components. Here we describe a surface-tension-based pump able to move discrete nanoliter drops through enclosed channels using only local heating. This thermocapillary pump can accurately mix, measure, and divide drops by simple electronic control. In addition, we have constructed thermal-cycling chambers, gel electrophoresis channels, and radiolabeled DNA detectors that are compatible with the fabrication of thermocapillary pump channels. Since all of the components are made by conventional photolithographic techniques, they can be assembled into more complex integrated systems. The combination of pump and components into self-contained miniaturized devices may provide significant improvements in DNA analysis speed, portability, and cost. The potential of microfabricated systems lies in the low unit cost of silicon-based construction and in the efficient sample handling afforded by component integration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643614

  19. Histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa in active and retired nickel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Torjussen, W.; Solberg, L. A.; Høgetveit, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Histological examinations were made on nasal biopsy specimens from the middle turbinate in 318 active and 15 retired nickel workers and in 57 controls, to study the prevalence of nasal carcinoma or possible precancerous mucosal changes in nickel-exposed individuals. The histopathological changes were evaluated according to a point-score scale, and the results were correlated to age, smoking habits, duration and type of nickel exposure and to nickel concentrations in nasal mucosa, plasma and urine. The explanatory values of these factors on the histopathology were estimated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two nickel workers from the roasting/smelting department (0.6%), both employed 28 years at the plant, had nasal carcinoma. Epithelial dysplasia was found in about 12% of active and 47% of retired nickel workers. One of the controls, a male carpenter, had dysplasia. These histopathological changes may be precancerous lesions, as they are almost exclusively found in active and retired nickel workers with enhanced risk of nasal carcinoma. Loss of respiratory epithelium and development of squamous epithelium were regarded as unspecific histopathological changes. These changes were seen in all groups, even though in significantly higher incidence in the nickel-exposed groups. Duration of nickel exposure, type of nickel-refining work and tobacco consumption were the independent variable that, taken altogether, had the highest explanatory values for the histopathological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:497107

  20. Using in vitro selection to direct the covalent attachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein to high-affinity RNA ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, K B; Atkinson, B L; Willis, M C; Koch, T H; Gold, L

    1995-01-01

    We have used an in vitro selection procedure called crosslinking SELEX (SELEX = systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to identify RNA sequences that bind with high affinity and crosslink to the Rev protein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A randomized RNA library substituted with the photoreactive chromophore 5-iodouracil was irradiated with monochromatic UV light in the presence of Rev. Those sequences with the ability to photocrosslink to Rev were partitioned from the rest of the RNA pool, amplified, and used for the next round of selection. Rounds of photocrosslinking selection were alternated with rounds of selection for RNA sequences with high affinity to Rev. This iterative, dual-selection method yielded RNA molecules with subnanomolar dissociation constants and high efficiency photocrosslinking to Rev. Some of the RNA molecules isolated by this procedure form a stable complex with Rev that is resistant to denaturing gel electrophoresis in the absence of UV irradiation. In vitro selection of nucleic acids by using modified nucleotides allows the isolation of nucleic acid molecules with potentially limitless chemical capacities to covalently attack a target molecule. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8618873

  1. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  2. Ultrastruct of the hypothalamic neurosecretory nuclei of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) in the awakening and hibernating states.

    PubMed Central

    Machín-Santamaría, C

    1978-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the chief neurosecretory nuclei, supraoptic, (SON), parventricular, (PVN) and infundibular (IN), of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) has been studied during active and hibernating states. In the active state all three nuclei contained light, dark and intermediate type neurons. In hibernation the SON showed only a single light type which differed from the light neurons of the active state; the endoplasmic reticulum was vacuolized and sometimes grouped in 'honey-comb' structures; the cytoplasm contained accumulations of filamentous 'crystalline' material. None of these features occurred in the active state neurons. In the PVN and IN during hibernation both a light and a dark type neuron were present. 'Honey-comb' structures were seen in neurons of the PVN during hibernation, but never in those of the IN. Thus specific morphological features in the SON and PVN appear to be associated with the physiological changes of hibernation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:721686

  3. Accelerated idioventricular rhythm of infundibular origin in patients with a concealed form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Martini, B; Nava, A; Thiene, G; Buja, G F; Canciani, B; Miraglia, G; Scognamiglio, R; Boffa, G M; Daliento, L

    1988-01-01

    Five apparently healthy people (aged 16-47) presented with recurrent episodes of accelerated idioventricular rhythm characterised by left bundle branch block and right axis deviation. Clinical history, physical findings, basic electrocardiogram, chest x ray, and blood tests were within normal limits in all. Holter monitoring, exercise stress test, and electrophysiological study (in three patients) showed that accelerated idioventricular rhythm was mainly bradycardia dependent, easily suppressed by effort and overdrive pacing, and originated from the outflow tract of the right ventricle. The mechanism could be enhanced automaticity. Data from cross sectional echocardiography (in all patients) and from haemodynamic evaluation (in three) identified structural or wall motion abnormalities of the right ventricle or both without appreciable dilatation of the ventricle. Biopsy specimens of the right ventricular endomyocardium showed fibrosis in one patient, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the second, and pronounced fatty infiltration in the third. These results show that some patients with accelerated idioventricular rhythm have right ventricular abnormalities that are typical of the localised and concealed forms of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3382568

  4. Vascular permeability and axonal regeneration in skin autotransplanted into the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, E A; Kiernan, J A

    1978-01-01

    Pieces of skin were autotransplanted from the pinna of an ear into a cerebral hemisphere in 36 albino rats. The grafts were examined 2, 4 and 6 weeks later for signs of vascular permeability and for the presence of nerve fibres. An intravenously injected fluorescent protein exuded into the connective tissue of the dermis and into the spaces between epidermal cells. Extravascular leukocytes were also seen in the dermis. Nerve fibres, derived from the caudate nucleus, corpus callosum and neocortex, were seen in nearly all the grafts, entering both the dermis and epidermis. They were more numerous after the fourth and sixth than after the second post-operative week. A few of these axons were myelinated and a few contained acetylcholinesterase. It has thus been shown that central axons can regenerate into a region in which they are surrounded by proteins and cells derived from the blood, for at least 6 weeks. This observation does not support a recently advanced hypothesis invoking autoimmunity as the cause of the failure of most axons to regenerate following severance within the central nervous system. It is tentatively suggested that the presence of plasma proteins in the extracellular fluid around the tips of axons may be necessary for the occurrence of regeneration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:342472

  5. Node-like cells in the myocardial layer of the pulmonary vein of rats: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Masani, F

    1986-01-01

    The myocardial layer of the pulmonary vein of adult rats was examined by electron microscopy. Among ordinary myocardial cells resembling those of the atrial myocardium, clear cells with structural features similar to those of sinus node cells were identified. They were distributed in the intrapulmonary, preterminal portion of the pulmonary vein. They appeared singly or in small groups among the ordinary myocardial cells. Their cytoplasm was characterised by a paucity of myofilaments, irregular disposition of myofilament bundles, small and oval mitochondria, absence of atrial specific granules and a wide cytoplasmic matrix between intracellular organelles. The intercalated discs of node-like cells were composed of small junctional specialisations. Nerve fibres containing small and large vesicles with and without dense cores were juxtaposed to the node-like cells over an intercellular space of more than 200 nm. Taking into consideration physiological data, the possibility is discussed that the node-like cells may have a potential pacemaking activity and represent an ectopic pacemaker centre in the pulmonary vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3429299

  6. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  7. The microstructure of colonies of the Connaught BCG strain*

    PubMed Central

    Šula, L.

    1970-01-01

    It has previously been shown that there is a certain correlation between the biological properties of BCG strains—properties on which their immunogenicity and allergenicity depend—and the macroscopic appearance of the growth of these colonies on solid and liquid media. To investigate this phenomenon in greater detail, the author examined the microstructure of colonies of the Connaught BCG strain grown on both solid and liquid media. Colonies were fixed in agar, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. A striking finding was the alternation of acid-fast and non-acid-fast zones in colonies grown on bovine-serum agar or Ogawa egg medium; the strata nearest the surface of the solid media were usually more acid-fast than were the deeper strata. Colonies grown in Šula's liquid medium, on the other hand, showed no such stratification and were equally acid-fast at all points. These differences may be the result of genetic factors or of the different nutritional conditions provided by solid and liquid media. ImagesFIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4925828

  8. Expression of 300-kilodalton intermediate filament-associated protein distinguishes human glioma cells from normal astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H Y; Lieska, N; Glick, R; Shao, D; Pappas, G D

    1993-01-01

    The availability of biochemical markers to distinguish glioma cells from normal astrocytes would have enormous diagnostic value. Such markers also may be of value in studying the basic biology of human astrocytomas. The vimentin-binding, 300-kDa intermediate filament (IF)-associated protein (IFAP-300kDa) has recently been shown to be developmentally expressed in radial glia of the central nervous system of the rat. It is not detected in the normal or reactive astrocytes of the adult rat nor in neonatal rat brain astrocytes in primary culture. In the present study, double-label immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies to IFAP-300kDa and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte-specific IF structural protein) identifies this IFAP in GFAP-containing tumor cells from examples of all three major types of human astrocytomas (i.e., well-differentiated, anaplastic, and glioblastoma multiforme). Astrocytoma cells in primary cultures prepared from all three astrocytomas also express this protein. It is not detectable in normal adult brain tissue. Immunoblot analyses using the IFAP-300kDa antibody confirm the presence of a 300-kDa polypeptide in fresh astrocytoma preparations enriched for IF proteins. These results suggest the utility of IFAP-300kDa as a marker for identification of human glioma cells both in vitro and in situ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8378327

  9. The yeast GAL11 protein binds to the transcription factor IIE through GAL11 regions essential for its in vivo function.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, H; Kim, Y J; Ohishi, T; Kornberg, R D; Fukasawa, T

    1996-01-01

    The GAL11 gene encodes an auxiliary transcription factor required for full expression of many genes in yeast. The GAL11-encoded protein (Gal11p) has recently been shown to copurify with the holoenzyme of RNA polymerase II. Here we report that Gal11p stimulates basal transcription in a reconstituted transcription system composed of recombinant or highly purified transcription factors, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH, and TATA box-binding protein and core RNA polymerase II. We further demonstrate that each of the two domains of Gal11p essential for in vivo function respectively participates in the binding to the small and large subunits of TFIIE. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II was coprecipitated by anti-hemagglutinin epitope antibody from crude extract of GAL11 wild type yeast expressing hemagglutinintagged small subunit of TFIIE. Such a coprecipitation of the RNA polymerase subunit was seen but in a greatly reduced amount, if extract was prepared from gal11 null yeast. In light of these findings, we suggest that Gal11p stimulates promoter activity by enhancing an association of TFIIE with the preinitiation complex in the cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8790357

  10. Highly purified bile-canalicular vesicles and lateral plasma membranes isolated from rat liver on Nycodenz gradients. Biochemical and immunolocalization studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N; Aligue, R; Evans, W H

    1990-01-01

    1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. 4. Antibodies to the proteins of bile-canalicular vesicles were shown to localize to the hepatocyte surface in thin liver sections examined by immunofluorescent and immuno-gold electron microscopy. Two subsets of antigens were identified, one present on both sinusoidal and canalicular plasma-membrane domains and another, by using antisera pre-absorbed with sinusoidal plasma membranes, that was confined to the bile-canalicular domain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2222412

  11. Viral cross talk: intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus during an unrelated viral infection of the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Borrow, P; Hobbs, M V; Matzke, B; Gresser, I; Oldstone, M B; Chisari, F V

    1996-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is thought to be controlled by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have recently shown that HBV-specific CTL can abolish HBV replication noncytopathically in the liver of transgenic mice by secreting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) after antigen recognition. We now demonstrate that hepatocellular HBV replication is also abolished noncytopathically during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, and we show that this process is mediated by TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha/beta produced by LCMV-infected hepatic macrophages. These results confirm the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to abolish HBV replication; they elucidate the mechanism likely to be responsible for clearance of HBV in chronically infected patients who become superinfected by other hepatotropic viruses; they suggest that pharmacological activation of intrahepatic macrophages may have therapeutic value in chronic HBV infection; and they raise the possibility that conceptually similar events may be operative in other viral infections as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643448

  12. Oligopeptide elicitor-mediated defense gene activation in cultured parsley cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hahlbrock, K; Scheel, D; Logemann, E; Nürnberger, T; Parniske, M; Reinold, S; Sacks, W R; Schmelzer, E

    1995-01-01

    We have used suspension-cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) and an oligopeptide elicitor derived from a surface glycoprotein of the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea to study the signaling pathway from elicitor recognition to defense gene activation. Immediately after specific binding of the elicitor by a receptor in the plasma membrane, large and transient increases in several inorganic ion fluxes (Ca2+, H+, K+, Cl-) and H2O2 formation are the first detectable plant cell responses. These are rapidly followed by transient changes in the phosphorylation status of various proteins and by the activation of numerous defense-related genes, concomitant with the inactivation of several other, non-defense-related genes. A great diversity of cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors appears to be involved in elicitor-mediated gene regulation, similar to the apparently complex nature of the signal transduced intracellularly. With few exceptions, all individual defense responses analyzed in fungus-infected parsley leaves have been found to be closely mimicked in elicitor-treated, cultured parsley cells, thus validating the use of the elicitor/cell culture system as a valuable model system for these types of study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7753777

  13. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis and Pathology of Inflammatory Lesions of the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shnitka, Theodor K.

    1964-01-01

    The histopathologic lesions of regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis, particularly in their early stages, are distinct and distinguishable, irrespective of the sites that are involved. Regional enteritis is characterized by lymphangiectasis, lymphedema, lymphoid hyperplasia, and granulomatous inflammation of the submucosal and subserosal layers of intestine, whereas chronic ulcerative colitis is an exudative, ulcerative disorder of the mucosal layer that commences with “crypt abscesses” and only in its later stages progresses to deeper coats of the wall. Electron microscopy of a rectal biopsy from a juvenile patient with chronic ulcerative colitis for five years disclosed a labyrinthine system of clefts and compartments between columnar, mucosal epithelial cells. Regenerated colonic epithelial cells were of primitive, germinal type and featured a “vesicular” rather than a “goblet” pattern of mucus secretion. Clusters of small “clavate fimbriae” projected from the tips of microvilli. Each of these newly recognized substructures measured 30 to 60 mμ. in diameter, and was enclosed by a tri-laminar “unit membrane”, derived from the surface plasma membrane of the cell. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19 PMID:14182565

  14. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  15. Late fiber deterioration in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, K; Sauvage, L R

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of late fiber deterioration was examined in 493 Dacron arterial prostheses. Grafts implanted were of four types: 137 Meadox Wesolowski Weavenit (WN), 71 Golaski Microknit (MK), 70 USCI Sauvage(Tm) external velour non-crimped (EVNC), and 215 USCI Sauvage external velour random-crimped (EVRC). Prostheses had been implanted for three to 15.3 years; no defects were detected prior to three years. Deterioration occurred in 15 of 493 grafts (mean incidence: 3%). Between 4.9% and 5.8% of patients had graft deterioration-nearly the same incidence in all four types of grafts. Deterioration consisted of thinning and breakage of yarn filaments, causing development of holes and, in some cases, graft dilatation. Dilatation did not always precede filament breakage. Broken filament ends were either tapered or square-ended, suggesting that modes of breakage. Tensile strength tests howed that fibers sometimes weakened nonuniformly within a specimen. Fiber breakage was associated with crimp ridges. The findings suggest that manufacturing variations probably reduce fiber resistance to mechanical fatigue. Other contributing factors may include storage conditions, sterilization methods, handling, and the degradative effects of tissue fluids and enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6452101

  16. An ultrastructural study of the phagocytic activity of astrocytes in adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    al-Ali, S Y; al-Hussain, S M

    1996-01-01

    The role of adult astrocytes in the removal of cell debris and foreign particles following injury to the brain is controversial. This study was undertaken to elucidate the response of adult astrocytes to needle injury of the rat cerebral cortex, using a suspension of colloidal carbon as a marker for phagocytosis. Either a single or 2 successive injections of colloidal carbon suspension were made into the cerebral cortex. The animals were allowed to survive for periods of from 1 to 30 d. Unequivocal involvement of astrocytes in the removal of carbon particles was evident only in those brains which had been subjected to 2 successive injections of carbon. The particles were located in membrane-bound vacuoles and were subsequently sequestered in lysosomes. Carbon-containing astrocytes were observed in the immediate vicinity of the lesion, in the adjacent parenchyma, around blood vessels and abutting carbon-containing macrophages. This study demonstrates that adult astrocytes are involved in phagocytosis, but only as a second line of defence. The possible significance of carbon-laden astrocytes further away from the site of the lesion is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8621323

  17. A nutritional study of Irish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A.; Cantwell, T.; Doherty, F.; Folan, Jean C.; Ingoldsby, M.; Kevany, J. P.; O'Broin, J. D.; O'Connor, H.; O'Shea, B.; Ryan, B. A.; Vaughan, J.

    1981-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to carry out a nutritional assessment of selected Irish athletes and (2) to provide individual results and specific advice to each athlete on how to achieve an optimum diet. Dietary intakes were measured by a three-day weighed dietary record technique designed to evaluate each athlete's usual eating habits. The results were evaluated against a set of dietary standards in order to determine adequacy. Nutritional status was also assessed in a limited form by selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements. A total of 148 subjects took part in the assessment which began in May, 1979 and continued until April, 1980. The sports involved included: canoeing, cycling, rowing, swimming, hockey, squash and track and field events. The results indicated a range of sub-optimal dietary patterns relating in particular to abnormal intakes of folate, iron, pyridoxine and calcium. The significance and applications of these findings are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:7023594

  18. Purification and characterization of the invertase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A comparative analysis with the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, S; Sanchez, Y; Rodriguez, L

    1990-01-01

    Invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) was purified to homogeneity from exponentially growing cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe fully de-repressed for synthesis of the enzyme, and was shown to be a high-molecular-mass glycoprotein that can be dissociated in the presence of 8 M-urea/1% SDS into identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 205 kDa. The carbohydrate moiety, accounting for 67% of the total mass, is composed of equimolar amounts of mannose and galactose. There is a small amount of glucosamine, which is probably involved in the linkage to the protein moiety, since the enzyme is sensitive to treatment with endoglycosidase H. The composition of the carbohydrate moiety resembles that found in higher-eukaryotic glycoproteins and differs from glycoproteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein portion of each subunit is a polypeptide of molecular mass 60 kDa, very similar to the invertase of Sacch. cerevisiae. Both proteins cross-react with antibodies raised against the protein fractions of the other, indicating that the two enzymes are similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2187435

  19. A 115 kDa calmodulin-binding protein is located in rat liver endosome fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Enrich, C; Bachs, O; Evans, W H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin-binding polypeptides in various rat liver subcellular fractions was investigated. Plasma-membrane, endosome, Golgi and lysosome fractions were prepared by established procedures. The calmodulin-binding polypeptides present in the subcellular fractions were identified by using an overlay technique after transfer from gels to nitrocellulose sheets. Distinctive populations of calmodulin-binding polypeptides were present in all the fractions examined except lysosomes. A major 115 kDa calmodulin-binding polypeptide of pI 4.3 was located to the endosome subfractions, and it emerges as a candidate endosome-specific protein. Partitioning of endosome fractions between aqueous and Triton X-114 phases indicated that the calmodulin-binding polypeptide was hydrophobic. Major calmodulin-binding polypeptides of 140 and 240 kDa and minor polypeptides of 40-60 kDa were present in plasma membranes. The distribution of calmodulin in the various endosome and plasma-membrane fractions was also analysed, and the results indicated that the amounts were high compared with those in the cytosol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3214436

  20. The development of mercury- and selenium-containing deposits in the kidneys following implantation of dental amalgams in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Eley, B. M.; Cox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Examination of light microscopical sections of the kidneys of guinea pigs with chronic exposure to mercury as the result of the breakdown of subcutaneous implants of powdered dental amalgam demonstrated the development of black, refractile deposits in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells in both the straight and convoluted portions of the proximal tubule. The more numerous cytoplasmic deposits were of a particulate nature with dimensions of approximately 1 microgram. The nuclear deposits, which appeared later but which were relatively more common in longer-term animals, took the form of prominent inclusions, 1 to 3 micrograms in diameter. The ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic deposits was higher in animals receiving high copper as compared with conventional amalgam. At electron microscopical level, the cytoplasmic deposits were seen to consist of collections of fine particles within lysosomes. Similar deposits were also found in far smaller numbers in lysosomes in collecting duct cells. The nuclear inclusions in proximal tubular cells were made up of closely packed electron dense granules. X-ray microanalysis showed both lysosomal and nuclear deposits to contain mercury and selenium. The association of mercury with selenium, which was present in the animals' diet at low levels, probably aided the microscopical visualisation of the deposits. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3026428

  1. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  2. v-jun cooperates with v-erbB to transform the thrombocytic/megakaryocytic lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M; Samarut, J

    1993-01-01

    The transforming properties of v-jun, the viral counterpart of the transcription factor AP1, were investigated in avian hematopoietic cells. Two retroviruses, called JB and JBN, expressing both v-jun and v-erbB, were constructed using an avian erythroblastosis-based vector. We show that the cooperative action of both oncogenes allowed the virus to efficiently transform bone marrow cells. No such transformation was obtained with either oncogene alone. JB-transformed bone marrow cells expressed GATA-1, TAL-1, and histone H5, suggesting that they belong to the erythrocytic/thrombocytic lineage. (Thrombocytes are the avian homologues of mammal megakaryocytes.) Moreover, after induction with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate JB-transformed bone marrow cells began to differentiate and synthesized high levels of platelet glycoproteins, indicating that they were of thrombocytic origin. These results were confirmed by c-ets1 analysis since this transcription factor, specifically found in cells with megakaryocytic but not erythrocytic features, was clearly detected in these cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105467

  3. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Bredman, J J; Weijs, W A; Korfage, H A; Brugman, P; Moorman, A F

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin transitions take place from neonatal and fast (IIA, IIA/IIB--referring to a fibre containing both IIA and IIB MHCs) MHC to adult 'cardiac' alpha-MHC and I/alpha-MHC. Since there is a temporary population of fibres containing IIA/alpha-MHC during the first 4 wk of development with a peak in the 3rd to 4th wk, the transition from IIA-MHC to alpha-MHC may occur in these IIA/alpha-MHC-containing fibres. The appearance of 'cardiac' alpha-MHC coincides with the timing of weaning, suggesting that the changes in MHC content, that probably result in a transition to a lower speed of contraction, have functional significance related to weaning. The finding of neonatal MHC in adult rabbits indicates that the masseter develops at a rate and in a way that is distinct from most other skeletal muscles. A spatiotemporal variation in expression of myosin isozymes within the masseter was observed, with many fibres containing more than one myosin type, indicating developmentally regulated spatial differences in function. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:1387129

  4. Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) induces tumours of nerve-supporting or paraneural cell origin in newborn hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaki, S.; Kato, K.

    1989-01-01

    Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) was found to induce tumours originating from nerve-supporting or paraneural cells in newborn hamsters, regardless of injection site or tissues. SA-7 induces glioblastomas characterized by definite localization (subependymal regions) and its main cell type, bipolar spongioblast-like cells, in the brain of hamsters inoculated as newborns. When the eyes of newborn hamsters were directly inoculated, SA-7 failed to induce retinoblastoma (0/27), but retro or peri-bulbar SA-7 tumours frequently occurred in tissues closely related to the peripheral nerve apparatus, including the oculomotor nerve or ciliary ganglion. These tumour cells were situated like stromal cells in these nerve tissues. The histological features of the orbital tumours were similar to those of SA-7-induced subcutaneous tumours but not to brain tumours. In contrast with other hamster brain tumours induced by human adenovirus type 12 or human papova JC virus, medulloepithelioma or medulloblastoma, SA-7 induced tumours exhibit distinctive histological and localization characteristics. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6a Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12a PMID:2765394

  5. Chronological changes in acid phosphatase activity within neurons and perineuronal satellite cells of the inferior vagal ganglion of the cat induced by vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, R A

    1982-01-01

    The hexazonium pararosaniline method was employed to describe the distribution of acid phosphatase activity, chronologically, within neurons and their investing satellite cells of the inferior vagal ganglion of the cat after vagotomy. In control ganglia, acid phosphatase activity was invariably confined to the cytoplasm of neurons and satellite cells. Reaction product was visible as distinct granules within neuronal perikarya. The cytoplasm of perineuronal satellite cells also contained reaction product but, in most instances, activity was weak and granules were difficult to distinguish. No reaction product was observed in myelin or axonal processes; nuclear staining was absent. Acid phosphatase activity was increased in ganglionic neurons as early as 24 hours after vagotomy. Increased activity in perineuronal satellite cells was not evident until 3 days post-operatively. By 15 days, activity was ubiquitously increased in the cytoplasm of both neurons and satellite cells. Evidence suggesting neuronophagia was also apparent. Between 30 and 60 days post-operatively acid phosphatase activity gradually decreased in both neurons and satellite cells until a picture comparable with that seen in control tissue sections was visible. The functional significance of these changes in acid phosphatase activity within an altered metabolic environment induced by vagotomy is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7076551

  6. The effect of the gene for microphthalmia (mi) on the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cinnamon mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K. K.; Scholtz, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The dystrophic retina of the cinnamon mouse homozygous for the gene for microphthalmia (mi/mi) has a population of large ganglion cells. Unilateral enucleation and examination of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus using the Fink-Heimer technique showed that, while there was continuing degeneration argyrophilia in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus secondary to the retinopathy, there was additional degeneration attributable to enucleation. In addition, the pattern of degeneration indicated that the axon terminals were less mature than those of the cinnamon and heterozygous (mi/+) mice. Quantitative study of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the homozygous (mi/mi) mouse showed that the nucleus is small with fewer neurons and that the markers for protein metabolism, namely volume of nucleoli and cytoplasmic RNA, are reduced when compared to the cinnamon and heterozygous (mi/+) mice. It is concluded that the portion of the retino-geniculate pathway represented by the large ganglion cells in the retina, develops in the absence of patterned visual stimuli, but is less mature and has a more limited functional activity than controls. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2454129

  7. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of transcripts from the Deformed gene of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Robin; McGinnis, William

    1987-01-01

    The Deformed gene of Drosophila is necessary for the proper development of epidermal pattern elements arising from the maxillary and mandibular segments of the head. We find one major transcript (2.8 kb) homologous to Deformed (Dfd) probes which is expressed continuously from 3 h of embryogenesis into adulthood. Localized transcript accumulation is first detected just prior to the formation of the cellular blastoderm in a single circumferential band at about 65-75% egg length. The zone of Dfd expression is approximately two segment primordia in width. At later stages of embryogenesis, Dfd transcripts accumulate in the posterior ectoderm of the mandibular segment, and in the ventro-lateral ectoderm of the maxillary segment. Transcripts are also detected in the mesoderm and neuromeres of the mandibular and maxillary segments. The distribution of Dfd transcripts supports the hypothesis that Dfd functions as a homeotic selector gene in the determination of posterior head segments. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:16453753

  9. Mammary-carcinoma cells in mouse liver: infiltration of liver tissue and interaction with Kupffer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, E.; Dingemans, K. P.; Van de Pavert, I. V.; Van den Bergh-Weerman, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interactions between TA3 mammary-carcinoma cells and liver cells were studied with the electron microscope in mouse livers that had been perfused with a defined medium containing the tumour cells. Infiltration of liver tissue by the TA3 cells proceeded in the following steps. First, numerous small protrusions were extended through endothelial cells and into hepatocytes. Next, some cells had larger processes deeply indenting hepatocytes. Finally a few tumour cells became located outside the blood vessels. Two variant cell lines, TA3/Ha and TA3/St, differing in cell coat and surface charge, did not differ in the extent of infiltration. TA3/Ha cells were often encircled by thin processes of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Encircled cells were initially intact, but later some of them degenerated. These observations suggest that TA3/Ha cells were phagocytized by the Kupffer cells. Encirclement appeared to be inhibited after only 30 min, when many cells were still partly surrounded. Encirclement of TA3/St was much less frequent. After injection of tumour cells intra-portally in vivo, similar results were obtained, which demonstrated the validity of the perfused liver model. TA3/Ha cells formed much fewer tumour nodules in the liver than TA3/St cells. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:687522

  10. Comparative morphological studies on the carcinogenic effect of 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene (DMBA) in normal or intrasplenic ovarian tissue of C3H mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hilfrich, J.

    1975-01-01

    A single intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induces a high percentage of ovarian granulosa cell tumours in C3H mice. After implantation of ovarian tissue into the spleen of gonadectomized female C3H mice similar tumours were found, resulting from an over-stimulation by pituitary gonadotrophins. In the present study the tumour development in intrasplenic ovarian tissue was observed after an additional single intravenous application of 100 mg/kg b.w. DMBA. It was found that the induction of granulosa cell tumours did not seem to be affected by the carcinogen injection whether 12 weeks before or 12 weeks after ovarian tissue was implanted into the spleen. The morphology of these neoplasms corresponds to the DMBA induced granulosa cell tumours in orthotopic ovaries. A direct carcinogenic effect of DMBA on ovarian cells in mice could not be demonstrated but there are indications that the additional DMBA application accelerated the destruction of the oocytes, which might result in a more rapid intrasplenic tumour induction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:813756

  11. Effects of Hypothyroidism and Progesterone on Mammary Tumours Induced by 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jabara, Anne G.; Maritz, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, alone or combined with progesterone, significantly decreased 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) mammary tumorigenesis relative to controls. However, the decrease was less in the progesterone-treated group, and statistical analysis showed that progesterone enhanced tumorigenesis to the same extent in hypothyroid animals as in the controls. Most tumours in hypothyroid progesterone-treated rats were adenocarcinomata; in the absence of the hormone most tumours were benign. However, the difference between the tumour types in the 2 groups was not statistically significant. The morphological changes observed in the endocrine glands, genital tracts and non-neoplastic mammary tissue, considered in relation to previously reported data, suggest that hypothyroidism reduced the tumour yield mainly by secondarily inhibiting somatotrophin production and secretion, although the effect of decreased food intake could not be excluded completely. The higher tumour yield in the hypothyroid progesterone-treated rats may have been due to higher circulating levels of prolactin in this group compared with those in the hypothyroid group which received no hormone. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4738218

  12. A New Model for Inducing Malignant Ovarian Tumours in Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Hilfrich, J.

    1973-01-01

    After the implantation of ovarian tissue into the spleen of gonadectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats (splenic ovary), luteomata and later benign granulosa or granulosa-theca cell tumours develop. Treatment of these rats with 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), given intravenously, 2 mg/kg body weight weekly, total dosage 40 mg/kg, immediately and especially 25 weeks after implantation of ovarian tissue into the spleen, led to malignant, partially metastasizing granulosa, and in one case theca cell tumours, 16-46 weeks after beginning the carcinogen treatment. No malignant neoplastic growth was seen when diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 20 mg/kg once weekly for life, was injected subcutaneously immediately or 25 weeks after implanting ovarian tissue. Since the normal, non-implanted rat ovary was not affected by DMBA treatment the malignant transformation of splenic ovaries in the respective experimental groups may be related to the increased stimulation by pituitary gonadotrophins and formation of luteomata or beginning granulosa and theca cell proliferations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4353388

  13. Sertoli cells and various types of multinucleates in the rat seminiferous tubules following temporary ligation of the testicular artery.

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, M

    1986-01-01

    The effects of temporary ligation of the testicular artery have been analysed in rats with respect to Sertoli cells and multinucleated spermatogenic cells. The first cells to show ultrastructural changes are the Sertoli cells which progressively degenerate, leading to complete necrosis as the duration of ligation and post-ligation survival interval increases. The degree of degeneration of spermatogenic cells depends on the severity of Sertoli cell destruction. Temporary ligation of the testicular artery causes the formation of various types of multinucleated spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous epithelium. The mechanisms involved in the multinucleate formation are cell fusion, karyokinesis devoid of cytokinesis and phagocytosis. The variety of noxious agents causing formation of multinucleated spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of a number of species including man implies that the occurrence of multinucleated spermatogenic cells is not a specific response of the testis to a particular type of agent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693041

  14. Cell cycle-related shifts in subcellular localization of BCR: association with mitotic chromosomes and with heterochromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzler, M; Talpaz, M; Yee, G; Stass, S A; Van Etten, R A; Andreeff, M; Goodacre, A M; Kleine, H D; Mahadevia, R K; Kurzrock, R

    1995-01-01

    The disruption of the BCR gene and its juxtaposition to and consequent activation of the ABL gene has been implicated as the critical molecular defect in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias. The normal BCR protein is a multifunctional molecule with domains that suggest its participation in phosphokinase and GTP-binding pathways. Taken together with its localization to the cytoplasm of uncycled cells, it is therefore presumed to be involved in cytoplasmic signaling. By performing a double aphidicolin block for cell cycle synchronization, we currently demonstrate that the subcellular localization of BCR shifts from being largely cytoplasmic in interphase cells to being predominantly perichromosomal in mitosis. Furthermore, with the use of immunogold labeling and electron microscopy, association of BCR with DNA, in particular heterochromatin, can be demonstrated even in quiescent cells. Results were similar in cell lines of lymphoid or myeloid origin. These observations suggest a role for BCR in the phosphokinase interactions linked to condensed chromatin, a network previously implicated in cell cycle regulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7724587

  15. Structure and evolution of echo dense lesions in the neonatal brain. A combined ultrasound and necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, D I; Preston, P R; Durbin, G M

    1985-01-01

    Sixty seven of 216 infants weighing less than 2 kg at birth had cerebral lesions on ultrasonic scanning. Eight of 17 who had periventricular leukomalacia, with or without subependymal or intraventricular haemorrhage, or both, died. These and one larger baby were the subject of a combined ultrasound, and where appropriate, necropsy study. There was excellent correlation between the ultrasound and necropsy findings, only some of the earlier lesions of periventricular leukomalacia being missed by ultrasound. The data suggest it is now possible to distinguish periventricular leukomalacia and subependymal/intraventricular haemorrhage by ultrasound, that both lesions may be present in the same brain, that apparent parenchymal extension of an intraventricular haemorrhage is more probably the result of haemorrhage into ischaemic periventricular tissue, and that the term 'periventricular haemorrhage' should be abandoned since it confuses two lesions of differing aetiology and differing clinical importance. Future advances in neonatal brain ultrasound depend on accurate assessment of both the nature and site of lesions within the cerebral hemispheres and ventricular system since the interpretation of these parameters is of critical importance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 p805-b PMID:3901932

  16. The structure of the epididymis of the giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse): histological, histochemical and microstereological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Oke, B O; Aire, T A; Adeyemo, O; Heath, E

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the ductus epididymidis of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) was studied by means of histological (paraffin and plastic-embedded tissues) and histochemical techniques. Five distinct zones (I-V) were detected along the epididymal duct on the basis of epithelial height and cytological composition and structure. The so-called apical cells, which have been observed in some species of animals, were not seen in the initial segment of the duct. Clear or light cells were present in the epithelium of the terminal segment, thus making the giant rat the third species in which this cell has been found, after the laboratory rat and the hamster. A large number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and macrophage-like cells was commonly observed in the epithelium throughout the duct; the latter were strongly PAS-positive while the former tended to increase in number caudally. A microstereological study of the epididymis showed that Zones I (initial segment) and II contained a significantly (P less than 0.001) higher proportion of epithelium and a relatively greater (P less than 0.001) proportion of blood vessels in the interductal connective tissue than the more caudal segments of the epididymis which possessed a significantly (P less than 0.01) higher proportion of interductal connective tissue. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2855329

  17. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  18. Reactive oxygen species and neutrophil respiratory burst cytochrome b558 are produced by kidney glomerular cells in passive Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, T J; Ullrich, R; Ojha, P; Poczewski, H; Verhoeven, A J; Kerjaschki, D

    1993-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the production of glomerular damage in passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), an experimental form of membranous nephropathy with neutrophil-independent proteinuria. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochrome b558 (a major component of the oxidoreductase complex of the respiratory burst in stimulated neutrophilic granulocytes) showed that this enzyme is localized within visceral glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) in a dense, granular pattern in rats with PHN and proteinuria. By immunoelectron-microscopy, the cytochrome was found in membrane vesicles within the GEC and also extracellularly on the GEC membranes facing the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). By immunoblotting, cytochrome b558 was detected in highest concentration in lysates of isolated glomeruli from proteinuric rats. By contrast, only traces were found in normal glomeruli by immunohistochemistry. Depletion of complement abolished the expression of the cytochrome. Using an ultrastructural cerium-H2O2 histochemistry technique, the functional activity of the glomerular ROS-generating system was demonstrated exclusively in proteinuric PHN, where H2O2 was found in highest concentration within the GBM. These results provide evidence that in rats with PHN and proteinuria, the GECs express and externalize respiratory-burst enzymes that generate ROS in a manner similar to neutrophilic granulocytes, which could then lead to glomerular damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8475113

  19. The yeast nuclear import receptor is required for mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, J D; Schlenstedt, G; Pellman, D; Kornitzer, D; Silver, P A; Fink, G R

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear import system is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Here we report the effects of a conditional mutation in SRP1, which encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the vertebrate nuclear import receptor importin. Importin was isolated as a factor required for the initial targeting step of a nuclear import substrate to the nuclear envelope in a mammalian in vitro assay. We show that yeast Srp1 is similarly required for protein import. In addition, Srp1 is also required for the execution of mitosis: we demonstrate that cells containing a conditional mutation of SRP1 arrest with a G2/M phenotype in a manner analogous to classic cdc mutants. This defect may be due to the failure of the mutant to degrade the mitotic cyclin Clb2 and other proteins required for mitosis. The requirement of a nuclear import receptor for cell cycle-regulated proteolysis implies that import of cell cycle regulators into the nucleus is critical for cell cycle progression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7644471

  20. Glycosaminoglycan-free small proteoglycan core protein is secreted by fibroblasts from a patient with a syndrome resembling progeroid.

    PubMed Central

    Kresse, H; Rosthøj, S; Quentin, E; Hollmann, J; Glössl, J; Okada, S; Tønnesen, T

    1987-01-01

    A male patient, 4 years 9 mo old and having progeroidal appearance, exhibited delayed mental development and multiple abnormalities of connective tissues including growth failure, osteopenia of all and dysplasia of some bones, defective deciduous teeth, loose but elastic skin, delayed wound healing with formation of thin atrophic scars, scanty scalp hair, hypotonic muscles, and hypermobile joints. Skin fibroblasts of the patient converted only about half of the core protein of the small proteodermatan sulfate to a mature glycosaminoglycan chain-bearing proteoglycan. The remaining core protein, which contained complex-type asparagine-bound oligosaccharides, was secreted with almost normal kinetics. Xylosyltransferase activity and the synthesis of other proteoglycan types were normal. Normal induction of glycosaminoglycan synthesis occurred in the presence of 1 mM, but there was very little induction in the presence of 0.01 mM p-nitrophenyl-beta-xyloside. An antibody against an N-terminal pentadecapeptide of the core protein recognized the glycosaminoglycan-free core protein from the patient less well than the chain-bearing protein treated with chondroitin ABC lyase. Though these results do not define the basic defect unambiguously, they provide the first report of a disorder being due to an abnormality in small proteoglycan biosynthesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:3631078

  1. Identification of barriers to rotation of DNA segments in yeast from the topology of DNA rings excised by an inducible site-specific recombinase.

    PubMed Central

    Gartenberg, M R; Wang, J C

    1993-01-01

    Controlled excision of DNA segments to yield intracellular DNA rings of well-defined sequences was utilized to study the determinants of transcriptional supercoiling of closed circular DNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In delta top1 top2ts strains of S. cerevisiae expressing Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I, accumulation of positive supercoils in intracellular DNA normally occurs upon thermal inactivation of DNA topoisomerase II because of the simultaneous generation of positively and negatively supercoiled domains by transcription and the preferential relaxation of the latter by the bacterial enzyme. Positive supercoil accumulation in DNA rings is shown to depend on the presence of specific sequence elements; one likely cause of this dependence is that the persistence of oppositely supercoiled domains in an intracellular DNA ring requires the presence of barriers to rotation of the DNA segments connecting the domains. Analysis of the S. cerevisiae 2-microns plasmid partition system by this approach suggests that the plasmid-encoded REP1 and REP2 proteins are involved in forming such a barrier in DNA containing the REP3 sequence. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8248138

  2. Lung development in the marsupial bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, R T

    1986-01-01

    The transformation of the terminal sacs present in the newborn into the alveoli observed in the adult, and the tissue and cellular composition of the interalveolar septum at various stages of lung development, were examined in the developing bandicoot. Lungs from 22 bandicoots, aged from 1 day postpartum to adult, were fixed with a glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde fixative and processed for examination of their structure. The respiratory region of the newborn lung is formed from terminating sacs, approximately 300-500 microns in diameter, which are delineated by thick connective tissue septa, have a highly vascularised internal lining and are present from birth until approximately Day 35 postpartum. The large blind sacs are then gradually replaced by alveoli, approximately 80 microns in diameter. In the juvenile and adult bandicoot, the connective tissue septa of the sacs are no longer discernible and a larger area of the blood capillaries of the lung is adjacent to the air within the alveoli. The changes in lung structure throughout pouch life probably reflect the increased respiratory requirements of the developing young. Although the time sequence of lung development in the eutherian differs from that in the marsupial, the adult form of the lung in both animal groups is similar in structure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3693087

  3. Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    DeYoe, E A; Carman, G J; Bandettini, P; Glickman, S; Wieser, J; Cox, R; Miller, D; Neitz, J

    1996-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and map the representation of the visual field in seven areas of human cerebral cortex and to identify at least two additional visually responsive regions. The cortical locations of neurons responding to stimulation along the vertical or horizontal visual field meridia were charted on three-dimensional models of the cortex and on unfolded maps of the cortical surface. These maps were used to identify the borders among areas that would be topographically homologous to areas V1, V2, V3, VP, and parts of V3A and V4 of the macaque monkey. Visually responsive areas homologous to the middle temporal/medial superior temporal area complex and unidentified parietal visual areas were also observed. The topography of the visual areas identified thus far is consistent with the organization in macaque monkeys. However, these and other findings suggest that human and simian cortical organization may begin to differ in extrastriate cortex at, or beyond, V3A and V4. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8637882

  4. An ultrastructural study of goblet cells in rat nasal mucosa as revealed by the quick-freezing method.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, S; Hisamatsu, K; Fujii, Y; Ohno, S

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the natural ultrastructure of goblet cells in the rat nasal mucosa, they were examined by the quick-freezing and freeze-substitution (QF-FS) or deep-etching (QF-DE) methods for comparison with conventional fixation methods. Some nasal mucosal tissues were unstimulated; others were stimulated with acetylcholine or substance P. The QF-FS method yielded fewer artefacts on transmission electron microscopy than conventional fixation methods. In the stimulated goblet cells, most of the secretory granules appeared to be loose in the matrix and more distorted in shape. By the QF-DE method, they were observed 3-dimensionally to be larger in size and aggregated together. In contrast, the secretory granules in the unstimulated goblet cells were mostly round and small, and separate from each other. It is concluded that the ultrastructure of secretory granules is artefactually modified by conventional fixation methods and that granule structure in goblet cells alters during the secretory process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8763482

  5. Do the Purkinje cells have a special type of oligodendrocyte as satellites?

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, R A

    1983-01-01

    Two types of oligodendrocytes considered to be a constant feature in the cerebellar cortex of the rat are described. One cell type (I) exhibits rounded or elliptical nuclei, whereas the other type (II) presents more irregular nuclear and cellular contours and wider perinuclear cisternae. The latter cell type shows a more electron-dense cytoplasm with more heavily clumped heterochromatin, contrasting strongly with the euchromatin; also long and parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum are more frequent. The percentages of both types of oligodendrocytes in relation to the total population of common glial cell types were calculated in the cortical layers and at several levels in these layers. The distribution of oligodendrocytes in the associated white matter was also carried out for purposes of comparison. The results provide evidence the the Purkinje cells may have a special kind of oligodendrocyte (Type II) as satellites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6630036

  6. Cardiac achalasia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjit; Sethi, R. S.; Gupta, H. L.; Khetarpal, S. K.

    1969-01-01

    Cardiac achalasia is a disorder not unknown in the paediatric age-group and may occur even in the neonatal period. This disorder should, therefore, be considered in all cases presenting with persistent vomiting, as well as in those with chronic respiratory disease in whom more common causes have been excluded. It is almost universally accepted that the disorder results from a disturbed function of ganglion cells in the distal oesophagus, as the disease has been reproduced in laboratory animals by denervation of the distal oesophagus. The exact pathogenesis of this degenerative change is not well understood. However, in at least some of the cases congenital absence of the ganglion cells may be responsible for this functional disturbance. This is inferred from the fact that the disease may be found in association with Hirschsprung disease, in which there is a congenital absence of ganglion cells in the terminal colon. Moreover, the occurrence of the disease in the neonatal period itself favours a congenital lesion. Surgery was preferred to other forms of treatment in the paediatric age-group in view of the reported equivocal response to mechanical dilatation and pre-disposition of children to respiratory complications. The results of surgery were satisfactory. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5790932

  7. Cranioschisis aperta with encephaloschisis in cephalothoracopagus hamster twins.

    PubMed Central

    Willhite, C C; Rossi, N L; Frakes, R A; Sharma, R P

    1985-01-01

    The results of gross and histopathological study of a near-term male hamster exencephalic lateral cephalothoracopagus are presented. There was minimal duplication of the internal organs to the point of division at the abdomen. The appendicular skeleton was relatively unaffected by the severe malformations of the axial skeleton. The studies suggested that the lateral relationship of the skull to the spinal columns was a consequence of the presence of two embryonic neural tubes; the chordomesodermal systems of the right and left twins apparently contributed the tissues for the right and left cephalic neural folds, respectively. Anomalies of the vertebral bodies and neural arches were not related to failure of closure of the neural tube as there was no evidence for rachischisis in either body half. Rather, the anomalous axial skeletal elements were apparently the result of competing fields of development by two chordomesodermal systems. The twins were recovered from a dam maintained on a diet consisting of 80% cassava, a cyanide-containing staple consumed by humans in tropical countries. Because the numbers of resorbed implantation sites and malformed litermates were low and the failure to produce conjoined twins in other litters recovered from dams given cassava diets, it appears unlikely that the malformation was related to the composition of the diet. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:4016585

  8. Formation of synapses in cerebellar explants by axons from co-cultured medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, M M

    1990-01-01

    Explants of cerebellum from E12-E14 chick embryos were co-cultured with pieces of medulla from the same embryos for periods of up to 4 weeks and examined by EM with or without prior transection of the fibre bundles that formed rapidly between the co-cultured explants. The cerebellar explants developed a rich and complex neuropil within which a variety of presynaptic endings could be recognised, including some resembling climbing fibre endings and some mossy fibre endings. Four to six hours after transection of linking fibre bundles about 5% of preterminal and terminal profiles were undergoing intense degeneration indicating their origin from cell bodies in the adjacent explant of medulla and showing that most of the synaptic contacts are of intrinsic origin. The degenerating terminals contained spherical synaptic vesicles and made Gray Type I synaptic contacts. They appeared to be predominantly small-medium sized en passant terminals from long, thin, branched preterminal axons, and most closely resembled climbing fibre terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2074232

  9. Electron microscopic studies of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration of rat optic nerve after intravenous injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1978-01-01

    The origin of macrophages in the degenerating optic nerve of rats after eye enucleation was investigated electron microscopically following intravenous labelling of mononuclear leucoytes with colloidal carbon. In the various post-operative periods studied carbon-labelled macrophages were seen at the site of lesion. At 4 and 7 days after enucleation carbon-labelled cells were seen at the site of Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve over 4 mm distal to the site of the lesion. In the electron microscope these cells showed a flattened nucleus bearing coarse chromatin clumps, their cytoplasm contained a prominent Golgi complex and long isolate profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Clusters of carbon particles in the cytoplasms were membrane-bound. Lysosomal bodies embedded with carbon particles were also observed. In relation to the blood vessels of the optic nerve, endothelial cells and pericytes with ingested carbon were seen. Macrophages in the meninges covering the optic nerve were also labelled. The results suggest that some macrophages in the region of Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve, as well as those at the actual site of the lesion, were transformed blood leucocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:649492

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  11. The syncytial nature of epithelial cells in the thymic cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M D

    1986-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the cortex of human and rodent thymus glands were examined by light and electron microscopy, and the intracellular membrane potentials measured from the subcapsular, cortical and medullary regions. In the human thymus cortex, there is a highly correlated age-independent relationship (r = 0.78) between the distance in micron from one adjacent Type 2/3 epithelial nucleus to another, and the number of thymocytes between them. In rodent glands that had undergone some degree of involution due to hypoxia simulating an altitude of 17 000 feet or following the injection of phenylhydrazine, Type 2/3 epithelial cells were often found to be bi- or multinucleated. Electrophysiological studies of 10 mouse thymus lobes using 0.2 micron tipped electrodes showed that there were highly significant differences (P less than 0.0001) between the intracellular membrane potentials of the subcapsular zone, the cortex and the medulla. When dyes were injected intracellularly (through 0.5 micron tipped electrodes) into individual epithelial cells, methylene blue remained within the cytoplasm, but procion yellow passed in 30 minutes into the nuclei of all the epithelial cells of the cortex but not those of the subcapsular zone, nor the medulla. This indicates that the cortex must be a functional syncytium and it differs in this respect from the rest of the gland. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3319999

  12. A decade of missile-induced vascular trauma.

    PubMed Central

    D'Sa, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    During 10 years of serious strife the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, has dealt with trauma inflicted by a wide variety of missiles. Injuries involving 316 vessels were sustained by 192 patients. A group of "knee-cappings' accounted for a large proportion of popliteal vessel injuries. A majority of patients also suffered damage to other regions of the body. Hypotension was a notable feature and several patients arrived in extremis, particularly those with injuries to a major vessel trunks and vital organs. The benefits of rapid evacuation in relation to ischaemia time are discussed. The operative management of a wide range of arterial and venous injuries is described. The use of simple and compound vein grafts allowed adequate excision of damaged vessels. The advantages of meticulous repair, timely fasciotomy, and early reintervention are reflected in the results, contributing to the small lower-lib amputation rate of 5.1%. Images fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:7055366

  13. Cyclic hair-loss and regrowth in transgenic mice overexpressing an intermediate filament gene.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, B C; Rogers, G E

    1990-01-01

    We have produced transgenic mice containing up to 250 copies of a sheep wool intermediate filament keratin gene to study the effect of its expression on hair structure and development. Several transgenic lines expressed the gene and in the one containing 250 transgenes, a pattern of hair-loss and regrowth was stably established. Successive waves of hair growth follow periods of denuding like the natural progression of hairs in the mouse hair cycle. By in situ hybridization we have shown that the sheep transgenes are expressed at the correct stage in mouse hair development and at a high level. The transgenic hairs contain not only an elevated level of intermediate filament keratin protein but also a decreased level of the filament-associated proteins. This imbalance disrupts the normal ordered array of these proteins in the cells of the hair cortex and leads to weakened fibres which are prematurely lost. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1691707

  14. Innervation of vasculature and microvasculature of the human vagina by NOS and neuropeptide-containing nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C H; Stones, R W; Robson, T; Whitley, K; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether nerves that contain nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P (SP) are present in the human vagina and, if so, to determine the pattern of innervation relative to that of other neurotransmitters, particularly vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Surgical specimens of vaginal tissue (n = 10) from pre- and postmenopausal women were fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry of peptides and NOS and for histochemistry of NADPH-diaphorase. SP-immunoreactive nerves were very sparse, being absent from 9 of the 10 tissue samples. For other peptides and NOS, the innervation of the deep arteries and veins was greater than that of blood vessels in the propria. Capillaries in the epithelial papillae also appeared to be innervated by nerves containing NOS, CGRP, NPY and VIP. Beneath the epithelium nerve fibres formed a subepithelial plexus; no nerve cell bodies were seen. The relative density of innervation by immunoreactive fibres was PGP-9.5 > NPY > VIP >> NOS > CGRP > SP. These results imply that nerves that utilise nitric oxide or NPY, VIP or CGRP as a neurotransmitter may play a role in controlling blood flow and capillary permeability in the human vagina. The origin and function of all these nerves is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763480

  15. IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Ralph C.; Abramowsky, Carlos R.; Tisher, C. Craig

    1974-01-01

    From a series of 470 specimens of renal tissue examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, 20 specimens were identified and studied in detail from patients without evidence of systemic disease in which IgA was the predominant localizing immunoglobulin. All patients presented with hematuria which was recurrent or persistent, often being exacerbated by upper respiratory infection. Most of the group pursued a benign clinical course with little evidence of decline in renal function. Histopathologic changes in renal biopsy specimens of most of the group consisted of a proliferative glomerulonephritis of variable intensity. Characteristic alterations were seen by electron microscopy which included the presence of electron-dense deposits within the mesangium, the hilar regions of the glomerulus and the basement membrane of Bowman's capsule. Evidence for activation of complement by the alternate pathway at C3 was found with properdin localization in 14 of 15 specimens and with the absence of detectable Clq and C4 in 15 specimens studied for these early acting components. It is concluded that the combined clinical, morphologic and immunologic findings warrant consideration of IgA nephropathy as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4601708

  16. Overexpression of human loricrin in transgenic mice produces a normal phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, K; Steinert, P M

    1993-01-01

    The cornified cell envelope (CE) of terminally differentiating stratified squamous epithelial cells is a complex multiprotein assembly about 15 nm thick of which loricrin is a major component. We have produced transgenic mice bearing the human loricrin transgene in order to study the role of loricrin in CE assembly, structure, and function. By analyses of RNA and protein, we show that the human transgene is expressed in mouse epithelial tissues in an appropriate developmental manner but at an overall level about twice that of endogenous mouse loricrin. Thus the 20-kbp construct used contains all necessary regulatory elements. By immunogold electron microscopy, all of the expressed protein is incorporated into the CE. That no alternations were noted indicates that overproduction of the loricrin component of the CE does not affect the flexible structure or function of the epithelial tissues. Furthermore, these data imply that loricrin may be the last protein to be deposited onto, and thus lines, the intracellular surface of the CE, where it may be accessible to interact with the subjacent keratin intermediate-filament network. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8248167

  17. Familial Fibrocystic Pulmonary Dysplasia: A Detailed Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, A. G.; Chertkow, G.; Hayton, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Six cases of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia are described involving five siblings and their father. The clinical findings and radiological features were similar in all six patients although there was some variation in the period of survival following the onset of the disease. In three the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically; the two brothers, who did not have lung biopsies, had disturbances in respiratory function which are considered typical of the impaired diffusion produced by interstitial fibrosis. One hundred and five members of the family were surveyed for evidence of this disease, but no further cases were discovered. Four of the patients had some elevation of their gamma globulin. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, which was performed on three of the patients, the two healthy siblings, and 16 of their offspring, showed elevated immunoglobulin patterns. This evidence suggests the possibility of an inherited aberration in the immune response in this family. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5912179

  18. Conservative Management of Piriformis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keskula, Douglas R.; Tamburello, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a questionable clinical entity that has been cited as a cause of buttock pain and sciatica. The intimate relationship between the piriformis and the sciatic nerve has been suspected as being the source of the signs and symptoms that often appear following minor trauma to the pelvic or buttock region. Muscle function is an important consideration in the evaluation and treatment of the athlete with suspected piriformis syndrome. The action of the piriformis muscle on the hip varies as the hip moves from a neutral to a flexed position. While in a flexed position, the piriformis internally rotates and abducts the hip; however, in a neutral position, the piriformis acts as an external rotator of the hip. A comprehensive evaluation provides the information necessary to design a treatment plan specific to the involved structures, while meeting the functional needs of the individual athlete. This paper describes the anatomy, pathomechanics, physical examination, and treatment options relevant to the piriformis syndrome. Treatment protocols stressing exercises that promote strength, flexibility, and functional activities are believed to be essential in restoring the athlete's ability to return to pain-free competition. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558144

  19. Ultrastructural study on the plical epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius in chick embryos: influence of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, N; Baldassini, M R; Abelli, L; Aita, M; Mastrolia, L

    1996-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius of 18 day normal and partially decerebrated chick embryos, and partially decerebrated embryos bearing a hypophyseal allograft was analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, focusing on the ultrastructural characterisation of the plical epithelium. The plicae of the normal bursa consist of interfollicular (IFE) and follicle associated epithelium (FAE). The FAE is composed of typical polygonal cells and is supported by a layer of epithelial cells which appears as a continuation of the corticomedullary epithelium. Bordering cells lie between the FAE and IFE. The IFE is composed of 4 cell types: (1) undifferentiated, (2) goblet, at various stages of maturity, (3) prismatic, and (4) globular light cells. Partially decerebrated embryos showed a gross impairment of plical epithelium development and the complex of FAE and IFE cells was largely undifferentiated. Partially decerebrated embryos with a hypophyseal allograft displayed the same cellular types as observed in controls, thus indicating a restored differentiation of plical epithelium. These findings suggest that the hypophysis affects the differentiation of plical epithelium during ontogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8-11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:8655413

  20. Development of the chick thymus microenvironment: a study by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J G; Sanchez, A J; Melcon, C; Chamorro, C A; Garcia, C; Paz, P

    1994-01-01

    The microenvironment of the chick thymus has been examined during development using lectin histochemistry. We have assayed WGA, Con A, RCA-I and TPA on thymic sections from 13, 15, 17 and 19 d chick embryos and 0, 5, 10 and 15 d chicks. All lectins were immunoperoxidase and colloidal gold-conjugated for transmission electron microscope observations. WGA labelled both the cortical and medullary thymic stroma at all the stages analysed. An intense reaction to WGA was observed in the subcortical region from stage 18 embryos to 5 d chicks. On the other hand, WGA did not stain medullary areas of the chick thymus. Con A lectin detected several cell clusters of stromal cells and thymocytes in cortical regions. These clusters could represent a lymphostromal complex with which Con A receptors are associated, probably in relation to cell adhesion. The residues detected by RCA were distributed both in stromal cells and thymocytes of the developing chick thymus. There was an increase of the reaction to RCA between the 19 d embryos and the 5 d chicks. This increase might be interpreted in terms of the secretion of thymic humoral factors at these stages. The thymic stromal cells stained with immunoperoxidase conjugated-TPA showed a reticular pattern in the medulla. There is a possibility that the fucosyl residues may be expressed in the Ia antigen as has previously been suggested in other species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7512541

  1. The effect of in utero decapitation on the morphological and physiological development of the fetal rabbit lung.

    PubMed Central

    Meyrick, B; Bearn, J G; Cobb, A G; Monkhouse, C R; Reid, L

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the consequences of in utero decapitation on the morphological and physiological development of the fetal lung. Fetal rabbits were decapitated in situ at 22 days, without losing any amniotic fluid, and allowed to continue their development with their undamaged littermates as controls. Such decapitation, of course, removes the pituitary and so interferes with adrenal cortical development. Morphological studies showed an interference with lung development in that, although the number of alveolar saccules increased normally, their walls failed to thin. In the decapitated fetuses, a reduction in the number of lamellated bodies per Type II pneumonocyte was found at each age studied; while dense, homogeneous bodies were more numerous. The normal disappearance of glycogen in the Type II pneumonocytes of the decapitated fetuses was retarded. Physiological studies supported these findings. In control fetuses allowed to breathe for a while the Bubble Stability Ratio increased rapidly from day 26 to reach a maximum at 28 days; whereas, in the decapitated ones, bubble stability was not apparent before day 28 and by the 29th day had reached a maximum which was lower than that of the controls. In the control fetuses, lecithin was detected in lung fluid from 26 days on, and in stomach fluid from 29 days. It is argued that lung development must be, at least in part, under the control of the fetus' own pituitary-adrenal axis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 13 PMID:1141052

  2. Elevated levels of a specific class of nuclear phosphoproteins in cells transformed with v-ras and v-mos oncogenes and by cotransfection with c-myc and polyoma middle T genes.

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, V; Pani, B; D'Andrea, P; Berlingieri, M T; Di Fiore, P P; Fusco, A; Vecchio, G; Philp, R; Crane-Robinson, C; Nicolas, R H

    1987-01-01

    Transformation of a rat thyroid epithelial cell line (FRTL5-C12) with Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma viruses (carrying the ras oncogenes) results in elevated levels of three perchloric acid-soluble nuclear phosphoproteins. These three proteins are also induced to high levels in the PC-C13 thyroid epithelial cell line when transformed by the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (carrying the v-mos oncogene) and when transformed by transfection with the c-myc proto-oncogene followed by infection with the polyoma leukaemia virus (PyMuLV) carry the polyoma middle T antigen gene. Neither c-myc or PyMuLV alone induced high levels of the three nuclear proteins. Untransformed thyroid fibroblasts have high levels of two of the three proteins and can be transformed by PyMuLV alone resulting in the appearance of the third protein. Transformation with Harvey sarcoma virus also results in the induction of the third protein. The three phosphoproteins have been purified by h.p.l.c. and shown to be related to the HeLa protein HMGI already described. The results of these studies indicate that elevated levels of these HMGI-like proteins are associated with neoplastic transformation and/or with an undifferentiated phenotype. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2820715

  3. De Lange Syndrome: Report of 20 Cases

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, R. G.; Edwards, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Typus Degenerativus Amstelodamensis or Amsterdam dwarfism, a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by mental retardation, a distinctive face, characteristic hands and feet, defective growth and other minor malformations, was first described by Cornelia de Lange in 1933. Approximately 69 cases, including nine autopsies, have been reported in the literature. In this paper we present a further 20, with illustrations of the syndrome from infancy to puberty (including de Lange's original three cases). The historical, physical, laboratory and radiographic findings of de Lange's three patients and our 20 are tabulated. Autopsy findings in one of our patients are reported and the literature is briefly reviewed. Although some observers have recently reported chromosome abnormalities in de Lange's syndrome, we feel that the diagnosis is made from the history and physical examination and that there are no definitive laboratory aids which can confirm the diagnosis. Chromosome studies in all 20 of our patients were normal and the genetic implications are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 9Fig. 11p1197-a PMID:6022788

  4. An abundant and ubiquitous homo-oligomeric ring-shaped ATPase particle related to the putative vesicle fusion proteins Sec18p and NSF.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J M; Walsh, M J; Franke, W W

    1990-01-01

    We have discovered a ring-shaped particle of 12.5 nm diameter, 14.5S and apparent molecular weight of approximately 570,000 that displays 6-fold radial symmetry and is composed of a single kind of an acidic (pI approximately 5.5) polypeptide of Mr 97,000 (p97). Using antibodies to this protein we have detected its occurrence in a wide range of cells and tissues of diverse species from frog to man, including highly specialized cells such as mammalian erythrocytes and spermatozoa. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, the particle is found in both isolated nuclei and in manually enucleated ooplasms, which corresponds to immunofluorescence staining dispersed over both nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The particle has a N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-inhibitable Mg2(+)-ATPase activity, and its amino acid sequence, as deduced from cDNA clones, displays considerable homology to the mammalian NEM-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and yeast Sec18p believed to be essential for vesicle fusion in secretory processes, indicating that these three proteins belong to the same multigene family. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2140770

  5. The fine structure of normal lymphocyte subpopulations--a study with monoclonal antibodies and the immunogold technique.

    PubMed Central

    Matutes, E; Catovsky, D

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of normal lymphocyte subpopulations, identified by monoclonal antibodies and visualized by a colloidal gold labelled anti-mouse IgG were analysed. Our study demonstrates: (1) the major T lymphocyte subsets (OKT4+ and OKT8+) have distinct ultrastructural morphology. The majority of OKT4+ cells have a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) and few cytoplasmic organelles whilst most OKT8+ cells have a low N/C ratio and numerous organelles, namely a well developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomal granules and parallel tubular arrays (PTA); (2) a unique subtype with irregular nuclear outline that resembles Sézary cells was seen in 5-10% of OKT4+ lymphocytes; (3) OKM1, a reagent that reacts with monocytes and granulocytes, is positive in a small lymphocyte subset which appears to be negative with the OKT reagents and is morphologically identical to OKT8+ cells; (4) 'hand-mirror' cells were only seen labelled with OKT8 and OKM1; (5) B lymphocytes labelled with FMC4 (anti-IA) could be distinguished from OKT3+ lymphocytes by having numerous profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes; these were particularly prominent in lymphoplasmacytoid cells. Morphological similarities between normal T lymphocyte subsets and T neoplasias of the same membrane phenotype suggest that these disorders arise from specific T cell types present in normal peripheral blood or from common precursors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6185261

  6. Cell cycling and patterned cell proliferation in the Drosophila wing during metamorphosis.

    PubMed Central

    Milán, M; Campuzano, S; García-Bellido, A

    1996-01-01

    In metamorphosing wing discs, progression through the cell cycle takes place, as in larval discs, in nonclonally derived clusters of cells synchronized in the same cell cycle stage. Contrary to early discs, there are temporal and spatial heterogeneities in cell proliferation associated with wing margin, vein, intervein, and middle intervein territories. Within these territories, there are no indications of a wave progression of the cell cycle. Mitotic orientations are, as in early discs, at random but there is a preferential allocation of postmitotic cells along the proximodistal axis, thus explaining the elongated shape of the resulting clones along this axis. Shapes of clones in mature discs and in evaginated wings are similar, thus excluding major morphogenetic movements during evagination. After the proliferative period, all the cells are arrested in G1 phase. The final number of cells of the wing is fixed independently of experimental perturbations that alter the cell division schedule. These results are discussed in the context of a model of wing morphogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876197

  7. Regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Munemitsu, S; Albert, I; Souza, B; Rubinfeld, B; Polakis, P

    1995-01-01

    The APC tumor-suppressor protein associates with beta-catenin, a cell adhesion protein that is upregulated by the WNT1 oncogene. We examined the effects of exogenous APC expression on the distribution and amount of beta-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell containing only mutant APC. Expression of wild-type APC caused a pronounced reduction in total beta-catenin levels by eliminating an excessive supply of cytoplasmic beta-catenin indigenous to the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. This reduction was due to an enhanced rate of beta-catenin protein degradation. Truncated mutant APC proteins, characteristic of those associated with cancer, lacked this activity. Mutational analysis revealed that the central region of the APC protein, which is typically deleted or severely truncated in tumors, was responsible for the down-regulation of beta-catenin. These results suggest that the tumor-suppressor activity of mutant APC may be compromised due to a defect in its ability to regulate beta-catenin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708772

  8. Ligand induction of a transcriptionally active thyroid hormone receptor coactivator complex.

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, J D; Ge, H; Roeder, R G

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by nuclear hormone receptors is thought to involve interactions with putative cofactors that may potentiate receptor function. Here we show that human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from HeLa cells grown in the presence of thyroid hormone (T3) is associated with a group of distinct nuclear proteins termed thyroid hormone receptor-associated proteins (TRAPs). In an in vitro system reconstituted with general initiation factors and cofactors (and in the absence of added T3), the "liganded" thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/TRAP complex markedly activates transcription from a promoter template containing T3-response elements. Moreover, whereas the retinoid X receptor is not detected in the TR/TRAP complex, its presence is required for the function of the complex. In contrast, human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from cells grown in the absence of T3 lacks the TRAPs and effects only a low level of activation that is dependent on added ligand. These findings demonstrate the ligand-dependent in vivo formation of a transcriptionally active TR-multisubunit protein complex and suggest a role for TRAPs as positive coactivators for gene-specific transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710870

  9. The role of automatic reinforcement in early language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.; Michael, Jack; Partington, James W.; Sundberg, Cindy A.

    1996-01-01

    The vocal behavior of five children was recorded and analyzed during pre- and post-pairing conditions. Between these conditions there was a pairing condition where a target sound, word, or phrase was paired with an established form of reinforcement (e.g., tickling). In the first experiment all of the children emitted the targeted responses during the post-pairing condition. The results showed that the children acquired new vocal and verbal responses by pairing neutral stimuli with established forms of conditioned or unconditioned reinforcement. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these results was that new vocal responses were acquired by the children without the use of direct reinforcement, echoic training, or prompts. In the second experiment several parameters of the pairing procedure were examined. The results of the two experiments have implications for the analysis of native language acquisition, and for the development of language intervention procedures for individuals who fail to acquire language. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:22477108

  10. The contributions of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group to military surgery during World War II with special reference to thoracic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, L A

    1983-01-01

    The outstanding scientific and surgical accomplishments of the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations and the 7th Army in World War II were not exceeded by any other group in the United States Army Medical Corps. In the final 921-page report to the Surgeon General with 550 tables, 8801 severely wounded casualties out of a total of 22,000 treated were reviewed. In addition, the major portion of three books on war surgery and over 60 scientific articles were written by this group. The contributions in thoracic surgery that focused attention on physiologic principles and limited the indications for thoracotomy have stood the test of time. The author made the original description of the reaction of the lung to severe trauma of the brain, abdomen, and extremities by the development of "the wet lung of trauma" (RDS), while his introduction of a hand-operated, intermittent positive pressure oxygen respirator to treat the advanced form of this syndrome (pulmonary edema) ushered in a new form of treatment. Long-term, follow-up studies by the author confirm the validity of the physiologic approach to the treatment of thoracic trauma. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7A and B. Fig. 8. PMID:6338843

  11. Development of the ovary in the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula (Marsupialia).

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, S L

    1996-01-01

    The urogenital region of 25 fetuses and 75 pouch young, ranging in age from newborn to 103 days (d) in development, was examined in serial histological sections. The rete ridges formed the anterior extensions of the gonadal ridges and gave rise to the rete system and gonads respectively. Sexual differentiation of the ovary commenced 2.5 d after birth, when 2 cell types appeared: the larger of these then clumped together to form the medullary cords, while the smaller cells gave rise to the stroma. Primordial germ cells were still migrating, dividing and populating the peripheral gonadal regions on d 8. Cortex and medulla were distinguishable by d 12, when a thick fibrous zone separated them. The cortex was augmented by cells from the mesothelium. The rete ovarii developed from cell condensations within the rete ridges, made secondary contact with the mesonephroi and penetrated the ovaries but did not contribute to the granulosa cells. It is concluded that, contrary to the situation in most eutherians, in Trichosurus, as in other marsupials examined, the mesonephros does not contribute to rete formation, or to the granulosa cells, which appear to arise from the medullary cords. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-23 PMID:8982841

  12. A microscopic study of the lung of Testudo graeca (Chelonia).

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F

    1989-01-01

    The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791

  13. Deficient transcription of XIST from tiny ring X chromosomes in females with severe phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Migeon, B R; Luo, S; Stasiowski, B A; Jani, M; Axelman, J; Van Dyke, D L; Weiss, L; Jacobs, P A; Yang-Feng, T L; Wiley, J E

    1993-01-01

    The severe phenotype of human females whose karyotype includes tiny ring X chromosomes has been attributed to the inability of the small ring X chromosome to inactivate. The XIST locus is expressed only from the inactive X chromosome, resides at the putative X inactivation center, and is considered a prime player in the initiation of mammalian X dosage compensation. Using PCR, Southern blot analysis, and in situ hybridization, we have looked for the presence of the XIST locus in tiny ring X chromosomes from eight females who have multiple congenital malformations and severe mental retardation. Our studies reveal heterogeneity within this group; some rings lack the XIST locus, while others have sequences homologous to probes for XIST. However, in the latter, the locus is either not expressed or negligibly expressed, based on reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Therefore, what these tiny ring chromosomes have in common is a level of XIST transcription comparable to an active X. As XIST transcription is an indicator of X chromosome inactivity, the absence of XIST transcription strongly suggests that tiny ring X chromosomes in females with severe phenotypes are mutants in the X chromosome inactivation pathway and that the inability of these rings to inactivate is responsible for the severe phenotypes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8265665

  14. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  15. Intracellular Localization of Lipoxygenases-1 and -2 in Germinating Soybean Seeds by Indirect Labeling with Protein A-Colloidal Gold Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vernooy-Gerritsen, Marjan; Leunissen, Jan L. M.; Veldink, Gerrit A.; Vliegenthart, Johannes F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean lipoxygenases-1 and -2 were localized intracellularly in seeds at various stages of germination by indirect labeling of cryosections with protein A-colloidal gold complexes. Two sizes of gold particles (Au5 and Au16) were used in single- and double-labeling experiments. In primary leaves, lipoxygenases are demonstrated to occur in vacuolating parenchyma cells but not in massive, nondifferentiated cells. In cotyledons, both isoenzymes are localized in the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and in an aberrant type of protein bodies, occurring in hypodermis and vascular bundle sheath cells. No association has been found with either protein bodies in storage parenchyma cells or lipid bodies, mitochondria, and other organelles in any type of cell. The possible significance of lipoxygenase in the metabolism of storage lipids and its possible function as a regulatory enzyme are discussed on the basis of the random distribution throughout the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and the course of biochemical processes during seed germination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663951

  16. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  17. Detection of leptospiral antigen (L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae) by immunoelectron microscopy in the liver and kidney of experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779

  18. Effect of a Transient Period of Ischemia on Myocardial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kloner, Robert A.; Ganote, Charles E.; Whalen, Daniel A.; Jennings, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    Changes produced in the posterior papillary muscle of the dog following 40 minutes of circumflex artery occlusion and 0 to 20 minutes of blood reflow were studied by electron miroscopy. With no reflow of blood, myocardial cells were modestly swollen, contained amorphous matrix densities in the mitochondria, had aggregation and margination of nuclear chromatin and relaxation of myofibrils. With as little as 2 minutes of blood reflow, cells developed contraction bands and were greatly swollen due to a generalized increase in sarcoplasmic space, formation of vacuoles and swelling of mitochondria. Frequently, cell membranes were lifted away from the myofibers, forming large subsarcolemmal blebs which appeared capable of compressing adjacent capillaries. The extracellular space did not appear to be enlarged, and the marked tissue edema found after reflow was due primarily to accumulation of intracellular fluid. In addition to explosive cell swelling, there was, over the 2- to 20-minute period of reflow, a progressive increase in size and number of granular mitochondrial dense bodies of the calcium accumulation type. No significant changes in lysosomes were observed. The speed with which the morphologic changes developed during very early reflow periods suggests that irreversible ischemic injury produces a defect in cell volume regulation during the phase of ischemia and that this defect becomes manifest if arterial flow is restored to the affected cells. ImagesFig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4814895

  19. Association of eosinophilic myositis with an unusual species of Sarcocystis in a beef cow.

    PubMed Central

    Gajadhar, A A; Yates, W D; Allen, J R

    1987-01-01

    The carcass of a mature cow had numerous, disseminated lesions typical of eosinophilic myositis. To elucidate the nature and possible cause of the lesions, histological sections were examined by light microscopy and selected areas were removed and processed for electron microscopy. The lesions were granulomatous in nature. Each granuloma contained at its centre an intact or ruptured sarcocyst associated with degenerate muscle fibers. Surrounding this was a layer of epithelioid cells and an intense accumulation of inflammatory cells, most of which were eosinophils. The primary cyst wall of the sarcocysts in these granulomas consisted of hair-like protrusions that featured many unusual electron-dense bodies. Sarcocysts with ultrastructures characteristic of Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hirsuta were also present in muscle from the same animal, but these sarcocysts lacked any associated cellular responses. The eosinophilic myositis in this case appeared to be associated with sarcocystosis of an unknown species. Possibly, the inflammatory reaction was due to the host-parasite interaction in an unusual host. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3115553

  20. Ultrastructural and transmission evidence of Sarcocystis cruzi associated with eosinophilic myositis in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gajadhar, A A; Marquardt, W C

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, diaphragm, tongue, esophagus and heart of beef carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis and those that were unaffected were collected at an abattoir in Colorado and studied to determine the involvement of Sarcocystis spp. All affected carcasses contained similar granulomatous lesions with adjacent infiltrations of leukocytes. Intact or fragments of sarcocysts were found within 32 of 363 granulomas, and whole sarcocysts were present in nearby unaffected muscle cells. Light and electron microscopic examinations revealed that sarcocysts, affected or unaffected by cellular response in condemned carcasses, as well as those found in unaffected carcasses, were consistent with those of S. cruzi. Transmission experiments confirmed that S. cruzi were present in all carcasses, and that dogs, but not cats, were the definitive hosts. The results of pepsin-HCl digestion assays showed that unaffected carcasses that were approved for human consumption generally contained more infective parasites than carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis. This study provides evidence to support the suggestion that dogs, rather than cats, and unaffected rather than eosinophilic myositis-affected carcasses, have greater potential for contributing to the perpetuation of eosinophilic myositis in the cattle industry. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1586892

  1. Halstedian technique revisited. Innovations in teaching surgical skills.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R W; Lang, N P; Whiteside, M F

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the laboratory models used to teach fundamental surgical skills in our general surgery residency. The laboratory modules allow supervision and self-instruction, practice, and videotape monitoring of the following techniques: skin incision, suturing, knot tying, hemostasis, vascular anastomosis, and intestinal anastomosis. Pigs' feet simulate human skin for exercises in skin incision, lesion excision, suturing, and basic plastic surgical techniques. Latex tubing and penrose drains allow experience in suturing, knot tying, and hemostasis. Polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses permit quantification of the precision of needle passage and suturing by measurement of leakage of water through a vascular anastomosis. Reconstituted, lyophilized, irradiated bovine arteries and ileum provide models of biologic tissue for creating handsewn vascular anastomoses and sutured or stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses. A headlamp videocamera allows unobstructive recording of the resident's technical performance and provides subsequent visual feedback for self-improvement when compared to reference instructional videotapes. We feel that these innovations may enhance surgical dexterity of residents without the need for animal sacrifice. Our goal is to foreshorten the learning curve for basic surgical skills and improve performance in the clinical operating room. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2742408

  2. Freeze-fracture replication of organized tissue without cryoprotection.

    PubMed Central

    Stolinski, C; Breathnach, A

    1976-01-01

    Fresh pieces of rat liver and pancreas were rapidly frozen without prior chemical fixation or cryoprotection, and replicated folloing freeze-fracture. Replicas revealed small peripheral areas free of ice crystals or damage and, within such areas, general ultrastructural morphology was essentially similar to that seen in conventionally processed material. On fracture faces of plasma and nuclear membranes a population of less prominent particles in addition to conventional membrane-associated particles was seen, and smooth areas devoid of particles of any type were seen on some nuclear membranes. These smooth areas did not appear to be similar to smooth areas allegedly arising as artifacts of conventional processing. Tight junctions and gap junctions appeared as they do in cryoprotected specimens. The results provide a base-line for assessing the possible effects of processing steps or agents on the ultrastructure of organized tissues as revealed in freeze-fracture replicas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1002603

  3. Basal Lamina Scaffold-Anatomy and Significance for Maintenance of Orderly Tissue Structure

    PubMed Central

    Vracko, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    The basal lamina is an extracellular scaffold positioned between parenchymal cells and connective tissue. Parenchymal cells attach to one of its surfaces and the other is anchored to connective tissue. By its presence it defines the spatial relationships among similar and dissimilar types of cells and between these cells and the space occupied by connective and supportive tissues. Replenishment of cells which have died during normal functioning or have become damaged in course of injury occurs with new cells in an orderly way along the framework of the basal lamina scaffold. This process appears to be aided by the polarity of the basal lamina and by an apparent specificity for cell types, and it enables multicellular organisms to reconstitute histologic structures of most tissues and organs to what they were prior to loss of cells. If the basal lamina is destroyed, the healing in most tissues results in formation of scar and loss of function. The properties of the basal lamina concerned with maintenance of histologic order in organs and tissues offer new ways to interpret the pathogenesis of several common disorders, including emphysema, scars, adhesions, cirrhosis of liver and excessive accumulation of basal lamina material as, for example, it occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8 PMID:4614671

  4. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  5. Systematic distribution of muscle fibre types in the rat and rabbit diaphragm: a morphometric and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kilarski, W; Sjöström, M

    1990-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of the adult rat and rabbit costal diaphragm were investigated. On the basis of enzyme histochemistry, the rat diaphragm was found to contain 42% and 39% Type I, 24% and 25% Type II A and 33% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. The rabbit costal diaphragm contained 18% and 26% Type I, 46% and 39% Type II A and 35% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. Differences in the proportion of each muscle fibre type were also observed between diaphragmatic regions (ventral, medial and dorsal) in the rat as well as in the rabbit. Differences in muscle architecture were also noted on the basis of stereological analysis in estimation of volume density, surface density, numerical density and cross-sectional areas of each muscle fibre type. The fine structural analysis of all three fibre types also showed significant differences in the width of the A-bands and Z-lines between the muscle fibre types of the rat and rabbit costal diaphragm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2139020

  6. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  7. Inverse regulation of human ERBB2 and epidermal growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, H; Roeder, C; Gieseking, J; Humburg, I; Schmiegel, W

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha decreased the expression of ERBB2 mRNA by stimulating p55 TNF receptors of pancreatic tumor cells. This decrease contrasts with an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. Both effects were selectively achieved by TNF-alpha or -beta, whereas interferon alpha or gamma or transforming growth factor beta showed no such effects. The inverse regulatory effects of TNF on ERBB2 and EGFR mRNA levels were evoked by different signaling pathways of p55 TNF receptors. The TNF-mediated ERBB2 mRNA decrease was followed by a reduction in protein. Four of five pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibited this down-regulation. This decrease of ERBB2 is a singular example of a modulation of this growth factor receptor by TNF. Overexpression of ERBB2 has been reported to cause resistance to TNF and other cytotoxic cytokines. In our study we show that the TNF-mediated down-regulation of ERBB2 in pancreatic tumor cells is accompanied by an increase in growth inhibition at low doses of TNF. The simultaneous alteration of the ERBB2/EGFR balance by TNF represents a striking model of cytokine receptor transregulation in the growth control of malignant pancreatic epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105469

  8. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  9. A morphological comparison of treatment with different beta-lactam antibiotics on experimental staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Acred, P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis with five different beta-lactam antibiotics (ceftazidime, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, methicillin and flucloxacillin) was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. It was found that therapy with all five antibiotics produced similar morphological changes. At 3 and 8 h, the bacterial colonies showed zonal changes with the bacteria furthest from the lumen exhibiting less severe damage while the outer region consisted largely of lysed cells. However, in the outer zone a few apparently viable, thick-walled persistent bacteria were observed. At 24 and 48 h, many colonies consisted of large masses of lysed bacteria with only a few thick-walled persistent bacteria. In all cases, therapy was associated with an increased host inflammatory cell response resulting in invasion of leucocytes through the aortic wall or vegetation towards and engulfing the colonies. However, even at 48 h the inflammatory cells had not reached all the deep-seated colonies. It would appear that all the antibiotics reached bactericidal concentrations within the lesions. However, the eradication of the few 'persistent' bacteria was delayed by the inability of the inflammatory cells to reach all the colonies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2206986

  10. Transfer of beta-amyloid precursor protein gene using adenovirus vector causes mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured normal human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Askanas, V; McFerrin, J; Baqué, S; Alvarez, R B; Sarkozi, E; Engel, W K

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta-amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The pathogenesis of these abnormalities in IBM muscle and AD brain is not known. We now report that direct transfer of the beta APP gene, using adenovirus vector, into cultured normal human muscle fibers causes structural abnormalities of mitochondria and decreased COX activity. In this adenovirus-mediated beta APP gene transfer, we demonstrated that beta APP overproduction can induce mitochondrial abnormalities. The data suggest that excessive beta APP may be responsible for mitochondrial and COX abnormalities in IBM muscle and perhaps AD brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8577761

  11. ncd and kinesin motor domains interact with both alpha- and beta-tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R A

    1995-01-01

    Motor domains of the Drosophila minus-end-directed microtubule (MT) motor protein ncd, were found to saturate microtubule binding sites at a stoichiometry of approximately one motor domain per tubulin dimer. To determine the tubulin subunit(s) involved in binding to ncd, mixtures of ncd motor domain and MTs were treated with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide) (EDC). EDC treatment generated covalently cross-linked products of ncd and alpha-tubulin and of ncd and beta-tubulin, indicating that the ncd motor domain interacts with both alpha- and beta-tubulin. When the Drosophila kinesin motor domain protein was substituted for the ncd motor domain, cross-linked products of kinesin and alpha-tubulin and of kinesin and beta-tubulin were produced. EDC treatment of mixtures of ncd motor domain and unassembled tubulin dimers or of kinesin motor domain and unassembled tubulin dimers produced the same motor-tubulin products generated in the presence of MTs. These results indicate that kinesin family motors of opposite polarity interact with both tubulin monomers and support a model in which some portion of each protein's motor domain overlaps adjacent alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597061

  12. Activation of adenovirus 5 E1A transcription by region E1B in transformed primary rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jochemsen, A G; Peltenburg, L T; te Pas, M F; de Wit, C M; Bos, J L; van der Eb, A J

    1987-01-01

    The human adenovirus 5 E1A region can immortalize primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells, but requires the presence of the E1B region for complete oncogenic transformation. One of the effects of the E1B region in the transformation process is the activation of E1A expression. We have investigated the mechanism of this stimulation of E1A expression using nuclear run-on assays with nuclei from Ad5 E1A- and Ad5 E1-transformed cells. It was found that E1B enhances E1A at the level of transcription-initiation. This activation is mainly observed when the E1A and E1B regions are integrated simultaneously into the cellular genome and only minimally when these genes are integrated separately, strongly suggesting that a close physical linkage of these regions is essential for the observed effect. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2962857

  13. An immunohistochemical study of human postnatal paraganglia associated with the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, J S; Gosling, J A; Canning, D A; Gearhart, J P

    1992-01-01

    Histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to study pelvic paraganglia in a series of human postnatal specimens ranging in age from 1 month to 6 y. Up to 5 months of age, many of the encapsulated paraganglia contained small pacinian-like sensory corpuscles which occurred either singly or in small clusters, implying an unknown functional interrelationship during this period. In older specimens, this intimate association was not observed since pacinian corpuscles and small nonencapsulated clusters of paraganglion cells were observed only as separate structures. It is suggested that the paraganglion cells may induce the formation of the pacinian corpuscles during fetal development. Immunohistochemistry using the nerve marker protein gene product (PGP 9.5) demonstrated a rich plexus of varicose nerve fibres within the paraganglia which may directly innervate the paraganglion cells and/or be associated with the profuse vascular supply. A similar density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerves was also demonstrated while some of the nerves contained calcitonin gene related peptide or substance P. The paraganglion cells stained positively for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y, but not for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. This combination of immunostaining confirms them as a rich source of noradrenaline. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1304581

  14. Characterization and purification of proteins which bind high-density lipoprotein. A putative cell-surface receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, H M; Morrone, G; Venuta, S; Howell, K E

    1991-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is shown by ligand blotting to bind membrane-associated polypeptides with sizes of 60, 100 and 210 kDa. Binding was concentration-dependent and competed by excess unlabelled HDL. All the major apolipoproteins of HDL, apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-IV, bound independently. The 100 kDa and 210 kDa HDL-binding activities were purified from membranes of Hep3B tumour cells by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The binding activities at 100 kDa and 210 kDa co-purified. After treatment with disulphide-reducing reagent, the 210 kDa band was no longer present and an increase was observed in the amount and binding ability of the 100 kDa polypeptide. The 100 kDa binding protein labelled at the cell surface with 125I could be immunoprecipitated after cross-linking to cell-surface-bound HDL. It is proposed that this HDL-binding activity, a putative cell-surface receptor for HDL, exists totally or in part as a high-molecular-mass complex composed of 100 kDa subunits. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1659384

  15. Properties of highly viscous gels formed by neurofilaments in vitro. A possible consequence of a specific inter-filament cross-bridging.

    PubMed Central

    Leterrier, J F; Eyer, J

    1987-01-01

    Neurofilaments freshly isolated from bovine spinal cord form a reversible gel in vitro, consisting of nearly parallel and interlinked filaments organized in bundles. This phenomenon is obtained above a critical neurofilament concentration and is highly sensitive to denaturation. No gelation occurs with neurofilaments reconstituted from urea-solubilized subunits. The velocity of the gelation kinetics, optimum at a slightly acidic pH, is inhibited by low and high ionic strength and activated by millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ and other bivalent cations. No protein other than the purified neurofilament preparation itself (80-95% neurofilament triplet) is necessary for the formation of a gel. However, purified cytoskeletal proteins from microtubules and neurofilaments influence the viscosity of the native preparation. These observations suggest a reticulation in vitro between neurofilaments, dependent upon a fragile conformation of the polymers and possibly mediated through the high-Mr neurofilament subunits (200 kDa and 150 kDa). The significance of these results is discussed with regard to the inter-neurofilament cross-bridging in situ involving the 200 kDa subunit described by Hirokawa, Glicksman & Willard [(1984) J. Cell Biol. 98, 1523-1536]. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3663160

  16. Axotomized neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl2 proto-oncogene retain functional electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, S; Raggenbass, M; de Bilbao, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M

    1996-01-01

    Bcl2 overexpression prevents axotomy-induced neuronal death of neonatal facial motoneurons, as defined by morphological criteria. However, the functional properties of these surviving lesioned transgenic neurons are unknown. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the protein Bcl2, we have investigated the bioelectrical properties of transgenic facial motoneurons from 7 to 20 days after neonatal unilateral axotomy using brain-stem slices and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Nonaxotomized facial motoneurons from wild-type and transgenic mice had similar properties; they had an input resistance of 38 +/- 6 M omega and fired repetitively after injection of positive current pulses. When cells were voltage-clamped at or near their resting membrane potential, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), or vasopressin generated sustained inward currents. In transgenic axotomized mice, facial motoneurons could be found located ipsilaterally to the lesion; they had an input resistance of 150 +/- 30 M omega, indicating that they were smaller in size, fired repetitively, and were also responsive to AMPA, NMDA, and vasopressin. Morphological measurements achieved 1 week after the lesion have shown that application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented the reduction in size of axotomized transgenic motoneurons. These data indicate that Bcl2 not only prevents morphological apoptotic death of axotomized neonatal transgenic motoneurons but also permits motoneurons to conserve functional electrophysiological properties. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633001

  17. Histopathology of cell mediated immune reaction in mouse colon--allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Holden, R J; Ferguson, A

    1976-01-01

    Grafts of mouse fetal colon, implanted beneath the renal capsule of adult hosts, have been used to study the growth and development of colonic isografts and the rejection of colonic allografts. Isografts grew normally and maintained a structure similar to normal colon. Grafts between strains with H2 histocompatibility differences were rejected by 13 days after transplantation. Early progressive infiltration of the grafts by lymphoid cells was followed by increasing damage to, and subsequent loss of, the epithelial cell layer and destruction of the underlying muscle, changes which parallel those seen in rejection of skin and small bowel. The increase in survival time which is seen in allografts between strains with H2 identity was longer in the colon than has been seen in the skin or small bowel; none of the allografts of colon were completely rejected before 30 days, and some remained viable at 50 days. Comparison of the appearances of rejection in the colon with those of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease does not show the striking similarity which is seen between small bowel rejection and coeliac disease. Many of the individual features of these diseases are, however, present in the course of colonic rejection. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:976806

  18. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  19. Identification and localization of huntingtin in brain and human lymphoblastoid cell lines with anti-fusion protein antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Gutekunst, C A; Levey, A I; Heilman, C J; Whaley, W L; Yi, H; Nash, N R; Rees, H D; Madden, J J; Hersch, S M

    1995-01-01

    The Huntington disease (HD) phenotype is associated with expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the IT15 gene, which is predicted to encode a 348-kDa protein named huntington. We used polyclonal and monoclonal anti-fusion protein antibodies to identify native huntingtin in rat, monkey, and human. Western blots revealed a protein with the expected molecular weight which is present in the soluble fraction of rat and monkey brain tissues and lymphoblastoid cells from control cases. In lymphoblastoid cell lines from juvenile-onset heterozygote HD cases, both normal and mutant huntingtin are expressed, and increasing repeat expansion leads to lower levels of the mutant protein. Immunocytochemistry indicates that huntingtin is located in neurons throughout the brain, with the highest levels evident in larger neurons. In the human striatum, huntingtin is enriched in a patch-like distribution, potentially corresponding to the first areas affected in HD. Subcellular localization of huntingtin is consistent with a cytosolic protein primarily found in somatodendritic regions. Huntingtin appears to particularly associate with microtubules, although some is also associated with synaptic vesicles. On the basis of the localization of huntingtin in association with microtubules, we speculate that the mutation impairs the cytoskeletal anchoring or transport of mitochondria, vesicles, or other organelles or molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568002

  20. Some Notes on the Origin and Prevention of Gingivits

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, G. B.

    1929-01-01

    Gingivitis is a disease of local origin primarily, although in many cases a constitutional factor is concerned.—The predispositon arises during the eurptive period of the second dentition.—The developmental predisposing cause of most importance is a crowded condition of the permanent dentition.—Of acquired predisposing causes, calculus deposits on the teeth are the most important.—Others are those which either cuase stagnation around the teeth. or produce definite mechanical injury to the gum margin.—They can take effect at any age. Orthodontic treatment directed towards the arrangement of the optimum number of teeth in well functioning order is the ideal prophylactic. Other preventive measures are to employ such methods of artificial cleansing as brushing and the use of floss silk.—These are the adjuncts to automatic cleansing best carried out by efficient mastication of a suitable diet.—This is only possible when the arrangement of the teeth is such that stagnation of any kind of food is reduced to a minimum. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 5 PMID:19986859

  1. Ménétrier's disease. A trivalent gastropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Sundt, T M; Compton, C C; Malt, R A

    1988-01-01

    Current conceptions of Ménétrier's disease only obliquely resemble those originally described. Bona-fide cases are so uncommon that, of 125 cases diagnosed as Ménétier's disease, hypertrophic gastritis, or protein-losing gastropathy treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the 26-year period of 1962-1987, only six cases merited an unequivocal anatomic diagnosis. Two other cases previously described proved on review to be nondiagnostic in one instance and Campylobacter pylori gastritis in the other. Because abnormalities in the secretion of gastric acid and in the loss of protein from the stomach may coexist, a representation of each case in semiquantitative terms can be described on triaxial coordinates. Three patients had a hypercoagulable state, one in association with gastric carcinoma. One other case of gastric carcinoma and one of esophageal carcinoma coexistant with Ménétrier's disease were identified. Administration of subcutaneous heparin during the perioperative period to patients with Ménétrier's disease is appropriate regardless of whether or not hypercoagulation or carcinoma is manifest. If treatment with anticholinergic drugs and inhibitors of gastric acid secretion fails, total gastrectomy is the best solution, because it stops protein loss, eliminates hyperchlorhydria, prevents development of gastric carcinoma, and permits anastomotic reconstruction between normal esophagus and normal small bowel. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3264139

  2. One nuclear gene controls the removal of transient pre-sequences from two yeast proteins: one encoded by the nuclear the other by the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed Central

    Pratje, E; Guiard, B

    1986-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of the mitochondrially encoded subunit II of cytochrome oxidase is prevented by the yeast mutation ts2858. We report that the mutant is, in addition, temperature sensitive for the processing of cytochrome b2, a protein encoded by nuclear DNA. Thus the same mutation affects the removal of pre-sequences from a mitochondrially encoded inner membrane protein and from an imported soluble protein located in the intermembrane space. The mutation blocks the second processing step of cytochrome b2. The cytochrome b2 intermediate accumulates in the mutant at 36 degrees C and assumes its enzyme activity. At 23 degrees C the conversion to the mature protein is considerably slower than in wild-type cells. The similarity of the cleavage sites Asn-Asp and Asn-Glu of the precursors for cytochrome oxidase subunit II and cytochrome b2, respectively, suggests a sequence-specific recognition by one protease or a factor activating a protease. On the other hand maturation of cytochrome c peroxidase, another enzyme of the intermembrane space, is not affected by the pet ts2858 mutation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3015596

  3. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8265653

  4. Postmortem bacteriology of the lung by printculture of frozen tissue. A technique for in situ culture of microorganisms in whole frozen organs.

    PubMed Central

    Zanen-Lim, O G; Zanen, H C

    1980-01-01

    Lung lobes obtained at necropsy from 100 patients were frozen at -70 degrees C and sectioned as a whole in a sledge microtome as used on complete frozen animals. Prints of freshly cut surfaces were cultured on different solid media in 14 cm Petri dishes. The printcultures showed three patterns of bacterial growth: dense growth in 24%, patchy growth in 43%, and no significant growth in 33%. Forty-two of the 67 positive printcultures showed to or more bacterial species. Besides bacteria known to be pathogens of the lung, streptococci of the viridans group, enterococci, and streptococci of group B were grown, sometimes in pure cultures. The patterns of the printcultures were reproducible in successive sections, and the quantity of the bacterial species could be assessed. Contaminating bacteria on the surface of the lung lobe could be recognised, as these produced colonies restricted to the edges of the print. Because there was no smearing of infecting and contaminating bacteria, printculture offers a method of reference. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 PMID:6995493

  5. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  6. The Nature of D-Serine-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.

    1974-01-01

    Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130

  7. Identification and characterization of the 2D6 and Mr 23,000 antigens on the plasma membrane of rat spermatozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R; Brown, C R

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations [Jones, Brown, von Glos & Gaunt (1985) Exp. Cell Res. 156, 31-44] have demonstrated the appearance of a new antigenic determinant (recognized by monoclonal antibody 2D6) on the plasma membrane of rat spermatozoa during post-testicular maturation in the epididymis. Identification of the 2D6 antigen on Western blots from one-dimensional SDS/polyacrylamide gels revealed that it co-migrated with a membrane protein (designated Mr 23,000 antigen) present on testicular and immature germ cells, suggesting that one antigen might be a modified version of the other. In the present work, however, we demonstrate that, although they have similar Mr and are present in soluble and membrane-bound forms, the 2D6 and Mr 23,000 antigens are biochemically and immunologically distinct molecules. The properties of the antigens are described and compared. The Mr 23,000 antigen is present on both testicular and cauda epididymidal spermatozoa, has a pI of 6.1, contains no detectable carbohydrate, is not tissue-specific and is degraded by V8 protease. By contrast, the 2D6 antigen is glycosylated, has a broad pI from 4.5 to 6.1, is tissue- and species-specific and is resistant to digestion with V8 protease. Its role in sperm-egg recognition is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2439064

  8. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. III. Silver and dietary supplements of ascorbic acid. Histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1989-01-01

    Silver-loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into loose connective tissue of the rat pinna produced a local reaction. Initially the lesion comprised local necrosis and tissue disruption with predominantly small round cell infiltration. The subsequent organization was delayed and disordered. Fibroblasts developed grossly dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The matrix contained poorly orientated collagen fibrils of varying size and ground substance appeared condensed and granular. Distorted collagen fibrils were identified within membrane-bound vacuoles in the cytoplasm of both fibroblasts and macrophages. Abnormalities of the silver lesion were indicative of disordered collagen biosynthesis. Silver interfered with the biosynthesis and assembly of matrix components of the connective tissue. The reaction to silver beads in rats maintained on a diet heavily supplemented with ascorbic acid approached that of the control (sodium-loaded bead) with respect to the time scale, tissue reaction and tissue organization. The collagen matrix which formed was more organized and of greater density than that in the rat maintained on a normal diet. However, the repair tissue retained some of the morphological features of the legacy of silver toxicity, in particular delayed repair and dense intracellular fibrils within fibroblasts and macrophages. The excess of ascorbic acid partially ameliorated the effect of silver, possibly by compensating catabolysis of ascorbic acid caused by the presence of the released silver. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2923787

  9. Isolation and analysis of nucleotides from erythrocyte-free malarial parasites (Plasmodium berghei) and potential relevance to malaria chemotherapy*

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Knox; Trush, Michael A.; Wilson, Mark E.; Stealey, Patricia K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies using erythrocyte-free preparations of P. berghei were conducted with a view to improving knowledge of parasite metabolism, particularly nucleotide metabolism. The free parasites employed in these studies were prepared by saponin lysis of parasitized mouse erythrocytes in isotonic glucose solutions. A comparative study of post-lytic metabolic activity of free parasites prepared by saponin, ammonium chloride, or osmotic lysis indicated a significantly greater retention of metabolic activity in the saponin-lysis preparations. Separations of nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates extracted from free parasites were performed by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and ATP was additionally measured by luciferin—luciferase assay. Studies designed to differentiate among uptake, phosphorylation, and subsequent incorporation of 3H-adenosine into nucleic acids of the free parasite strongly suggested that adenosine is metabolized either outside or on the parasite membrane, being first deaminated to inosine and then deribosylated to hypoxanthine. Observations from HPLC and radioisotope precursor studies support a hypothesis in which hypoxanthine may be proposed as being a pivotal substrate for purine salvage by malarial parasites. Some of the key steps in purine salvage and pyrimidine biosynthesis were investigated, using radiolabel uptake studies and HPLC analysis of nucleotides of the free malarial parasite. These studies suggest that hypoxanthine uptake may constitute an important new basis for chemotherapeutic attack on the malarial parasite. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:338182

  10. Variations in structure and function during the life cycle of malarial parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, M.

    1977-01-01

    The fine structure of malarial parasites is reviewed and the function of the intracellular organelles is discussed. When the erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic, and mosquito stages of plasmodia are compared, substantial differences are seen. The major differences involve the amount of surface coat of the motile forms, the structure and function of the mitochondria, and the ingestion and digestion of nutrients. Significant structural differences are also observed between comparable stages of mammalian and avian parasites. These differences indicate that malarial parasites adapt themselves to the different environments in which the parasite resides. When host cell changes induced by malarial parasite infection are reviewed, alterations characteristic of the infecting plasmodia are observed in erythrocytes. Erythrocyte changes include caveola—vesicle complexes, excrescences, and clefts. The caveola—vesicle complexes possess malarial antigens and exhibit pinocytotic activities. The excrescences form focal junctions with adjacent cells and may be responsible for infected erythrocyte sequestration in organs. The significance of these host cell changes specific to certain species of malarial parasite is still unknown. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 8Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 1Fig. 7Fig. 4Fig. 10Fig. 5 PMID:338177

  11. Factors influencing the response to chemotherapy in human cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Mechkov, G.; Vutova, K.; Georgiev, P.; Lazarova, I.; Tonchev, Z.; Nedelkov, G.

    1992-01-01

    As the effectiveness of mebendazole and albendazole in patients with echinococcosis has been found to vary, we investigated some of the factors likely to be responsible. A total of 79 patients who were treated with mebendazole (44 patients) or albendazole (35 patients) were included in the study. Evaluation of the treatment results was based on the changes in cyst morphology, as evidenced by the results of X-ray radiography, sonography, and computed tomography, and on analysis of the findings in relation to parasitic and drug factors. The response of cysts according to their site did not vary much, with the exception of the poor response of bone cysts. A more important factor seems to be cyst size, since the treatment was more efficacious against smaller and younger cysts. The presence of daughter cysts should be regarded as an unfavourable factor for treatment response. Cyst multiplicity did not present insurmountable difficulties, provided the cysts were small and a prolonged course of therapy was undergone. The choice of drug used for the therapy was important, with the results supporting the advantage of albendazole. In planning the chemotherapy of hydatid disease, factors such as cyst condition and drug used should therefore be taken into consideration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1638663

  12. Ultrastructural changes in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed Central

    Dheen, S T; Tay, S S; Wong, W C

    1994-01-01

    Ultrastructural and morphometric studies were undertaken on the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats over a period of 1 y. At 3 d, a few dendrites showing electron-dense cytoplasm and dilated rER were dispersed in the neuropil among seemingly normal neuronal somata. At 1-6 months, the somata contained numerous vacuoles of various sizes which probably originated from fragmented and dilated rER. Numerous unidentifiable vacuolated and electron-dense neuronal profiles were also seen in the neuropil. At 9-12 months, the number of degenerating electron-dense axon terminals and dendrites was markedly increased in diabetic rats. Glial cells containing electron-dense debris in their cytoplasm were involved in phagocytosis. At all time intervals studied, the mean cross-sectional cell area and mean cross-sectional nuclear area of supraoptic nuclei neurons of diabetic rats were significantly increased in comparison with age-matched controls injected with normal saline. The causative factors for these changes are not clear. However, it is suggested that the osmotic stress caused by chronic dehydration in the diabetic animals may be partly or wholly responsible for these ultrastructural changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7928649

  13. DNA affinity cleaving analysis of homeodomain-DNA interaction: identification of homeodomain consensus sites in genomic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Z; Ebright, Y W; Iler, N; Pendergrast, P S; Echelard, Y; McMahon, A P; Ebright, R H; Abate, C

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated the DNA-cleaving moiety o-phenanthroline-copper at amino acid 10 of the Msx-1 homeodomain, and we have analyzed site-specific DNA cleavage by the resulting Msx-1 derivative. We show that amino acid 10 of the Msx-1 homeodomain is close to the 5' end of the consensus DNA site 5'-(C/G)TAATTG-3' in the Msx-1-DNA complex. Our results indicate that the orientation of the Msx-1 homeodomain relative to DNA is analogous to the orientation of the engrailed and Antennapedia homeodomains. We show further that DNA affinity cleaving permits identification of consensus DNA sites for Msx-1 in kilobase DNA substrates. The specificity of the approach enabled us to identify an Msx-1 consensus DNA site within the transcriptional control region of the developmental regulatory gene Wnt-1. We propose that incorporation of o-phenanthroline-copper at amino acid 10 of a homeodomain may provide a generalizable strategy to determine the orientation of a homeodomain relative to DNA and to identify homeodomain consensus DNA sites in genomic DNA. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7904065

  14. Immunogold Localization of Xyloglucan and Rhamnogalacturonan I in the Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Patricia J.; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Plant cell walls serve several functions: they impart rigidity to the plant, provide a physical and chemical barrier between the cell and its environment, and regulate the size and shape of each cell. Chemical studies have provided information on the biochemical composition of the plant cell walls as well as detailed knowledge of individual cell wall molecules. In contrast, very little is known about the distribution of specific cell wall components around individual cells and throughout tissues. To address this problem, we have produced polyclonal antibodies against two cell wall matrix components; rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), a pectic polysaccharide, and xyloglucan (XG), a hemicellulose. By using the antibiodies as specific markers we have been able to localize these polymers on thin sections of suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). Our results reveal that each molecule has a unique distribution. XG is localized throughout the entire wall and middle lamella. RG-I is restricted to the middle lamella and is especially evident in the junctions between cells. These observations indicate that plant cell walls may have more distinct chemical (and functional?) domains than previously envisaged. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665111

  15. Studies on sea-snake venoms. Crystallization of erabutoxins a and b from Laticauda semifasciata venom

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, N.; Arai, Hiroko

    1966-01-01

    1. The toxic principles in the venom of the sea-snake Laticauda semifasciata were separated into two components by CM-cellulose chromatography and obtained in crystalline forms. They were named `erabutoxins a and b'. 2. The homogeneity of each toxin was shown by rechromatography, by disk electrophoresis, by ultracentrifuging, by toxicity measurements before and after repeated crystallizations and by N-terminal analysis. 3. They had molecular weights of about 7000. Both of them contained 61 (or 62) amino acid residues/molecule. The only difference between erabutoxins a and b was that one of the aspartic acid (or asparagine) residues in erabutoxin a was replaced by a histidine residue in erabutoxin b. 4. Both of the toxins had LD50 values of 0·15μg./g. body wt. for mice and 0·07μg./g. for rats. It was shown with frog-muscle preparations that they acted on postsynaptic membrane to block neuromuscular transmission. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:5964959

  16. 75Se-selenomethionine scanning in the diagnosis of tumours of the pancreas and adjacent viscera: The use of the test and its impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Denis M.; Brown, Pamela; Melmed, R. N.; Agnew, J. E.; Bouchier, I. A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results of pancreatic scanning with 75Se-selenomethionine in 393 carefully documented patients over a two-year period are presented. On follow up 50 patients had operatively proven malignant tumours in the gland and a further 22 had similar tumours in adjacent organs, clinically mimicking carcinoma of the pancreas and in many cases causing scan abnormalities. Five patients had pancreatic adenomata. Remote tumours rarely affected the scan. Examination of the role of scanning in patients with neoplastic disease revealed that the test was effective in screening and in detection; false negative diagnoses were rare. By contrast, survival following diagnosis was extremely poor with only 8% of pancreatic tumours resectable and 50% metastasized at the time of surgery. Causes of pancreatic dysfunction, other than pancreatitis or carcinoma, which were associated with abnormalities on the scan are described and general aspects of reporting on the scan are discussed. The patterns seen in abnormal scans, while non-specific with regard to aetiology, were anatomically meaningful and useful adjuncts to the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. A normal scan excluded pancreatic cancer with a probability greater than 95%. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5045709

  17. Immunological detection of degradation intermediates of skeletal-muscle glycogen phosphorylase in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, E J; Flannery, A V; Cidlowski, J A; Beynon, R J

    1992-01-01

    Over 95% of the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in skeletal is bound to one protein, glycogen phosphorylase. This, and the fact that phosphorylase constitutes approx. 5% of the soluble protein in skeletal muscle, introduce the possibility that PLP might be used as a specific label to identify degradation intermediates of the enzyme. In this investigation, we have developed immunological methods, using a monoclonal antibody to PLP and polyclonal antibodies to phosphorylase, to detect degradation intermediates in vitro and in vivo. We have identified a family of degradation intermediates of glycogen phosphorylase in the high-speed-supernatant fraction of mouse skeletal muscle. These peptides react with both types of antibodies and are in the size and concentration range expected for degradation intermediates in a model in which the committed step is followed by rapid clearance of the products. Changes in amounts of degradation intermediates are examined in physiological or pathological conditions in which the rate of degradation of phosphorylase is altered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1445274

  18. Independent and synergistic activity of rol A, B and C loci in stimulating abnormal growth in plants

    PubMed Central

    Spena, A.; Schmülling, T.; Koncz, C.; Schell, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Ri plasmid A4 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains within its T-DNA genetic information able to trigger root formation in infected plants. Tobacco plants regenerated from transformed roots display the hairy root (hr) syndrome. We show that DNA fragments containing the rol B locus alone are able to induce root formation both in tobacco and kalanchoe tissues. The rol A and the rol C loci by themselves are also able to induce root formation in tobacco but not in kalanchoe. This capacity to induce root formation in either host is greatly increased when the rol A and/or C loci are combined with the rol B locus. Root induction is shown to be correlated with the expression of the rol loci. Transgenic plants exhibit all the characteristics of the hairy root syndrome only when all three loci are present and expressed. Although the activity of the rol encoded functions is synergistic, each of them appears to independently influence host functions involved in the determination of root differentiation. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453816

  19. Topoisomerase I activity associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles and equine infectious anemia virus core.

    PubMed Central

    Priel, E; Showalter, S D; Roberts, M; Oroszlan, S; Segal, S; Aboud, M; Blair, D G

    1990-01-01

    In the present study, we found a topoisomerase I (topo I) activity in two strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) particles. The topo I activity was located in the EIAV cores and differed from the cellular topo I in its ionic requirements and response to ATP, indicating that these were two distinct forms of this enzyme. Topo I activity was removed from the viral lysates and viral cores by anti-topo I antiserum. The only protein recognized by this antiserum was an 11.5 kd protein in HIV lysate and 11 kd in EIAV lysate. We showed that the 11 kd protein recognized by the anti-topo I antiserum is the EIAV p11 nucleocapsid protein. Furthermore, purified topo I protein blocked the binding of the antibodies to the p11 protein and vice versa, purified p11 protein blocked the binding of these antibodies to the cellular topo I. These results suggest that the EIAV p11 nucleocapsid protein and the cellular topo I share similar epitopes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2174357

  20. Reversion of Aberrant Plants Transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes Is Associated with the Transcriptional Inactivation of the TL-DNA Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Sinkar, Vilas P.; White, Frank F.; Furner, Ian J.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell; Pythoud, Francois; Gordon, Milton P.

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic plants harboring the left transfer DNA (TL-DNA) of the root inducing plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes show many developmental abnormalities. We observed frequent appearance of normal looking lateral (revertant) shoots from such aberrant plants. Unlike aberrant shoots of the plant, revertant shoots exhibited a very high growth rate and set viable seeds. Sexual and vegetative reproduction studies showed inheritance of the revertant phenotype. Southern hybridization experiments demonstrated that the T-DNA pattern was identical in aberrant and revertant shoots, indicating that the revertant phenotype was not due to deletion or rearrangement of the T-DNA genes. Specific T-DNA transcripts were not expressed in revertant shoots. Thus, the revertant phenotype appears to result from the transcriptional inactivation of T-DNA genes. We propose that similar events in the past may have mediated horizontal acquisition of TL-DNA genes by ancestors of the genus Nicotiana, which are still found as silent endogenous T-DNA in present day untransformed Nicotiana species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16665950

  1. Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca).

    PubMed Central

    Badaracco, G; Landsberger, N; Benfante, R

    1992-01-01

    The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1311554

  2. Differential subcellular mRNA targeting: deletion of a single nucleotide prevents the transport to axons but not to dendrites of rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, E; Morris, J F; Richter, D

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that mRNA encoding the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor is targeted to axons of rat magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract. In the homozygous Brattle-boro rat, which has a G nucleotide deletion in the coding region of the AVP gene, no such targeting is observed although the gene is transcribed. RNase protection and heteroduplex analyses demonstrate that, in heterozygous animals, which express both alleles of the AVP gene, the wild-type but not the mutant transcript is subject to axonal compartmentation. In contrast, wild-type and mutant AVP mRNAs are present in dendrites. These data suggest the existence of different mechanisms for mRNA targeting to the two subcellular compartments. Axonal mRNA localization appears to take place after protein synthesis; the mutant transcript is not available for axonal targeting because it lacks a stop codon preventing its release from ribosomes. Dendritic compartmentation, on the other hand, is likely to precede translation and, thus, would be unable to discriminate between the two mRNAs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753814

  3. A Morphologic and Biochemical Study of Nutritional Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Semipurified Diets

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Nephrocalcinosis occurred in weanling female rats fed a semipurified diet for 8 weeks. Mineralization of the inner cortex began after 3 weeks on the semipurified diet, and was most severe after 8 weeks. Intraluminal calcification was observed first in the pars recta of the proximal convoluted tubule; calcification of cytoplasmic organelles or basement membranes of the tubular epithelium was not observed. At the end of 8 weeks, some mineral deposits were seen within Henle's loops of the outer medulla. Histochemical studies demonstrated that the deposits contained calcium and phosphorus and had a glycoprotein matrix; electron diffraction studies indicated that the main mineral phase was hydroxyapatite. No differences in serum calcium or phosphorus or in the ultrastructural characteristics of the thyroid parafollicular cells and the parathyroid parenchymal cells were observed between animals fed the semipurified diet and those fed a commercial chow. The urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium was less and urinary citrate excretion was greater in animals fed the semipurified diet. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 8Fig 9Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:5096368

  4. The pre-ulcerative phase of carrageenan-induced colonic ulceration in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, S. N.; Marcus, A. J.; Marcus, R.; Ewen, S. W.; Watt, J.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-ulcerative phase of carrageenan-induced colonic ulceration was investigated in guinea-pigs supplied 3% degraded carrageenan as an aqueous solution as drinking fluid for 2 or 3 days during which no ulceration of the bowel was observed with the naked eye or dissecting microscope. Mucosal microscopic changes, from caecum to rectum, were multifocal and included cellular infiltrates, dilatation of glands, crypt abscesses, micro-ulcers and sulphated polysaccharide in the lamina propria. Sulphated polysaccharide was also demonstrated histologically for the first time within the surface epithelium and showed ultrastructural features similar to carrageenan. The results indicate that colonic epithelium in the guinea-pig is capable of macromolecular absorption. Carrageenan, a highly active polyanionic electrolyte, within the surface epithelial cells is most likely a primary factor in the breakdown of mucosal integrity. Macromolecular absorption causing enteropathy of the large bowel is a new pathophysiological concept which may have implications in man, particularly in the pathology of large bowel disease. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1356411

  5. Minor Xp21 chromosome deletion in a male associated with expression of duchenne muscular dystrophy, chronic granulomatous disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and McLeod syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Francke, Uta; Ochs, Hans D.; de Martinville, Bérengère; Giacalone, Joseph; Lindgren, Valerie; Distèche, Christine; Pagon, Roberta A.; Hofker, Marten H.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Pearson, Peter L.; Wedgwood, Ralph J.

    1985-01-01

    We are reporting a male patient who suffered from chronic granulomatous disease associated with cytochrome b−245 deficiency and McLeod red cell phenotype, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and retinitis pigmentosa. On cytogenetic analysis, he seemed to have a very subtle interstitial deletion of part of band Xp21. Since it was impossible to know whether this material was truly deleted or inserted elsewhere in the genome, somatic cell and molecular studies were carried out. In somatic cell hybrids, the deleted X chromosome was isolated on a Chinese hamster background. Southern blot analysis with 20 single-copy probes, that had been mapped to the X short arm, led to the discovery of one (probe 754) that is missing from this patient's X chromosome and also from his total DNA. This proves that he, indeed, has a deletion rather than a balanced insertion. The results provide cytological mapping information for the X-linked phenotypes present in this patient. Furthermore, probe 754 recognizes a restriction fragment length polymorphism of high frequency that makes it the most powerful probe currently available for linkage studies with X-linked muscular dystrophy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4039107

  6. Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil.

    PubMed Central

    Ratanasethkul, C; Riddell, C; Salmon, R E; O'Neil, J B

    1976-01-01

    Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1000400

  7. Identification of a second homolog of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein that is expressed in the nervous system and secretory tissues of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Boulianne, G L; Trimble, W S

    1995-01-01

    N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is an ATPase known to have an essential role in intracellular membrane transport events. Recently, cDNA clones encoding a Drosophila melanogaster homolog of this protein, named dNSF, were characterized and found to be expressed in the nervous system. We now report the identification of a second homolog of NSF, called dNSF-2 within this species and report evidence that this ubiquitous and widely utilized fusion protein belongs to a multigene family. The predicted amino acid sequence of dNSF-2 is 84.5% identical to dNSF (hereafter named dNSF-1), 59% identical to NSF from Chinese hamster, and 38.5% identical to the yeast homolog SEC18. The highest similarity was found in a region of dNSF-2 containing one of two ATP-binding sites; this region is most similar to members of a superfamily of ATPases. dNSF-2 is localized to a region between bands 87F12 and 88A3 on chromosome 3, and in situ hybridization techniques revealed expression in the nervous system during embryogenesis and in several imaginal discs and secretory structures in the larvae. Developmental modulation of dNSF-2 expression suggests that quantitative changes in the secretory apparatus are important in histogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624376

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve: an analysis of echocardiographic variables related to outcome and the mechanism of dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, G T; Weyman, A E; Abascal, V M; Block, P C; Palacios, I F

    1988-01-01

    Twenty two patients (four men, 18 women, mean age 56 years, range 21 to 88 years) with a history of rheumatic mitral stenosis were studied by cross sectional echocardiography before and after balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. The appearance of the mitral valve on the pre-dilatation echocardiogram was scored for leaflet mobility, leaflet thickening, subvalvar thickening, and calcification. Mitral valve area, left atrial volume, transmitral pressure difference, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, cardiac rhythm, New York Heart Association functional class, age, and sex were also studied. Because there was some increase in valve area in almost all patients the results were classified as optimal or suboptimal (final valve area less than 1.0 cm2, final left atrial pressure greater than 10 mm Hg, or final valve area less than 25% greater than the initial area). The best multiple logistic regression fit was found with the total echocardiographic score alone. A high score (advanced leaflet deformity) was associated with a suboptimal outcome while a low score (a mobile valve with limited thickening) was associated with an optimal outcome. No other haemodynamic or clinical variables emerged as predictors of outcome in this analysis. Examination of pre-dilatation and post-dilatation echocardiograms showed that balloon dilatation reliably resulted in cleavage of the commissural plane and thus an increase in valve area. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 PMID:3190958

  9. Macrophages related to leptomeninges and ventral nerve roots. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Fraher, J P; McDougall, R D

    1975-01-01

    In immature rats active macrophages were frequently seen projecting into the subarachnoid space from the surface of the leptomeninges. They also occurred between the layers of the pia and within the nerve roots. They were most frequent during the first two weeks after birth, which is a period of rapid neural growth and myelination in ventral roots. In contrast, they were much fewer at later stages. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are described. It is suggested that these cells take part in tissue growth and remodelling by the removal of material which degenerates or becomes redundant during development. For example, they may ingest effete leptomeningeal cells or fragments of them. Those within the ventral roots may phagocytose abnormal Schwann cells, or the myelin of sheaths which have failed to develop normally. It is also suggested that macrophages may be involved in the excavation of the subarachnoid space. Another possible function in which they may be involved is the ingestion of material, possibly of a protein nature, from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1213953

  10. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  11. Procurement and Maintenance of Germ-Free Swine for Microbiological Investigations1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R. C.; Bohl, E. H.; Kohler, E. M.

    1964-01-01

    Germ-free swine were routinely procured by both hysterectomy and hysterotomy (Caesarian section). By means of light-weight portable equipment, piglets could be obtained and transported to the laboratory (without contamination) over distances in excess of 100 miles. The isolators employed in rearing were constructed of stainless steel and flexible plastic film. At weekly intervals, fecal swabs and waste from the floor of the isolator were cultured on blood-agar and in thioglycolate broth, as well as being examined microscopically for the presence of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The presence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) and viruses in such material was not demonstrable, either by the use of enriched PPLO media or primary porcine-kidney cell cultures. Tissues, body fluids, and cecal contents of piglets sacrificed specifically for microbiological examination were also negative for PPLO, viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Prenatal infestations by ascarids were not observed. Nutritional problems related to rearing of germ-free piglets, such as hypoglycemia, were not encountered, and the use of an autoclaved commercial sow's milk replacer proved quite satisfactory. The temperature to which piglets were subjected during the first few days of life, however, was very important. The isolator design and application of gnotobiotic techniques to the procurement and rearing of a large germ-free animal such as the pig proved feasible and less difficult than anticipated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:14199016

  12. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Felix; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Boller, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. The antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. Protein extracts from pea pods infected with Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. Protein extracts from uninfected pea pods, which contained low activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, did not inhibit fungal growth. Purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, tested individually, did not inhibit growth of most of the test fungi. Only Trichoderma viride was inhibited by chitinase alone, and only Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi was inhibited by β-1,3-glucanase alone. However, combinations of purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase inhibited all fungi tested as effectively as crude protein extracts containing the same enzyme activities. The pea pathogen, Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi, and the nonpathogen of peas, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, were similarly strongly inhibited by chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the differential pathogenicity of the two fungi is not due to differential sensitivity to the pea enzymes. Inhibition of fungal growth was caused by the lysis of the hyphal tips. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666407

  13. A study of mycobacteria isolated from cervical lymph glands of African patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav; Stott, H.; Kubín, M.; Kiaer, J.

    1960-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph glands is common among Africans, but little is known at present about the causal type of mycobacterium. A study was therefore made in 1958, jointly by WHO and the Kenya Medical Department, to isolate and type mycobacteria from specimens of cervical lymph glands from African patients. From 57 such specimens, collected throughout Kenya and sent to the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague for bacteriological and histological examination, 41 strains—all typed as Myco. tuberculosis var. hominis—were isolated, studied in subculture, and tested for drug sensitivity and animal pathogenicity. The cultural, pathogenic, biochemical, and other characteristics of these strains show that mycobacteria isolated from tuberculous cervical lymph glands of Africans essentially resemble those similarly isolated from Europeans, but that all of them were of the human type. No bovine or atypical strains were isolated. The importance of investigating the chest condition of Africans suspected of having tuberculous cervical lymph glands is demonstrated by the high incidence of chest lesions revealed on radiological examination of such persons. This report describes in detail the various methods employed in the study for making cultures, drug sensitivity tests, and histological examinations; the characteristics of the mycobacterial strains isolated; and the results of the bacteriological, clinical, histological, and radiological examinations performed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:20604079

  14. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  15. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  16. Radiologic assessment in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, R. I.

    1984-01-01

    The severely ill infant or child who requires admission to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) often presents with a complex set of problems necessitating multiple and frequent management decisions. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role, not only in the initial assessment of the patient's condition and establishing a diagnosis, but also in monitoring the patient's progress and the effects of interventional therapeutic measures. Bedside studies obtained using portable equipment are often limited but can provide much useful information when a careful and detailed approach is utilized in producing the radiograph and interpreting the examination. This article reviews some of the basic principles of radiographic interpretation and details some of the diagnostic points which, when promptly recognized, can lead to a better understanding of the patient's condition and thus to improved patient care and management. While chest radiography is stressed, studies of other regions including the upper airway, abdomen, skull, and extremities are discussed. A brief consideration of the expanding role of new modality imaging (i.e., ultrasound, CT) is also included. Multiple illustrative examples of common and uncommon problems are shown. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 FIG. 21 FIG. 22 FIG. 23 FIG. 24 FIG. 25 FIG. 26 FIG. 27 FIG. 28 FIG. 29 FIG. 30 FIG. 31 FIG. 32 FIG. 33 PMID:6375164

  17. Hepatic haemangiomata: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Larcher, V F; Howard, E R; Mowat, A P

    1981-01-01

    Five cases of hepatic haemangioma are described, and a sixth (previously reported) is reviewed. Clinical features, investigation, and management are described to show the great variability of the complications and prognosis. Five children presented in the first 10 weeks of life with hepatomegaly; 4 developed congestive cardiac failure; 3 had cutaneous haemangiomata. One child presented at age 4 years with hepatomegaly and anaemia, and on investigation had features of chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation. Focal decrease or patchiness in hepatic uptake of technetium-99m colloid, and abnormal intrahepatic circulation was shown in all cases. In 3 children liver biopsy was performed to exclude malignant disease. In one patient there was spontaneous regression of the tumour by age 3 years. In 3 cases hepatic artery ligation was necessary to control congestive cardiac failure which had persisted despite treatment with digoxin, diuretics, and oral corticosteroids, a procedure which was without complications after up to 8 years. One infant with intractable portal hypertension, hepatic vein obstruction, and severe cholestasis died with persisting alimentary haemorrhage and intra-abdominal sepsis. One child aged 4 years showed no immediate response to hepatic artery ligation but the size of her tumour got smaller and the clinical features diminished after irradiation. These tumours cause considerable morbidity and have a high reported mortality. If congestive cardiac failure is not rapidly controlled, hepatic artery ligation should be performed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7469456

  18. Fine-structure studies of experimental skeletal muscle trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Paddle, B. M.; Freeman, S. E.; Mawson, I.; Graham, H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of damage to skeletal muscle caused by a high-velocity rifle bullet. Such damage extends peripherally from the permanent wound cavity and is focal in nature. A fine-structure investigation of this region suggests that some components of the muscle are more susceptible to the wounding process than others. The sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared most sensitive and areas as far as 3 cm from the wound cavity frequently showed gross vacuolization. Mitochrondrial damage was seen, but only in areas where there was also damage to myofibrils and the microvasculature. Focal capillary leakage up to 3 cm from the wound cavity was demonstrated in an earlier study by the use of a fluorescein-labelled dextran (Paddle and Freeman, 1979). This finding was confirmed. A possible correlate at the fine structural level was swelling of te capillary endothelial cells, which occurred in the absence of other signs of microvascular damage. Damage to the endothelial junctions was not observed, even in severely damaged tissue. Intravascular colloidal carbon escaped into the extravascular space only when the microvasculature was fractured. The relationship of these findings to macroscopic damage is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7326215

  19. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718

  20. Detection of low copy human papilloma virus DNA and mRNA in routine paraffin sections of cervix by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J; Graham, A K; Frank, C; Fleming, K A; Evans, M F; McGee, J O

    1987-01-01

    In analysing human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix in formalin fixed paraffin sections by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation two main problems were found: detachment of sections from the glass during hybridisation and probe detection; inadequate sensitivity and inability to assess sensitivity of the in situ procedure. The first problem was investigated by assessing the efficiency of various tissue adhesives individually and in combination. The second problem was addressed by optimising conditions for DNA unmasking, hybridisation, and biotinylated probe detection. Sensitivity of the final in situ procedure developed was assessed by using the detection of pHY2.1 repeats as a built-in control. Extrapolation of data showed that less than 10 copies of HPV DNA can be visualised by these procedures. HPV nucleic acid, mainly in the form of DNA, was detected not only in koilocytic nuclei but also in suprabasal cells in condylomas and CIN lesions. HPV mRNA was also visualised in the cytoplasm (and probably also nuclei) of the same cell types. These non-isotopic in situ procedures give results comparable to those obtained with radiolabelled probes, but they are less time consuming and provide better morphological resolution. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:2821078

  1. Timolol in operated closed-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C I

    1980-01-01

    Tonometry in 9 eyes (7 patients) provides some evidence that timolol eye drops are useful in improving control of pressure in eyes operated for closed-angle glaucoma. In cases 1 and 2 (Figs, 1 and 2) this beta 1 and 2 blocker reduced pressure consistently. Case 3 (Fig. 3) showed that timolol 0.5% twice daily was as effective as pilocarpine 2% or 4% with adrenaline 1%. The effect of timolol 0.5% in case 4 (Fig. 4) and case 6 (Fig. 6) was additive to pilocarpine and adrenaline; in case 5 (Fig. 5) it probably improved the effect of adrenaline, but in cases 4 and 5 there may have been some loss of effect with time. Case 7 (Fig. 7) showed a good effect of timolol, reversed on withdrawal, but pressure fell again in spite of continued withholding of timolol. Timolol will be especially valuable in the control of pressure if an operation involving iridectomy has not been completely successful in open-angle glaucoma or more especially in closed-angle glaucoma because it has no effect on the pupil. Miotics will tend to produce posterior pupillary synechiae because aqueous humour will go through the iridectomy, not under the edge of the pupil. The danger will be greater in eyes with closed-angle glaucoma because the pupil is closely applied to the anterior lens surface, which will also tend to produce irritative iridocyclitis. PMID:7387959

  2. The structure and function of a slowly adapting touch corpuscle in hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Iggo, A.; Muir, A. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. Slowly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors, in the cat and primates, have been studied by histological and neurophysiological methods. 2. Each touch corpuscle is a dome-shaped elevation of the epidermis, whose deepest layer contains up to fifty specialized tactile cells. 3. Nerve plates, enclosed by the tactile cell (Merkel cells), are connected to a single myelinated axon in the dense collagenous core of the corpuscle. 4. The corpuscle generated > 1000 impulses/sec when excited by vertical surface pressure. The response was highly localized and showed a low mechanical threshold, the frequency being dependent upon the velocity and amplitude of the displacement. There was a period of rapid adaptation before a sustained response which might continue for > 30 min. 5. A quantitative analysis of the responses to excitation by displacements of differing amplitude, velocity and duration is included. 6. The discharge of touch corpuscle units evoked by a mechanical stimulus was temperature-sensitive, and was enhanced by a fall in skin temperature. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4974746

  3. Human general transcription factor TFIIA: characterization of a cDNA encoding the small subunit and requirement for basal and activated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, J; Bernstein, R; Roeder, R G

    1995-01-01

    The human general transcription factor TFIIA is one of several factors involved in specific transcription by RNA polymerase II, possibly by regulating the activity of the TATA-binding subunit (TBP) of TFIID. TFIIA purified from HeLa extracts consists of 35-, 19-, and 12-kDa subunits. Here we describe the isolation of a cDNA clone (hTFIIA gamma) encoding the 12-kDa subunit. Using expression constructs derived from hTFIIA gamma and TFIIA alpha/beta (which encodes a 55-kDa precursor to the alpha and beta subunits of natural TFIIA), we have constructed a synthetic TFIIA with a polypeptide composition similar to that of natural TFIIA. The recombinant complex supports the formation of a DNA-TBP-TFIIA complex and mediates both basal and Gal4-VP16-activated transcription by RNA polymerase II in TFIIA-depleted nuclear extracts. In contrast, TFIIA has no effect on tRNA and 5S RNA transcription by RNA polymerase III in this system. We also present evidence that both the p55 and p12 recombinant subunits interact with TBP and that the basic region of TBP is critical for the TFIIA-dependent function of TBP in nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7724559

  4. Monoclonal antibodies specific to a Ca2(+)-bound form of lipocortin I distinguish its Ca2(+)-dependent phospholipid-binding ability from its ability to inhibit phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Domae, K; Yamanouchi, T; Kakunaga, T; Kitajima, Y; Yaoita, H

    1990-01-01

    Lipocortin I, a Ca2(+)-and phospholipid-binding protein without EF-hand structures, has many biological effects in vitro. Its actual role in vivo, however is unknown. We obtained and characterized five monoclonal antibodies to lipocortin I. Two of these monoclonal antibodies (L2 and L4-MAbs) reacted with the Ca(+)-bound form of lipocortin I, but not with the Ca2(+)-free form, both in vivo and in vitro. Lipocortin I required greater than or equal to 10 microM-Ca2+ to bind the two antibodies, and this Ca2+ requirement was not affected by phosphatidylserine. L2-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I and inhibited its binding to Escherichia coli membranes and to phosphatidylserine in vitro. L4-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I, but did not affect its binding to E. coli membranes or to phosphatidylserine. These findings indicated that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by lipocortin I was not simply due to removal or capping of the substrates in E. coli membranes. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence study using L2-MAb showed the actual existence of Ca2(+)-bound form of lipocortin I in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2143895

  5. Observations on the Etiological Agent of Plasmacytosis of Mink

    PubMed Central

    McKay, K. A.; Gray, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    A hypothesis based on a possible connection between the granules produced by a species of Mycobacterium and the agent causing Plasmacytosis in mink is suggested. The presence of these granules in the identical tissues of mink from which a virus had previously been isolated, is noted. Granules with the ability to produce a “germ tube” with acid-fast staining characteristics were found to be present in these tissues. Preliminary cytological studies have shown these granules to be similar to those described by Much. When tissues containing the granules were injected into guinea pigs, rabbits and chickens and these were later tested with avian tuberculin, positive skin reactions occurred. A disease was reproduced in chickens which simulated avian leucosis. In guinea pigs a disease was reproduced which resembled Plasmacytosis in mink with some histological differences. Rabbits appeared to be refractory to infection with the dosage and route of inoculation used. The results obtained from bacteriological studies, tissue culture, animal inoculation, as well as observations made on the cytological properties of the granules, are described and discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:14230911

  6. Origin of replication in episomal bovine papilloma virus type 1 DNA isolated from transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, W; Rösl, F; Zentgraf, H

    1984-01-01

    The origin of replication of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV-1) has been determined by isolating replicative intermediates (RI) of BPV-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HEF-BPV). These RI were treated with single cut restriction enzymes to determine the start-position (origin) of the extending replication eyes using electron microscopic techniques. 'Cairns'-type RI molecules were shown to contain one replication eye in monomeric as well as in dimeric molecules. The position of this eye was localized at 6940 +/- 5% bp in the physical map. In a second set of experiments BPV-1 DNA fragments cloned in pBR322 were tested for transient episomal replication. Transfected cells were harvested after increasing periods of time and screened for replication with isoschizomeric restriction enzymes to differentiate between input and replicated DNA. The part of the BPV genome harboring the replication origin spans the BPV ClaI-C restriction fragment corresponding to the non-coding region of the BPV genome and coincides with the DNase I-hypersensitive control region in the chromatin, isolated from transformed cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:6092063

  7. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  8. Experimental Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W. Jann; Yoshida, N.; Canty, T.; Verity, M. Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations were studied in the brainstem reticular formation of animals in which transient coma had been induced by controlled blows to the head. After a period of 7-10 days, animals that did not show obvious injury were artificially respired and sacrificed by perfusion with buffered formalin and glutaraldehyde. Histochemistry and light microscopy revealed chromatolysis of 10-15% of the neurons of pertinent segments of the nucleus giganto cellularis. There was much PAS-positive, diastase-sensitive material in the associated neuropil. Electron miscroscopy of the region confirmed the polysaccharide accumulation in dendrites, presynaptic boutons and preterminal axons. Similar material was found in some astrocytes. A longitudinal microchemical investigation with suitable controls of glycogen concentration in the brainstem demonstrated peak values at 5-7 days after concussion. No significant change in phosphorylase activity was demonstrated. The significance of glycogen accumulation in postconcussive injury and possible mechanisms for its accumulation in relation to changes in electrolyte balance and alterations in Kreb's cycle intermediates are discussed. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 11Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:5045878

  9. Surgical experience with thirteen conjoined twins.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J A; Holcomb, G W; Schnaufer, L; Templeton, J M; Bishop, H C; Ross, A J; Duckett, J W; Norwood, W I; Ziegler, M M; Koop, C E

    1988-01-01

    Conjoined twins occur in approximately one in 50,000 or so births, and most do not survive. The authors report herein their experience with 13 conjoined twins over the last 30 years, involving those of the following forms: thoracopagus (4 cases), omphalopagus (1 case), ischiopagus (4 cases), pygopagus (1 case), craniopagus (1 case), and incomplete or parasitic varieties (2 cases). The various diagnostic and imaging studies used are described in detail for each form of twinning. Separation is best delayed until such infants are relatively mature (i.e., 6-12 months of age). Operative survival was 50% in those operated on in the neonatal period, but 90% in those over 4 months of age. Ten separations were attempted in 13 sets of twins, with 16 operative survivors. Significantly, up to 10 years after surgery, there were six late deaths due to serious associated congenital anomalies, predominantly cardiac. Improved recent survival is probably the result of the availability of more accurate imaging studies and better anesthetic and operative techniques, with great emphasis on performing immediate reconstruction whenever possible. Use of skin expanders and prosthetic mesh has facilitated wound closure. In the future, ex vivo cardiac reconstruction and autotransplantation may permit separation of twins with complicated conjoined hearts. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3421755

  10. Quantitative Studies on Fabrics as Disseminators of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sidwell, Robert W.; Dixon, Glen J.; Mcneil, Ethel

    1966-01-01

    The persistence of vaccinia virus on wool (blanket and gabardine) and cotton (sheeting, terry cloth, and knit jersey) fabrics was studied. The fabrics were exposed to the virus by three methods: direct contact, aerosol, and virus-containing dust having a high content of textile fibers. Fabrics exposed to virus by each method were held in 35 and 78% relative humidities at 25 C. Virus was recovered for up to 14 weeks from wool fabrics exposed to virus and held in the low humidity. In contrast, virus persisted for shorter periods of time on the cotton fabrics. No virus was detected on terry cloth as early as 3 days after exposure to virus. The virus appeared to be less stable in the high humidity, and the method of exposure of the fabrics to virus apparently had an effect upon the persistence of the agent. On all fabrics, viral persistence was of sufficient duration to be of epidemiological significance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:5953019

  11. Paraquat Poisoning—Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Matthew, Henry; Logan, Andrew; Woodruff, M. F. A.; Heard, Brian

    1968-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy ingested a mouthful of paraquat and developed severe respiratory distress. Treatment included the transplantation of one lung, but subsequently changes developed in the graft which are thought to have been due to paraquat, and the patient died two weeks after the operation The dangers of keeping poisonous substances in incorrectly labelled bottles has once again been demonstrated, while the pattern of paraquat poisoning, especially the development of proliferative alveolitis and terminal bronchiolitis, is confirmed. Immediate forced diuresis followed by haemodialysis is necessary to remove paraquat, thereby perhaps avoiding initiation of the changes in the lungs. The technical feasibility of human lung transplantation has again been demonstrated. It has also been shown that infection does not necessarily pose an insuperable problem, at any rate if, as in the case described, there was no preoperative pulmonary infection in either recipient or donor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5-8Fig. 9-12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15-16Fig. 16 PMID:4877735

  12. The Hyperbaric Chamber at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Duff, John H.; Gundel, Walter D.; Vignoul, Henri G.; MacLean, Lloyd D.

    1964-01-01

    The single apparent and potential benefit of hyperbaric oxygen is the great increase in the blood content of dissolved oxygen achieved when pure oxygen is breathed at increased pressure. The design of an economical chamber for this purpose is presented. A large number of physiological measurements (cardiac output, electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, etc.) can be performed on patients or experimental animals within the chamber by use of unique electronic connections in the chamber wall which permits all recording equipment to remain outside. Expected arterial blood oxygen tensions have been achieved in patients studied at 2, 3, and 4 atmospheres. Safety features are emphasized. No complication has resulted in 113 dives over the period January to June 1964, one-half of which were for treatment of patients. The chamber has been used clinically as an adjunct to treatment of shock, certain forms of malignancy, anaerobic infections, coronary occlusion, and problems of ischemia, and for preservation of organs for transplantation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14214227

  13. A novel mRNA and a low molecular weight polypeptide encoded in the transforming region of adenovirus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Katze, M G; Persson, H; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation was used to identify adenovirus type 2 (ad2) tumor antigens synthesized in vivo. The antisera, prepared from tumor-bearing animals, reacted with a wide spectrum of ad2 early proteins including a 11 000-dalton (11 K) polypeptide. The gene for this polypeptide was mapped to the transforming region of the viral genome by hybridization selection followed by in vitro translation and immunoprecipitation. Hybrid arrest translation revealed that the 11 K RNA was transcribed from the leftward reading strand (1-strand) in contrast to other mRNAs from this region. Sucrose gradient analysis of the selected 11 K mRNA revealed that the size of the mRNA was 20S corresponding to approximately 2000 nucleotides. Novel 1-strand transcripts of this length from the transforming region were identified by S1 endonuclease analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that both strands of the transforming region of ad2 DNA are actively transcribed into functional mRNA early after viral infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6985356

  14. Comparison of Pathogenicity of Various Isolates of Bordetella Bronchiseptica in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Richard F.; Switzer, William P.; Duncan, J. Robert

    1967-01-01

    Eight groups of 12-to 24-hour-old pigs were procured from a respiratory disease-free herd of swine and reared in isolation using a box-rearing procedure. They were inoculated intranasally at 3 days of age with different isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. It was found at necropsy 4 weeks post-inoculation that 4 isolates of swine origin, an isolate of rabbit origin and an isolate of cat origin caused mild to moderate turbinate atrophy in 22 of 24 pigs. An isolate of rat origin caused mild turbinate atrophy in 1 of 4 pigs and an isolate of dog origin caused no turbinate atrophy. Pneumonia was present in most of the pigs inoculated with the swine, cat and rabbit isolates. Bordetella bronchiseptica was recovered in heavy growth from the nasal and tracheal exudate collected at necropsy from pigs inoculated with the 4 isolates of swine origin and the isolate of cat origin. Fewer organisms were isolated from nasal exudate collected from pigs inoculated with the rat, dog and rabbit isolates. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4226661

  15. Comparative morphology of the accessory olfactory bulb in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, H D; Bhatnagar, K P

    1980-01-01

    Bouin-perfused brains of 148 bats (76 species, 48 genera, 8 families) were examined in serial sections for the presence of an accessory olfactory bulb. A moderate to well developed AOB was identified in 26 species. However, absence of an AOB in a particular species does not preclude its presence in some other species of that genus. Descriptions and measurements of the AOBs of each species are reported. The unmyelinated vomeronasal nerve enters the bulb medially and posteriorly. The glomeruli, variable in diameter, appear better circumscribed than previously described. Mitral cells often form thick layers, up to five cells deep, which sometimes reach the dorsolateral surface of the bulb formation. Both external and internal plexiform layers are thin. The latter, however is seen only in a few species. The internal granular layer, reaching the ventricular ependyma in some species, is a prominent component of the bulb. The pars dorsalis of the lateral olfactory tract usually courses between the mitral and internal granular layers. The chiropteran AOB does not differ in significant detail from that of insectivores, primates and other mammals. The occurrence of a functional vomeronasal system in the frugivorous, nectarivorous, and sanguivorous Phyllosotomatidae points to a primary functional role of this system in feeding strategy, at least in bats. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7400042

  16. Structure of the glandular layer and koilin membrane in the gizzard of the adult domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Akester, A R

    1986-01-01

    The koilin membrane is formed by the secretions of gland, crypt and surface epithelial cells. Glands form a continuous layer and are arranged in groups of 10-20. They are straight tubes about 500 microns long and 15 microns in diameter and produce rodlets of hard koilin. Hard koilin rodlets (5 microns diameter) form clusters of five or six as they pass through the crypts and enter the koilin membrane. Each rodlet hardens within its gland and maintains its individuality throughout its entire length. Rodlet clusters have previously been called 'rods'. Most of the softer koilin, which fills the spaces between the rodlet clusters, is produced by the surface epithelial cells. These cells form gentle arches between the cavities of adjacent crypts. Horizontal branches between rodlet clusters ('rods') do not exist. There is approximately twice as much surface koilin as rodlet koilin within the membrane. Abrasion of the koilin membrane is not uniform but occurs in a patchy fashion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3693065

  17. Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

    1975-01-01

    Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

  18. Positron emission tomography in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McGeer, P L; Kamo, H; Harrop, R; Li, D K; Tuokko, H; McGeer, E G; Adam, M J; Ammann, W; Beattie, B L; Calne, D B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients who had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease with mild to severe dementia (mean age 69.1 years) were evaluated by calculation of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMR-gl) based on uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) detected with positron emission tomography (PET). PET scanning showed that the patients had significantly lower LCMR-gl values than 11 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers (mean age 66.3 years). The differences were most marked in the temporal cortex, followed by the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. In each case the LCMR-gl value was below the lowest control value in at least one cortical area and usually in several; the reduction in LCMR-gl and the number of regions involved in the patients increased with the severity of the dementia. Deficits noted in neuropsychologic testing generally correlated with those predicted from loss of regional cortical metabolism. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were also examined with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or both; the degree of atrophy found showed only a poor correlation with the neuropsychologic deficit. Significant atrophy was also noted in some of the controls. A detailed analysis of LCMR-gl values in selected cerebral regions of various sizes refuted the hypothesis that the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease is due to the filling by metabolically inert cerebrospinal fluid of space created by tissue atrophy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3512063

  19. Light-dependent GTP-binding proteins in squid photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P R; Wood, S F; Szuts, E Z; Fein, A; Hamm, H E; Lisman, J E

    1990-01-01

    Previous biochemical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that in invertebrate photoreceptors, a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) mediates the actions of photoactivated rhodopsin in the initial stages of transduction. We find that squid photoreceptors contain more than one protein (molecular masses 38, 42 and 46 kDa) whose ADP-ribosylation by bacterial exotoxins is light-sensitive. Several lines of evidence suggest that these proteins represent distinct alpha subunits of G-proteins. (1) Pertussis toxin and cholera toxin react with distinct subsets of these polypeptides. (2) Only the 42 kDa protein immunoreacts with the monoclonal antibody 4A, raised against the alpha subunit of the G-protein of vertebrate rods [Hamm & Bownds (1984) J. Gen. Physiol. 84. 265-280]. (3) In terms of ADP-ribosylation, the 42 kDa protein is the least labile to freezing. (4) Of the 38 kDa and 42 kDa proteins, the former is preferentially extracted with hypo-osmotic solutions, as demonstrated by the solubility of its ADP-ribosylated state and by the solubility of the light-dependent binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. The specific target enzymes for the observed G-proteins have not been established. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2124806

  20. Intracerebral transplantation of the genital tubercle in the rat: the fate of the penile bone and cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, W A; Clayton, S P

    1977-01-01

    Genital tubercles of 70 newborn male and female rats were transplated into the brains of unrelated infant rats. Seven other tubercles were placed subcutaneously. All female, and some male, hosts were injected with testosterone propionate. After surviving from 2-24 days,, histological study of 49 successful grafts showed survival of the urethral and balano-preputial epithelia and growth of the preputial glands, which formed secretion-filled cysts and became the major component of the graft. The fate of the mesodermal tissues witin the glands varied between remaining in an undeveloped state, with only pale fibrouw tissue and an area of granular degeneration and giant cells, and achieving an incompletely differentiatel state in which erectile tissue and the anterior process of fibrocartilage had formed and the glans had grown but the penile bone and its secondary growth cartilage failed to appear. Grafts could reach this degree of differentiation of the glands irrespective of transplantation site, attachment to the host dura, the sex of donor or host, and whether or not male hosts were given exogenous hormone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:870471

  1. A68 proteins in Alzheimer's disease are composed of several tau isoforms in a phosphorylated state which affects their electrophoretic mobilities.

    PubMed Central

    Brion, J P; Hanger, D P; Couck, A M; Anderton, B H

    1991-01-01

    The tau-immunoreactive A68 polypeptides found in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease have been studied by Western blotting using (1) antibodies to synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences that span the complete human tau molecule, and (2) antibodies specific for inserts 1 and 2 found towards the N-terminus of some tau isoforms. The three major A68 polypeptides were labelled by all of the antibodies to sequences common to all tau isoforms, but the faster-migrating A68 polypeptides was not labelled by either of the two antibodies specific for inserts 1 and 2. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase of non-solubilized A68 did not change its electrophoretic mobility on SDS/PAGE under the conditions described here. However, A68 that was solubilized before treating it with alkaline phosphatase was found to move faster on SDS/PAGE than untreated A68, to a position similar to that of normal tau. We also confirmed that A68 preparations contain numerous paired helical filaments (PHF). These PHF were labelled by all anti-tau antibodies, including insert-specific antibodies. Our results further support the notion that PHF contain abnormally phosphorylated tau in an aggregated state, and indicate that these abnormally phosphorylated tau forms are composed of several tau isoforms and that the full length of the tau molecule is present in these polypeptides. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1953678

  2. Vascular variant of prion protein cerebral amyloidosis with tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles: the phenotype of the stop codon 145 mutation in PRNP.

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, B; Piccardo, P; Spillantini, M G; Ichimiya, Y; Porro, M; Perini, F; Kitamoto, T; Tateishi, J; Seiler, C; Frangione, B; Bugiani, O; Giaccone, G; Prelli, F; Goedert, M; Dlouhy, S R; Tagliavini, F

    1996-01-01

    Deposition of PrP amyloid in cerebral vessels in conjunction with neurofibrillary lesions is the neuropathologic hallmark of the dementia associated with a stop mutation at codon 145 of PRNP, the gene encoding the prion protein (PrP). In this disorder, the vascular amyloid in tissue sections and the approximately 7.5-kDa fragment extracted from amyloid are labeled by antibodies to epitopes located in the PrP sequence including amino acids 90-147. Amyloid-laden vessels are also labeled by antibodies against the C terminus, suggesting that PrP from the normal allele is involved in the pathologic process. Abundant neurofibrillary lesions are present in the cerebral gray matter. They are composed of paired helical filaments, are labeled with antibodies that recognize multiple phosphorylation sites in tau protein, and are similar to those observed in Alzheimer disease. A PrP cerebral amyloid angiopathy has not been reported in diseases caused by PRNP mutations or in human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies; we propose to name this phenotype PrP cerebral amyloid angiopathy (PrP-CAA). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8570627

  3. Radiologic Techniques Used to Evaluate the Temporomandibular Joint; I. Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David; Pettigrew, James; Ram, Carol; Joseph, Peter M.

    1984-01-01

    Symptoms of temporomandibular joint pathology are present in a relatively high proportion of the population. Conventional radiographic techniques used to evaluate the morphology of the joint provide data which may be difficult to interpret. These techniques are reviewed briefly and their interpretational shortcomings are noted. Computed tomography is currently being used by some clinicians to evaluate the joint. This technique may also yield data which are difficult to interpret. Extended processing of CT data to provide three-dimensional images of the joint enhances the technique as a means of diagnosing hard tissue pathology, but despite reports in the literature detailing its use in diagnosing soft tissue pathology, CT is not optimal for this purpose. The introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging provides a means of examining the soft tissues of the joint in either two- or three-dimensional images and has the advantage over all previous techniques in that the patient is not subjected to ionizing radiation during the scan process. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:6594954

  4. Ultrastructure of rabbit semilunar cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F N; Thomas, I; Yong, N; Lalonde, J M

    1978-01-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopical study of 6 to 8 months old rabbit semilunar cartilages has shown that the cells in this tissue resemble chondrocytes more than fibroblasts. The prominent organelles in these cells were rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. An unusual finding was the occurrence of filamentous material in Golgi sacs and vesicles, and collagen fibrils within smooth membrane-bound tubular structures, apparently within the cells. Collagen fibrils forming fibres, fibre bundles and lamellae constituted the major component of the menisci. Protein-polysaccharide particles and associated fine filaments were found in the interfibrillary matrix and in the sparse territorial matrix adjacent to the chondrocytes. Numerous immature elastic fibrils, and rare mature elastic fibres with an electorn-lucent amorphous core, were also found in the general matrix amongst the collagen fibrils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:580431

  5. Diabetic Neuroarthropathy: Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Rosario; Gagnon, Paul-A.; Alarie, Roger

    1964-01-01

    Diabetic neuroarthropathy was observed in four patients; these are the first cases of this nature reported in the Canadian medical literature. The criteria for this diagnosis included: (1) long-standing diabetes; (2) arthropathy, most frequently involving the foot, which shows deformity, shortening and ulceration without evidence of infection or peripheral circulatory failure; (3) abolition or diminution of pain on weight-bearing; (4) diabetic peripheral neuropathy with impaired sense of position or vibration and weak or absent deep tendon reflexes. Radiographic findings were similar to those in patients with Charcot's arthropathy from any cause. Tabes dorsalis, leprosy, syringomyelia, myelodysplasia and the arthropathies of corticosteroid therapy were ruled out in these cases. In addition to conventional medical therapy the patients were treated by means of walking-casts for several months. Diabetic neuroarthropathy is probably more common than the medical literature would indicate. Diminished sensation in the lower limbs in diabetics of long standing appears to be the major factor contributing to this disorder. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14199108

  6. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  7. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins.

    PubMed Central

    Satyapal, K S

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the drainage patterns of the renal veins are well described, but existing classifications of the renal veins have deficiencies. This study aimed to formulate a practical classification of their drainage patterns, taking into consideration the number of primary tributaries, additional renal veins and variations. The venous system of 306 kidneys (from 131 males and 22 females) obtained from 100 pairs of resin casts and 53 pairs of plastinated kidneys were analysed. Based on a proposed definition of the renal vein, 3 major types (I, II, III) were identified using the drainage pattern of the primary renal vein tributaries and the renal vein as a basis on both the left and right sides. Type IA occurred most frequently (38.6%) and was commoner on the left. Type IB was the second most frequent (25.2%), with the other types showing lower and similar frequencies (10.1-14.4%). Statistically significant differences were noted between the left and right kidneys with regard to the classification into the different types (P < 0.0001). The proposed classification system is practical and has surgical and uroradiological relevance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649831

  8. Localization of Filipin-Sterol Complexes in the Membranes of Beta vulgaris Roots and Spinacia oleracea Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Curt H.; Mudd, J. Brian

    1982-01-01

    Filipin was used as a cytochemical probe for membrane sterols in the root storage tissue of the red beet Beta vulgaris L. and the chloroplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. In unfixed beet tissue, filipin lysed the cells. Freeze-fracture replicas revealed that the filipin-sterol complexes were tightly aggregated in the plasma membrane, while in thin section the complexes corrugated the plasma membrane. If the cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde prior to the filipin treatment, the cell structure was preserved. Filipin-induced lesions were dispersed or clustered loosely in the plasma membrane. A few filipin-sterol complexes were observed in the tonoplast. In spinach chloroplasts, filipin-sterol complexes were limited to the outer membrane of the envelope and were not found in the inner membrane of the envelope or in the lamellar membranes. If the filipin-sterol complexes accurately mapped the distribution of membrane sterols, then sterol was located predominantly in the plasma membrane of the red beet and in the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Furthermore, the sterol may be heterogenously distributed laterally in both these membranes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16662716

  9. Clinical evaluation of fibre-optic sigmoidoscopy employing the Olympus CF-SB colonoscope

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, P. R.; Branch, R. A.; Collins, C.; Espiner, H.; Read, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with large bowel disease were examined with the Olympus CF-SB fibreoptic colonoscope. With adequate bowel preparation and employing inhalational analgesia administered by a self-demand valve the whole sigmoid colon could be examined in the majority of patients within 30 minutes. In 23% of cases (12/51) the diagnosis was either made or confirmed by this procedure alone. Fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is especially helpful in patients with either equivocal or failed barium enemas and is indicated in patients with unexplained rectal bleeding, extending the search for polyps and cancer, and studying patients with inflammatory bowel disease. About one quarter of biopsies taken from a flat mucosal surface with the Olympus flexible biopsy forceps may be insufficient for detailed histology due to their small size. For this reason multiple biopsies may be taken. Adequate biopsies were always obtained from projecting lesions and could be very accurately sited. Colour photography employing automatic exposure control is used to supplement the information obtained. It is concluded that fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is a valuable additional investigation in selected patients with suspected disease of the large bowel and to date has been without complications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:5315423

  10. Repression of a matrix metalloprotease gene by E1A correlates with its ability to bind to cell type-specific transcription factor AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, K; Jayaraman, G; Williams, T; Moran, E; Frisch, S; Thimmapaya, B

    1996-01-01

    Adenovirus E1A 243-amino acid protein can repress a variety of enhancer -linked viral and cellular promoters. This repression is presumed to be mediated by its interaction with and sequestration of p3OO, a transcriptional coactivator. Type IV 72-kDa collagenase is one of the matrix metalloproteases that has been implicated in differentiation, development, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. We show here that the cell type-specific transcription factor AP-2 is an important transcription factor for the activation of the type IV 72-kDa collagenase promoter and that adenovirus E1A 243-amino acid protein represses this promoter by targeting AP-2. Glutathione S-transferase-affinity chromatography studies show that the E1A protein interacts with the DNA binding/dimerization region of AP-2 and that the N-terminal amino acids of E1A protein are required for this interaction. Further, E1A deletion mutants which do not bind to p3OO can repress this collagenase promoter as efficiently as the wildtype E1A protein. Because the AP-2 element is present in a variety of viral and cellular enhancers which are repressed by E1A, these studies suggest that E1A protein can repress cellular and viral promoter/enhancers by forming a complex with cellular transcription factors and that this repression mechanism may be independent of its interaction with p3OO. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8610173

  11. Ras gene mutation-independent tumours in the intestine of the rat by a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea.

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, V.; Rabes, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at a sequential analysis of the role of ras gene point mutations during intestinal carcinogenesis, we established an experimental rat tumour model using N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) as an initiating agent as this carcinogen has been found to induce rat mammary carcinomas with a high prevalence of ras gene mutations. MNU treatment of a total of 249 rats (25 or 50 mg/kg i.p.) in various combinations with partial hepatectomy, hydroxyurea infusion and/or phenobarbital exposure resulted in a high incidence of intestinal adenomas and carcinomas of different histological types, besides liver, soft tissue and auditory sebaceous gland tumours. With PCR-amplified DNA the prevalence of mutations of codon 12 and 61 of H-, K- and N-ras was determined in dot blots by hybridization with 32P-labelled allele-specific oligonucleotides. Ras gene point mutations were not observed in any of the 41 intestinal rat tumours randomly selected from various experimental groups. Considering the high prevalence of ras mutations in MNU-induced mammary carcinomas of the rat the observed complete lack of ras mutations in intestinal tumours induced in the rat by the same carcinogen suggests that organ-specific intraspecies differences in the mechanism of malignant transformation exist even for a heterolytically decomposing, direct acting carcinogen like MNU. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1390191

  12. Embryo resorption following administration of steroidal compounds to rats in mid pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, K; Kinson, G A; Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    In the course of experiments on the effects of anabolic steroids on the myocardium of rat conceptuses, we found that subcutaneous implantation of 10 mg of estradiol, Dianabol or testosterone to rats in mid pregnancy, resulted in embryo resorption. Placental tissue was identified only in estradiol-treated rats which also demonstrated a large amount of serosanguineous fluid that dilated the horns considerably. The yellow nodules of placental attachment sites were represented histologically by cellular and vascular proliferations between the inner and outer layers of the myometrium. The nodular aggregates of cells had variable features according to the steroid administered. Neither decidual cells nor metrial glands that are reported to be the constituents of placental attachment sites were seen in our material. We conclude that anabolic steroids are potent agents for embryo resorption, and that the cells in the nodules of placental attachment sites are likely to be derived from the myometrium. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3742378

  13. Oligosaccharide mapping of heparan sulphate by polyacrylamide-gradient-gel electrophoresis and electrotransfer to nylon membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, J E; Gallagher, J T

    1988-01-01

    A new method that we have called 'oligosaccharide mapping' is described for the analysis of radiolabelled heparan sulphate and other glycosaminoglycans. The method involves specific enzymic or chemical scission of polysaccharide chains followed by high-resolution separation of the degradation products by polyacrylamide-gradient-gel electrophoresis. The separated oligosaccharides are immobilized on charged nylon membranes by electrotransfer and detected by fluorography. A complex pattern of discrete bands is observed covering an oligosaccharide size range from degree of polymerization (d.p.) 2 (disaccharide) to approximately d.p. 40. Separation is due principally to differences in Mr, though the method also seems to detect variations in conformation of oligosaccharide isomers. Resolution of oligosaccharides is superior to that obtained with isocratic polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis systems or gel chromatography, and reveals structural details that are not accessible by other methods. For example, in this paper we demonstrate a distinctive repeating doublet pattern of iduronate-rich oligosaccharides in heparitinase digests of mouse fibroblast heparan sulphate. This pattern may be a general feature of mammalian heparan sulphates. Oligosaccharide mapping should be a valuable method for the analysis of fine structure and sequence of heparan sulphate and other complex polysaccharides, and for making rapid assessments of the molecular distinctions between heparan sulphates from different sources. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2969727

  14. Surgical progress: surgical management of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S A

    1982-01-01

    Infective endocarditis of bacterial or fungal origin may arise in either the left or the right heart and can involve both natural and prosthetic valves. The diagnosis is based primarily upon clinical criteria and positive blood cultures, but serial electrocardiograms, fluoroscopy, and two-dimensional echocardiograms may also be helpful. The initial treatment should consist of antibiotic therapy and is itself often adequate in effecting cure. However, careful observation during antibiotic treatment is mandatory, since the development of congestive heart failure due to valvular obstruction or destruction can be an indication for surgical intervention. Other surgical indications include a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, pulmonary or systemic emboli, evidence of abscess involving the valvular ring (particularly prevalent with prosthetic valve endocarditis), Brucella infection, and the onset of conduction disturbances. The goals of surgical treatment are removal of infective tissue, restoration of valve function, and correction of associated mechanical disorders. The results are surprisingly good, especially for a condition of this severity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7065743

  15. PubMed Central

    Fouron, J.-C.; Favreau-Ethier, M.; Marion, P.; Davignon, A.

    1967-01-01

    Sixteen cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been studied clinically and by cardiac catheterization. Diagnosis has been proved in all cases by manometric measurements and/or cineangiocardiography. All patients except two were below 2 years of age. Ten cases were of type I, i.e. the stenosis was localized to the pulmonary trunk or its main branches. Six patients were of type III, i.e. they had diffuse stenosis of the pulmonary arterial tree. The physical findings, which in many cases are typical and include the presence of a systolic murmur over both lung fields, should alert the physician to the diagnosis at the bedside. At cardiac catheterization the configuration of the pressure tracing in the main pulmonary artery is typical, showing an abrupt rise and fall of the systolic wave followed by a low situated dicrotic notch. There is no doubt that in the past many cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been wrongly diagnosed as “essential pulmonary hypertension”. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:6021054

  16. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery: the effects of aortocoronary vein bypass on left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Michael J.; Bharadwaj, Baikunth

    1972-01-01

    The diagnosis, angiographic evaluation and surgical treatment by aortocoronary vein bypass are described in a 3½-year-old girl with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. The anomaly had resulted in cardiac dilatation, diminished left ventricular contractility, an aneurysm of the left ventricular free wall and mitral regurgitation. At the postoperative cardiac catheterization the graft was demonstrated to be patent, but a significant proportion of the flow to the left coronary artery was derived from anastomotic connections with the right coronary artery. The most striking evidence of improvement was obtained from the left ventricular volume studies which showed that the end systoiic volume had decreased from 85 to 49 ml./m.2 with an increase in ejection fraction from 0.39 to 0.62, suggesting enhanced left ventricular contractility after surgery. The patient continues to do well and is free from symptoms. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:5041933

  17. The Neurological Sequelae of Electrical Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silversides, John

    1964-01-01

    Electricity is a potentially very dangerous commodity. Community safeguards, however, result in remarkably efficient control of this hazard. Mortality figures appear to be small and constant. No satisfactory morbidity figures are available with regard to general and neurological complications in non-fatal cases. Study of relevant features of such electrical phenomena as voltage level, resistance factors, current pathway, current diffusion and grounding reveals many difficulties in reconstruction of the sequence of events involved in these injuries. These features underline our frequent inability to understand the mechanisms of initiation of unconsciousness and even of differentiation between death by cardiac arrest and death by respiratory paralysis. Fourteen cases of electrical injury with a variety of neurological complications and sequelae are discussed, and the findings in these cases are compared with those of other observers. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of immediate, secondary and late neurological effects, and to illustrate some of the pathological findings in electrocution material. ImagesFigs. 1 and 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 and 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14179536

  18. Molecular characterization of the human red cell Rho(D) antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gahmberg, C G

    1983-01-01

    Human red cells of Rh blood groups -D-/-D- ('super-D'), -/- (Rhnull) and normal Rho(D)+ cells were radioactively surface-labeled using the lactoperoxidase 125I method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS followed by fluorography showed a strong enrichment of a polypeptide with an apparent mol. wt. of 28,0000-33,000 in the 125I-labeled -D-/-D- membranes. This polypeptide was specifically immune precipitated with anti-Rho(D) antiserum. Treatment of intact cells with trypsin or Pronase did not digest the protein. The Rho polypeptide migrated identically on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. It was not phosphorylated after in vitro incubation of red cells with 32P. When whole labeled membranes were solubilized in neutral detergent and applied to lectin-Sepharose columns the Rho(D) polypeptide adsorbed to Ricinus communis lectin but not to wheat germ lectin or Lens culinaris lectin. The purified molecule did not adsorb to R. communis lectin-Sepharose. Treatment of the Rho(D) antigen with endo-N-acetyl glucosaminidase H, endo-beta-galactosidase or mild alkali did not lower its apparent mol. wt. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:11894930

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum-through-Golgi transport assay based on O-glycosylation of native glycophorin in permeabilized erythroleukemia cells: role for Gi3.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, B S; Palade, G E; Farquhar, M G

    1993-01-01

    An assay for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-through-Golgi transport has been developed in streptolysin O-permeabilized murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The reporter proteins are metabolically labeled native murine glycophorins, which display a distinctive shift in electrophoretic mobility after acquisition of O-linked oligosaccharides. The O-linked sugars are acquired at a site distal to a brefeldin A block, presumably in a cis Golgi compartment, and sialylation occurs in middle and/or trans Golgi compartments. In permeabilized cells supplemented with cytosolic proteins and an ATP-generating system, 20-50% of the radiolabeled precursor glycophorins can be converted to the mature, sialylated form. This maturation process is ATP- and cytosol-dependent and is blocked by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]). Electron microscopy of permeabilized MEL cells shows retention of ER elements, stacked Golgi cisternae, free polysomes, and other subcellular components. In the presence of GTP[gamma S], dilated vesicles accumulate around the Golgi stacks. Antisera to the carboxyl terminus of the Golgi resident alpha subunit of Gi3 inhibit maturation of glycophorin. To our knowledge, a transport assay utilizing O-glycosylation of an endogenous protein as a monitor of ER-through-Golgi traffic in permeabilized cells has not been reported previously. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involvement in Golgi function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8446582

  20. Drosophila chaoptin, a member of the leucine-rich repeat family, is a photoreceptor cell-specific adhesion molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, D E; Zipursky, S L

    1990-01-01

    Drosophila chaoptin, required for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis, is a member of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins. On the basis of biochemical and genetic analyses we previously proposed that chaoptin might function as a cell adhesion molecule. To test this hypothesis, chaoptin cDNA driven by the hsp 70 promoter was transfected into non-self-adherent Drosophila Schneider line 2 (S2) cells. Following heat shock induction of chaoptin expression, the transfected S2 cells formed multicellular aggregates. Mixing experiments of chaoptin expressing and non-expressing cells suggest that chaoptin expressing cells adhere homotypically. Previously it was shown that chaoptin is exclusively localized to photoreceptor cells. Thus, chaoptin is a cell-type-specific adhesion molecule. Biochemical analyses presented in this paper demonstrate that chaoptin is linked to the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane by covalent attachment to glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. We propose that chaoptin and several other members of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins define a new class of cell adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2189727

  1. Elongation factor SII-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II through a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reines, D; Mote, J

    1993-01-01

    In eukaryotes the genetic material is contained within a coiled, protein-coated structure known as chromatin. RNA polymerases must recognize specific nucleoprotein assemblies and maintain contact with the underlying DNA duplex for many thousands of base pairs. Template-bound lac operon repressor from Escherichia coli arrests RNA polymerase II in vitro and in vivo [Kuhn, A., Bartsch, I. & Grummt, I. (1990) Nature (London) 344, 559-562; Deuschele, U., Hipskind, R. A. & Bujard, H. (1990) Science 248, 480-483]. We show that in a reconstituted transcription system, elongation factor SII enables RNA polymerase II to proceed through this blockage at high efficiency. lac repressor-arrested elongation complexes display an SII-activated transcript cleavage reaction, an activity associated with transcriptional read-through of a previously characterized region of bent DNA. This demonstrates factor-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II through a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Nascent transcript cleavage may be a general mechanism by which RNA polymerase II can bypass many transcriptional impediments. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8446609

  2. The significance of striated muscle in the mammary glands of marsupials.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M; Slater, E

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and amounts of striated muscle within the mammary glands of pouched and pouchless marsupials from Australia and South America are described. Invasions into the mammary secretory parenchyma in pouchless marsupials by swathes of striated muscle from the ilio-marsupialis muscle are massive, in some instances concentrated into discrete muscles, which are inserted on to the bases of the teats; the name retractor mammae is proposed for these muscles. In pouched marsupials striated muscle penetrates the parenchyma, but the distribution is diffuse and the muscle strands are not inserted on to teats except in the instance of the glands of the honey possum Tarsipes rostratus. The young of anaesthetised pouchless marsupials hang down from the teats; as anaesthesia wears off they are hauled up tightly into the mammary area. It is concluded that this is a result of contraction of the retractor mammae muscles and that it is a means of protecting the naked young from injury by rough terrain. The mammary gland musculature in pouched marsupials is considered to be vestigial, but its contraction may have the function of initiating a 'tap-response' contraction of myoepithelium acting synergistically with the 'let-down' hormone mesotocin. Mechanisms of imbibition of milk by marsupial neonates, based on observations that they can suck fluid from non-distortable tubes, are discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3417541

  3. The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1984-01-01

    The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species were studied by light and electron microscopy. The species studied were the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus), the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis). Glands were grouped and described according to their location. Those of general distribution (goblet cells and olfactory glands) were similar in structures and distribution in all specimens. Glands of the lateral nasal wall include the lateral nasal, maxillary sinus and turbinate glands. The lateral nasal and maxillary sinus glands were absent in the adult koala but occupied large areas in the other species. Turbinate glands were best developed rostrally and ventrally in the nasal cavity. On the nasal septum, Tarsipes and Isoodon had well developed glands associated with vascular 'swell bodies'. These were poorly developed to Macropus though septal glands were abundant. 'Swell bodies' were absent in Phascolarctos and glands were sparse. Tubular vomeronasal glands were present in all species and most extensive in Tarsipes. In Isoodon, there was a posterior ventral septal gland associated with the septal olfactory organ. The fine structural features of secretory cells and ducts are described and their potential role discussed in terms of chemoreception and temperature and humidity control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6490535

  4. Management of an Uncomplicated Posterior Elbow Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Blackard, Douglas; Sampson, Jo-Ann

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of an uncomplicated posterior elbow dislocation in a US World Cup athlete and discuss her rehabilitation. Background: Traditional protocol for management of this injury has been splint immobilization for several weeks, but research suggests a shortened duration of immobilization and early active motion. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with possible fracture. Treatment: The dislocation was reduced and a compression bandage and sling were applied. The sports medicine staff and athlete determined that rehabilitation would involve limited immobilization with a posterior splint. Also, active range-of- motion exercises were to be incorporated early in the range-of- motion program to decrease pain at the articulation. Uniqueness: The athlete was not immobilized and her aggressive five-phase rehabilitation program progressed according to decrease in inflammation and increase in range of motion and strength. Conclusions: Shortened immobilization and return to World Championship competition 6 weeks postinjury had no longterm adverse effects on the athlete. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16558436

  5. Intestinal transplantation in composite visceral grafts or alone.

    PubMed Central

    Todo, S; Tzakis, A G; Abu-Elmagd, K; Reyes, J; Nakamura, K; Casavilla, A; Selby, R; Nour, B M; Wright, H; Fung, J J

    1992-01-01

    Under FK 506-based immunosuppression, the entire cadaver small bowel except for a few proximal and distal centimeters was translated to 17 randomly matched patients, of whom two had antigraft cytotoxic antibodies (positive cross-match). Eight patients received the intestine only, eight had intestine in continuity with the liver, and one received a full multivisceral graft that included the liver, stomach, and pancreas. One liver-intestine recipient died after an intestinal anastomotic leak, sepsis, and graft-versus-host disease. The other 16 patients are alive after 1 to 23 months, in one case after chronic rejection, graft removal, and retransplantation. Twelve of the patients have been liberated from total parenteral nutrition, including all whose transplantation was 2 months or longer ago. The grafts have supported good nutrition, and in children, have allowed growth and weight gain. Management of these patients has been difficult and often complicated, but the end result has been satisfactory in most cases, justifying further clinical trials. The convalescence of the eight patients receiving intestine only has been faster and more trouble free than after liver-intestine or multivisceral transplantation, with no greater difficulty in the control of rejection. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:1384443

  6. Pericellular mobilization of the tissue-destructive cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, L, and S, by human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V Y; Zhang, Q Y; Weiss, S J

    1995-01-01

    Human macrophages are believed to damage host tissues in chronic inflammatory disease states, but these cells have been reported to express only modest degradative activity in vitro. However, while examining the ability of human monocytes to degrade the extracellular matrix component elastin, we identified culture conditions under which the cells matured into a macrophage population that displayed a degradative phenotype hundreds of times more destructive than that previously ascribed to any other cell population. The monocyte-derived macrophages synthesized elastinolytic matrix metalloproteinases (i.e., gelatinase B and matrilysin) as well as cysteine proteinases (i.e., cathepsins B, L, and S), but only the cathepsins were detected in the extracellular milieu as fully processed, mature enzymes by either vital fluorescence or active-site labeling. Consistent with these observations, macrophage-mediated elastinolytic activity was not affected by matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors but could be almost completely abrogated by inhibiting cathepsins L and S. These data demonstrate that human macrophages mobilize cysteine proteinases to arm themselves with a powerful effector mechanism that can participate in the pathophysiologic remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7731994

  7. Expression of the nuclear encoded OEE1 protein is required for oxygen evolution and stability of photosystem II particles in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, S P; Bennoun, P; Rochaix, J D

    1987-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE1), which is part of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PS II), is coded for by a single nuclear gene (psb1). The nuclear mutant FuD44 specifically lacks the OEE1 polypeptide and is completely deficient in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. In this mutant a 5 kb DNA insertion into the 5' region of the psb1 gene results in the complete absence of OEE1 mRNA and protein. A revertant, FuD44-R 2, which is capable of 30% of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution of wild-type cells, has lost 4 kb of the 5 kb DNA insert, and accumulates both OEE1 mRNA and protein, although at levels somewhat less than those of wild-type cells. Absence of the OEE1 protein in the FuD44 mutant does not affect the accumulation of other nuclear encoded PS II peripheral polypeptides. OEE1 absence does, however, result in a more rapid turnover of the chloroplast encoded PS II core polypeptides, thus resulting in a substantial deficiency of PS II core polypeptides in FuD44 cells. These PS II core proteins again accumulate in revertant FuD44-R2 cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3556163

  8. Electron microscope cytochemistry of host—parasite membrane interactions in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Langreth, Susan G.

    1977-01-01

    Two membrane-bound enzymes were localized by electron microscope cytochemical techniques in Plasmodium lophurae and its host erythrocyte. Parasites were prepared by saponin lysis, French pressure cell lysis, or anti-red blood cell serum lysis; infected and uninfected erythrocyte ghosts were prepared by saponin or French pressure cell lysis. Enzyme incubations were performed on unfixed cells. Adenosinetriphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) activity was found on the inside of the ghost membrane and on the inside of the outer parasite membrane. NADH oxidase was found on the outside of the erythrocyte membrane and on the outside of the parasite outer membrane. The parasite plasma membrane was negative for both enzymes. The location of both enzymes on the outer parasite membrane were reversed from what one would have expected if the outer membrane had remained merely an invaginated erythrocyte membrane. It is concluded that the outer membrane, although derived from the red cell membrane, has been altered by its association with the malarial parasite. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:145326

  9. Induction of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA in bladders and spleens of mice after intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, J S; Park, J H; Kim, J D; Lee, J M; Kim, S J

    1995-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy is highly effective in the therapy of carcinoma in situ of the bladder, but the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy is not clearly understood. We studied the production of TNF-alpha in spleens and bladders of mice after intravesical BCG or BCG/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) instillation. Significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA expression of spleens and bladders of C3H/He mice was observed after intravesical BCG instillation, although intravesical IFN-gamma therapy 3 days after BCG instillation to maintain the activated state of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells did not show a significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA, compared with that of BCG therapy alone. Maximal production of TNF-alpha mRNA in spleens of mice was seen after the first or second intravesical BCG instillation, and production of TNF-alpha mRNA in bladders was also increased after intravesical BCG instillation. The increment of TNF-alpha production by BCG stimulation in HL-60, a promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro may support the in vivo effect of BCG therapy on the bladder. These data show that local production of TNF-alpha as well as systemic production by intravesical BCG treatment may correlate with one of the mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7697918

  10. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  11. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of dog and guinea-pig hyaline articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D L; O'Connor, P; Oates, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty seven blocks of cartilage excised from the femoral condyles of 20 beagle dogs, and whole lower ends of 5 guinea-pig femora, were examined at -195 degrees (78 K), by scanning electron microscopy. The unfixed tissue, taken into slushy nitrogen at -210 degrees (63 K), was not exposed to atmospheric air after quenching and remained fully hydrated throughout long periods of observation. Images susceptible to analysis were obtained from washed and from unwashed cartilage surfaces. Preliminary coating with gold or with aluminium, known to be possible without exposing cold cartilage surfaces to changes in temperature likely to cause water loss by sublimation, was valuable in minimising charging and in facilitating the recording of electron images at higher magnifications. Although examination was possible without coating, the resultant images were of low resolution. Microscopy revealed a pattern of secondary surface irregularities of tertiary elevations closely resembling those seen by the conventional scanning electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated hyaline cartilage. However, the pattern of tertiary surface structures was predominantly that of elevations, not of hollows. Quaternary surface ridges were common on the surfaces of excised dog cartilage blocks and were not seen on the surfaces of guinea-pig cartilage which remained on the femoral condyles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7024225

  12. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  13. Chromosomes of kinetoplastida.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Ploeg, L H; Cornelissen, A W; Barry, J D; Borst, P

    1984-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-sized DNA molecules (molecular karyotypes) of five genera (nine species) of kinetoplastida after cell lysis and deproteinization of DNA in agarose blocks and size fractionation of the intact DNA molecules by pulsed field gradient (PFG) gel electrophoresis. With the possible exception of Trypanosoma vivax and Crithidia fasciculata, all species have at least 20 chromosomes. There are large differences between species in molecular karyotype and in the chromosomal distribution of the genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, rRNA and the common mini-exon sequence of kinetoplastid mRNAs. In all cases, the rRNA genes are in DNA that is larger than 500 kb. Whereas T. brucei has approximately 100 mini-chromosomes of 50-150 kb, only few are found in T. equiperdum; T. vivax has no DNA smaller than 2000 kb. As all three species exhibit antigenic variation, small chromosomes with telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes cannot be vital to the mechanism of antigenic variation. The apparent plasticity of kinetoplastid genome composition makes PFG gel electrophoresis a potentially useful tool for taxonomic studies. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6526012

  14. Haemophilus influenzae pili are composite structures assembled via the HifB chaperone.

    PubMed Central

    St Geme, J W; Pinkner, J S; Krasan, G P; Heuser, J; Bullitt, E; Smith, A L; Hultgren, S J

    1996-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents a common cause of human disease. Disease due to this organism begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process facilitated by adhesive fibers called pili. In the present study, we investigated the structure and assembly of H. influenzae pili. Examination of pili by electron microscopy using quick-freeze, deep-etch and immunogold techniques revealed the presence of two distinct subassemblies, including a flexible two-stranded helical rod comprised of HifA and a short, thin, distal tip structure containing HifD. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrated that the biogenesis of H. influenzae pili is dependent on a periplasmic chaperone called HifB, which belongs to the PapD family of immunoglobulin-like chaperones. HifB bound directly to HifA and HifD, forming HifB-HifA and HifB-HifD complexes, which were purified from periplasmic extracts by ion-exchange chromatography. Continued investigation of the biogenesis of H. influenzae pili should provide general insights into organelle development and may suggest novel strategies for disease prevention. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8876237

  15. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  16. Experimental Feline Herpesvirus Infection in the Pregnant Cat

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Edward A.; Griesemer, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of pregnant cats with feline herpesvirus produced minimal illness but resulted in abortion, intrauterine fetal death and congenital fetal infection. Placental lesions included multiple infarcts in the placental labyrinth, thrombosis of maternal vessels in the endometrium and placenta, and multifocal necrosis of the giant-cell trophoblast and endometrial epithelium in the junctional zone of the placenta associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus was isolated from all the placentas and uteri but from none of the fetuses aborted 6-9 days after maternal intravenous inoculation. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the uterine vessels and in the junctional zone of the placenta at this time. On postinoculation day 26, viral antigen was demonstrated in the chorioallantoic membrane on the fetal side of the placenta and in the liver of a congenitally infected fetus. Although all 4 pregnant cats inoculated intranasally with feline herpesvirus aborted, neither virus, viral antigen nor significant lesions were detected in the uteri, placentas or fetuses. Abortion after intranasal inoculation was interpreted as a nonspecific reaction secondary to the severe, debilitating upper respiratory disease that occurred. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4328861

  17. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-01-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430

  18. Effect of 3 amino 1,2,4 triazole administration on the early CCl4-induced ultrastructural alterations in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    CCl4 administration to rats caused at 3 and 6 h intense effects on the liver-cell endoplasmic reticulum such as dilatation, disorganization, detachment of ribosomes, development of extensive areas of smooth component (SER) and formation of myelin figures. 3 Amino 1,2,4 triazole administration (AT) at 3 and 6 h led to the formation of round small vesicles from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), detachment of ribosomes, appearance of extensive areas of SER, appearance of elongated and distorted mitochondria with an increase in the number of peroxisomes. The administration of CCl4 to AT-pretreated animals led to a mutual cancellation of the effects on the RER, particularly remarkable at 3 h but still evident at 6 h; also, the formation of myelin figures was prevented. The other effects on cell ultrastructure exerted either by CCl4 or by AT were also observed with the combination of both chemicals. These observations reinforce the hypothesis about the need of either covalent binding of CCl4 metabolites to cellular constituents or lipid peroxidation, or both, in the origin of CCl4-induced alterations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7066182

  19. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  20. Degenerative lesions of a coronary chemoreceptor and nearby neural elements in the hearts of victims of sudden death.

    PubMed Central

    James, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    A coronary chemoreceptor and its neighboring nerves and ganglia were studied by serial sections of tissue taken from the hearts of sixteen victims of sudden unexpected death. Either focal or extensive inflammatory destruction was present in the chemoreceptors of 13 of the 16 hearts, and similar abnormalities of local nerves and ganglia were present in all 16 hearts. Since an identical coronary chemoreceptor in the dog has previously been shown to be the site of origin of a powerful reflex with major influence upon the electrical activity heart, the functional significance of the neural abnormalities found in these 16 human hearts may include important distortion of cardiac rhythm, conduction or repolarization. Future studies are needed to determine the prevalence of such lesions in the hearts of other victims of sudden death and among control subjects, as well as to determine the etiology of this special neuropathology of the heart. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3837961

  1. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA), lysozyme, vimentin, desmin, platelet factor 4, and thrombospondin. Antigens were visualised by a chromogen providing an orange-red immunoprecipitate at the site of epitope localisation. The intraluminal, amorphous exudate present in most grafts was not composed simply of fibrin or fibrinogen, as previously thought, but was a multiprotein complex including wWFAg, fibronectin, thrombospondin and platelet factor 4. Along with macrophages, these components probably enter the graft after haemodynamic, physical, and chemical injury to, and disruption of, the endothelial cell. Progressive myointimal proliferation and fibrosis of these grafts may be local repetitive responses to macrophages and platelets, cells previously known to participate in vascular disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2659629

  2. Purification and Characterization of Arcelin Seed Protein from Common Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Thomas C.; Burow, Mark; Bliss, Fredrick A.

    1988-01-01

    Arcelin, a seed protein originally discovered in wild bean accessions, was purified, characterized, and compared to phaseolin, the major seed protein of common bean, and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the major bean seed lectin. Arcelin and PHA has several characteristics in common. Both were glycoproteins having similar subunit Mr, deglycosylated Mr, and amino acid compositions. The two proteins were related antigenically and they had the same developmental timing of accumulation. Arcelin also had some hemagglutinating activity, a characteristic associated with lectins. However, several features distinguished arcelin from PHA. Arcelin had a more basic isoelectric point than PHA, greater numbers of basic amino acid residues, additional cysteine residues, and one methionine residue, which PHA lacks. Native PHA protein is a tetramer of subunits, and although a small component of native arcelin protein was also tetrameric, most of the arcelin preparation was dimeric. The hemagglutinating activity of arcelin was specific only for some pronase-treated erythrocytes. It did not agglutinate native erythrocytes, nor did it bind to thyroglobulin or fetuin affinity resins as did PHA. Although arcelin has lectin-like properties, we believe the distinctions between arcelin and PHA warrant the designation of arcelin as a unique bean seed protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665920

  3. The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules of the black-necked crowned crane.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H

    1979-01-01

    The fine structure of the granules of circulating eosinophil leucocytes was studied in five adult black-necked crowned cranes. The interna within these granules showed various crystalline arrangements. Optical diffraction patterns of the crystals revealed linear arrangements measuring 6.2 and 3.8 nm and often, when these arrangements were superimposed, a hexagonal pattern was observed. Bundles of microfilaments measuring 5-7 nm in diameter were found frequently in crystal-containing granules. Staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and various other cytochemical procedures gave results similar to those obtained previously in the shag and the duck. The PTA stain and peroxidase reaction product were found only in the externum of the granules whereas the acid hydrolases, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase were located within the crystalline matrix and in or between the microfilaments. As with shag eosinophil granules, those of the crane did not appear to contain histone arginine and in this respect they differed from those of the duck and the fowl. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:422484

  4. The ultrastructural features of aflatoxin B1-induced lesions in the rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, D. J.; Butler, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced in rats by administering aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 6 weeks. Malignant tumours were preceded by foci and nodules of altered hepatocytes. The ultrastructural characteristics of the nodular lesions have been studied and compared with those of the hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Alterations in the endoplasmic reticulum, junctional complexes and nuclei were common to both the basophilic and eosinophilic nodular cells and the carcinoma cells. These most likely represent hyperplastic changes rather than malignant alterations. The eosinophilic nodules were distinguished from other lesions by the abundance of concentric, membranous whorls in the cytoplasm of nodular cells. These cytoplasmic structures were also present in some hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The observations provided further evidence suggesting that the eosinophilic nodule, rather than the basophilic nodule, may play a role in the development of malignancy in the rat liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3146339

  5. Recurrent Metatarsal Stress Fractures in a College Football Lineman

    PubMed Central

    Moul, Jamie L.; Massey, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries of bone attributed to repetitive trauma, training errors, and/or structural abnormalities. A 21-year-old, 252-lb football lineman participating in spring conditioning drills complained of right foot pain following a plantar flexion, inversion injury that occurred while cutting. Pain was concentrated over the dorsum of the foot in both weight bearing and at rest. X-ray evaluation indicated an acute stress fracture of the fourth metatarsal and two nonunions of the second and third metatarsals. Additionally, x-rays revealed metatarsus adductus, a congenital anatomic deformity. The athlete demonstrated compensatory hyperpronation in the right hind foot during a follow-up biomechanical evaluation. He was removed from weightbearing activities, treated symptomatically for pain and swelling, and placed in a rigid orthotic. He has returned to full activity without further incident. This case report emphasizes the important role that biomechanical factors may have in osseous stress injuries. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5. PMID:16558316

  6. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans from sclera examined by rotary shadowing and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, N P; Scott, J E; Cöster, L

    1987-01-01

    Two dermatan sulphate-containing proteoglycans from bovine sclera were examined by rotary shadowing and electron microscopy, and the results were compared with previous biochemical findings. Both the large iduronate-poor proteoglycan (PGI) and the small iduronate-rich proteoglycan (PGII) possessed a globular proteinaceous region. Whereas PGI had a branched extension from the globular region, with five to eight side chains attached to it, PGII had only a single tail, which was of glycosaminoglycuronan. PGII aggregated via globular-region interactions, which were much diminished by reduction and alkylation. PGI aggregated via side chains and globular-region interactions. Although a few PGI aggregates were large, and similar to the hyaluronan-cartilage proteoglycan aggregates [Weidemann, Paulsson, Timpl, Engel & Heinegård (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 331-333], hyaluronan did not cause enhanced aggregation. PGII is very similar in shape to the small cartilage chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, whereas PGI somewhat resembles the large cartilage chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, although with many fewer glycosaminoglycan side chains, and probably only one globular region as opposed to two in the cartilage proteoglycan. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3593274

  7. Association of a transglutaminase-related antigen with intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Skalli, A V; Velasco, P T; Murthy, S N; Lorand, L; Goldman, R D

    1995-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody, G92.1.2, raised against guinea pig liver transglutaminase (TGase) recognizes an antigen present in primary mouse dermal fibroblasts. A filamentous pattern, bearing remarkable similarity to the vimentin intermediate filament (IF) network, is seen when these cells are fixed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence with the antibody. Double-label immunofluorescence reveals that the antigen reacting with the antibody colocalizes precisely with vimentin IF and that this colocalization is retained after the treatment of fibroblasts with colchicine, which induces a redistribution of the majority of IFs into perinuclear aggregates. These morphological observations are further supported by the finding that the protein reacting with G92.1.2 is retained in IF-enriched cytoskeletal preparations made by using nonionic detergent-containing high ionic strength solutions. Western blots of the IF fraction show that G92.1.2 recognizes a major band of approximately 280 kDa and does not cross react with vimentin. Furthermore, when the antibody is microinjected into live dermal fibroblasts, it causes a collapse of the vimentin IF network in the majority of injected cells. The results suggest that a form of TGase, or a TGase-related antigen, is closely associated with the vimentin IF network of primary cultures of mouse dermal fibroblasts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7568048

  8. Three-dimensional cryoelectron microscopy of dimeric kinesin and ncd motor domains on microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, K; Lockhart, A; Cross, R A; Amos, L A

    1996-01-01

    Kinesin and ncd motor proteins are homologous in sequence yet move in opposite directions along microtubules. We have previously shown that monomeric kinesin and ncd bind in the same orientation on equivalent sites relative to the ends of tubulin sheets of known polarity. We now report cryoelectron microscope images of 16-protofilament microtubules decorated with both single- and double-headed kinesin and double-headed ncd. Three-dimensional density maps and difference maps show that, in adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate, both dimeric motors bind tightly to microtubules via one head, leaving the other free, though apparently in a fixed position. The attached heads of dimers bind to tubulin in the same way as single kinesin heads. The second heads are connected to the tops of the first but, whereas the second kinesin head is closely associated with the first, pairs of ncd heads are splayed apart. There is also a distinct difference in orientation: the second kinesin head is tilted toward the microtubule plus end, while the second head of ncd points toward the minus end. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8790366

  9. Ultrastructural observations on the basal lamina in the normal human breast.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Eyden, B P; Howell, A; Sellwood, R A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the basal lamina of histologically normal human breast tissue was determined in 19 women undergoing operations for removal of a fibroadenoma or reduction mammoplasty. The day of the menstrual cycle was determined by hormone assay and direct questioning. Previously documented ultrastructural appearances were confirmed: in addition, three morphological variants were found. In all tissue examined, there was reduplication of basal lamina in some areas, which has been described previously as a pathological feature. Also, there was complex branching of the basal lamina into the periductular connective tissue. Some projections contained cytoplasmic processes and, in almost all, hemidesmosomes were seen. The third variant consisted of loops of basal lamina thrown up in folds into the collagenous stromal cuff. Reduplication of basal lamina was detected in breast tissue removed at all stages of the menstrual cycle, looping was not and could not be related to any particular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, complex branching was seen predominantly in the periovulatory and early luteal phase. We conclude that these appearances are normal variants of basal lamina. The appearance of branching basal lamina in the luteal phase suggests that this may be produced in response to endocrine stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3417540

  10. Two types of mu chain complexes are expressed during differentiation from pre-B to mature B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Takemori, T; Mizuguchi, J; Miyazoe, I; Nakanishi, M; Shigemoto, K; Kimoto, H; Shirasawa, T; Maruyama, N; Taniguchi, M

    1990-01-01

    Immunoglobulin mu chains synthesized in murine pre-B cells are known to be associated with surrogate light chains designated as omega (omega), iota (iota) and B34. In addition to these molecules, we identified the complexes of polypeptides (50, 40, 27 and 15.5 kd) associated with surface or intracellular mu chains of pre-B cell lines. Most of these polypeptides were continuously synthesized and associated with mu chains in virgin B cells lines, although some of them scarcely bound to the mu kappa dimer or mu 2 kappa 2 tetramer concomitantly present in the same clone or population. However, in mature B cells they were no longer detectable except B34. Cross-linking of micron chains on the surface of pre-B cells resulted in an increase in intracellular free Ca2+, indicating that the micron chain complex on the surface of pre-B cell lines acted as a signal transduction molecule. However, the receptor cross-linkage of pre-B cell lines did not induce the increased inositol phospholipid metabolism usually observed in virgin and mature B cell lines. These results suggest that, during the differentiation from pre-B to mature B cells, the cells express two types of mu chain complexes which exhibit different structures as a whole and possess different signal transducing capacities. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2114976

  11. Light microscopic histochemical and immunohistochemical localisation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the rooster comb and wattle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Imai, S; Koga, T; Sim, J S

    1996-01-01

    Comb and wattle tissues, which consist of layers of epidermis, dermis and central connective tissue, are known to contain sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including dermatan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate-dermatan sulphate copolymers. Little is known about distribution of these CAGs in each tissue. The objective of this study was to localise sulphated GAGS in the comb and wattle tissues from mature roosters. Monoclonal antibodies 6D6, CS-56 and AH12 specific to dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (decorin), chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate, respectively, were used. In both tissues, 6D6 epitope was found to be more concentrated in the superficial layer of dermis and the central connective tissue than in the intermediate layer of dermis containing fibromucoid tissue. The staining pattern for 6D6 epitope was similar to that for collagen fibres. In contrast, CS-56 epitope was uniformly distributed in most parts of the dermis and the central connective tissue. The stratum germinativum in the epidermis was the major tissue showing positive staining with AH12, haematoxylin and safranin-O. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8982840

  12. The Platelet Pseudopodium and its Involvement in Aggregation and Adhesion to Vessel Walls

    PubMed Central

    Warren, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the phases of adhesion and aggregation of platelets in close association with damaged endothelium of the aorta and inferior vena cava of the rat was examined. Multivesicular membraneous sacs were found at or near the termination of platelet dendritic pseudopodia at the adhesive points between these structures and basement membrane, fibrin and pseudopodia from other platelets. Progression from a primary sac with closely packed secondary vesicles or subunits to separate subunits and bursting of the enclosing primary membrane was noted. Some of the multivesicular membranous sacs arose directly from the main cytoplasmic mass of the platelet though the more usual mode of origin was via platelet dendritic pseudopodia. Attachment of platelets to basement membrane permitted the release of the secondary vesicles from the multivesicular membraneous sacs. The multivesicular membranous sacs were on average 0·5-0·6 μm. in least and greatest diameters and contained up to 18 vesicles of about 0·08-0·11 μm. in diameter in section. These sacs occurred particularly at the stage of platelet aggregation in which there was complex intermingling of filiform platelet pseudopodia. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 4Fig. 2Fig. 5 PMID:5569958

  13. Custom psychosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Eric

    1973-01-01

    It seems fundamentally improbable that different mental symptoms and personality disorders should be relieved by one single form of operation on the brain. The present paper describes five operations which can be performed with benefit to different types of psychiatric abnormality; namely, unilateral temporal lobectomy, unilateral or bilateral temporal lobotomy, inferior quadrant pre-frontal leucotomy, paramedian frontal leucotomy and posterior cingulectomy. The symptoms that represent an indication for these various operations and the results of the operations on the symptom complexes are described. The proposition is put forward that only operations suitable for the precise psychiatric diagnosis should be used. A new form of analysis of sphenoidal lead examinations is described which is of primary importance in conjunction with psychiatric examination in deciding which operation a particular patient would or would not benefit from. A concept of diencephalic instability is introduced in connection with this EEG analysis to supplement the usual concept of centrencephalic epilepsy. Diencephalic instability as defined here seems to respond specifically to paramedian lobotomy, provided of course the clinical condition justifies such a step. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4806267

  14. Structural studies on mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase using chemical cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S D; Ragan, C I

    1988-01-01

    The structure of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase was investigated by cross-linking constituent subunits with disuccinimidyl tartrate, (ethylene glycol)yl bis(succinimidyl succinate) and dimethyl suberimidate. Cross-linked products were identified by Western blotting with monospecific antisera to nine subunits of the enzyme. Cross-links between subunits within the flavoprotein, iron-protein and hydrophobic domains of the enzyme were identified. Cross-linking between the 75 kDa iron-protein-domain subunit and the 51 kDa flavoprotein-domain subunit was modulated by the substrate NADH. Cross-linking of subunits of the iron-protein and flavoprotein domains to constituents of the hydrophobic domain was also found. This was further substantiated by photolabelling subunits of the latter region, which were in contact with the membrane lipid, with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine. One such subunit of Mr 19,000 could be cross-linked to components of the iron-protein domain. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3223927

  15. Indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in human A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H Y; Berrios, M; Malbon, C C

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies directed against (i) rodent lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, (ii) a synthetic fragment of an extracellular domain of the receptor, and (iii) human placenta G-protein beta-subunits, were used to localize these antigens in situ in intact and permeabilized human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Antibodies directed against beta 2-adrenergic receptors showed a punctate immunofluorescence staining throughout the cell surface of fixed intact cells. Punctate staining was also observed in clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector harbouring the gene for the hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The immunofluorescence observed with anti-receptor antibodies paralleled the level of receptor expression. In contrast, the beta-subunits common to G-proteins were not stained in fixed intact cells, presumably reflecting their intracellular localization. In detergent-permeabilized fixed cells, strong punctate staining of G beta-subunits was observed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins. Punctate immunofluorescence staining suggests that both antigens are distributed in clusters. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. p528-a Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2556996

  16. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308

  17. Translation and assembly of HLA-DR antigens in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from a human B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Long, E O; Gross, N; Wake, C T; Mach, J P; Carrel, S; Accolla, R; Mach, B

    1982-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens are polymorphic cell surface glycoproteins, expressed primarily in B lymphocytes and macrophages, which are thought to play an important role in the immune response. Two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, are associated at the cell surface, and a third chain associates with alpha and beta intracellularly. RNA isolated from the human B-cell line Raji was injected in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Immunoprecipitates of translation products with several monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of HLA-DR antigens similar to those synthesized in Raji cells. One monoclonal antibody was able to bind the beta chain after dissociation of the three polypeptide chains with detergent. The presence of all three chains was confirmed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The glycosylation pattern of the three chains was identical to that observed in vivo, as evidenced in studies using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. The presence of alpha chains assembled with beta chains in equimolar ratio was further demonstrated by amino-terminal sequencing. An RNA fraction enriched for the three mRNAs, encoding alpha, beta, and intracellular chains, was isolated. This translation-assembly system and the availability of monoclonal antibodies make it possible to assay for mRNA encoding specific molecules among the multiple human Ia-like antigens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821356

  18. Identification and characterization of the Escherichia coli gene dsbB, whose product is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Missiakas, D; Georgopoulos, C; Raina, S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the Escherichia coli gene dsbB, whose product is required for disulfide bond formation of periplasmic proteins, by using two different approaches: (i) screening of a multicopy plasmid library for clones which protect E. coli from the lethal effects of dithiothreitol (DTT), and (ii) screening of insertion libraries of E. coli for DTT-sensitive mutants. Mapping and characterization of mutations conferring a DTT-sensitive phenotype also identified the dsbA, trxA, and trxB genes, whose products are involved in different oxidation-reduction pathways. Null mutations in dsbB conferred pleiotropic phenotypes such as sensitivity to benzylpenicillin and inability to support plaque formation of filamentous phages, and they were shown to severely affect disulfide bond oxidation of secreted proteins such as OmpA and beta-lactamase. These phenotypes resemble the phenotype of bacteria carrying either a null mutation in the dsbA gene or the double mutation dsbA dsbB. Sequencing and expression of the dsbB gene revealed that it encodes a 20-kDa protein predicted to possess an "exchangeable" disulfide bond in -Cys-Val-Leu-Cys-. The dsbB gene maps at 26.5 min on the genetic map of the E. coli chromosome, and its transcription is directed from two promoters, neither of which resembles the canonical E sigma 70-recognized promoter. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7688471

  19. Delamination of neuroepithelium and nonneural ectoderm and its relation to the convergence step in chick neurulation.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Caso, M; De Paz, P; Fernandez Alvarez, J G; Chamorro, C; Villar, J M

    1992-01-01

    We have analysed the characteristics of the neuroectoderm-nonneural ectoderm meeting point at several axial levels in relation to the mechanics of neurulation in each level. The results show wide differences at cephalic and somitic levels. At cephalic levels, where convergence plays an important role, the delamination process appears at the beginning of the convergence step. This phenomenon produces a major isolation of the basal lamina, forming a space between this structure and the epithelial sheet in whose basal surface a new basal lamina begins to form. This cavity contains abundant extracellular matrix stained with ruthenium red (RR) and tannic acid (TA), and its increase in volume correlates with the progressive convergence of neural folds. At somitic levels, where the convergence is not important, delamination involves the progressive formation of a half-moon-shaped cavity. This structure appears between a dorsal attachment point, in the tip of neuroectodermal wall, and a ventral attachment point which coincides with the point of bending that determines the bilateral furrow, if it exists. In this small cavity, delamination is not related to an isolation of basal lamina. The RR-staining of the extracellular matrix in this cavity is scarce and the volume increase is smaller than in the cephalic region. These results are discussed in terms of neural fold convergence and neural tube closure. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1452469

  20. Evaluation of Filters for Removal of Bacteriophages from Air1

    PubMed Central

    Washam, C. J.; Black, C. H.; Sandine, W. E.; Elliker, P. R.

    1966-01-01

    Glass wool, nonabsorbent cotton, fiberglass filter medium, and a commercial absolute filter were tested for effectiveness in removing aerosolized bacterial viruses under low flow rate (1 ft3/min) and high flow rate (10 to 25 ft3/min) air-flow conditions. Special equipment was designed for measurement of filter efficiencies under the two air-flow conditions. Under low air-flow rate test conditions, glass wool was only 98.543 to 99.83% efficient, whereas cotton (five layers), fiberglass medium (three layers), and the commercial absolute filter were at least 99.900, 99.999, and 99.999 efficient, respectively. Glass wool and cotton were not used under higher air-flow conditions because they were difficult to assemble in leak-tight filters. The commercial absolute filter and fiberglass medium (three layers) were at least 99.990 and 99.999% efficient, respectively, under the higher air flow conditions. A stainless-steel filter of simple design and fitted with three layers of fiberglass medium was found to be greater than 99.999% efficient in removing high concentrations (20,000 to 70,000 plaque-forming units per cubic foot) of aerosolized bacteriophages from air moving at a low flow rate (1 ft3/min). Use of this filter on pressure-vacuum tanks in the fermentation industry is suggested. Several other uses of such a filter are proposed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:5927020

  1. Experience gained from treating facial injuries due to civil unrest

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, R I H

    1981-01-01

    During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp[35]-ap[42]-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260

  2. Hormonally induced alterations of chromatin structure in the polyadenylation and transcription termination regions of the chicken ovalbumin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, M; Dretzen, G; Bellard, F; Kaye, J S; Pratt-Kaye, S; Chambon, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the chromatin structure of a 16-kb region of the chicken genome containing the 3'-terminal 2 kb of the ovalbumin pre-mRNA coding sequence and the 14-kb segment located immediately downstream from the main mRNA polyadenylation site. Using the indirect end-labelling technique, four major and two minor DNase I-hypersensitive regions were found in the oviduct chromatin, whereas they were not present in liver, kidney or erythrocyte chromatin. The first hypersensitive region (region A) was present in chromatin of oviducts from laying hen and estrogen- or progesterone-stimulated immature chicks, in which the ovalbumin gene is expressed, but not in the chromatin of 'acute withdrawn' chicks where the gene is no longer transcribed. Region A spans 1.3 kb, from 7.2 to 8.5 kb downstream from the ovalbumin gene capsite (position +1), and encompasses the 3' moiety of the last exon including the major polyadenylation signal and polyadenylation site located at +7546 and +7564, respectively. Region A also contains a minor polyadenylation signal present at +7294 and the corresponding polyadenylation site at +7368. Two putative termination sequences at +8445 and +8483 are also found at the 3' extremity of region A in a 170-bp DNA segment within which 90% of the ovalbumin primary transcripts apparently terminate. Two minor hormone-independent DNase I-hypersensitive regions (a1 and a2) located at +8.6 and +8.8 kb are also specific to oviduct chromatin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3011414

  3. c-myc activation renders proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cells independent of EBV nuclear antigen 2 and latent membrane protein 1.

    PubMed Central

    Polack, A; Hörtnagel, K; Pajic, A; Christoph, B; Baier, B; Falk, M; Mautner, J; Geltinger, C; Bornkamm, G W; Kempkes, B

    1996-01-01

    Two genetic events contribute to the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) infection of B lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the activation of the protooncogene c-myc through chromosomal translocation. The viral genes EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) are essential for transformation of primary human B cells by EBV in vitro; however, these genes are not expressed in BL cells in vivo. To address the question whether c-myc activation might abrogate the requirement of the EBNA2 and LMP1 function, we have introduced an activated c-myc gene into an EBV-transformed cell line in which EBNA2 was rendered estrogen-dependent through fusion with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor. The c-myc gene was placed under the control of regulatory elements of the immunoglobulin kappa locus composed a matrix attachment region, the intron enhancer, and the 3' enhancer. We show here that transfection of a c-myc expression plasmid followed by selection for high MYC expression is capable of inducing continuous proliferation of these cells in the absence of functional EBNA2 and LMP1. c-myc-induced hormone-independent proliferation was associated with a dramatic change in the growth behavior as well as cell surface marker expression of these cells. The typical lymphoblastoid morphology and phenotype of EBV-transformed cells completely changed into that of BL cells in vivo. We conclude that the phenotype of BL cells reflects the expression pattern of viral and cellular genes rather than its germinal center origin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816814

  4. Muscle-spindle distribution in relation to the fibre-type composition of masseter in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Rowlerson, A; Mascarello, F; Barker, D; Saed, H

    1988-01-01

    The various parts of the masseter muscle complex (pars superficialis, pars profunda, zygomaticomandibularis, maxillomandibularis) in the rat, guinea-pig, rabbit, cat and macaque monkey were examined to discover whether they showed any relationship between the distribution of muscle spindles and extrafusal fibre types. Intrafusal (spindle) and extrafusal fibre types in masseter were compared with those in limb muscles and were identified by a combination of standard histochemical methods and indirect immunoperoxidase staining with antibodies specific for the various isoforms of myosin characteristic of fibre types in mammalian muscle. In general, the fibre-type properties of intrafusal fibres in masseter resembled those in limb muscle spindles, but the extrafusal fibre-type composition was unlike that in most limb muscles. In the rat masseter, most of the spindles were clustered together in a few very restricted areas. Extensive fusion of the external capsules of adjacent spindles, resulting in the formation of giant spindles, was seen in the cat and monkey masseter; this was sometimes accompanied by the enclosure of extrafusal fibres within the fused spindles. Common to all species, but strongest of all in the rat, was a close association between the distributions of muscle spindles and extrafusal Type I (slow twitch) fibres within the masseter complex. Muscle spindles and Type I fibres were either absent or rarest in the superficial part of masseter, but were most common in the deep layer (pars profunda) or zygomaticomandibularis. The functional significance of these observations is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2978294

  5. Regression of atherosclerosis by the intravenous infusion of specific biochemical nutrient substrates in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary studies in 400 New Zealand albino rabbits produced a reliable animal model of nutrient-induced atherosclerosis that simulated that observed in humans. Atherosclerosis was then induced in an additional 1600 rabbits in sets of 40 animals each, maintaining plasma cholesterol concentrations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL for 6-20 weeks. In each set, 10 control rabbits were killed to document baseline atherosclerosis, and the other 30 rabbits were assigned randomly to one of three groups of 10 rabbits. Groups of 10 rabbits were either continued on the atherogenic diet (group I), given standard laboratory rabbit pellets (group II), or infused continuously with specially formulated anticholesterol solutions via central venous catheters (group III) for 6 weeks. At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions consistently involved 85-95% of the aorta in group I. In group II, atherosclerosis was comparable with the baseline control group with no regression. In group III, regression of atherosclerosis by 90-95% was consistently documented. Correlations between plasma amino acids and plasma cholesterol concentrations were established in four humans with severe atherosclerosis to maximize the cholesterol reduction capacity of the amino acid formulation. Infusion of the modified total parenteral nutrition solution induced prompt reduction in plasma cholesterol levels by 40-60% regardless of the initial level and was accompanied by evidence of regression of atherosclerosis after a 90-day infusion therapy period. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. PMID:3115205

  6. Strongylus equinus: development and pathological effects in the equine host.

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B M; Slocombe, J O

    1985-01-01

    The development and pathological effects of Strongylus equinus were studied in 17 pony foals and one horse foal raised in isolation and examined at necropsy from seven days to 40 wk postinfection (PI). Following inoculation of 15000 +/- 6% or 16000 +/- 6% infective larvae by stomach tube foals were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes. Larvae penetrated the wall of the ileum, cecum and colon. The molt to the fourth stage occurred mostly in the wall of the ventral colon before 2 wk PI and larvae attained the liver mainly via the peritoneal cavity as early as eight days PI and persisted in the liver until 17 wk PI. Following active migration within the liver, invasion of the pancreas was accomplished at least by 7 wk PI with maximum numbers at 17 wk. The fourth molt occurred about 15 wk PI and preadults were present in the wall of the ventral colon at 30 wk PI and in the lumen of the colon at 40 wk. Strongylus equinus tends to wander retroperitoneally to the flanks, perirenal fat, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally to the lungs. Between 1 and 4 wk PI small raised hemorrhagic areas were present on the serosa of the ileum and colon. Small white foci on the surface of the liver at 1 wk PI were followed by tortuous tracks 3 wk later. Pathological changes in the pancreas were evident at three months PI and more severe by four months. Granulomas containing larvae were common in the flanks, diaphragm, omentum and occasionally beneath the pleura of the lungs. Clinical signs were correlated with invasion of the pancreas, the fourth molt, maximum globulin values and high eosinophil counts. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:4075237

  7. The histological appearance of large intestinal biopsies in dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, I

    1988-01-01

    Colonic and rectal forceps and excision biopsies of 355 dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease were investigated. Five percent of the forceps biopsies were unsuitable for examination; all excision biopsies were of good quality. Forceps biopsies were obtained from one to eight sites, up to 60 cm cranial from the anus, while excision biopsies, mostly from tumors, were from the rectoanal region. Slight to severe colitis and/or proctitis was found in 192 dogs (54%). A single type of colitis was seen in 160 dogs; in 53 cases the lesions were local, in 107 cases multiple. A combination of different types of colitis was found in 32 dogs. Atrophic colitis, diffuse colitis and canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were the most prominent findings, followed by ulcerative, superficial and eosinophilic colitis. Follicular, hypertrophic and aspecific granulomatous colitis were found in only a few cases. Tumors were diagnosed in 57 dogs (16%). Of these tumors 50 were of epithelial and seven were of mesenchymal origin. A high percentage (61%) of the epithelial tumors consisted of adenomas of the rectoanal region. In ten other dogs (3%) a differential diagnosis of lymphosarcoma or colitis had to be made. Colitis and colorectal tumors were more prevalent in Boxers, German Shepherds, Poodles, Great Danes and Spaniels. In the Boxers simple chronic colitis, as well as canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were more frequently found, the latter especially in females. Other biopsy findings were edema, crypt cysts, hemorrhages, an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and an increased or decreased number of goblet cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:3349403

  8. Ultrastructure and antigenicity of the unique cell wall pimple of the Candida opaque phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J; Mihalik, R; Soll, D R

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans WO-1 switch frequently and reversibly between two colony-forming phenotypes, white and opaque. In the white form, budding cells appear similar to those of most other strains of C. albicans, but in the opaque form, budding cells are larger, are bean shaped, and possess pimples on the wall. These pimples exhibit a unique and complex morphology. With scanning electron microscopy, a central pit can be discerned, and in many cases, a bleb can be observed emerging from the pimple center. With transmission electron microscopy, channels are evident in some pimples and vesicles are apparent under the pimple in the cytoplasm, in the actual wall of the pimple, or emerging from the tip of the pimple. A large vacuole predominates in the opaque-cell cytoplasm. This vacuole is usually filled with spaghettilike membranous material and in a minority of cases is filled with vesicles, many of which exhibit a relatively uniform size. An antiserum to opaque cells recognizes three opaque-cell-specific antigens with molecular masses of approximately 14.5, 21, and 31 kilodaltons (kDa). Absorption with nonpermeabilized opaque cells demonstrated that only the 14.5-kDa antigen is on the cell surface; indirect immunogold labeling demonstrated that it is localized in or on the pimple. The possibility is suggested that the vacuole of opaque cells is the origin of membrane-bound vesicles which traverse the wall through specialized pimple structures and emerge from the pimple with an intact outer double membrane, a unique phenomenon in yeast cells. The opaque-cell-specific 14.5-kDa antigen either is in the pimple channel or is a component of the emerging vesicle. The functions of the unique opaque-cell pimple and emerging vesicle are not known. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7A-7B FIG. 7C-7D PMID:2403540

  9. Cartilage fibrillation on the lateral tibial plateau in Liverpool necropsies.

    PubMed Central

    Meachim, G

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made of the state at necropsy of the hyaline articular cartilage of the left tibial plateaux, with particular reference to the lateral plateau, in 47 adult white Europeans (24 men; 23 women) aged 21-88 years. The surface morphology and topographical distribution of the lesions is described for the bare area of the lateral plateau and its meniscus-covered segments, and quantitative point-counting data are presented for the amount, according to age, of overt fibrillation on the bare area. A variety of cartilage lesions was encountered: macroscopically apparent ' parallel linear' minimal fibrillation; other patterns of minimal fibrillation; 'ravines'; overt fibrillation; localized incomplete defects of the cartilage; and full-thickness cartilage loss with bone exposure. Sites of superficial fraying and splitting of the hyaline articular cartilage are a normal finding on adult human tibial plateaux. Especially in younger adults, such sites are often accompanied by large areas of cartilage surface which are still intact. On the lateral plateau, the bare area and the meniscus-covered posterior segment are more susceptible to overt fibrillation than are the meniscus-covered lateral and anterior segments. In contrast to the findings in other synovial joints, the peripheral rim of the upper tibial cartilage sheet is not particularly susceptible to overt fibrillation. Tangential extension of the changes on the lateral plateau leads to widespread involvement of the bare area and the meniscus-covered posterior segment in older subjects. However, vertical progression of the changes, sufficient to give full-thickness cartilage loss with tibio-femoral bone exposure, was seen in only a minority of persons aged over 80 years. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:946428

  10. Urea-inducible Egr-1 transcription in renal inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D M

    1996-01-01

    Urea (200-400 milliosmolar) activates transcription, translation of, and trans-activation by the immediate-early gene transcription factor Egr-1 in a renal epithelial cell-specific fashion. The effect at the transcriptional level has been attributed to multiple serum response elements and their adjacent Ets motifs located within the Egr-1 promoter. Elk-1, a principal ternary complex factor and Ets domain-containing protein, is a substrate of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the renal medullary mIMCD3 cell line, urea (200-400 milliosmolar) activated both ERK1 and ERK2 as determined by in-gel kinase assay and immune-complex kinase assay of epitope-tagged] ERK1 and ERK2. Importantly, urea did not affect abundance of either ERK. Urea-inducible Egr-1 transcription was a consequence of ERK activation because the ERK-specific inhibitor, PD98059, abrogated transcription from the murine Egr-1 promoter in a luciferase reported gene assay. In addition, activators of protein kinase A, including forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP, which are known to inhibit ERK-mediated events, also inhibited urea-inducible Egr-1 transcription. Furthermore, urea-inducible activation of the physiological ERK substrate and transcription factor, Elk-1, was demonstrated through transient cotransfection of a chimeric Elk-1/GAL4 expression plasmid and a GAL4-driven luciferase reporter plasmid. Taken together, these data indicate that, in mIMCD3 cells, urea activates ERKs and the ERK substrate, Elk-1, and that ERK inhibition abrogates urea-inducible Egr-1 transcription. These data are consistent with a model of urea-inducible renal medullary gene expression wherein sequential activation of ERKs and Elk-1 results in increased transcription of Egr-1 through serum response element/Ets motifs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8855340

  11. Glucocorticoid and progestin receptors are differently involved in the cooperation with a structural element of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Le Ricousse, S; Gouilleux, F; Fortin, D; Joulin, V; Richard-Foy, H

    1996-01-01

    We have previously characterized a regulatory element located between -294 and -200 within the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR). This element termed AA element cooperates with the glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) for glucocorticoid activation. Here we show that in a MMTV LTR wild type context, the deletion of this element significantly reduces both glucocorticoid and progestin activation of the promoter. Deletion of the two most distal GREs forces the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the progestin receptor (PR) to bind the same response elements and results in a dramatic decrease in the inducibility of the MMTV promoter by the two hormones. The simultaneous deletion of the two distal GREs and of the AA element abolishes completely the glucocorticoid-induced activation of the promoter. In contrast it restores a significant level of progestin-induced activation. This different effect of the double deletion on glucocorticoid- and progestin-induced MMTV promoter activation is not cell specific because it is also observed, and is even stronger, when either GR or PR is expressed in the same cell line (NIH 3T3). This is the first description of a mutated MMTV promoter that, although retaining GREs, is activated by progestins and not by glucocorticoids. This suggests a different functional cooperation between protein(s) interacting with the AA element and GR or PR. Cotransfections with constructs containing wild-type or mutated MMTV LTR with either PR lacking its C-terminal domain or GR/PR chimeras in which the N-terminal domains have been exchanged demonstrate that the N-terminal domains of the receptors specify the different behavior of GR and PR regarding the AA element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643531

  12. Personal experience with 411 hepatic resections.

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, S; Starzl, T E

    1988-01-01

    Over a 24-year period, 411 partial hepatic resections were performed: 142 right or left trisegmentectomies, 158 lobectomies, 25 segmentectomies, and 86 local excisions. The operations were performed for benign lesions in 182 patients, for primary hepatic malignancies in 106, and for hepatic metastases in 123, including 90 from colorectal cancers. The 30-day (operative) mortality rate was 3.2%, and there were an additional six late deaths (1.5%) due to hepatic failure caused by the resection. The highest operative mortality rate (6.3%) resulted from the trisegmentectomies, but this merely reflected the extent of the disease being treated. A mortality rate of 8.5% for patients with primary hepatic malignancy was associated not only with the extensiveness of lesions, but also with cirrhosis in the remaining liver fragment. There was no mortality for 123 patients with metastatic disease, 100 patients with cavernous hemangioma, 22 with liver cell adenoma, 17 with focal nodular hyperplasia, 16 with congenital cystic disease, and five with hydatid cysts. Trauma, pre-existing iatrogenic injury, and cirrhosis were the only conditions that had lethal portent in patients with benign disease. Furthermore, patients with benign disease who survived operation had minimal liability from recurrence of their original disease and none from the resection per se. By contrast, tumor recurrence dominated the actuarial survival rates for cancer patients, which at 1 and 5 years were 68.5% and 31.9%, respectively, after resection for primary hepatic malignancy, and 84.2% and 29.5%, respectively, for hepatic metastases. In this report, the expanding role of partial hepatectomy in the treatment of liver disease was emphasized, as well as the need for considering, in some cases, the alternative of total hepatectomy and liver replacement. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 9. PMID:3178330

  13. A domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr containing repeated H(S/F)RIG amino acid motifs causes cell growth arrest and structural defects.

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, I G; Castelli, L A; Hewish, D R; Kirkpatrick, A; Ward, A C; Azad, A A

    1995-01-01

    Vpr is a virion-associated protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) whose function in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been uncertain. Employing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to examine the effects of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins on basic cellular functions, we found that the vpr gene caused cell growth arrest and structural defects indicated by osmotic sensitivity and gross cell enlargement. Production of various domains by gene expression showed that this effect arose from within the carboxyl-terminal third of the Vpr protein and implicated the sequence HFRIGCRHSRIG, containing two H(S/F)RIG motifs. Electroporation with a series of peptides containing these motifs caused structural defects in yeast that resulted in osmotic sensitivity. A protein with functions relating to the yeast cytoskeleton, Sac1p [Cleves, A. E., Novick, P.J. & Bankaitis, V.A. (1989) J. Cell Biol. 109, 2939-2950], shows sequence similarity to Vpr, and Vpr's effect in yeast may be to disrupt normal Sac1p functions. The Sac1p equivalent has not yet been described in mammalian cells, but in rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell lines Vpr also caused gross cell enlargement and replication arrest [Levy, D.N., Fernandes, L.S., Williams, W.V. & Weiner, D.B. (1993) Cell 72, 541-550]. We note that there is a correlation between the region containing the H(S/F)RIG motifs and the pathogenicity of primate lentiviruses and we suggest that the function of Vpr may be to bring about cell growth arrest and/or cytoskeletal changes as an early step in HIV-1 infection. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7708721

  14. Light and electron microscopical observations on the Leydig cells of the scrotal and abdominal testes of naturally unilateral cryptorchid West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1985-01-01

    The structure of interstitial cells of Leydig in the scrotal and abdominal testes of adult West African dwarf goats was studied utilising light and electron microscopy. The Leydig cells in both testes were scattered singly, in cords or clusters in the intertubular connective tissue in close proximity to vascular elements. The intertubular connective tissue in the abdominal testes was however much wider because of the hypoplasia of the seminiferous tubules. While the cells of the scrotal testes exhibited non-granular, pale staining cytoplasm, those of the abdominal testes were darkly staining and the majority contained coarse intracytoplasmic osmiophilic granules Interspersed amongst these cells were adipose cells occasionally distributed overall. With the electron microscope, it was found that agranular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were more prominently developed in the scrotal testes. In marked contrast, there were numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the abdominal testes. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of several of these cells showed evidence of degeneration. It is concluded that, contrary to observations in the experimentally induced condition, abdominal retention of testes in natural unilateral cryptorchidism induces alterations in the light microscopical and ultrastructural features of the Leydig cells of West African dwarf goats, changes which possibly can be ascribed to the chronic decline in testicular blood flow and the elevated temperature of the abdominal environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2867081

  15. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  16. The vomeronasal organ of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarezza, O L; Sepich, L N; Tramezzani, J H

    1981-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the vomeronasal complex of the rat (vomeronasal organ blood vessels, cartilage and glands) and the structure of the vomeronasal organ were studied. This organ is a tubular formation that shows different characteristics along its longitudinal axis. In its rostral portion it has a lateral flattened shape but caudally the organ acquires a typical crescent shape and a greater size. The organ is rotated along its longitudinal axis, the medial wall becoming inferior and the lateral one, superior. In its most caudal portion the organ decreases in size and ends in glandular branches. Three histological segments were recognized in the vomeronasal organ. The rostral one shows a pseudostratified epithelium surrounding all the lumen. The middle segment presents in one of its walls a similar epithelium and, in the other wall, the vomeronasal epithelium. The caudalmost segment shows a simple columnar epithelium that continues with that of glandular ducts. The vomeronasal epithelial border is formed by three types of cellular processes which intermingle, each one showing particular features: (a) microvilli originating from dendrites of bipolar cells; (b) microvilli from supporting cells and (c) micro-processes of undetermined origin. The surface of the vomeronasal epithelium shows an irregular distribution and arrangement of these processes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7275797

  17. Formation of the central canal and dorsal glial septum in the spinal cord of the domestic cat.

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, G

    1988-01-01

    Development of the neural tube results in a relative reduction of its lumen accompanied by an increasing thickness of its wall. The central canal measures only about one fifth of that of the former neural canal. This has been said to be the result of an obliteration or fusion of a part of the lumen. This transformation of the central canal takes place between fetal days 28 and 34 in the cat and is characterised by an elongation and shifting of the dorsal ependymal matrix cells and by an apposition of the lateral walls in the same region. It is suggested that the increase in size of the dorsal funiculi causes the elongation of the ependymal cells, the basal processes of which remain to form the dorsal glial septum. The proliferation of neurons and the resultant growth of the dorsal grey horns is believed to be responsible for the narrowing of the lumen. The lumen-contacting matrix cells are displaced from the former surface. These 'blast' cells develop into neurons or glial cells. Until two or three months after birth there is a small wedge-shaped area in the dorsal wall of the central canal which consists of fetal matrix cells with long tapering basal processes extending into the glial septum. After this date the matrix is exhausted and the ependyma forms the complete lining of the surface of the central canal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3248971

  18. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  19. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  20. Platelet Interaction with Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction of several common strains of bacteria with rabbit or human platelets in vitro has been examined sequentially with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Bacteria were added to platelets in their native plasma or to washed platelets in a balanced salt solution at ratios of about 1:1 or at low bacteria to platelet ratios (down to 1:100). The platelet-bacterial interaction (PBI) was studied with recording nephelometry. Matched samples were fixed for microscopy at various points in the aggregation response. The results support these conclusions: a) Bacteria stimulate platelet aggregation by direct contact and adhesion with the platelet surface. b) Adhesion between the two cell types requires divalent cations, occurs through fusion of normal cell-surface coats and appears identical in the presence or absence of extracellular plasma protein. c) The morphologic transformation of platelets during PBI is identical to that produced by collagen. d) During PBI the bacteria are incorporated into the forming platelet aggregates and reside predominantly intercellularly. e) Phagocytosis of bacteria by a single platelet is very rare. f) Bacteria which have resided within platelet aggregates for one hour are unaltered morphologically. g) PBI occurs even at very low bacterial numbers and produces platelet-bacterial aggregates in small numbers without stimulating generalized platelet aggregation. Methods for concentration of thrombocytopenic plasma and washing human platelets are presented. ImagesFig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 3Fig 14Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4632008

  1. Immunocytochemical study of the ontogeny of Peyer's patches in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, H B; Nogueira, J C; King, G; Coutinho, V B; Robalinho, T I; Amorim, A M; Cavalcanti, V M; Robins, R A; Sewell, H F

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ontogenetic immunocytochemical study is reported on gut-associated lymphoid development in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris. This employed antibody probes raised to evolutionarily conserved peptides which have been shown to detect HLA-DR-like (class II MHC) antigens and T and B cell markers in a wide range of animal species. Cells with macrophage and dendritic morphology expressing class II MHC and a few cells expressing the T cell marker CD3 were found in the lamina propria of duodenal villi in early (approximately 24 mm crown-rump length) latent opossum. Cells with B cell markers were not detected until lactent animals reached > 60 mm. Development of Peyer's patches (PP) was seen first in the duodenum in 45-60 mm lactent animals, progressing to well developed PP in the duodenum and ileum in lactent animals > 80 mm. These PP, like those in weanling and juvenile animals, consisted of follicles with a network of class II MHC positive dendritic cells and round cells lacking T and B markers, but lacking well defined mantle zones. B cells were present mainly in the lymphatic sinuses, with CD3 T cells present between follicles in the PP and intraepithelially in the villi. The study reveals the sequential development of class II MHC positive dendritic cells, T cells and B cells in the intestinal ontogeny of the opossum PP. These features occurred initially exclusively in the duodenum and subsequently in the ileum, paralleling the physiological maturation of the gut in eutheria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7961141

  2. Synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 plays a role in meiotic recombination independent of SC polymerization along the chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Storlazzi, A; Xu, L; Schwacha, A; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Zip1 is a yeast synaptonemal complex (SC) central region component and is required for normal meiotic recombination and crossover interference. Physical analysis of meiotic recombination in a zip1 mutant reveals the following: Crossovers appear later than normal and at a reduced level. Noncrossover recombinants, in contrast, seem to appear in two phases: (i) a normal number appear with normal timing and (ii) then additional products appear late, at the same time as crossovers. Also, Holliday junctions are present at unusually late times, presumably as precursors to late-appearing products. Red1 is an axial structure component required for formation of cytologically discernible axial elements and SC and maximal levels of recombination. In a red1 mutant, crossovers and noncrossovers occur at coordinately reduced levels but with normal timing. If Zip1 affected recombination exclusively via SC polymerization, a zip1 mutation should confer no recombination defect in a red1 strain background. But a red1 zip1 double mutant exhibits the sum of the two single mutant phenotypes, including the specific deficit of crossovers seen in a zip1 strain. We infer that Zip1 plays at least one role in recombination that does not involve SC polymerization along the chromosomes. Perhaps some Zip1 molecules act first in or around the sites of recombinational interactions to influence the recombination process and thence nucleate SC formation. We propose that a Zip1-dependent, pre-SC transition early in the recombination reaction is an essential component of meiotic crossover control. A molecular basis for crossover/noncrossover differentiation is also suggested. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799151

  3. Evidence for a haematogenous origin of some of the macrophages appearing in the spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1979-01-01

    A single dose of colloidal carbon was given intravascularly to young adult rats in order to label circulating monocytes. Two days after injection dorsal rhizotomies were performed on the fifth to eighth cervical nerves on the right side. The rats were killed 1, 3, 4 and 8 days later. Electron microscopic examination of the spinal cord showed wide-spread tissue degeneration on the operated side in the dorsolateral fasciculus, the dorsal horn and the dorsal neuronal white column, the changes in the last named being the most severe. A variety of non-neuronal elements was found in the dorsolateral fasciculus and dorsal horn. These included astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia-like cells, plasma cells, mast cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Monocytes and macrophages were most common 3 and 4 days after operation. Some of these cells carried intracytoplasmic carbon particles. Carbon-labelled monocytes were observed in blood vessel lumina, perivascularly and in the neuropil. Monocytes crossing blood vessel walls were also encountered, indicating that the neuropil monocytes were derived from circulating cells. Macrophages were characterized by pleomorphic phagosomes which seemed to be composed largely of myelin remnants. The presence of carbon particles in their cytoplasm, and also their general similarity to monocytes, suggested that they originated from the latter. Local microglial cells were considered to be another source of macrophages. Indeed, there were present some microglia-like cells which were regarded as 'activated microglia' as they showed morphological resemblances to microglia on the one hand and to macrophages on the other. In particular their cytoplasm always included phagosomes. It is concluded that the macrophages which appear in the altered spinal cord following rhizotomy are derived both from circulating monocytes and from indigenous microglia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10

  4. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1423061

  5. Structure of an invertebrate gene encoding cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins: implications for the origin and the diversification of IF proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dodemont, H; Riemer, D; Weber, K

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the single gene encoding the cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins in non-neuronal cells of the gastropod Helix aspersa is described. Genomic and cDNA sequences show that the gene is composed of 10 introns and 11 exons, spanning greater than 60 kb of DNA. Alternative RNA processing accounts for two mRNA families which encode two IF proteins differing only in their C-terminal sequence. The intron/exon organization of the Helix rod domain is identical to that of the vertebrate type III IF genes in spite of low overall protein sequence homology and the presence of an additional 42 residues in coil 1b of the invertebrate sequence. Intron position homology extends to the entire coding sequence comprising both the rod and tail domains when the invertebrate IF gene is compared with the nuclear lamin LIII gene of Xenopus laevis presented in the accompanying report of Döring and Stick. In contrast the intron patterns of the tail domains of the invertebrate IF and the lamin genes differ from those of the vertebrate type III genes. The combined data are in line with an evolutionary descent of cytoplasmic IF proteins from a nuclear lamin-like progenitor and suggest a mechanism for this derivation. The unique position of intron 7 in the Helix IF gene indicates that the archetype IF gene arose by the elimination of the nuclear localization sequence due to the recruitment of a novel splice site. The presumptive structural organization of the archetype IF gene allows predictions with respect to the later diversification of metazoan IF genes. Whereas models proposing a direct derivation of neurofilament genes seem unlikely, the earlier speculation of an mRNA transposition mechanism is compatible with current results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2249666

  6. Identification of the galactose-adherence lectin epitopes of Entamoeba histolytica that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-01-01

    The 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) of Entamoeba histolytica mediates adherence to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelium as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. The Gal-lectin is an immunodominant molecule and a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated macrophages enhances nitric oxide-dependent cytotoxicity in host defense against E. histolytica. The purpose of this study was to identify the Gal-lectin epitopes which stimulate TNF-alpha production by macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to Gal-lectin (100-500 ng/ml) stimulated stable expression of TNF-alpha mRNA (8-fold increase) and TNF-alpha production similar to that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells (100 ng/ml). Polyclonal anti-lectin serum specifically inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA induction in response to the Gal-lectin but not to lipopolysaccharide. Anti-lectin monoclonal antibodies 8C12, H85 and 1G7, which recognize nonoverlapping epitopes of the cysteine-rich region of the 170-kDa heavy subunit, inhibited both amebic adherence to mammalian cells and Gal-lectin-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression by BMMs,but monoclonal antibody 7F4 did neither. As these inhibitory antibodies map to amino acids 596-1082 of the 170-kDa Gal-lectin, our results have identified the functional region that mediates amebic adherence and TNF-alpha mRNA induction in BMMMs; thus, this region of the Gal-lectin is a subunit vaccine candidate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8618866

  7. Evidence that the pathway of disulfide bond formation in Escherichia coli involves interactions between the cysteines of DsbB and DsbA.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, C; Jander, G; Martin, N L; Beckwith, J

    1995-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation is catalyzed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. This process involves at least two proteins: DsbA and DsbB. Recent evidence suggests that DsbA, a soluble periplasmic protein directly catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins, whereas DsbB, an inner membrane protein, is involved in the reoxidation of DsbA. Here we present direct evidence of an interaction between DsbA and DsbB. (Kishigami et al. [Kishigami, S., Kanaya, E., Kikuchi, M. & Ito, K. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 17072-17074] have described similar findings.) We isolated a dominant negative mutant of dsbA, dsbAd, where Cys-33 of the DsbA active site is changed to tyrosine. Both DsbAd and DsbA are able to form a mixed disulfide with DsbB, which may be an intermediate in the reoxidation of DsbA. This complex is more stable with DsbAd. The dominance can be suppressed by increasing the production of DsbB. By using mutants of DsbB in which one or two cysteines have been changed to alanine, we show that only Cys-104 is important for complex formation. Therefore, we suggest that in vivo, reduced DsbA forms a complex with DsbB in which Cys-30 of DsbA is disulfide-bonded to Cys-104 of DsbB. Cys-104 is rapidly replaced by Cys-33 of DsbA to generate the oxidized form of this protein. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568240

  8. Characterization of two nuclear mammalian homologous DNA-pairing activities that do not require associated exonuclease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Akhmedov, A T; Bertrand, P; Corteggiani, E; Lopez, B S

    1995-01-01

    We have developed an assay to study homologous DNA-pairing activities in mammalian nuclear extracts. This assay is derived from the POM blot assay, described earlier, which was specific for RecA activity in bacterial crude extracts. In the present work, proteins from mammalian nuclear extracts were resolved by electrophoresis on SDS/polyacrylamide gels and then electrotransferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane coated with circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The blot obtained was incubated with a labeled homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Homologous pairing between the ssDNA and the labeled dsDNA was detected by autoradiography as a radioactive spot on the membrane. In nuclear extracts from mammalian cells, we found two major polypeptides of 100 and 75 kDa, able to promote the formation of stable plectonemic joints. Joint molecule formation required at least one homologous end on the dsDNA, but either end of the dsDNA could be recruited to initiate the reaction. For each polypeptide, the reaction required divalent cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, or Mn2+. Although ATP was not necessary, ADP was inhibitory in each case. Unlike most of the known eukaryotic DNA-pairing proteins, both activities identified here were able to promote the formation of joint molecules without requiring an associated exonuclease activity. In addition, these two proteins were detected in cell lines from different tissues and from different mammalian species (human, mouse, and hamster). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7878049

  9. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  10. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056

  11. Regulatory arrestin cycle secures the fidelity and maintenance of the fly photoreceptor cell.

    PubMed Central

    Byk, T; Bar-Yaacov, M; Doza, Y N; Minke, B; Selinger, Z

    1993-01-01

    Excitation of fly photoreceptor cells is initiated by photoisomerization of rhodopsin to the active form of metarhodopsin. Fly metarhodopsin is thermostable, does not bleach, and does not regenerate spontaneously to rhodopsin. For this reason, the activity of metarhodopsin must be stopped by an effective termination reaction. On the other hand, there is also a need to restore the inactivated photopigment to an excitable state in order to keep a sufficient number of photopigment molecules available for excitation. The following findings reveal how these demands are met. The photopigment undergoes rapid phosphorylation upon photoconversion of rhodopsin to metarhodopsin and an efficient Ca2+ dependent dephosphorylation upon regeneration of metarhodopsin to rhodopsin. Phosphorylation decreases the ability of metarhodopsin to activate the guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Binding of 49-kDa arrestin further quenches the activity of metarhodopsin and protects it from dephosphorylation. Light-dependent binding and release of 49-kDa arrestin from metarhodopsin- and rhodopsin-containing membranes, respectively, directs the dephosphorylation reaction toward rhodopsin. This ensures the return of phosphorylated metarhodopsin to the rhodopsin pool without initiating transduction in the dark. Assays of rhodopsin dephosphorylation in the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) mutant, a mutant in a gene previously cloned and predicted to encode a serine/threonine protein phosphatase, reveal that phosphorylated rhodopsin is a major substrate for the rdgC phosphatase. We propose that mutations resulting in either a decrease or an improper regulation of rhodopsin phosphatase activity bring about degeneration of the fly photoreceptor cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8446607

  12. Specific heart granules and natriuretic peptide in the developing myocardium of fetal and neonatal rats and hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnam, V; Woodward, J M; Skepper, J N

    1989-01-01

    The ontogenesis of specific heart granules and of the related natriuretic peptide activity in heart muscle was studied in fetal and neonatal rats and golden hamsters by ultrastructural analysis including immunogold labelling for ANP-28 and by radioimmunoassay. In both species, immunoreactive granules first appear in the myocardial sleeve of the embryonic heart tube during the looping stages which precede chamber formation and the peptide becomes detectable by radioimmunoassay two or three days later by which time the chambers are identifiable. Granule density and ANP concentration in the rat are higher than in the hamster at all stages of development. Almost all atrial myocytes express ANP in fetal hearts whereas, in the ventricular wall, cells containing immunoreactive granules are scattered. The density of granules in atrial myocytes increases during further stages of fetal and neonatal development, while it decreases markedly even in those ventricular myocytes which are immunoreactive. Changes in the ultrastructural appearance of ventricular SHG suggest that the mode of production of ANP changes in ventricular myocytes after birth but does not change in atrial cells. There is no correlation between the distribution of immunoreactive ventricular myocytes and that of the conducting system. In both species, the concentration of ANP in the atrial well is higher than ventricular levels from the outset and the disparity becomes exaggerated with development till, in six months old adult animals, the atrial to ventricular concentration ratio is about 3 x 10(3):1 in the rat and 1.5 x 10(3): 1 in the hamster. In the hamster, a distinct gradient of ANP concentration between the right and left atria is already established in the early fetal period and it becomes enhanced in the neonatal period. In the rat, however, a slight difference becomes discernible only after birth. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2532637

  13. Surface ultrastructure of the epithelia lining the normal human lower urinary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J.; Hicks, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The finding of cells with pleomorphic microvilli in urinary sediments has been proposed as an indicator for urothelial neoplasia. Recently, in addition to such cells, others with less bizarre, non-pleomorphic microvilli have also been found in urothelial cancers, and these cells are similar in appearance to others detected in the urinary sediments of healthy people. When using scanning electron microscopy as a diagnostic tool, these cells are a possible source of confusion. The entire lower urinary tracts from people free of urothelial neoplasia have therefore been examined to delineate the normal surface appearance of all cell types which could appear in the urine. There are 4 predominant cell types: the large, flat squamous cells of the urethral meatus which have abundant microridges; cells with mucus-coated, short, stubby microvilli lining the urethra and renal papilla; immature urothelial cells with chains and ridges of bleb-like processes in the ureters and bladder; and, also in the ureters and bladder, mature urothelial cells with microridges or ruffles. The lining epithelia of the normal urethra and renal papilla may thus contribute cells with non-pleomorphic stubby microvilli to urine sediments, which cannot be differentiated by scanning electron microscopy alone from similar cells derived from urothelial neoplasms. However, the normal complement of cells lining the adult lower urinary tract does not include any with prolific, long, pleomorphic microvilli such as characterize transitional-cell carcinomas of the urothelium. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 PMID:7248168

  14. Proteins in Intercellular Washing Fluid from Noninoculated and Rust-Affected Leaves of Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Holden, David W.; Rohringer, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19°C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF. To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25°C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley. IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19°C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664314

  15. Different modes of internalization of proteins associated with adhaerens junctions and desmosomes: experimental separation of lateral contacts induces endocytosis of desmosomal plaque material.

    PubMed Central

    Kartenbeck, J; Schmid, E; Franke, W W; Geiger, B

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and fate of two junctional complexes, zonula adhaerens and desmosomes, after dissociation of cell-cell contacts is described in MDBK cells. Junctions were split between adjacent cells by treatment with EGTA and proteins associated with the plaques of zonulae adhaerentes and desmosomes were localized by immunological methods. Splitting of these junctions is accompanied by the dislocation of desmosomal plaque protein from the cell periphery and its distribution in punctate arrays over the whole cytoplasm. By contrast, vinculin associated with zonulae adhaerentes is still seen at early times (0.5-1 h) in a conspicuous belt-like structure which, however, is displaced from the plasma membrane. Strong vinculin staining is maintained on leading edges of free cell surfaces. Electron microscopy of EGTA-treated cells exposed to colloidal gold particles reveals the disappearance of junctional structures from the cell periphery and the concomitant appearance of a distinct class of gold particle-containing vesicles which are coated by dense plaques. These vesicle plaques react with antibodies to desmosomal plaque proteins and are associated with filaments of the cytokeratin type. In the same cells, extended dense aggregates are seen which are most probably the membrane-detached vinculin-rich material from the zonula adhaerens . The experiments show that, upon release from their junction-mediated connections with adjacent cells, major proteins associated with the cytoplasmic side of the junctions remain, for several hours, clustered within plaques displaced from the cell surface. While plaque material of adhaerens junctions containing vinculin is recovered in large belt-like aggregates, desmosomal plaque protein remains attached to membrane structures and appears on distinct vesicles endocytotically formed from half-desmosomal equivalents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6821357

  16. Slip complexity in earthquake fault models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, J R; Ben-Zion, Y

    1996-01-01

    We summarize studies of earthquake fault models that give rise to slip complexities like those in natural earthquakes. For models of smooth faults between elastically deformable continua, it is critical that the friction laws involve a characteristic distance for slip weakening or evolution of surface state. That results in a finite nucleation size, or coherent slip patch size, h*. Models of smooth faults, using numerical cell size properly small compared to h*, show periodic response or complex and apparently chaotic histories of large events but have not been found to show small event complexity like the self-similar (power law) Gutenberg-Richter frequency-size statistics. This conclusion is supported in the present paper by fully inertial elastodynamic modeling of earthquake sequences. In contrast, some models of locally heterogeneous faults with quasi-independent fault segments, represented approximately by simulations with cell size larger than h* so that the model becomes "inherently discrete," do show small event complexity of the Gutenberg-Richter type. Models based on classical friction laws without a weakening length scale or for which the numerical procedure imposes an abrupt strength drop at the onset of slip have h* = 0 and hence always fall into the inherently discrete class. We suggest that the small-event complexity that some such models show will not survive regularization of the constitutive description, by inclusion of an appropriate length scale leading to a finite h*, and a corresponding reduction of numerical grid size. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:11607669

  17. Morphological heterogeneity of Leu7, Leu11 and OKM1 positive lymphocyte subsets: an ultrastructural study with the immunogold method.

    PubMed Central

    Polli, N; Matutes, E; Robinson, D; Catovsky, D

    1987-01-01

    The morphological features of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes reactive with three monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against natural killer (NK) cells, Leu7, OKM1 (CD11b) and Leu11 (CD16) and with two anti-T cell MoAb, CD4 and CD8, have been analysed at ultrastructural level by an indirect immunogold method. Cells having the features of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) but also lymphocytes displaying different morphological characteristics (non LGL; e.g. high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles) were seen reactive with each of the MoAb investigated. Leu7 identified a higher proportion of LGL (60-80%) than OKM1 (10-95%) and Leu11 (20-48%), and with a stronger binding. A distinct granular structure, recognized as parallel tubular arrays, was more characteristic of the Leu7+, CD8+ LGL and was less frequently seen in the OKM1 and Leu11 positive LGL subpopulation in four out of the five donors investigated. It is of interest that the Leu11 and OKM1 positive subsets, which correspond functionally to cells with greater NK function, had relatively less LGL than the Leu7 positive subsets, raising the issue of the true morphology of NK cells in man. The existence of a minority of CD4 positive LGL was confirmed. Our findings demonstrate that there is a degree of morphological heterogeneity within the normal NK lymphoid population as defined by the membrane phenotype and that certain variability among normal individuals regarding the proportion and structural features of the NK subpopulations may be present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3498572

  18. Structure and function of the abductor pollicis longus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    van Oudenaarde, E

    1991-01-01

    The abductor pollicis longus muscle was examined in dissections and histologically to study the insertions around the CMC I joint. The APL consists fundamentally of a superficial and a deep division, both terminating in one or more tendons. The deep division is proximally situated, it is covered by the extensor digitorum muscle and consists of several muscle bellies; it terminates in a central tendon. The fibres are short, obliquely attached to the tendon in a pennate manner and close together. After the passage through the extensor retinaculum the tendon separates into many branches. The superficial division is more distally situated, not covered by other muscles, lying superficial to the tendon of the deep part. The fibres are long, parallel to one another and form a thin layer. The tendon passes, together with the deep division, through the same compartment of the extensor retinaculum and inserts into MC I. If the muscle contracts, then the structures around the CMC I joint will be tensed by the deep division and MC I will be affected by the superficial division. It is to be expected that in the appropriate thumb movements the superficial part will show an isotonic contraction and the deep part, an isometric action. The superficial part, with long thin fibres, presumably has the least strength while the deep part, with its larger number of fibres, is the most powerful. The functional analysis gives the impression that the deep head will mainly support the trapezium as a platform upon which MC I moves. The superficial head will be active in moving MC I. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2032936

  19. Soybean Lectin and Related Proteins in Seeds and Roots of Le+ and Le− Soybean Varieties 1

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, Lila O.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1986-01-01

    The localizations of soybean lectin (SBL) and antigenically related proteins in cotyledons and roots of lectin positive (Le+) and lectin negative (Le−) soybean cultivars were compared by light level immunocytochemistry using antibodies produced against the 120 kilodalton (kD) native seed lectin tetramer or its subunits. Lectin is present in the protein bodies of cotyledons cells as are two other seed proteins, the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the storage protein glycinin. Analysis of single seed extracts by immunoblotting of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using the same antibodies, reveals up to 4 milligrams of the 30 kD seed lectin protein is present per seed in the Le+ varieties. There is no detectable lectin in the protein bodies of Le− cotyledons as determined by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed this result to a sensitivity of less than 20 nanograms per seed. In contrast, the roots of both Le+ and Le− plants bind the seed lectin antibody during immunocytochemistry, with fluorescence mainly localized in vacuole-like bodies in the epidermis. Root extracts contain a 33 kD polypeptide that binds anti-SBL antibody at an estimated minimal level of 20 nanograms per 4-day seedling, or 2.0 nanograms per primary root tip. This polypeptide is also present in the embryo axis and in leaves. The latter also contain a 26 kD species that binds seed lectin antibody. The 30 kD seed lectin subunit, however, is not detectable in roots or leaves. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664856

  20. Expression of TNF and TNF receptors (p55 and p75) in the rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Botchkina, G. I.; Meistrell, M. E.; Botchkina, I. L.; Tracey, K. J.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) protein and mRNA, but the cellular sources of TNF in the ischemic brain have not been defined. The diverse activities of TNF are mediated via ligand interaction with two distinct receptors, p55 and p75, which activate separate intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to distinct biological effects. Since the effects of cerebral ischemia on TNF receptor (TNFR) expression are unknown, we examined the cellular localization and protein expression of TNF and its two receptors in the rat cerebral cortex in response to permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The results indicate that focal. cerebral ischemia up-regulates expression of TNF and both TNFRs within the ischemic cortex. The most abundant type of TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was a punctate and filamentous pattern of transected cellular processes; however, cell bodies of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as infiltrating polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes also showed TNF IR. Brain vasculature displayed TNF IR not only within endothelial cells but also in the perivascular space. MCA occlusion induced significant up-regulation of TNF receptors, with p55 IR appearing within 6 hr, significantly before the appearance of p75 IR at 24 hr after the onset of ischemia. Since p55 has been implicated in transducing cytotoxic signalling of TNF, these results support the proposed injurious role of excessive TNF produced during the acute response to cerebral ischemia. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 3 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:9407552

  1. A monoclonal antibody against rat platelets. I. Tissue distribution in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bagchus, W M; Jeunink, M F; Rozing, J; Elema, J D

    1989-01-01

    In this study we describe a new monoclonal antibody (MoAb PL.1) against rat platelets. Immunohistology of various rat tissues showed staining of platelets, especially in the spleen, and staining of megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen red pulp. In the liver small platelet aggregates and endothelial cells were stained. After in-vivo administration of MoAb PL.1 an acute severe thrombocytopenia was observed. In general the distribution of the antibody and/or antibody-coated platelet aggregates showed the same pattern as after in-vitro incubation, i.e. staining of rat platelets and platelet aggregates in spleen red pulp, and staining of megakaryocytes in spleen and bone marrow. Platelet aggregates were observed in the liver and electron microscopy indicated that they were associated with Kupffer cells. Furthermore, liver endothelial cells were positively stained. Comparison of the molecular weight of the antigens recognized by this MoAb and by human anti-platelet MoAbs, as well as comparison of staining patterns of megakaryocytes indicated that MoAb PL.1 is probably directed to a GPIIb/IIIa complex analogue. Since MoAb PL.1 is of the non-complement-binding mouse IgG1 isotype, it can be used for studying clearance of platelet aggregates by Fc-receptors of the MPS. It also promises to be a useful tool in the study of platelet involvement in rats with experimental nephritis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2649291

  2. Histological studies of the elimination of Leishmania enriettii from skin lesions in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, A.; Ridley, D. S.; Heather, C. J.; Ridley, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Nineteen guinea-pigs were each inoculated intradermally with 10(6) amastigotes of Leishmania enriettii, and the development of the lesions was followed from Weeks 4 to 10 with a view to elucidating the histological mechanisms involved with the elimination of parasites. Electron microscopic observations were made in 1 animal. Extensive necrosis of the parasite-laden macrophages was observed in 7 out of 7 animals at 4 and 5 weeks. In the ulcerated core of the lesion at 4 weeks no intact macrophages could be identified. Very many amastigotes were extracellular. Others were present in the cytoplasm of residual macrophages the cell walls of which had disintegrated. Necrosis was less marked at 8 weeks and absent in the resolving lesions at 10 weeks. Signs of stimulation or maturation of macrophages were only apparent when parasites were few. At 4 weeks macrophages were almost all of the non-stimulated form, but cytological evidence of activation became progressively more definite and widespread from 5 to 8 weeks, starting at the periphery of the lesion. Ultrastructural observations of amastigotes suggested that there might be more than one mechanism of degradation. It appeared that the majority of parasites were released through necrosis and discharged through the ulcer, and that intracellular degradation of the remaining parasites was important mainly in the later phase before resolution. The first phase was associated mainly with plasma-cell production, the second mainly with lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7459254

  3. Preferential expression of an ammonium transporter and of two putative nitrate transporters in root hairs of tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lauter, F R; Ninnemann, O; Bucher, M; Riesmeier, J W; Frommer, W B

    1996-01-01

    Root hairs as specialized epidermal cells represent part of the outermost interface between a plant and its soil environment. They make up to 70% of the root surface and, therefore, are likely to contribute significantly to nutrient uptake. To study uptake systems for mineral nitrogen, three genes homologous to Arabidopsis nitrate and ammonium transporters (AtNrt1 and AtAmt1) were isolated from a root hair-specific tomato cDNA library. Accumulation of LeNrt1-1, LeNrt1-2, and LeAmt1 transcripts was root-specific, with no detectable transcripts in stems or leaves. Expression was root cell type-specific and regulated by nitrogen availability. LeNrt1-2 mRNA accumulation was restricted to root hairs that had been exposed to nitrate. In contrast, LeNrt1-1 transcripts were detected in root hairs as well as other root tissues under all nitrogen treatments applied. Analogous to LeNrt1-1, the gene LeAmt1 was expressed under all nitrogen conditions tested, and root hair-specific mRNA accumulation was highest following exposure to ammonium. Expression of LeAMT1 in an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast strain restored growth on low ammonium medium, confirming its involvement in ammonium transport. Root hair specificity and characteristics of substrate regulation suggest an important role of the three genes in uptake of mineral nitrogen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8755617

  4. Two temporally synthesized charge subunits interact to form the five isoforms of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) catalase.

    PubMed Central

    Ni, W; Trelease, R N; Eising, R

    1990-01-01

    Five charge isoforms of tetrameric catalase were isolated from cotyledons of germinated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings. Denaturing isoelectric focusing of the individual isoforms in polyacrylamide gels indicated that isoforms A (most anodic) and E (most cathodic) consisted of one subunit of different charge, whereas isoforms B, C and D each consisted of a mixture of these two subunits. Thus the five isoforms apparently were formed through combinations of two subunits in different ratios. Labelling cotyledons in vivo with [35S]methionine at three daily intervals in the dark, and translation in vivo of polyadenylated RNA isolated from cotyledons at the same ages, revealed synthesis of two different subunits. One of the subunits was synthesized in cotyledons at all ages studied (days 1-3), whereas the other subunit was detected only at days 2 and 3. This differential expression of two catalase subunits helped explain previous results from this laboratory showing that the two anodic forms (A and B) found in maturing seeds were supplemented with three cathodic forms (C-E) after the seeds germinated. These subunit data also helped clarify our new findings that proteins of isoforms A, B and C (most active isoforms) accumulated in cotyledons of plants kept in the dark for 3 days, then gradually disappeared during the next several days, whereas isoforms D and E (least active isoforms) remained in the cells. This shift in isoform pattern occurred whether seedlings were kept in the dark or exposed to continuous light after day 3, although exposure to light enhanced this process. These sequential molecular events were responsible for the characteristic developmental changes (rise and fall) in total catalase activity. We believe that the isoform changeover is physiologically related to the changeover in glyoxysome to leaf-type-peroxisome metabolism. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1695843

  5. An in vitro study of the properties influencing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to prosthetic vascular graft materials.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J M; Martin, L F

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the properties of various vascular graft materials on the bacterial adherence process of two different strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (mucous and normucous producing). Dacron grafts (both knitted and woven), Teflon grafts, and Dacron grafts coated with one and two layers of silicone were studied because these materials differ significantly in porosity, hydrophobicity, and surface charge (zeta potential). Graft segments were immersed in 3H-labeled bacteria solution for periods ranging from 5 to 180 minutes and liquid scintillation techniques were used to quantify bacterial adherence. The porous knitted Dacron material had a significantly higher rate of bacterial adherence than either the woven Dacron or Teflon (p less than 0.05). Silicone coating (either one or two layers) reduced adherence by a factor of four for the knitted Dacron (p less than 0.05) and by a factor of two for woven Dacron (p less than 0.05). The mucous producing strain of S. epidermidis displayed significantly better adherence to woven and knitted Dacron than the normucous producing strain, but only when 0.25% dextrose was added to the bacteria solution. These findings indicate that the highly porous knitted Dacron grafts have the highest propensity for bacterial adhesion. Graft materials with the most negative zeta potentials are more resistant to bacterial adherence. Silicone coating of Dacron material significantly changed adherence characteristics, suggesting that this may be a viable strategy for protecting implantable medical devices containing materials to which bacteria readily adhere. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A and B. Fig. 6A and B. Fig. 7. PMID:2960278

  6. Current Management of Atrial Myxoma with Emphasis on a New Diagnostic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Donahoo, James S.; Weiss, James L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; Fortuin, Nicholas J.; Brawley, Robert K.

    1979-01-01

    Sixteen patients aged 22-64 years have undergone removal of atrial myxoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The first two patients had myxomas removed by closed surgical approach, and both died. Fourteen consecutive patients have undergone operation with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass, and all survived. There has been one late death unrelated to myxoma. Current surgical approach is excision of the tumor and its stalk or base and resection of the portion of intra-atrial septum to ensure complete removal. Recently a new diagnostic technique of two-dimensional phased array real time echocardiography has been used in four patients, including a pregnant woman, to confirm the clinical diagnosis of atrial myxoma. This technique provides a two-dimensional view of both atria and ventricles in cross section or sagittal view. This noninvasive method is painless, is independent of cardiac function and carries no risk or radiation hazard. The two-dimensional echocardiogram is superior to the standard one-dimensional or M-mode echocardiogram for diagnosis of myxoma in that it can evaluate simultaneously both right and left atria, can detect smaller space-occupying lesions because of better resolution and can more readily determine the size of the lesion and its stalk, can evaluate the mobility of the tumor and can determine more accurately the extent of tumor obstruction. Because of these qualities, we have relied on two-dimensional echocardiography as the definitive diagnostic procedure for detection of atrial myxoma. Currently operation for atrial myxoma is performed without cardiac catheterization or angiocardiography. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:556184

  7. Wild-type p53 protein undergoes cytoplasmic sequestration in undifferentiated neuroblastomas but not in differentiated tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, U M; LaQuaglia, M; Bénard, J; Riou, G

    1995-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor arising from the sympathetic nervous system, is one of the most common malignancies in childhood. Several recent reports on the p53 genotype found virtually exclusive wild-type status in primary tumors, and it was postulated that p53 plays no role in the development of NB. Here, however, we report that the vast majority of undifferentiated NBs exhibit abnormal cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53. This inability of p53 to translocate to the nucleus presumably prevents the protein from functioning as a suppressor. Thirty of 31 cases (96%) of undifferentiated NB showed elevated levels of wild-type p53 in the cytoplasm of all tumor cells concomittant with a lack of nuclear staining. p53 immunoprecipitation from tumor tissues showed a 4.5- to 8-fold increase over normal protein levels. All of 10 tumors analyzed harbored wild-type p53 by direct sequencing of full-length cDNA and Southern blot. In addition, no MDM-2 gene amplification was seen in all 11 tumors analyzed. In contrast, no p53 abnormality was detected in 14 differentiated ganglioneuroblastomas and 1 benign ganglioneuroma. We conclude that loss of p53 function seems to play a major role in the tumorigenesis of undifferentiated NB. This tumor might abrogate the transactivating function of p53 by inhibiting its access to the nucleus, rather than by gene mutation. Importantly, our results suggest that (i) this could be a general mechanism for p53 inactivation not limited to breast cancer (where we first described it) and that (ii) it is found in a tumor previously not thought to be affected by p53 alteration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753819

  8. A direct analysis of transcribed minichromosomes: all transcribed SV40 minichromosomes have a nuclease-hypersensitive region within a nucleosome-free domain.

    PubMed Central

    Choder, M; Bratosin, S; Aloni, Y

    1984-01-01

    A direct quantitative method was developed for detecting a small fraction of minichromosomes active in transcription and for analyzing their chromatin structure. For this, SV40 minichromosomes were incubated in vitro in the presence of [alpha-32P]UTP to allow elongation of the in vivo pre-initiated nascent RNA and thus labeling of the in vivo transcriptionally active molecules. Subsequently the minichromosomes were treated with Sarkosyl to remove most of the proteins bound to the viral DNA while leaving the 32P-labeled RNA-DNA-polymerase ternary complexes intact. Following agarose gel electrophoresis, the bulk SV40 DNA was identified by staining with ethidium bromide and the labeled ternary complexes by autoradiography, although they are not well separated in the gel. When the viral minichromosomes were cleaved with certain restriction enzymes or mildly with DNase I prior to the in vitro labeling and Sarkosyl treatment, analysis by gel electrophoresis showed that all transcriptionally active minichromosomes were cleaved, whereas a large fraction of the bulk minichromosomes was resistant to cleavage. In all molecules the cleavage occurred within the transcriptional regulatory region. In addition, analysis by electron microscopy revealed that SV40 minichromosomes having a nucleosome-free region (gap) are also more sensitive to the initial cleavage by both DNase I and Bg/I restriction enzyme than non-gapped molecules and that the initial DNase I cleavage occurs within the gap. Thus, at least in SV40, the nuclease-hypersensitive region is positively correlated with the existence of a gap. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6098456

  9. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  10. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  11. Structural differentiation of the male genital ducts of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed Central

    Djakiew, D; Jones, R C

    1981-01-01

    Seven ductuli efferentes radiate from the testis of the echidna and join the ductus epididymidis either directly or after joining one of their neighbours. They are pigmented brown and appear to be structurally and functionally similar to the ductuli efferentes of therian mammals. The epididymis is anatomically differentiated into a large head and small tail which appear to be, respectively, larger and smaller than the similar regions of the epididymis of scrotal mammals; they also contain, respectively, larger and smaller proportions of the animals' extragonadal spermatozoa. Only the head of the epididymis is adjacent to the testis: the tail and the ductus deferens are distal to the testis. The ductus epididymis is also histologically differentiated into two segments (initial and terminal segments) which correspond precisely with the anatomical differentiation. The initial segment is structurally similar to the initial segment of the epididymis of scrotal mammals (i.e. tall epithelium with long stereocilia, a farily homogeneous supranuclear cytoplasma containing Golgi apparatus and a low concentration of spermatozoa in the lumen). The terminal segment has adaptations of the duct (as in scrotal mammals) for the storage of spermatozoa such as a wide lumen containing a high concentration of spermatozoa, low epithelium and thick layers of periductal muscle. However, it is peculiar in that the duct epithelium is thrown into folds and it is involved in considerable apocrine secretion. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16-19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Figs. 23-24 PMID:7275798

  12. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins, secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and the adjacent mucous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lai A Fat, R. F. M.; Suurmond, D.; Van Furth, R.

    1973-01-01

    A study on the synthesis of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE), secretory component and complement in normal and pathological skin and in the adjacent mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal, oral and vaginal mucosa) is reported. The results are based on the culture of tissue samples in a medium with two radioactive amino acids and the detection of synthesized proteins by autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretic pattern of the culture fluid, except in the case of IgE for which the Ouchterlony technique was used. The results indicate that the normal skin does not synthesize immunoglobulins, whereas normal mucous membranes produce IgG and IgA. In the lesions of various skin diseases immunoglobulins are synthesized, mainly IgG but sometimes also IgA and IgE. The cells responsible for the production of immunoglobulins are plasma cells and lymphoid cells present in the skin lesions and mucous membranes. Synthesis of the free secretory component could be demonstrated only in certain mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and oral mucosa). Complement (C3) synthesis was found in normal skin, mucous membranes (i.e. conjunctiva, nasal and oral mucosa), and in the lesions of such skin diseases as discoid lupus erythematosus, (bullous) pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, malignant reticulosis, eczema and lichen planus. Complement production was also demonstrated in allergic skin reactions (i.e. tissue from allergic-positive patch tests, positive Mantoux tests and drug eruptions), but no immunoglobulin synthesis was detected in these lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4199092

  13. Cloning and functional expression of a rat kidney extracellular calcium/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, D; Park, J; Lee, W S; Gamba, G; Brown, E M; Hebert, S C

    1995-01-01

    The maintenance of a stable extracellular concentration of ionized calcium depends on the integrated function of a number of specialized cells (e.g., parathyroid and certain kidney epithelial cells). We recently identified another G protein-coupled receptor (BoPCaRI) from bovine parathyroid that responds to changes in extracellular Ca2+ within the millimolar range and provides a key mechanism for regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone. Using an homology-based strategy, we now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding an extracellular Ca2+/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor (RaKCaR) from rat kidney. The predicted RaKCaR protein shares 92% identity with BoPCaR1 receptor and features a seven membrane-spanning domain, characteristic of the G protein-coupled receptors, which is preceded by a large hydrophilic extracellular NH2 terminus believed to be involved in cation binding. RaKCaR cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes responded to extracellular Ca2+, Mg2+, Gd3+, and neomycin with characteristic activation of inositol phospholipid-dependent, intracellular Ca(2+)-induced Cl- currents. In rat kidney, Northern analysis revealed RaKCaR transcripts of 4 and 7 kb, and in situ hybridization showed localization primarily in outer medulla and cortical medullary rays. Our results provide important insights into the molecular structure of an extracellular Ca2+/polyvalent cation-sensing receptor in rat kidney and provide another basis on which to understand the role of extracellular divalent cations in regulating kidney function in mineral metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7816802

  14. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  15. Efficient expression of protein coding genes from the murine U1 small nuclear RNA promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J S; Sethna, M; Ramamurthy, L; Gowen, S A; Samulski, R J; Marzluff, W F

    1996-01-01

    Few promoters are active at high levels in all cells. Of these, the majority encode structural RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerases I or III and are not accessible for the expression of proteins. An exception are the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Although snRNA biosynthesis is unique and thought not to be compatible with synthesis of functional mRNA, we have tested these promoters for their ability to express functional mRNAs. We have used the murine U1a and U1b snRNA gene promoters to express the Escherichia coli lacZ gene and the human alpha-globin gene from either episomal or integrated templates by transfection, or infection into a variety of mammalian cell types. Equivalent expression of beta-galactosidase was obtained from < 250 nucleotides of 5'-flanking sequence containing the complete promoter of either U1 snRNA gene or from the 750-nt cytomegalovirus promoter and enhancer regions. The mRNA was accurately initiated at the U1 start site, efficiently spliced and polyadenylylated, and localized to polyribosomes. Recombinant adenovirus containing the U1b-lacZ chimeric gene transduced and expressed beta-galactosidase efficiently in human 293 cells and airway epithelial cells in culture. Viral vectors containing U1 snRNA promoters may be an attractive alternative to vectors containing viral promoters for persistent high-level expression of therapeutic genes or proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799116

  16. Dephosphorylation of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor exhibits structural and functional similarities to the insulin receptor. Although the regulation of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor have received only little attention. To obtain a better understanding of the mode of IGF-I action, we have investigated the effects of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) on the phosphorylation status of the IGF-I receptor. The dephosphorylation of the human IGF-I receptor by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases was studied by an immuno-enzymic assay based on the recognition of phosphotyrosine residues by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using intact IGF-I receptors as substrates, we show that they could be completely dephosphorylated by different cellular PTPases. Three pieces of evidence indicate that receptor dephosphorylation takes place on phosphotyrosine, i.e. the inhibition profile of phosphatase activity by zinc and vanadate, its absolute requirement for thiol compounds and the diminution of [32P]phosphotyrosine labelling of the beta subunit assessed by SDS/PAGE and phosphoamino acid analysis. Tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PTPases, indicating that partial dephosphorylation of the receptor was associated with a decrease in its intrinsic activity. The sensitivity of the activated human IGF-I receptor to dephosphorylation on tyrosine leads to the speculation that IGF-I receptor activity might be regulated by mechanisms such as those described for the insulin receptor. Further investigation of the pathways of IGF-I receptor dephosphorylation will contribute to define the role(s) of PTPases in the overall mechanism of IGF-I signalling. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1322128

  17. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  18. Response of the rat to saccharin with particular reference to the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Chowaniec, J.; Hicks, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were administered sodium saccharin for life (2 yr) either in the drinking water or diet. The maximum palatable dose of saccharin in the drinking water was found to be 2 g/kg/day and, even then, there was some voluntary restriction of fluid intake in the males. By contrast, double this dose--namely 4 g/kg/day, was palatable in the diet. A control group of rats of both sexes received saccharin-free diet and drinking water. Mild urothelial hyperplasias developed from 85 weeks in rats of both sexes receiving saccharin either in the drinking water or diet; the incidence was statistically significant in both the bladders and kidneys of rats receiving the higher dose of saccharin in the diet, but in the kidneys only of rats receiving the lower dose of saccharin in the drinking water. Telangiectasia of the vasa recta was significant in saccharin-treated rats of both sexes at both doses. A very low incidence of bladder tumours, exclusively in males receiving the higher saccharin dose in the diet was seen from 95 weeks. No consistent relationship between bladder epithelial hyperplasias and crystalluria could be demonstrated, although all 3 bladder tumours were associated with some form of mineralisation. Results suggest a particular susceptibility of males to saccharin treatment. The possibility that saccharin may promote, or enhance, the development of latent tumour cells already present in the experimental population, rather than initiate carcinogenesis per se is considered. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:36123

  19. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  20. Targeted DNA recombination in vivo using an adenovirus carrying the cre recombinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Krushel, L A; Edelman, G M

    1996-01-01

    . Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8632992

  1. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  2. Experimental modulation of the reactivity of pleural milky spots (Kampmeier's foci) by Freund's adjuvants, betamethasone and mycobacterial infection.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A de D; Aguas, A P; Oliveira, M J; Cabral, J M; Grande, N R

    1994-01-01

    We studied the response of milky spots in the parietal pleura of the rat and mouse to intrapleural instillation of immunomodulatory agents such as complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvants and betamethasone, and also to infection by mycobacteria (M. avium). Both incomplete (mineral oil) and complete (mineral oil plus dead mycobacteria) adjuvants, as well as M. avium infection, induced a striking increase in the size and cellularity of the pleural milky spots whereas betamethasone caused a slight atrophy. The extensive inflammatory infiltrates observed after adjuvant injection differed between milky spots reactive to complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants. Fifteen days after adjuvant administration, the pleural milky spots of rats were still enlarged and hypercellular but differences were noted in the size of milky spots of the pleura between the 2 adjuvant treatments: animals submitted to injection of complete Freund's adjuvant showed an increase in the size of milky spots from d 3 to d 15, while the size of milky spots of the incomplete Freund's adjuvant treated group showed a decrease in size from d 3 to d 15. The milky spots at d 15 were well organised: reticulin fibres permeated the whole area of the milky spot and the different cell types were evenly distributed. Histiocytes, which were previously confined to the inner layer, were now the main cell type in all areas of milky spots. A moderate number of mast cells and a few eosinophils were also seen. Complete Freund's adjuvant caused the formation of granulomas in the milky spots, a change that was not detected in animals treated with incomplete adjuvant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649783

  3. Normal and abnormal consequences of apoptosis in the human heart: from postnatal morphogenesis to paroxysmal arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    James, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Apoptosis and necrosis are two distinctly different forms of cell death and both occur in the human heart. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis is not associated with inflammation and there are two reasons for this. The apoptotic cell does not swell or rupture prior to its being engulfed by either a macrophage or even a neighboring like cell. And the phagocytosis occurs with unusual rapidity. Apoptosis, also thought of as cell suicide, is a tidy way of removing cells no longer useful, in essence a form of selective deletion. These features make apoptosis a valuable component of morphogenesis, mediation of hormonal and immunological responses, and the homeostatic balance between hypertrophy and atrophy or involution. In the human heart apoptosis has been found in the sinus node of patients with the long QT syndrome. It most likely participates in the important postnatal morphogenesis of the sinus node, AV (atrioventricular) node and His bundle. Apoptosis may also participate in the genesis and pathophysiology of cardiomyopathy, paroxysmal arrhythmias or conduction disturbances (some of which may be responsible for sudden death), focal fibromuscular dysplasia of small coronary arteries, hereditary medial degeneration of the tunica media of coronary arteries, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. The possible role of apoptosis in numerous other changes in the human heart merit future investigation, among them being the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and mechanisms of ageing in the myocardium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7974966

  4. Developmental expression of the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fjose, A.; Polito, L. C.; Weber, U.; Gehring, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated several cDNA clones of the white locus which are derived from embryonic and pupal transcripts of Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA sequences map within ˜7.5 kb (coordinates −3.0 to +4.6) of the genomic DNA and correspond mainly to sequences within the distal region of the gene (coordinates −0.2 to −3.0). A major RNA species of 2.6 kb was detected on Northerns of poly(A)+ RNA isolated from all developmental stages. The total accumulation of this transcript peaks in the mature third instar larva to a level of 0.003% which is about ten times higher than that observed in embryos. The spatial distribution of white locus transcripts was determined by in situ hybridization to tissue sections. In embryos, hybridization signals are restricted to the cells of the developing Malpighian tubules and the signal strength corresponds with ˜50 transcripts per cell. Before the termination of the third instar stage, hybridization signals are also detected at a comparable level in the eye antennal disks. At the same stage, a third site of labeling is observed over a small cluster of cells which seems to be associated with the larval photoreceptor organs. Thus, white locus expression is largely restricted to tissues which are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of eye pigments and these different cell types act in a temporally autonomous manner with respect to the induction of the white gene during development. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453550

  5. Complement S-protein (vitronectin) is associated with cytolytic membrane-bound C5b-9 complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Bhakdi, S; Käflein, R; Halstensen, T S; Hugo, F; Preissner, K T; Mollnes, T E

    1988-01-01

    It has been assumed that S-protein (vitronectin) associates with terminal C5b-9 complement complexes only when the latter fail to attach to target lipid bilayers, thereby forming inactive fluid-phase SC5b-9 complexes. Using monoclonal anti-S-protein antibodies, we show here that a minor portion of C5b-9 complexes associated with both homologous and heterologous cells contain S-protein. This conclusion derives from Western blot analyses, from the sedimentation behaviour of solubilized S-protein, and from the fact that the protein co-immunoprecipitates with C5b-9(m). Association of S-protein with C5b-9(m) takes place primarily at the stage of C9-binding. An average of less than or equal to 0.4 moles of S-protein are estimated to be present per mole C5b-9(m). Hence, only a fraction of C5b-9 complexes contain S-protein. The function of cell-bound S-protein is unknown. Haemolytic titrations with purified components failed to demonstrate any protective effect of S-protein on the lysis of sheep or human erythrocytes by C5b-9. S-protein bound to complement-lysed homologous or heterologous cells is readily detectable by conventional immunocytochemical staining. We conclude that differentiation between tissue-deposited fluid-phase C5b-9 and membrane C5b-9 complexes cannot be made on the basis of immunohistological stainings for S-protein alone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2466593

  6. Targeting of nitric oxide synthase to endothelial cell caveolae via palmitoylation: implications for nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cardeña, G; Oh, P; Liu, J; Schnitzer, J E; Sessa, W C

    1996-01-01

    The membrane association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in vascular endothelium. Previously, we have shown that in cultured endothelial cells and in intact blood vessels, eNOS is found primarily in the perinuclear region of the cells and in discrete regions of the plasma membrane, suggesting trafficking of the protein from the Golgi to specialized plasma membrane structures. Here, we show that eNOS is found in Triton X-100-insoluble membranes prepared from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and colocalizes with caveolin, a coat protein of caveolae, in cultured bovine lung microvascular endothelial cells as determined by confocal microscopy. To examine if eNOS is indeed in caveolae, we purified luminal endothelial cell plasma membranes and their caveolae directly from intact, perfused rat lungs. eNOS is found in the luminal plasma membranes and is markedly enriched in the purified caveolae. Because palmitoylation of eNOS does not significantly influence its membrane association, we next examined whether this modification can affect eNOS targeting to caveolae. Wild-type eNOS, but not the palmitoylation mutant form of the enzyme, colocalizes with caveolin on the cell surface in transfected NIH 3T3 cells, demonstrating that palmitoylation of eNOS is necessary for its targeting into caveolae. These data suggest that the subcellular targeting of eNOS to caveolae can restrict NO signaling to specific targets within a limited microenvironment at the cell surface and may influence signal transduction through caveolae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692835

  7. The periepiglottic space: topographic relations and histological organisation.

    PubMed Central

    Reidenbach, M M

    1996-01-01

    Important aspects of histological organisation and topographic relations of the pre-epiglottic space are not fully understood. This region was therefore reinvestigated in plastinated serial sections of 19 human adult specimens. The cranial part of the pre-epiglottic space is homogenously filled with adipose tissue and extends around the epiglottis in a horseshoe fashion. Therefore, the term periepiglottic space (PES) is a more accurate description of this region. The cranial border of the PES is constituted by the hyoepiglottic membrane, which extends between the epiglottis and the tongue, and the hyoepiglottic ligament. The ligament consists of a cranial fibre layer anchored within the lingual muscles, and a caudal layer attached to the hyoid bone. Anterior to the lingual surface of the epiglottis, both fibre layers become apposed to form a dense collagenous mass, which may stabilise the epiglottis during deglutition. Contractions of the infrahyoid muscles will be transmitted to the thyrohyoid membrane anterior to the PES by numerous collagenous septa which originate from the membrane and radiate into the muscles. In contrast, the pre-epiglottic adipose tissue is not connected to the thyrohyoid membrane. The caudal part of the PES is subdivided by two paramedian sagittal collagenous septa. They include a medial compartment bordered by the epiglottis posteriorly and the thyroepiglottic ligament inferiorly. The two lateral subdivisions of the PES extend between the glands of the vestibular folds and towards the aryepiglottic folds, but a distinct confining collagenous layer is absent there. Posterolaterally, the PES is separated from the paraglottic space by the thyroarytenoid muscle and by a cranial extension of the fibrous sheet of the muscle. This collagenous tissue is often split into several layers and displays gaps which may facilitate the spread of malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655405

  8. The relationship between the temporomandibular joint capsule, articular disc and jaw muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Schmolke, C

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its possible relationships to other structures near the joint are not fully understood. A 3-dimensional analysis based on sagittal, frontal and horizontal serial sections through the human temporomandibular joint region was therefore undertaken. Capsular elements which directly connect the temporal bone with the mandible were seen only on the lateral side of the joint. In the posterior, anterior and medial regions of the joint the upper and lower laminae of the articular disc are attached separately either to the temporal bone or to the mandibular condyle. The shaping of the articular cavities and the texture of the joint capsule permit movements of the articular disc predominantly in the anteromedial direction. On the entire medial side of the joint the articular disc and its capsular attachments are in close contact with the fascia of the lateral pterygoid muscle whereby a small portion of the upper head of this muscle inserts directly into the anteromedial part of the articular disc. Thus both the upper and the lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle are likely to influence the position of the articular disc directly during temporomandibular joint movements. Laterally, the articular disc is attached to the fascia of the masseter muscle, and part of the lateral ligament inserts into the temporalis fascia. Since these attachments are relatively weak, neither the temporalis nor the masseter muscles are considered to act directly on the articular disc; instead, via afferents from muscle spindles, they may take part in signalling the position of the temporomandibular joint components, including that of the articular disc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8014124

  9. Further Studies on Induction of Stomach Cancer in Hamsters by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine*

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, K.; Sasadaira, H.; Kawachi, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Tokunaga, A.; Fujimura, S.; Sugimura, T.

    1974-01-01

    Oral administration of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to hamsters at a concentration of 50-83 μg/ml in the drinking water resulted in a high incidence of tumours in the glandular stomach. Short-term administration of MNNG for 4-6 months resulted in more adenocarcinomata in the glandular stomach than long-term administration for 7-8 months. One case of metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach to the liver and 2 cases of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes were found. Spindle cell sarcomata in the glandular stomach and adenocarcinomata in the duodenum were also often produced. Oral administration of MNNG at the very high concentration of 500-2000 μg/ml induced a hepatic cell carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct carcinomata, bile duct cystadenomata and cystic dilatation, and a haemangioma in the liver but no tumour in the glandular stomach. Sequential morphological studies on the glandular stomach of hamsters receiving 50 μg/ml of MNNG in the drinking water showed 3 stages of change of the mucosa. The mucosa became atrophic and eroded in the first 16 weeks. Irregular atypical glands developed at the margins of erosions and proliferation of spindle cells in the submucosa were found after 18 weeks. Spindle cell sarcomata developed in animals after 20 weeks. Adenocarcinomata developed between 25 and 32 weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4830138

  10. Ultrastructure of an arterial lesion induced in rats by fenoldopam mesylate, a dopaminergic vasodilator.

    PubMed Central

    Bugelski, P. J.; Vockley, C. M.; Sowinski, J. M.; Arena, E.; Berkowitz, B. A.; Morgan, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Fenoldopam mesylate (FM) is a dopaminergic vasodilator with demonstrated efficacy and a favourable safety profile in hypertensive and congestive heart failure patients. FM produced a novel arterial lesion in renal and splanchnic arteries of rats, but not dogs or monkeys. The studies reported here were undertaken to investigate the ultrastructure of the arterial lesion induced in rats by FM in an attempt to shed light on its pathogenesis. Rats were infused intravenously with FM, either 50 micrograms/kg/min for 1 or 4 h, or 5 or 100 micrograms/kg/min for 24 h. Control rats were infused for 4 or 24 h with vehicle alone. Perfusion-fixed tissue from the stomach and pancreas of control and drug-treated rats was examined by transmission electron microscopy. No arterial lesions were seen in rats infused with the drug for 1 or 4 h, or in control rats. All drug-treated rats infused with 5 or 100 micrograms/kg/min of FM for 24 h had lesions in subserosal gastric arteries and interlobular pancreatic arteries. In areas of mild arterial damage, medial smooth muscle cells contained intracytoplasmic pseudovacuoles, autophagic vacuoles, and electron-dense, myofilamentous inclusions. More severe lesions were characterized by overt medial necrosis and haemorrhage. The endothelium of affected arteries was invariably intact, except in areas of severe medial damage. The internal elastic lamina and connective tissue elements within the arterial wall were unaffected. These findings suggest that medial smooth muscle cells are the primary site of damage caused by fenoldopam mesylate in splanchnic arteries of the rat. This iatrogenic arterial lesion could provide an interesting model to study the response of medial smooth muscle to pharmacologically mediated injury. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 5 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2567179

  11. The Histology and Histopathology of the Dental Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Bradlaw, Robert

    1939-01-01

    The presence of a perivascular neural plexus in the periodontal membrane suggests that the dental structures have both sensory and autonomic nerve supply. The fibres described by Mummery are unaffected by section of the inferior dental nerve although there is marked degeneration in all demonstrable nerves. Nerve-fibres have been observed describing simple and complex looping in the odontogenetic zone and others which, running tangentially between the odontoblast layer and the dentine, form a very definite nerve plexus. Attached to these nerve-fibres are numerous round or pear-shaped bodies which may be either nerve-cells or end-organs. Definite nerve-fibres have been traced into the dentine. The convoluted forms described by growing nerve-fibres approaching transplanted teeth did not resemble the nerve-loops previously reported in the periodontal membrane of monkey and man. Plexiform nerve-fibres have been seen in the gum of the cat and varicose nerve-fibres in the gum of the sheep. In man, intra-epithelial fibres have been observed which pass from the intra-papillary neural coils to terminate near the surface of the epithelium in knob-like endings. No abnormality of innervation has been found in supernumerary teeth and teeth from cleft palates, dentigerous and ovarian cysts, and in the pulps of denticles from compound odontomes. Since there is no difference in the innervation of heterogenous and autogenous tooth-germ transplants, whether of normal or abnormal form, it would seem that abnormalities of form are not due to abnormal innervation. The development and degeneration of the peripheral nerves and the changes produced in the dental innervation by local and general disease in man and experimental animals are described and discussed. ImagesFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19992023

  12. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  13. Chromosome 3 duplication q21 leads to qter deletion p25 leads to pter syndrome in children of carriers of a pericentric inversion inv(3) (p25q21).

    PubMed Central

    Allderdice, P W; Browne, N; Murphy, D P

    1975-01-01

    Close phenotypic similarity between two cases carrying a rec(3) dup q,inv(3) (p25q21), 12 additional infants from the same inv (3)(p25q21) kindred who lived less than 1 year, and eight cases studied in other medical centers has led us to postulate the existence of a distinct chromosome 3 duplication-deletion syndrome. In the presence of trisomy for (3)q21 leads to qter and monosomy for (3)p25 leads to pter, the facial dysmorphy is unique: a distorted head shape due to irregular cranial sutures, thick low eyebrows, long eyelashes, persistent lanugo, distended veins on the scalp, hypertelorism, oblique palpebral fissures, a very short nose with a broad depressed bridge and anteverted nares, protruding maxilla, thin upper lip, micrognathia, low-set ears, and a short webbed neck. Port-wine stains, congenital glaucoma, cloudy corneas, cleft palate and harelip also occur frequently. Each infant has difficulty sucking and swallowing. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system, of midgut rotation, and of the urogenital system are noted for the infants who died neonatally. Most frequent is a ventricular septal defect, followed by atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale, and coarctation of the aorta. Omphalocele, umbilical hernia, hyperplastic kidneys, polycystic kidneys, double ureter, hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, and undescended testes often occur. The extremities are short in proportion to the length of the trunk. Clinodactyly, coxa valga, talipes, and spina bifida are frequently observed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1200027

  14. Splenorrhaphy. The alternative.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Cruse-Martocci, P; Jordan, G L

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1989, 240 adult patients underwent splenorrhaphy at one urban trauma center. This represents 43.4% of all splenic injuries seen during this time interval. Splenic injuries were graded I to V, and splenorrhaphy was attempted except when the spleen was shattered or when multiple injuries with associated hypotension were present. Penetrating wounds, blunt trauma, or iatrogenic/unknown etiologies were present in 54.2%, 41.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Grade I or II injuries were present in 51.7% of patients, grade III in 34.6%, grade IV or V in 9.6%, and unknown grade in 4.1%. The technique of splenorrhaphy was simple suture (usually chromic) with or without the addition of topical hemostatic agents in 200 patients (83.3%), topical agents alone in 12 (5%), unknown type of repair in 12 (5%), compression, cautery, or nonbleeding injury in 9 (3.8%), and partial or hemisplenectomy in 7 (2.9%). Postoperative rebleeding occurred in three patients (1.3%) with grade II, III, and IV injuries, respectively, and led to splenectomy at reoperation. In another patient who had a hemisplenectomy performed for a grade IV injury, subphrenic abscesses and septic shock led to the death of the patient. Splenorrhaphy can be safely performed in properly selected adult patients after a variety of injuries. The risk of rebleeding is practically nil when the spleen is fully mobilized and visualized during repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2339918

  15. Fluoride complexes of aluminium or beryllium act on G-proteins as reversibly bound analogues of the gamma phosphate of GTP.

    PubMed Central

    Bigay, J; Deterre, P; Pfister, C; Chabre, M

    1987-01-01

    Fluoride activation of G proteins requires the presence of aluminium or beryllium and it has been suggested that AIF4- acts as an analogue of the gamma-phosphate of GTP in the nucleotide site. We have investigated the action of AIF4- or of BeF3- on transducin (T), the G protein of the retinal rods, either indirectly through the activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase, or more directly through their effects on the conformation of transducin itself. In the presence of AIF4- or BeF3-, purified T alpha subunit of transducin activates purified cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the absence of photoactivated rhodopsin. Activation is totally reversed by elution of fluoride or partially reversed by addition of excess T beta gamma. Activation requires that GDP or a suitable analogue be bound to T alpha: T alpha-GDP and T alpha-GDP alpha S are activable by fluorides, but not T alpha-GDP beta S, nor T alpha that has released its nucleotide upon binding to photoexcited rhodopsin. Analysis of previous works on other G proteins and with other nucleotide analogues confirm that in all cases fluoride activation requires that a GDP unsubstituted at its beta phosphate be bound in T alpha. By contrast with alumino-fluoride complexes, which can adopt various coordination geometries, all beryllium fluoride complexes are tetracoordinated, with a Be-F bond length of 1.55 A, and strictly isomorphous to a phosphate group. Our study confirms that fluoride activation of transducin results from a reversible binding of the metal-fluoride complex in the nucleotide site of T alpha, next to the beta phosphate of GDP, as an analogue of the gamma phosphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2826123

  16. (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n sequences have evolutionarily conserved chromosomal locations in Drosophila with implications for roles in chromosome structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Pardue, M L; Lowenhaupt, K; Rich, A; Nordheim, A

    1987-01-01

    In situ hybridization of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n to the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster reveals a clearly non-random distribution of chromosomal sites for this sequence. Sites are distributed over most euchromatic regions but the density of sites along the X chromosome is significantly higher than the density over the autosomes. All autosomes show approximately equal levels of hybridization except chromosome 4 which has no detectable stretches of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n. Another striking feature is the lack of hybridization of the beta-heterochromatin of the chromocenter. The specific sites are conserved between different strains of D. melanogaster. The same overall chromosomal pattern of hybridization is seen for the other Drosophila species studied, including D. simulans, a sibling species with a much lower content of middle repetitive DNA, and D. virilis, a distantly related species. The evolutionary conservation of the distribution of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n suggests that these sequences are of functional importance. The distribution patterns seen for D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda raise interesting speculations about function. In these species a chromosome equivalent to an autosomal arm of D. melanogaster has been translocated onto the X chromosome and acquired dosage compensation. In each species the new arm of the X also has a higher density of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n similar to that seen on other X chromosomes. In addition to correlations with dosage compensation, the depletion of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n in beta-heterochromatin and chromosome 4 may also be related to the fact that these regions do not normally undergo meiotic recombination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3111846

  17. GSP-1 genes are linked to the grain hardness locus (Ha) on wheat chromosome 5D.

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, C J; Glenn, G M; Rahman, S

    1996-01-01

    An important determinant of wheat grain quality is the hardness of the grain. The trait is controlled by a major locus, Ha, on the short arm of chromosome 5D. Purified starch granules from soft-grained wheats have associated with them 15-kDa polypeptides called grain softness proteins (GSPs) or "friabilins." Genes that encode one family of closely related GSP polypeptides - GSP-1 genes - were mapped using chromosome substitution lines to the group 5 chromosomes. An F2 population segregating for hard and soft alleles at the Ha locus on a near-isogenic background was used in a single-seed study of the inheritance of grain softness and of GSP-1 alleles. Grain softness versus grain hardness was inherited in a 3:1 ratio. The presence versus absence of GSPs in single seed starch preparations was coinherited with grain softness versus hardness. This showed that grain softness is primarily determined by seed, and not by maternal, genotype. In addition, no recombination was detected in 44 F2 plants between GSP-1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms and Ha alleles. Differences between hard and soft wheat grains in membrane structure and lipid extractability have been described and, of the three characterized proteins that are part of the mixture of 15-kDa polypeptides called GSPs, at least two, and probably all three, are proteins that bind polar lipids. The data are interpreted to suggest that the Ha locus may encode one or more members of a large family of lipid-binding proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8637887

  18. The collagen fibril organization in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Minns, R J; Steven, F S

    1977-01-01

    In this scanning electron microscopic study blocks of collagen fibrils were prepared from human articular cartilage, using two techinques which selectively removed either the proteoglycans alone, or both the proteoglycans and the collagen fibrils, of the non-calcified cartilage layer. Amino acid analysis of the fibrils confirmed the purity of the collagen after proteoglycan extraction. The cartilage was scanned in four different ways: (1) normal to the articular surface, (2) in superficial sections, (3) on surfaces of blocks which had been broken in planes parallel to artificial splits make by the insertion of a pin, and (4) on fracture surfaces which traversed the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone. Five features of the organization of the collagen fibrils were specially noted: (1) Individual fibrils within the trabeculae joined to form small fibre bundles which became grouped into larger bundles at the calcified/uncalcified interface. (2) Fibrils in the deep and middle zones which, exhibiting the characteristic surface periodicity of collagen, were generally oriented towars the articular surface in large bundles approximately 55 micronm across. (3) In the superficial zone, fibrils ran parallel to the surface. (4) The surface fibrils had random orientation, even at the bases of empty lacunae vacated by chondrocytes during specimen preparation. (5) The collagen fibrils of the lacunar walls appeared to be thinner and more closely packed than thos between the lacunae. The fine collagen fibrils associated with the lacunar walls were frequently observed to pass through a large lacunar space, resulting in the formation of two or more compartments, each of which was presumably filled with a chondrocyte in the living cartilage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:870478

  19. In vivo analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites in the human CFTR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, D. S.; Manson, A. L.; Nuthall, H. N.; Smith, D. J.; Huxley, C.; Harris, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) shows a complex pattern of expression. The regulatory elements conferring tissue-specific and temporal regulation are thought to lie mainly outside the promoter region. Previously, we identified DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) that may contain regulatory elements associated with the CFTR gene at -79.5 and at -20.5 kb with respect to the ATG and at 10 kb into the first intron. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to evaluate these regulatory elements in vivo we examined these DHS in a human CFTR gene that was introduced on a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) into transgenic mice. The 310 kb human CFTR YAC was shown to restore the pheno-type of CF-null mice and so is likely to contain most of the regulatory elements required for tissue-specific expression of CFTR. RESULTS: We found that the YAC does not include the -79.5 kb region. The DHS at -20.5 kb is present in the chromatin of most tissues of the transgenic mice, supporting its non-tissue-specific nature. The DHS in the first intron is present in a more restricted set of tissues in the mice, although its presence does not show complete concordance with CFTR expression. The intron I DHS may be important for the higher levels of expression found in human pancreatic ducts and in lung submucosal glands. CONCLUSION: These data support the in vivo importance of these regulatory elements. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:10448643

  20. Contact-dependent regulation of vinculin expression in cultured fibroblasts: a study with vinculin-specific cDNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Bendori, R; Salomon, D; Geiger, B

    1987-01-01

    Vinculin specific cDNA clones were isolated from chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cDNA library in lambda gt11. The clones, ranging in size from 2.8 to 5.0 kb, were initially selected by rabbit antibodies to vinculin. Their identity was further confirmed by their specific reactivities with a battery of different vinculin-specific monoclonal antibodies. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme digested chicken spleen DNA suggested that all the isolated cDNA clones correspond to the same gene(s). Northern blot hybridization revealed that the vinculin-specific cDNA clones react with a single 6.5 kb mRNA in total cellular RNA preparations of CEF, whole chicken embryos and chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Moreover, fractionation of CEF poly(A)+ RNA by sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by translation in cell free system indicated that the mRNA coding for vinculin has a size of about 6.0-7.0 kb. The identity of these clones was finally confirmed by selection hybridization assay. The isolated vinculin-specific cDNA probes were subsequently used in order to study the effect of substrate adhesiveness on the expression of vinculin. We show here that cells cultured on highly adhesive substrate, such as endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM), form large vinculin-rich focal contacts, while cells grown on poorly adhesive substrate poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)] contain only small distorted vinculin spots. These morphological differences were accompanied by over 5-fold reduction in vinculin synthesis in cells growing on poly(HEMA), compared to those cultured on the ECM and over 7.5-fold decrease in the levels of vinculin-specific mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3121302