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  1. Mitochondrial myopathy in rats fed with a diet containing beta-guanidine propionic acid, an inhibitor of creatine entry in muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Z.; De Tata, V.; Pollera, M.; Bergamini, E.

    1988-01-01

    In rats with phosphoryl-creatine depletion (fed a standard Randoin-Causeret diet containing 1% beta-guanidine propionic acid) abnormal mitochondria were observed in slow skeletal muscles, often containing paracrystalline inclusions very like those induced by ischaemia or mitochondrial poisons and in human mitochondrial myopathy. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:3196657

  2. The morbid anatomy of high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205

  3. The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to an infiltrating tumour of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Royston, C. M. S.; Brew, D. St. J.; Garnham, J. R.; Stagg, B. H.; Polak, Julia

    1972-01-01

    This is the first case report of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to an infiltrating tumour of the stomach. Plasma gastrin levels were high and gastrin was demonstrated in argyrophil tumour cells by an immunofluorescent technique. Evidence is presented that the tumour arose from the G cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4562021

  4. Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

  5. The evaluation of fabrics in relation to their use as protective garments in nursing and surgery. I. Physical measurements and bench tests.

    PubMed Central

    Lidwell, O. M.; Mackintosh, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven fabrics selected to provide a representative range of yarns and weaves have been examined microscopically and subjected to a series of tests. The observations were directed towards assessing the potential ability of each fabric to resist penetration by particles, such as skin scales, which might carry micro-organisms. The number, size and shape of pores penetrating through the material were estimated and the penetration of test dusts assessed in several ways. While, generally, the relative merits of the fabrics are similar whatever test or measurement is considered there are a number of significant exceptions which reflect peculiarities of the test system or of a fabric. Comparison with the results of dispersal experiments with volunteers wearing garments made of the fabrics is made in a following paper. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Plate 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:731024

  6. Occlusive Peripheral Arteriosclerosis: Treatment by Percutaneous Transluminal Recanalization—“The Dotter Procedure”

    PubMed Central

    Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151

  7. Maedi-visna in Canadian sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, T W; Greig, A S; Corner, A H

    1979-01-01

    Lesions of maedi-visna were seen in sheep from the institutional research flock of the Animal Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada in Ottawa. Viral particles demonstrated by electron microscopy in tissue culture cells and serological results confirm the diagnosis of maedi-visna. The extent of the problem in this flock will be described in a future paper. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:226248

  8. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  9. Evidence of turnover of mammalian Merkel cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P H

    1987-01-01

    The Merkel cells in the snout of the pig and the lips of the sheep were studied by transmission electron microscopy. They were subdivided into three main subgroups that are believed to represent different stages in the life cycle of the cells. A final dermal disintegration of the cells is proposed. The observations are discussed in relation to earlier reports on the avian Merkel cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3654361

  10. The ultrastructure of N-dibutylnitrosamine induced pulmonary tumours (adenocarcinomata) in European hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik-Schüller, H.; Mohr, U.

    1975-01-01

    N-dibutyl-nitrosamine induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in European hamsters were studied electron microscopically. The tumours were composed of light and dark cells, which, due to their lamellar bodies, resembled alveolar epithelial cells Type II. As cells containing lamellar bodies also occasionally occurred with the epithelial lining of tumour associated peripheral bronchi, a possible bronchiolar origin of the neoplasms is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1212352

  11. Absorption and Transport of Fluorescent Brighteners by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Darken, Marjorie A.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of brighteners by living cells and their transport to subsequent growth is described. Brighteners are highly fluorescent, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds which appear to be essentially nontoxic, stable biological markers. They have been effectively absorbed by growing cultures of bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, and higher fungi, with active growth centers evidencing the greatest flourescence. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10-11 PMID:14025111

  12. Musculocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of musculocutaneous flaps to head and neck reconstructive surgery is described. The flaps available are listed, and the most important ones described and illustrated. Both the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps are felt to have a role in head and neck reconstruction, though they have largely been superseded by microvascular free flaps such as the radial forearm flap. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:2686511

  13. Cutaneous Markers of Internal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, R. R.; Reardon, P. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Cutaneous markers of internal disease are legion. This article discusses the pigmentary disorders, acanthosis nigricans, pruritus, the xanthomas and problems of photosensitivity, outlining the appropriate procedures to establish a definite diagnosis, and in some cases the management of such patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:21286147

  14. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  15. Limb preservation in the treatment of bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sweetnam, Rodney

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of primary malignant tumours of bones by resection and prosthetic replacement is discussed in relation to more conventional treatment by amputation. Removal of the hemipelvis with preservation of the limb is suggested as an alternative for some patients who hitherto might have been regarded as only suitable for hindquarter amputation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:6824295

  16. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  17. Congenital malformations of human dermatoglyphs

    PubMed Central

    David, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    A classification for congenital malformations of dermatoglyphs is presented, dividing them into ridge aplasia, ridge hypoplasia, ridge dissociation, ridges-off-the-end, and a combination of the last two. The medical and genetic significance of these are considered in the light both of previous published cases and of new material. Malformations of dermatoglyphs are important as physical signs in paediatric diagnosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4693462

  18. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  19. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  20. Endocrine tumour in kidney affecting small bowel structure, motility, and absorptive function 1

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, M. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Polak, J. M.; Henry, K.; Dowling, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman is described with an endocrine tumour arising in the kidney. There were associated abnormalities of small intestinal morphology, motility, and absorptive function. These abnormalities reversed on removal of the tumour. Detailed studies showed that the tumour contained, and was secreting, glucagon. It is postulated that the intestinal abnormalities may have resulted from glucagon itself or another, as yet unidentified, hormone. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4941684

  1. The fibrous growth plate of the rat tibia: tritiated thymidine autoradiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Badi, M H

    1978-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine autoradiographic studies have demonstrated that the intermediate fibrogenic zone of the fibrous growth plate at the upper end of the rat tibia is a site of intense cellular proliferation, the resulting cells differentiating into osteoblasts which manufacture the bundle bone at the distal end of the growth plate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:689992

  2. Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Richard H.; Halber, Michael D.; Morgan, Carlisle L.; Trought, William S.; Thompson, William M.; Rice, Reed P.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess by radiographic means often relies on combining the results of several different imaging modalities. Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a safe, accurate and rapid diagnostic method of diagnosing these abscesses. Five patients with a variety of intra-abdominal abscesses are presented in whom the CT scan alone provided the correct diagnosis. The various imaging modalities available for the radiologic diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess are described and are compared to CT diagnosis regarding their pitfalls. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig.5.C. PMID:758860

  3. Carcinoma Adenomatodes Cervicis Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Herbert R.

    1926-01-01

    The case is one of carcinoma adenomatodes (adenoma malignum) cervicis uteri, which occurred in a patient, aged 49. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed with the Pacquelin cautery, and the patient remains well after 22 years. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the disease, and the point is emphasized that in true cases of the disease the glandular epithelium is nowhere proliferated, and therefore reliance on microscopic examination alone for the diagnosis may lead to serious error. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19985105

  4. Fine structure of astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, B; Suarez, I; Gianonatti, C

    1983-01-01

    Astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamic region of the adult hamster brain have been studied by electron microscopy. Mitochondria showing triangular prismatic cristae, as seen in transverse section, and other unusual forms of mitochondrial cristae, are described and illustrated. Such mitochondria occur primarily in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei, especially in perivascular astrocytic processes. The possibility that these atypical mitochondria might develop a specific function is discussed. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6654741

  5. Molecular parasitism in the Escherichia coli-Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus system: translocation of the matrix protein from the host to the parasite outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, F; Romano, V; Valenzi, M; Di Giulio, M; Mupo, M R; Sacco, M

    1982-01-01

    During the intracellular maturation in Escherichia coli of the parasite Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus the outer membrane, major protein I of E. coli (i.e., the matrix protein) becomes associated with the outer membrane of the emerging parasite cells. The binding properties of this protein with the outer membrane of the host and of the parasite are identical. An analogous phenomenon also occurs during Bdellovibrio parasitism on Klebsiella pneumoniae and on Salmonella typhimurium. Possible roles for this scavenging action of Bdellovibrio, and similar phenomena in other parasitic systems, are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6765198

  6. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peripheral blood cultural characteristics in adult acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, F. R.; Oliver, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A simple liquid culture technique has been used to study peripheral blood from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia. Evidence is presented that cells from morphologically identical types of leukaemia have differing capacity for "differentiation" from free floating blast cells into plastic-adherent phagocytic, trypsin-resistant macrophage-like cells with Fc and C3 receptors. Preliminary analysis suggests that patients whose cells have the greatest capacity for "differentiation" have a better chance of achieving complete remission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1063591

  7. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  8. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  9. Gill diseases of cultured salmonids in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, P Y; Ferguson, H W

    1983-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1981, the Fish Pathology Laboratory of the Ontario Veterinary College received 239 cases from trout farms of southern Ontario, 51 (21.3%) of which had diseased gills. Branchial lesions in 86.3% of these 51 cases were characterized by marked lamellar epithelial hyperplasia with epithelial hypertrophy and lamellar fusion. Filamentous bacteria were seen on the surface of the branchial filaments and lamellae in 68.6% of the cases. Our observations highlight the importance of gill diseases as a production problem of farmed salmonids in southern Ontario. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6416657

  10. Metastases and the Normalization of Tumour Blood Vessels by ICRF 159: A New Type of Drug Action

    PubMed Central

    Le Serve, A. W.; Hellmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Profound modification of the structure and arrangement of the blood vessels has been shown in tumours after treatment with ICRF 159. X-ray angiography, carbon black (Pelikan ink) labelling, and intravital staining with lissamine green were used to demonstrate the changes. Alteration of the morphology of the blood vessels at the edge of a tumour may affect the escape of malignant cells and the rate of blood flow (and thus the concentration of anticancer drugs) through the tumour. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4111169

  11. Blue rubber bleb naevus disease: an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, M; Ward, P; Maddocks, J L

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman presented with facial pain, a right parotid tumour and iron deficiency anaemia. She had several cutaneous venous swellings and tumours with a similar appearance were found in the large bowel. Histological examination of the parotid tumour and angiography of the skin and gut lesions confirmed that they were venous in origin. The aetiology, classification, and complications of disorders of the venous system and the importance of using a tourniquet to examine the peripheral veins is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3264257

  12. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  13. Freeze-etching studies on the ciliary necklace in the rat and chick.

    PubMed Central

    Breipohl, W; Mendoza, A S; Miragall, F

    1980-01-01

    The existence of a ciliary necklace in kinocilia, atypical cilia and mature and differentiating sensory cilia is described in rat and chicken. In addition to parallel horizontally oriented rows of the ciliary necklace, irregular forms of intramembranous particle (IMP) aggregations are also described. The function of the ciliary necklace is discussed, special attention being given to the appearance of circular rows of IMP prior to the outgrowth of olfactory cilia and to the existence of dynein arms in these. Evidence is provided for the motility of olfactory cilia in the chick. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7429968

  14. Removal of Atmospheric Particulates by Urban Vegetation: Implications for Human and Vegetative Health

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals considerable evidence to support the suggestion that vegetative surfaces remove particulate matter from the atmosphere. Preliminary observations of the leaf surfaces of an important urban tree indicate the presence of numerous particulate contaminants. In view of the medical importance of fine particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to assess the efficiency of tree surfaces in particle retention. Can particulate loads be reduced below biologically significant thresholds by vegetation? Are trees acutely injured or subtly influenced in the process of this removal? A brief assessment of research needs is provided. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:331695

  15. Perhexiline maleate toxicity on human liver cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, J Y; Guillouzo, A; Glaise, D; Deugnier, Y; Messner, M; Bourel, M

    1980-01-01

    When added to the culture medium of human liver cell lines, perhexiline maleate induced formation of numerous myeloid bodies containing unicentric or multicentric smooth membranes within a few days. The nine lysosomal enzyme activities studied, except for beta-galactosidase which decreased, remained unchanged. These results indicate that on cultured human liver cells perhexiline maleate has an effect similar to that described on hepatocytes of some patients treated with this drug and suggest that myeloid body formation is not due to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activities. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7192674

  16. Fetal monitoring during maternal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K. S.; Friesen, R. M.; Livingstone, R. A.; Peddle, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fetal cardiac activity was monitored with an external ultrasound transducer in two patients with clinical class III heart disease due to severe mitral stenosis complicated by pulmonary hypertension, undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal distress was detected in one patient, who had mitral valvuloplasty, and was corrected by increasing the rate of blood flow, and the other patient had a mitral valve replacement but no fetal distress was noted. The postoperative course of both mothers and fetuses was uneventful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1125921

  17. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction: A Dental Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hillier, Clyde D.

    1985-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is common and often acutely painful. Because of the large and diverse symptom complex created by this disorder, patients frequently first seek relief from their physician rather than their dentist. In this article temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is defined and the presenting signs and symptoms are discussed. Their etiology is described in relation to the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. Examination techniques can help in the differential diagnosis. Current treatment ranges from heat, local anesthesia and ultrasound to anxiolytics, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and nutritional supplementation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274225

  18. Sonar and its Use in Kidney Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, E. A.; Murphy, A. V.; Arneil, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of diagnostic ultrasound or sonar are given, together with the special technique required for scanning newborn infants and small children for kidney abnormalities. Illustrative examples of the potential of this procedure, both in diagnosis and in monitoring changes include a normal neonatal and preadolescent kidney, unilateral renal agenesis, duplex kidney, renal cyst, polycystic disease, nephroblastoma, and examples of mild and severe hydronephrosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:4343783

  19. Perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts of rat peripheral nerve and spinal root.

    PubMed Central

    Radek, A; Thomas, P K; King, R H

    1986-01-01

    The differentiation of the perineurium has been examined in replacement nerve grafts in which segments of the third lumbar dorsal root and the peroneal division of the sciatic nerve of rats were excised and resutured into the gaps. This was compared with perineurial differentiation in interchange grafts in which segments of peroneal nerve were grafted into the third lumbar dorsal root and vice versa. It was concluded that not only the origin of the graft but also the local tissue environment is important in determining the morphological outcome, the latter having the predominant influence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693073

  20. Cryosurgery of the prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Green, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    This personal review of the use of cryosurgery in prostatic disorders aims to put in perspective the value of the technique, establishing its place in the urologist's armamentarium mainly in the unfit subject but pointing to other applications as well. "Blind" perurethral cryosurgery has been used and has been shown to be effective in relieving urethral outflow obstruction, particularly in the second series of 178 patients with benign prostatic disease in which a simple "rule of thumb" technique was used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:879634

  1. Marfan syndrome with coronary artery lesions in a North American Indian.

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, S. W.; Corbett, B. N.; Benediktsson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Marfan syndrome has not been well documented in North American Indians. A 19-year old Ojibwa man had evidence of this syndrome -- specifically, tall stature, long, thin extremities (particularly, fingers and toes), increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, aortic aneurysm, aortic regurgitation and pathologic evidence of aortic rupture and alastic tissue fragmentation. Intimal hyperplasia was present in the extramural coronary arteries, while the intramural arteries, usually thought to be involved, were normal. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:974953

  2. Glomus tissue in the vicinity of the human carotid sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Garfia, A

    1980-01-01

    Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653

  3. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  4. Inactivation of the HIV LTR by DNA CpG methylation: evidence for a role in latency.

    PubMed Central

    Bednarik, D P; Cook, J A; Pitha, P M

    1990-01-01

    Infection of cells by HIV can result in a period of quiescence or latency which may be obviated by treatment with inducing agents such as 5-azacytidine. Evidence from these experiments demonstrate the existence of two CpG sites in the HIV LTR which can silence transcription of both reporter genes (CAT) and infectious proviral DNA when enzymatically methylated. This transcriptional block was consistently overcome by the presence of the trans-activator tat without significant demethylation of the HIV LTR. These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation of the HIV LTR may change the binding characteristics between LTR sequences and cellular proteins, thereby suppressing HIV LTR transcription and modulating viral expression. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2323336

  5. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  6. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  7. Monocot and dicot pre-mRNAs are processed with different efficiencies in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Brian; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1986-01-01

    A gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcS) in wheat, a monocot plant, was transferred to tobacco, a dicot plant. The wheat gene is not expressed in transgenic tobacco under the control of its own promoter, but when transcription is driven by a viral promoter, several wheat transcripts accumulate. These include both spliced and unspliced transcripts, which are polyadenylated at multiple novel sites in the wheat 3' flanking region. Another monocot intron, from the maize Adh-1 gene, is also spliced inefficiently in tobacco. These findings contrast results demonstrating efficient processing of different rbcS transcripts from pea, a dicot, in transgenic tobacco. This pattern may reflect general differences in sequences required for RNA processing in monocot and dicot plants. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:16453710

  8. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  9. Chromosomal DNA Replication Pattern in Human Tumour Cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kucheria, Kiran

    1970-01-01

    The present paper deals with the chromosomal DNA replication pattern in human solid tumour cells in vitro. This was studied at the terminal stages of the S-period. All the cell lines of female origin showed a late replicating chromosome in group XX6-12. In cell lines of male origin one of the chromosomes of group 21-22Y was later replicating than the rest of the members of the group. The DNA replication pattern of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes was similar to that of the cultured human leucocytes. The results of the present study show that the DNA replication pattern of the chromosome in neoplastic cells is basically unchanged despite the changes in the chromosome number and morphology. Therefore the abnormal behaviour of the neoplastic cells cannot be related to the changes in the pattern of the chromosomal DNA replication. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 6Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5475754

  10. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  11. Ischemic bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, M. F.; Qizilbash, A. H.; Salem, S.; Fyshe, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 25 cases of ischemic bowel disease are presented. The majority of patients presented with the triad of abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. In 13 patients the diarrhea was associated with the passage of bright red blood per rectum. There were 10 cases of infarction, 11 of enterocolitis and 4 had resulted in stricture formation. In five cases of enterocolitis the lesion was transient; symptoms improved with conservative medical management and the radiologic findings returned to normal. Barium enema examination yielded abnormal findings in the majority of the cases in which it was performed. Plain films of the abdomen, however, were not helpful. The actual mortality in this group of patients was 44%, 80% in those with infarction of the bowel and 20% in the other two groups. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4419659

  12. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Two Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hader, W.; Bayatpour, M.; Dempster, G.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1967-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of the first two reported cases of herpes simplex encephalitis occurring in Saskatchewan are presented. The clinical history of an acute onset, an early organic mental syndrome followed by coma, neurologic disturbances, rapid progression and death suggests the diagnosis. The acute, diffuse, inflammatory process with predominant involvement of the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of intranuclear inclusions in nerve and glial cells are illustrated. The viral particles were found in electron micrographs from the brain tissue of both patients. The definitive diagnosis was established by the isolation, from postmortem brain tissue, of the herpes simplex virus, which was grown in tissue culture and shown to be pathogenic in suckling mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4290725

  13. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  14. Degradation of Proteins Artificially Introduced into Vacuoles of Chara australis1

    PubMed Central

    Moriyasu, Yuji; Tazawa, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    When an exogenous protein, bovine serum albumin, was introduced into the vacuole of a Chara australis internodal cell, it was degraded with time. This degradation proceeded only in the vacuole as far as could be observed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Degradation was inhibited by protease inhibitors such as antipain and leupeptin. Endogenous proteins introduced into the vacuole were also degraded there. Furthermore, intravacuolar cytoplasmic drops, which were often formed by cell ligation, seemed to be degraded in the vacuole. However, bovine serum albumin degradation did not proceed when mixed with isolated vacuolar sap. These results show that the vacuole in the Chara internodal cell has the capacity to degrade cellular proteins, but that cytoplasmic support is needed for this degrading activity to be maintained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16666427

  15. Immunoperoxidase localisation of human placental lactogen: a marker for the placental origin of the giant cells in 'syncytial endometritis' of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Heyderman, E; Gibbons, A R; Rosen, S W

    1981-01-01

    One hundred endometrial biopsies of various histological patterns, and material from 10 tubal pregnancies together with their associated uterine decidua, were examined for the presence of human placental lactogen using affinity-purified first and second antibodies and an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive cells in endometrial curettings were seen only in association with an intrauterine pregnancy and morphologically resembled syncytiotrophoblast. Decidua associated with tubal pregnancy, pseudodecidua in progestogen-treated patients, and proliferative, secretory, and basal endometria were all negative. An immunoperoxidase stain for human placental lactogen is a useful marker for intrauterine pregnancy and supports the placental origin of the syncytial giant cells in so-called 'syncytial endometritis'. The technique is of potential value in those endometrial biopsies where pregnancy is suspected but no villi are seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7014653

  16. Primary lymphoma of the upper small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Khosrow; Haghighi, Parviz; Bakhshandeh, Kiumars; Haghshenas, Mansour

    1970-01-01

    Seven patients with primary lymphoma involving the upper small intestine and presenting with diarrhoea, non-specific abdominal pain, and clubbing are reported. The disease appears to be more prevalent in young women, and clinical and radiological findings can provide an excellent preliminary diagnosis which is usually confirmed by peroral biopsy of the small intestine. This type of lymphoma is found to be clinically distinguishable both from the primary intestinal lymphomas reported from western countries and also from gastrointestinal involvement as part of a more systemic disease. It appears to be prevalent in the Middle East, and because of clear clinical, radiological, and histological features, it can be singled out from other primary intestinal lymphomas and considered as a distinct clinical entity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4919259

  17. Histopathology of BALB/c mice infected with the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Doi, K.; Onodera, T.; Tsuda, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Mitsuoka, T.

    1988-01-01

    BALB/c mice infected with 10(5) pfu of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus were examined histopathologically during the subacute stage of infection. Main pathologic changes were observed in the brain, heart (massive myocardial necrosis with subsequent organization (i.e., replacement of necrotic myocardium by connective tissue) and congestion and dilatation of the right ventricle) and pancreas (moderate degranulation of beta-cells resulting in elevation of blood glucose level). The brain lesions were found most frequently in the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus and the granular layer of the cerebellum and were characterized by degeneration of neurons containing virus antigens. Perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration, spreading to the adjacent brain tissue, and thrombosis in small vessels were also frequently seen. Focal loss of neurons and gliosis developed later in these lesions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2839220

  18. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  19. An ultrastructural analysis of the vascular damage in the lethal and sublethal Forssman reaction in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J. R.; Bullock, G. R.; Butler, K. D.; Williamson, I. H.; White, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of the complement system and platelets in the sublethal Forssman reaction in the guinea pig has been studied together with the ultrastructural changes observed in the endothelial cells of the pulmonary vasculature. The main ultrastructural change noted was swelling of the endothelium. This did not occur in thrombocytopenic animals or in decomplemented animals, indicating the importance of both platelets and the complement pathways in this reaction. The platelet inhibitors sulphinpyrazone or aspirin had no effect on endothelial swelling in the sublethal reaction. In the lethal reaction the degree of endothelial cell damage was more severe and included lesions in the cell membrane, lifting, necrosis and finally exposure of the basement membrane. This damage only occurred in animals with an intact complement cascade. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3878720

  20. The recognition component of the N-end rule pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, B; Wünning, I; Varshavsky, A

    1990-01-01

    The N-end rule-based degradation signal, which targets a protein for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, comprises a destabilizing amino-terminal residue and a specific internal lysine residue. We report the isolation and functional analysis of a gene (UBR1) for the N-end recognizing protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. UBR1 encodes a approximately 225 kd protein with no significant sequence similarities to other known proteins. Null ubr1 mutants are viable but are unable to degrade the substrates of the N-end rule pathway. These mutants are partially defective in sporulation and grow slightly more slowly than their wild-type counterparts. The UBR1 protein specifically binds in vitro to proteins bearing amino-terminal residues that are destabilizing according to the N-end rule, but does not bind to otherwise identical proteins bearing stabilizing amino-terminal residues. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2209542

  1. Human Peripheral Lung Tumours: Light and Electron Microscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Franco; Canese, Maria G.; Campobasso, Onofrio

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen human peripheral lung tumours have been studied in both light and electron microscopy. They were classified as epidermoid carcinoma, mucus-secreting cell adenocarcinoma, and alveolar cell adenocarcinoma, the latter made up of granular pneumocytes. Alveolar cell cancer, as defined by ultrastructural features, could assume different gross histological patterns in light microscopy, and therefore electron microscopy is required for its identification. Since neither squamous nor mucous metaplasia was observed in any alveolar cell tumour, it is tentatively suggested that all peripheral lung tumours which lack these features may be derived from granular pneumocytes, irrespective of whether they appear to be adenocarcinomata or large cell carcinomata when examined by light microscopy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:4348471

  2. The effect of uranyl acetate on human lymphoblastoid cells (RPMI 6410) and HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F. N.; Yang-Steppuhn, S. E.; Lalonde, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    RPMI 6410 cells and HeLa cells were exposed to uranyl acetate. In RPMI 6410 cell cultures this produced single-membrane-bound presumably lysosomal bodies (called "uraniosomes") containing electron-dense crystals in the cultured cells and crystalline deposits in extracellular locations. Neither uraniosomes nor extracellular uranium deposits were found in HeLa cell cultures. All uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits analysed by electron-probed X-ray analysis were found to contain uranium, potassium and phosphorus. Traces of sulphur were detected in some but not all uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits. Traces of calcium were found in all extracellular uranium deposits and in some uraniosomes also. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7093141

  3. A review of the osteopetroses.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P.; Horan, F.; Hamersma, H.

    1977-01-01

    The osteopetroses are a group of conditions which are characterized by varying combinations of bony sclerosis and modelling defects. Classical osteopetrosis may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive: the former variety is benign, heterogeneous and comparatively common, while the latter is precocious, potentially lethal and rare. Many other craniotubular dysplasias and hyperostoses are loosely grouped with the osteopetroses. The commonest of these is the autosomal dominant form of craniometaphyseal dysplasia, while the others which are well known include Pyle disease, and van Buchem disease. Sclerosteosis is a progressive condition in which massive cranial thickening is associated with syndactyly and gigantism. Each of these disorders has specific clinical and radiographic features, which permit recognition. Diagnostic accuracy is crucial for treatment, prognostication and effective genetic management. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:335376

  4. Effects of Malignant Effusions on the Mitotic Index of L Strain Mouse Cells Grown in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hrushovetz, S. B.; Ewaniuk, Meriam H.

    1963-01-01

    By employing a clone of L strain mouse fibroblasts (LE) which does not exhibit cell clumping and lysis (cytolytic antibody reaction), it was possible to screen for the presence of growth-regulating factors in human sera and effusions, exclusive of an antigen-antibody reaction. Under conditions of the test a mitotic index greater than 20% indicated the presence of a growth-promoting factor. A total of 11 pleural effusions was tested. Four of the eight malignant effusions possessed a growth-promoting factor, while none of the three non-malignant effusions or the one sample of human umbilical cord serum possessed such a factor. Overnight storage of the unfiltered effusions at 5° C. resulted in complete loss of the growthpromoting activity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14052976

  5. Multimedia instruction of cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed Central

    Criley, J. M.; Criley, D.; Zalace, C.

    1997-01-01

    The cardiac physical examination is in itself a multimedia experience. It is an amalgamation of visible, palpable, and audible sensations, preceded by the collection of an appropriate historical context in which to place these multiple sensations. It is unlikely that any electronic media could ever replace the real life experience of admitting, examining, diagnosing, and effectively treating a patient with mitral stenosis who has decompensated because of the onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, or a patient with sudden, severe aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis. These potentially fatal conditions can be effectively treated only if the suspicion of their presence is seriously raised. Although there is no substitute for first-hand experience, attempts to provide an effective surrogate experience are worth pursuing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9108683

  6. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  7. PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ghislaine; Lamontagne, Raymond; David, Paul

    1966-01-01

    Certain congenital malformations affecting the rightsided cavities of the heart and accompanied by a diminished pulmonary blood flow can be improved by an end-to-side anastomosis between the right pulmonary artery and the superior vena cava. Nine out of the 10 patients who underwent the operation survived. The results have been very impressive in six patients with tricuspid atresia who were critically ill. The anoxemic episodes ceased completely and cyanosis has disappeared. Three cases of Ebstein's anomaly have also been improved. This clinical study has given us the opportunity to review the physiological consequences of the anastomosis, its complications and its surgical indications. We believe that this type of shunt is especially indicated in cases of tricuspid atresia, in which only a palliative form of surgery can be performed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5923652

  8. Rethinking cell structure.

    PubMed Central

    Penman, S

    1995-01-01

    Cell structure, emerging from behind the veil of conventional electron microscopy, appears far more complex than formerly realized. The standard plastic-embedded, ultrathin section can image only what is on the section surface and masks the elaborate networks of the cytoplasm and nucleus. Embedment-free electron microscopy gives clear, high-contrast micrographs of cell structure when combined with removal of obscuring material such as soluble proteins. The resinless ultrathin section is the technique of choice; it is simple and inexpensive, and it uses ordinary electron microscopes. The resulting pictures reveal a world of complex cell structure and function. These images necessarily change our conception of the cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, mitosis, and the relation of membranes to cytostructure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7777493

  9. Is actin a transcription initiation factor for RNA polymerase B?

    PubMed Central

    Egly, J M; Miyamoto, N G; Moncollin, V; Chambon, P

    1984-01-01

    We have previously reported that two fractions derived from HeLa cell S100 extracts, the heparin flow-through and the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate are required in vitro for efficient and accurate transcription by RNA polymerase class B (II). We have further purified a factor present in the heparin flow-through fraction, which markedly stimulates specific transcription catalyzed by the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate. We report here that some of the properties of the stimulatory factor present in our most purified fractions are strikingly similar to those of actin. We demonstrate also that this factor acts at the pre-initiation level of the transcription reaction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:6499833

  10. The nucleus of the tractus solitarius of the dog. A morphological and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Pesini, P; Cifuentes, J M; Fernandez-Troconiz, P

    1991-01-01

    The neuronal and fibrous architecture of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) of the dog has been studied in transversely cut Nissl, myelin and reduced silver stained serial sections. Eight distinct subdivisions, clearly delimited both by their cytoarchitectonic and fibrous characteristics, have been identified. They are: the commissural, gelatinous, lateral, interstitial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, intermediate and medial subdivisions. Their rostrocaudal extensions and locations in relation to the obex are summarised in Table 1. A morphometric analysis was additionally done. The frequency distributions of cell areas and cell form factor of each subdivision are represented by histograms in Figures 8 and 9 respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717419

  11. Joint laxity and osteoarthrosis: a radiological survey of female physical education specialists.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H. A.; Hudson, A.; Eastmond, C. J.; Wright, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-four female specialist teachers of physical education who qualified between 1935 and 1950 agreed to have x-rays of the lumbar spine, hips and knees. Fifty-two has osteoarthrosis of the hip, 65 osteoarthrosis of the knee and 221 degenerative change in the spine. Overall osteoarthrosis of the knee was significantly less common than in a comparable sample from the general population (p < 0.001), severe or moderate osteoarthrosis being equally common in both groups but minor in minimal osteoarthrosis being much less common in the teachers. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the hip between the two populations though severe osteoarthrosis of the hip was slightly more common in the teachers. Images p179-a p179-b p179-c Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7448483

  12. Description of a new population of fixed macrophages in the splenic cords of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Martin de las Mulas, J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Sierra, M A

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of porcine splenic cords was analysed by light and electron microscopy after both perfusion and immersion fixation. The external aspect of the splenic cords was found to be composed of a network of smooth muscle cells arranged between the trabeculae and the venous sinus walls. Macrophages frequently attached to smooth muscle cells surrounded the whole of their surfaces and were attached by slender cytoplasmic projections. Intercellular junctions in the form of electron-dense areas 200-350 nm in length and 45-55 nm in thickness were observed in the macrophage membrane close to the muscle cells. In the splenic cords of nonperfused animals, in addition to the macrophage population adhering to smooth muscle cells, numerous macrophages without cell junctions were also seen and identified as free macrophages. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7592002

  13. An Outbreak of Hexamitiasis in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, G.; Loew, F. M.

    1970-01-01

    Hexamitiasis was encountered in a breeding colony of C3H/HeJ mice. The disease was observed in animals under three weeks of age. It was characterized clinically by retarded development, hunched attitude, lethargy, and in some cases by diarrhea and death. Lesions were noted particularly in the duodenum. The intestinal contents were watery and foamy. Histologically, cyst-like formations due to the dilation of the glands of Lieberkühn were seen together with inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria and sloughing of the epithelium. The infection was controlled by the routine administration of dimetridazole in the drinking water. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4249099

  14. Diffuse involvement of the leptomeninges by tumour--a clinical and pathological study of 63 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, R.; Thomas, M.; Adams, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of 63 cases of post-mortem-proved diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges by tumour are presented. A wide variety of tumours of the nervous system, both primary and secondary, was found to give rise to such involvement, with adenocarcinoma having a particular propensity to behave in this manner. Dysfunction of cranial and spinal nerves, a confusional state and headache were prominent clinical features. Examination of the cerebro-spinal fluid was found to be less useful diagnostically in cases of primary tumours of the nervous system with leptomeningeal involvement than in cases of diffuse infiltration of the meninges by carcinoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7393804

  15. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  16. cDNA cloning, primary structure and gene expression for H-protein, a component of the glycine-cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase) of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Macherel, D; Lebrun, M; Gagnon, J; Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding the H-protein of the glycine-cleavage system of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria. The deduced primary structure revealed that the 131-amino-acid polypeptide is cytoplasmically synthesized with a 34-amino-acid mitochondrial targeting peptide. The lipoate-binding site was assigned to be lysine-63, as deduced from a sequence comparison with several lipoate-bearing proteins. The expression of the gene encoding H-protein was shown to occur specifically in the leaf tissue, with light exerting an additional effect by increasing the mRNA levels severalfold. Two polyadenylation sites were found in the mRNA, and a single-copy gene encoding the H-protein was detected in pea genome. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2363710

  17. Incidence and structure of the appendices of the testis and epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956

  18. Fungal Infections: The Stubborn Cases

    PubMed Central

    Adam, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Despite development of numerous antifungal preparations, mycotic infections persist, because of inaccurate diagnosis leading to inappropriate therapy, drug failure, non-compliance or resistance of the organism to antifungal medication. Direct KOH examination is the simplest method of proving the existence of a fungus. Fungal infections tend to be overdiagnosed; disorders which do not improve with three to four weeks of treatment should be reassessed before being labelled ‘stubborn’. Griseofulvin is effective treatment for all dermatophytes, but has certain side effects. Newer topical antifungals are also effective, but no single drug cures all fungal infections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:20469387

  19. Ischaemic colitis in the experimental animal. II. Role of hypovolaemia in the production of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J G; Parks, T G

    1976-01-01

    Hypovolaemia alone did not lead to ischaemic colitis but when venesection was induced immediately after the acute ligation of the common colic artery large bowel ischaemia ensued. Similarly, hypovolaemia induced one month after two major blood vessels had been occluded led to ischaemic colitis. These findings suggest that states of low blood flow in the presence of previous arterial constriction or blockage may lead to enough reduction in mesenteric perfusion for intestinal ischaemia to develop. Using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed in the cranial mesenteric artery of the dog, it was shown that hypovolaemia may lead to 50-75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow without producing any significant change in the systemic blood pressure. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:976807

  20. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  1. Maize Adh-1 promoter sequences control anaerobic regulation: addition of upstream promoter elements from constitutive genes is necessary for expression in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J.G.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Dennis, E.S.; Peacock, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The promoter region of a maize alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh-1) was linked to a reporter gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and transformed stably into tobacco cells using T-DNA vectors. No CAT enzyme activity could be detected in transgenic tobacco plants unless upstream promoter elements from the octopine synthase gene or the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were supplied in addition to the maize promoter region. CAT enzyme activity and transcription of the chimaeric gene were then readily detected after anaerobic induction. The first 247 bp upstream of the translation initiation codon of the maize Adh-1 gene were sufficient to impose anaerobic regulation on the hybrid gene and S1 nuclease mapping confirmed mRNA initiation is from the normal maize Adh-1 transcription start point. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:15981329

  2. Studies on the introduction and mobility of the maize Activator element in Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota.

    PubMed Central

    Van Sluys, M A; Tempé, J; Fedoroff, N

    1987-01-01

    We have co-transformed carrot (Daucus carota) and Arabidopsis thaliana with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens non-tumorigenic T-DNA carrying the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) and an Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri T-DNA. We present evidence that the Ac element transposes in transformed root or root-derived callus cultures of both species. We show that fertile plants can be regenerated from transformed, root-derived callus cultures of Arabidopsis, demonstrating the utility of the Ri plasmid for introducing the maize Ac element into plants. We also present evidence that Ac elements that excise from the transforming T-DNA early after transformation continue to be mobile in carrot root cultures. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2832144

  3. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339

  4. Morphology and ultrastructure of oral strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Selected human oral and nonoral strains of the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The strains examined were morphologically identical to recognized Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus. By transmission electron microscopy, the cells were typically gram negative in morphology, with several strains possessing some extracellular ruthenium red-staining polymeric material. Numerous vesicular structures, morphologically identical to lipopolysaccharide vesicles, were seen to originate from and be continuous with the surface of the outer membrane. Large numbers of these vesicles were also found in the external environment. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that both actinobacilli and haemophili possessed surface projections and an amorphous surface material which connected and covered adjacent cells. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:7439996

  5. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  6. The Use of Naturally Occurring Cancer in Domestic Animals for Research into Human Cancer: General Considerations and a Review of Canine Skeletal Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Brodey, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    For many years, research into human cancer has concentrated on human patients and on artificially induced neoplasms in inbred murine hosts. Cancer, however, affects a great variety of mammals, particularly those that have been domesticated. Suchf naturally occurring neoplasms are common in dogs, cats, cattle, horses, etc., and offer fertile ground for studies relating to epidemiologyf, etiology, immunobiology, and therapy. Canine osteosarcoma is described in detail. The clinicopathologic features of this canine tumor closely approximate that of human osteosarcoma and thus make canine osteosarcoma an invaluable comparative model. Canine osteosarcoma and other naturally occurring tumors lie intermediate between the mouse models and human cancer. The use of these veterinary models in the future fabric of cancer research will broaden its base and will influence our conceptual approach to research and clinical options. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:115162

  7. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  8. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  9. Five human tumour cell lines derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, two subsequent local recurrences and two nodal metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Pittam, M. R.; James, T.

    1981-01-01

    Five tumour cell lines have been derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, from 2 subsequent local recurrences, and from 2 lymph-node metastases--all from the same patient. While the cell lines shared many morphological and biochemical characteristics, those derived from recurrences and metastases appeared to be less differentiated, were less well organized in culture, and displayed fewer desmosomes and tonofilaments than cells in the primary tumour line. A recurrent line showing greatest morphological divergence from the primary tumour line also demonstrated the greatest differences at the ultrastructural level, in increased production of plasminogen activator and in the composition of cell-surface glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7284233

  10. The 131I Ortho-iodohippurate Photoscan in Human Renal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Dossetor, J. B.; Zweig, S. M.; Treves, S.; Ross, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Nine examples, in seven patients, from a large cadaver renal allograft program, illustrate the value of radio-hippuran photoscans in differentiating causes of post-implant oliguria. Hippuran scans are shown to be more valuable than chlormerodrin scans when renal function is acutely depressed. Hippuran scans aided in the decision to remove kidneys in four cases of severe oliguria and to retain kidneys in two others. In two further examples, extravasation of urine was detected by scanning after radio-hippuran injection when other tests had failed to do so. The technique of radio-hippuran scanning has a place in the differentiation of acute and subacute renal dysfunction and has proved particularly valuable in the early oliguric complications of a cadaver renal transplant program. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4912294

  11. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  12. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout the entire spacer. A nuclear run-on experiment in vitro confirms the drop of polymerase I concentration down-stream of this site. The termination site for polymerase I transcription of the rDNA operon in A. lumbricoides is therefore unique, and located at the very end of the 26S rRNA gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2390973

  13. Total Replacement of the Mitral Valve: Results of Insertion of a Starr-Edwards Valve in Five Patients

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, John C.

    1963-01-01

    In five patients the mitral valve was resected and total valve replacement undertaken. The Starr-Edwards prosthesis was inserted. The first patient died, two and one-half months after operation, of a wide massive left-atrial clot and peripheral embolization. The second and third patients are well and back at work at eight months after operation, and the fourth patient is well at two and one-half months after operation. The fifth patient died suddenly at three weeks from massive peripheral embolization originating from the left side of the heart. The technical details of the insertion of the valves are described and the importance of careful postoperative anticoagulant management is stressed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14017893

  14. Presence of ribonucleoproteins and basic proteins in the nuage and intermitochondrial bars of human spermatogonia.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Nistal, M; Amat, P; Rodriguez, M C

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural cytochemical study of the nuage in the human adult testis revealed that this structure was a cytoplasmic fine fibrillar electron-dense mass, similar to the chromatoid body of spermatids, in all spermatogonial types and spermatocytes. The nuage was often observed in relation with the nucleus or mitochondria. Cytochemical techniques showed staining affinity of the nuage for both ethanolic phosphotungstic acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. The intermitochondrial bars were also stained with the two procedures. The results suggest that the nuage originates from the nucleus and migrates to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores, giving rise to the intermitochondrial bars. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3870728

  15. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  16. Smooth muscle in the wall of the developing human urinary bladder and urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A

    1983-01-01

    A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742

  17. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  18. A light and electron microscope study of rat abducens nucleus neurons projecting to the cerebellar flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Corsetti, G; Simonetti, C; Stacchiotti, A; Ventura, R G

    1995-01-01

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cerebellar flocculus of the rat was employed to identify neurons in the abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus. The number, ultrastructural features and precise localisation of these neurons in the nucleus were examined. They were present bilaterally and represented about 7% of the total neuronal population of each nucleus. They were localised principally in the dorsomedial area of the cranial half of each nucleus and did not display the typical ultrastructural features of motoneurons. It is concluded that the localisation and ultrastructural characteristics of these HRP-positive neurons are useful for distinguishing them from other neuronal populations within the nucleus. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7649835

  19. A study of the ultrastructure of developing human umbilical vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, A J; Turmaine, M; Cai, W Q; Burnstock, G

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopic techniques were used to examine the ultrastructure of developing human umbilical arteries and vein (8-12, 13-17 and 37-40 wk gestational age). These showed that with increasing age there is (1) an increase in the size of the lumen and the thickness of the media; (2) an increase in the ratio of contractile smooth muscle phenotypic cells; (3) an increase in the myofilament content of the smooth muscle cells and the number of Weibel-Palade bodies; (4) a decrease in the glycogen content; (5) an appearance of microvilli on the luminal surface of the endothelium. Lipid vesicles, nerves and vasa vasorum were not observed in any region of the umbilical vein or arteries. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8655418

  20. Studies on Transmissible Gastroenteritis of Swine

    PubMed Central

    McClurkin, A W.; Norman, James O.

    1966-01-01

    Five cell culture isolates from transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) of swine have been studied. There is a cytopathogenic virus common to all of these isolates. Some of the characteristics of this virus, such as its size, approximately 100 mµ, its relative sensitivity to ether, lability at pH 2, pH 3, and pH 10, and its heat lability suggest that it may be a member of the myxovirus class. Concurrent research in this laboratory indicates that this cytopathogenic virus is not the only virus involved in the etiology of TGE, but it appears to be associated with many of the outbreaks of TGE which have been studied by this laboratory. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 11. PMID:4224292

  1. Specific Immune Response in Human Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, R. C.; Nind, A. P. P.; Guli, E. P. G.; Muller, H. K.; Rolland, J. M.; Minty, C. C. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight out of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of skin have shown immunological reactivity against their own tumour cells by one or more tests with their sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The tests included membrane and cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, and, with cultured tumour, complement-dependent serum cytotoxicity and lymphocyte attack. One case examined in depth had an unusually conspicuous lymphocyte and plasma cell reaction on histological examination, and was positive by all four tests; a time-lapse cinephoto-micrographic record over seven days was obtained of the attack on the carcinoma cells in culture by the patient's lymphocytes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4943032

  2. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  3. Plant virus DNA replication processes in Agrobacterium: insight into the origins of geminiviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, J E; Dry, I B; Krake, L R; Rezaian, M A

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a bacterial plant pathogen, when transformed with plasmid constructs containing greater than unit length DNA of tomato leaf curl geminivirus accumulates viral replicative form DNAs indistinguishable from those produced in infected plants. The accumulation of the viral DNA species depends on the presence of two origins of replication in the DNA constructs and is drastically reduced by introducing mutations into the viral replication-associated protein (Rep or C1) ORF, indicating that an active viral replication process is occurring in the bacterial cell. The accumulation of these viral DNA species is not affected by mutations or deletions in the other viral open reading frames. The observation that geminivirus DNA replication functions are supported by the bacterial cellular machinery provides evidence for the theory that these circular single-stranded DNA viruses have evolved from prokaryotic episomal replicons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816791

  4. Microspectroscopic imaging tracks the intracellular processing of a signal transduction protein: fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I.

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaens, P I; Jovin, T M

    1996-01-01

    We have devised a microspectroscopic strategy for assessing the intracellular (re)distribution and the integrity of the primary structure of proteins involved in signal transduction. The purified proteins are fluorescent-labeled in vitro and reintroduced into the living cell. The localization and molecular state of fluorescent-labeled protein kinase C beta I isozyme were assessed by a combination of quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and novel determinations of fluorescence resonance energy transfer based on photobleaching digital imaging microscopy. The intensity and fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency images demonstrate the rapid nuclear translocation and ensuing fragmentation of protein kinase C beta I in BALB/c3T3 fibroblasts upon phorbol ester stimulation, and suggest distinct, compartmentalized roles for the regulatory and catalytic fragments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710884

  5. Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

  6. Arthritis in Flemish paintings (1400-1700).

    PubMed Central

    Dequeker, J

    1977-01-01

    A close examination of the hands of people depicted in paintings of the Flemish school showed that in five paintings there were figures with hand lesions resembling those of rhematoid arthritis. Although none of the deformities or swellings are indisputable examples of rheumatoid arthritis, they do at least suggest that the painters must have been confronted with rheumatoid-like lesions in their models. In two other paintings there were signs of rheumatic fever and of temporal arteritis. No arthritic lesions were found in the works of painters of the Italian Renaissance, probably because they are less detailed. The finding of rheumatoid deformities in the Flemish paintings does, however, question the general belief that rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that has arisen relatively recently. Images FIGS 1-2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 PMID:324568

  7. New structural aspects of the synaptic contacts on Purkinje cells in an elasmobranch cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Otero, R; Regueira, S D; Anadon, R

    1993-01-01

    Nerve fibre contacts on Purkinje cell perikarya in the cerebellum of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were studied using the Cajal reduced silver technique, Golgi methods and electron microscopy. Silver staining revealed axons with thick swellings close to the base of Purkinje cells. Golgi methods demonstrated the presence of 'pincushions' of somatic spines on Purkinje cells. Electron microscopy revealed flattened fibres that formed extensive synaptic contacts with the Purkinje cell 'pincushions'. It is proposed, on the basis of the ultrastructural features, that these fibres are climbing fibres. Their possible significance in terms of the evolution of cerebellar circuitry is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8509296

  8. Cardiovascular Sound and the Stethoscope, 1816 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Segall, Harold N.

    1963-01-01

    Cardiovascular sound escaped attention until Laennec invented and demonstrated the usefulness of the stethoscope. Accuracy of diagnosis using cardiovascular sounds as clues increased with improvement in knowledge of the physiology of circulation. Nearly all currently acceptable clinicopathological correlations were established by physicians who used the simplest of stethoscopes or listened with the bare ear. Certain refinements followed the use of modern methods which afford greater precision in timing cardiovascular sounds. These methods contribute to educating the human ear, so that those advantages may be applied which accrue from auscultation, plus the method of writing quantitative symbols to describe what is heard, by focusing the sense of hearing on each segment of the cardiac cycle in turn. By the year 2016, electronic systems of collecting and analyzing data about the cardiovascular system may render the stethoscope obsolete. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8 PMID:13987676

  9. Experiences with a sac-type artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David T.; Couves, Cecil M.

    1971-01-01

    A total replacement artificial heart is described having in vitro performance satisfying human requirements up to and including moderate work. The in vitro design has been modified to make its implantation into the chests of experimental animals technically feasible. The heart has been tested in vivo for up to six hours, and has been found to provide the experimental animals with adequate blood flow and pressures. Preliminary tests have shown major problems of air embolism and red blood cell hemolysis. The heart design and technique of implantation are undergoing further improvement. Performance will be more comprehensively examined with the use of larger experimental animals in order more accurately to evaluate the heart's potential. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:5112120

  10. Dolphin pox: a skin disease of cetaceans.

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, J R; Hicks, B D; St Aubin, D J

    1979-01-01

    Poxvirus has been identified morphologically from skin lesions in captive and free-ranging bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus and a stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. The lesions, commonly referred to as ring or pinhole lesions, appear as solitary or coalesced circular grey blemishes. Advanced ring lesions may take the form of black punctiform stippled patterns known as "tattoo". Histologically, the stratum externum is thickened, and there is ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intractyoplasmic inclusions in the stratum intermedium. These includions contain virus particles which exhibit typical poxvirus morphology. Stress, environmental conditions and general health appear to play a major role in the clinical manifestation of dolphin pox. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:232852

  11. The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Harold W.; Maeda, William K.

    1965-01-01

    A euploid/aberrant double stem line mosaicism was found in two cases of the de Lange syndrome with severe abnormalities. In both cases the structural heterozygosity of the aberrant stem line involved, apparently, the loss of chromosomal material from a smaller autosome of Group (6-12) X, probably No. 11. Differences in the cultural characteristics of de Lange cells suggest that the aberrant stem line may not proliferate in culture, so that mosaicism may not be detected. Moreover, the mosaicism may not be present in all tissues, resulting in normal cytogenetic findings as noted in a third case studied. Our findings suggest that the de Lange syndrome is the phenotypic expression of chromosomal mosaicism. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5825977

  12. The fine structure of pulmonary contusion and the effect of various drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Eckert, P.; Földi-Börcsök, E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of contusion were examined by electron and light microscopy in the lungs of rats. It was found that the results here were very similar to those elsewhere in the body, with a few minor modifications due to the unique structure of the lung. Densitometry of protein concentration and visual estimation of oedema were used to quantitate the effects on the injury. The benzo-pyrone drug Venalot had a considerable effect in reducing the protein concentration in the air spaces and the interstitial tissue, and of the oedema in the latter. Neither the proteinase inhibitor Trasylol nor the pectin-based plasma expander HAS had any significant effect on the fine structural alterations of pulmonary contusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1087159

  13. The organisation of collagen fibrils in the superficial zones of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J M

    1990-01-01

    The origin and structure of collagen fibres in the surface of articular cartilage were studied using SEM. Cryofracture was used to create orthogonal fracture surfaces in three planes. Fibres which originated in the radial zone could be traced into the surface where they flattened and overlapped in a common direction. Thick fibres from the periosteum ran into the surface as well, but apparently ended there and did not enter the radial zone. The tangential fibres were covered by a dense, separate layer of small fibrils. The fundamental aspects of the model proposed by Benninghoff are supported by these findings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081698

  14. PubMed Central

    Tremblay, G. M.; Sasahara, A. A.

    1966-01-01

    Pulmonary angiographic studies were performed on 100 patients with suspected pulmonary embolic disease. In the majority, the contrast medium was injected through a catheter located in the outflow tract of the right ventricle or the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary embolic disease should be suspected in the presence of the following unexplained symptoms or signs: (1) dyspnea, (2) thoracic pain, (3) hemoptysis, (4) left ventricular failure, (5) global ventricular failure, and (6) pulmonary function deterioration. Pulmonary angiography is a simple, specific and objective method by which to diagnose thromboembolic disease of the lung. Acute myocardial infarction and terminal illness were the only contraindications to the procedure. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5926268

  15. The origin of microglial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boya, J; Calvo, J; Prado, A

    1979-01-01

    The rat brain has been studied between 6 hours after birth and 100 days, using histochemical techniques for acid phosphatase and peroxidase, and silver impregnation for microglial cells. The results indicate that microglia come initially from acid phosphatase-positive cells of the meninges. These invade the nervous parenchyma and transform into ramified microglia. At 3 days of age similar cells are present on the outer surface of the large blood vessels, from which site they migrate into the nervous parenchyma. In 100 days old rats the acid phosphatase-positive cells are practically all pericytes. None of the microglial cells or their precursors give a positive reaction for peroxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:511761

  16. Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements.

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R. E.; Scott, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:7820006

  17. An enzyme histochemical study of large muscle fibres in the neonatal mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, K N; Stewart, R J; Bacciocchi, G

    1990-01-01

    Small clusters of extra large muscle fibres were identified in hindlimb muscles of neonatal mice (strain C57BL/10ScSn). At two days of age they had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than their normal counterparts (P less than 0.01). Fibre typing methods (NADH-tetrazolium reductase, ATPase and phosphorylase) classified them as 2A fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG fibres). The activity of NADH-tetrazolium reductase and the lysosomal enzymes beta-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and dipeptidyl peptidase II were all elevated in the large fibres. Microsomal aminopeptidase (mAPP), a membrane-bound enzyme, also showed increased activity. The fibres are probably the mouse equivalent of the Wohlfart B fibres of the human fetus, with which comparison is made. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9-10 PMID:2254160

  18. Human endodermal sinus tumour in nude mice and its markers for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, T; Nakayasu, M; Hirohashi, S; Kameya, T; Kaneko, M; Yokomori, K; Tsuchida, Y

    1979-01-01

    Two human endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumours) were transplanted successfully into nude mice. The transplanted tumours maintained not only morphological characters, such as Schiller-Duval bodies, but also the ability to synthesise alpha-fetoprotein, lactic dehydrogenase 1, liver and bone type alkaline phosphatase, and some human serum proteins. Since these tumours produced lactic dehydrogenase 1 but not the other four isozymes of lactic dehydrogenase, this isozyme, like alpha-fetoprotein, seems to be a good marker for the diagnosis and management of cases of endodermal sinus tumour. One of the two tumours produced another fetal antigen or carcinoembryonic antigen in addition to alpha-fetoprotein. These two endodermal sinus tumours, with their various markers in nude mice, will be useful in studies on diagnostic markers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:91627

  19. On the ultrastructure of the canine mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Sinowatz, S; Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Sinowatz, F

    1980-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation marked changes are observed in the fine structure of the secretory cells in the Beagle mammary gland: especially pronounced are differences in cellular height, shape and size of the nuclei and distribution of mitochondria. In later stages of pregnancy a proceeding development of those cellular organelles involved in synthesis and extrusion of secretory material (i.e. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) can be observed. Myoepithelial cells which can be first discerned from secretory cells by ultrastructural features from day 40 on show only minor variations of their ultrastructure during pregnancy and lactation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 PMID:7462099

  20. Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939

  1. Congenital Anomalies of the Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, G.; Mongeau, M.; Moreault, P.; Dupuis, M.; Hebert, B.; Corriveau, C.

    1964-01-01

    As a preparatory step towards the development of a complete habilitation program for children with congenital limb anomalies associated with maternal ingestion of thalidomide, the medical records of all patients with congenital limb anomalies referred to the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal in the past decade were studied, and an examination and a thorough reassessment were made of 41 patients (21 males and 20 females). In this paper, Part I, the medical and prosthetic aspects are dealt with and a form of management is described for each type of anomaly. The conclusions are reached that prosthetic fitting and training should be initiated very early in life and that co-operation of the parent is essential to successful habilitation of a child with congenital limb anomalies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14154297

  2. Venous Thrombosis on Prosthetic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rodman, N. F.; Wolf, R. H.; Mason, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Thrombi deposited on prosthetic devices in the superior vena cava of the rhesus monkey were studied by morphologic and biochemical technics. Glass or silicone-coated glass (SCG) rings were implanted for 30 minutes to 14 days. Thrombus was deposited on the surface of each prosthetic device, and deposition was much greater and more rapid on glass surfaces than on SCG surfaces. On SCG surfaces, initial deposits consisting of single platelets, small platelet aggregates and erythrocytes were seen by scanning electron microscopy. These were followed by larger platelet aggregates, fibrin and, much later, leukocytes. Transmission electron micrographs revealed disintegration of the platelets forming aggregates and an osmiophilic deposit on the prosthetic surface. Shortened partial thromboplastin times were observed in all test animals but the sham-operated one, and therefore may be predictive of thrombus formation. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4207269

  3. A morphometric analysis of chloride cells in the gills of the teleosts Oreochromis alcalicus and Oreochromis niloticus and a description of presumptive urea-excreting cells in O. alcalicus.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1991-01-01

    The gills of Oreochromis alcalicus, a hyperosmotic and low pH adapted teleost, and Oreochromis niloticus, a freshwater closely related fish have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a morphometric analysis of, particularly, the chloride cells and their primary organelles, the mitochondria and the tubulo-vesicular system carried out. Oreochromis alcalicus had a fourfold greater number of chloride cells than O. niloticus and the chloride cells had more mitochondria and a more profuse tubulo-vesicular matrix. The ultrastructural features of the chloride cells of Oreochromis alcalicus were interpreted as adaptations for the severe ecosystem that the species inhabits. Putative urea excreting cells unique to the gills of Oreochromis alcalicus are described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9-10 PMID:2050559

  4. Serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity: implications for adrenarche and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L H; Rodriguez, H; Ohno, S; Miller, W L

    1995-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450c17 catalyzes both steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity and scission of the C17-C20 steroid bond (17,20-lyase) on the same active site. Adrenal 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity is needed to produce cortisol throughout life, but 17,20-lyase activity appears to be controlled independently in a complex, age-dependent pattern. We show that human P450c17 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. Hormonally regulated serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 suggests a possible mechanism for human adrenarche and may be a unifying etiologic link between the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479852

  5. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  6. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  7. Histological features of respiratory epithelium of calves held at differing temperature and humidity.

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K W; Magwood, S E

    1977-01-01

    The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the structure of respiratory epithelium of calves was studied. Four calves of each of three experiments were acclimatized to a nonoperational environmental chamber for six days and then exposed to constant extremes of temperatures and relative humidity of one of 30 degrees C --35%, or 27 degrees C--92%, or 5 degrees C--92% respectively in this chamber for eight days each. Five calves (3 and 2) were similarly acclimatized then exposed to 1 degrees C--40%. Nasal swabs were taken from all animals at regular intervals. Swabs of three animals yielded Mycoplasma spp. and one swab yielded the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Detailed histological studies of respiratory epithelium of nose, trachea, major bronchus and terminal bronchioli were conducted at four sites. Goblet cells were least in calves held in hot and dry air; calves held in dry air had the least polymorphonuclear cells and the greatest prevalence of hypochromatic cell layers and vacuolation of epithelial cells. Differences between experiments were evident most for sites of trachea and major bronchus. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:922554

  8. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, G K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with coeliac disease and mesenteric lymph node cavitation is reported. This is a rare occurrence and has received very little attention in the English literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3721297

  9. Familial Fibrocystic Pulmonary Dysplasia: A Detailed Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, A. G.; Chertkow, G.; Hayton, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Six cases of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia are described involving five siblings and their father. The clinical findings and radiological features were similar in all six patients although there was some variation in the period of survival following the onset of the disease. In three the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically; the two brothers, who did not have lung biopsies, had disturbances in respiratory function which are considered typical of the impaired diffusion produced by interstitial fibrosis. One hundred and five members of the family were surveyed for evidence of this disease, but no further cases were discovered. Four of the patients had some elevation of their gamma globulin. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, which was performed on three of the patients, the two healthy siblings, and 16 of their offspring, showed elevated immunoglobulin patterns. This evidence suggests the possibility of an inherited aberration in the immune response in this family. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5912179

  10. Immunological Studies on Adrenal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Felix; Witebsky, Ernest

    1962-01-01

    Rabbits injected with a bovine adrenal suspension incorporated into Freund adjuvants produced antibodies reacting in a variety of serological tests with extracts of bovine adrenals as well as with extracts of other bovine organs. The double diffusion gel precipitation procedure and absorption experiments revealed that part of these antibodies were specific for adrenal only. In immunoelectrophoretic analysis the adrenal-specific reaction appeared as a line on the anodal part of the electrophoretic field. When extraction was performed at 100° and the extracts autoclaved at 120°, the adrenal-specific antigen remained unaltered, whereas all but one of the non-adrenal-specific antigens (i.e. antigens shared by other bovine organs) were destroyed. The adrenal-specific antigen was localized predominantly, if not exclusively, in the medulla. A similar or identical antigen was found in the adrenals of sheep but not in those of any other species tested. The adrenal-specific antigen was precipitated by ethanol at 72 per cent concentration; it was not destroyed by 90 per cent phenol extraction. Re-dissolved ethanol precipitate of boiled bovine adrenal extract incorporated into Freund adjuvants elicited production of adrenal-specific antibodies when injected into rabbits. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 8 PMID:14473880

  11. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  12. Identification of a provirally activated c-Ha-ras oncogene in an avian nephroblastoma via a novel procedure: cDNA cloning of a chimaeric viral-host transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Westaway, D; Papkoff, J; Moscovici, C; Varmus, H E

    1986-01-01

    Retrovirus without oncogenes often exert their neoplastic potential as insertional mutagens of cellular proto-oncogenes. This may be associated with the production of chimaeric viral-host transcripts; in these cases; activated cellular genes can be identified by obtaining cDNA clones of bipartite RNAs. This approach was used in the analysis of chicken nephroblastomas induced by myeloblastosis-associated virus (MAV). One tumor contained a novel mRNA species initiated within a MAV LTR. cDNA cloning revealed that this mRNA encodes a protein of 189 amino acids, identical to that of normal human Ha-ras-1 at 185 positions, including positions implicated in oncogenic activation of ras proto-oncogenes; there are no differences between the coding sequences of presumably normal Ha-ras cDNA clones from chicken lymphoma RNA and the tumor-derived cDNAs. The chimaeric mRNA in the nephroblastoma is at least 25-fold more abundant than c-Ha-ras mRNA in normal kidney tissue, and a 21-kd ras-related protein is present in relatively large amounts in the tumor. We conclude that a quantitative change in c-Ha-ras gene expression results from an upstream insertion mutation and presumably contributes to tumorigenesis in this single case. Little or no increase in c-Ha-ras RNA or protein was observed in other nephroblastomas. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 10. PMID:3011401

  13. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  14. Cellular aspects of the development of diarthrodial joints and articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, C W; Morrison, H; Pitsillides, A A

    1994-01-01

    There have been many reports on the histological development of mammalian diarthrodial or synovial joints. While these are useful for comparative purposes, they tell us little of the cellular basis of joint morphogenesis which must underlie a number of morphogenetic defects. The process of joint morphogenesis is complex and can be subdivided into a number of facets and this report will focus on 2 of them. First, the process of joint cavitation in the chick metatarsophalangeal joint, where we propose that the selective secretion of hyaluronan into the presumptive cavity plays a central role. Secondly, the development of articular cartilage where we have used the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica as a model for mammalian development. Like most marsupials, the young are born at a much earlier developmental stage than eutherian mammals. Using antibodies which detect proliferating chondrocytes and those synthesising insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 binding protein, we report that the majority of growth (as assessed by these indicators) appears appositional. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7928634

  15. Listeria Monocytogenes Infections in Metropolitan Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, A. H.; Roy, T. E.

    1963-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 21 patients with listeriosis are described and the subject is reviewed. Eleven of the infections were septicemias of newborns, eight were meningitis in infants or adults, and two other children had unusual manifestations. Neonatal septicemia was rapidly fatal; one of 11 infants survived. The disease often seemed traceable to mild maternal infection during the third trimester usually leading to premature delivery of critically ill babies. Only awareness of the possible presence of listeriosis and early antibiotic therapy seem capable of reducing this high mortality. Tissues from autopsies showed characteristic microscopic necrotic foci with mononuclear infiltration progressing to microabscesses containing small Gram-positive rods. Lesions were found in the one placenta examined. Five infants with meningitis recovered, and one of three affected adults. Specific diagnosis depends on demonstrating Listeria monocytogenes; differentiation from other forms of acute meningitis cannot be made clinically. One older child had septicemia and another had listerial pharyngitis. Both recovered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:13987999

  16. New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.

    PubMed Central

    David, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

  17. Surgical management of the ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C J; Joplin, G F; Welbourn, R B

    1982-01-01

    Most patients with extra-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumors die from carcinoma, but a few can benefit from operation. Of 96 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 11 probably had such tumors. There were three modes of presentation: (1) three had malignant tumors with visceral metastases initially. One (bronchial carcinoid) died without operation. Two with carcinoma (thyroid medullary and islet-cell) underwent adrenalectomy with remission, but died soon. (2) three had apparently benign tumors initially. One (appendicular carcinoid) underwent appendectomy and one (bronchial carcinoid with hilar node metastases) underwent lobectomy. Both had rapid remissions. The third (pheochromocytoma) died after resection of the tumor. (3) five patients had no obvious tumors and underwent adrenalectomy with remission. In one a benign bronchial carcinoid was removed later. Four others remain well, but without localizing signs of tumor. The main biochemical features in all were hypokalemic alkalosis and very high urinary excretion of free cortisol. Seven of the eight patients without visceral metastases are in remission from one to 15 years after operation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6287949

  18. Reversible and irreversible cross-linking of immunoglobulin heavy chains through their carbohydrate residues.

    PubMed Central

    Heimgartner, U; Kozulić, B; Mosbach, K

    1990-01-01

    After periodate oxidation and incubation with a dihydrazide, cross-linking of the two heavy chains of immunoglobulins G from several species proceeds specifically through their oligosaccharides. We have used malonic acid dihydrazide, adipic acid dihydrazide and dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide. The last compound is introduced in this work as a cleavable-carbohydrate-specific cross-linker. It was found that in rabbit and human immunoglobulins the degree of cross-linking was strongly dependent on the oxidation conditions but only very weakly dependent on the concentration and size of the dihydrazides. Papain cleavage of the cross-linked rabbit IgG indicated that the cross-linking occurred predominantly, if not exclusively, in the Fc region, probably through the two glycans linked to Asn-297 in the CH2 domain of each of the two heavy chains. The immunoglobulins from sheep, pig, goat and guinea pig show a comparable cross-linking pattern, indicating that the sugar chains from these immunoglobulins have a spatial structure closely related to that of rabbit and human IgG. When dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide was used as the cross-linker, the cross-link could be cleaved by mercaptoethanol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2111130

  19. Reactions of Blood with Nonbiologic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Reginald G.; Shermer, Richard W.; Rodman, Nathaniel F.

    1972-01-01

    Interaction of normal and coagulation factor deficient bloods with glass, Teflon and silicone-coated glass surfaces have been studied. The morphology of the blood-surface interaction was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Activation of the intrinsic coagulation system and progression of these changes, monitored by use of the partial thromboplastin time test, were influenced by both the type of surface to which blood was exposed and the deficiencies of coagulation Factors I, VIII, IX, or XII. Deficiency of fibrinogen appears to enhance, minimally, activation of the coagulation sequences by test materials. However, deficiency of fibrinogen markedly reduces adhesion of platelets to foreign surfaces. Deficiency of Factor XII, but not of Factors VIII or IX, decreases platelet adhesion to nonbiologic surfaces but to a lesser extent than does deficiency of fibrinogen. Roughness of test surfaces appears to encourage cellular deposition from blood. An ex vivo model designed for screening materials for their compatibility with blood is described. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:4634736

  20. Eye Injuries in Canadian Racquet Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286105

  1. Occurrence of Zoogloea Colonies and Protozoans at Different Stages of Sewage Purification1

    PubMed Central

    Amin, P. M.; Ganapati, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    The presence of fingered branch-bearing Zoogloea has been noted on a number of occasions in the Baroda Sewage Disposal Works. Samples of raw sewage, the effluent from the continuous flow settling basin, the raw sludge, the floating scum in the settling basin, the final secondary digested sludge, and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester were kept without any disturbance in 1-liter Pyrex glass beakers, which were loosely covered with petri dishes. Scum was formed on the surface within 48 hr in all the samples, and fingered Zoogloea colonies resembling the pure culture of Zoogloea ramigera reported by Crabtree et al. (5) were found in all except the final secondary digested sludge and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester. It is not known whether the Zoogloea colonies discovered in the above cases are the same as or different from the typical Zoogloea ramigera of activated sludge, and whether they are slime-forming or flocculent types of bacteria. In any case, they seem to be different in their ecological status and in the nature of the accompanying protozoans from the typical Zoogloea ramigera. The reasons for the absence of zoogloeas in two of the samples are unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16349712

  2. Spontaneous gastric squamous cell carcinomas and other neoplasms in Greenland collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Mallory, F F; Brooks, R J

    1982-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms were present in 39/66 Dicrostonyx groenlandicus of varying ages, examined from a laboratory colony. The presence of multiple neoplasms in some resulted in an overall average of 1.15 tumors/affected animal. Gastric squamous papillomas were present in nine, and locally invasive or metastatic gastric squamous cell carcinomas in a further 36 animals. Three mammary adenocarcinomas, one pancreatic islet cell tumor, one probable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and one adrenal cortical adenoma were also seen in lemmings with gastric tumors. Two others had mammary adenocarcinoma alone, and one animal had bilateral Harderian gland adenocarcinoma. Lesions resembling glomerulonephrosis of rats were seen in 23/51 animals whose kidneys were examined. These findings were not considered artefacts of captivity since concurrent gastric squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and glomerulonephrosis were present in the single animal examined directly from the wild at Eskimo Point, Northwest Territories. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6751508

  3. Localisation of calcium ions and calcium-ATPase activity within myelinated nerve fibres of the adult guinea-pig optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, W L; Watt, C; Pediani, J D; Graham, D I; Adams, J H; Gennarelli, T A

    1991-01-01

    There is no published description of the distribution of free Ca2+, nor of the distribution of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity associated with the maintenance of low axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, in normal central myelinated nerve fibres. We have used the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique to localise free Ca2+, together with the lead-citrate technique to localise Ca(2+)-ATPase activity within myelinated fibres from the adult guinea-pig optic nerve. Pyroantimonate precipitate occurred within the axoplasm at nodes of Ranvier and the internode, at areas of myelin disruption, within Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) and glial paranodal loops. But precipitate was absent from the axoplasm beneath SLI and at the paranode. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was localised in axonal smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the outer membrane of mitochondria, the nodal axolemma, the glial membranes of the paranodal loops, the SLI and the external aspect of the myelin sheath. We have demonstrated large domains within the axons of CNS fibres where calcium is present or absent. Moreover, we have shown that, where calcium is absent, there is localisation of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, which would serve to remove calcium from the adjacent axoplasm. Our results are compared with information obtained from PNS fibres and some differences of distribution discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1833365

  4. The significance of striated muscle in the mammary glands of marsupials.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M; Slater, E

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and amounts of striated muscle within the mammary glands of pouched and pouchless marsupials from Australia and South America are described. Invasions into the mammary secretory parenchyma in pouchless marsupials by swathes of striated muscle from the ilio-marsupialis muscle are massive, in some instances concentrated into discrete muscles, which are inserted on to the bases of the teats; the name retractor mammae is proposed for these muscles. In pouched marsupials striated muscle penetrates the parenchyma, but the distribution is diffuse and the muscle strands are not inserted on to teats except in the instance of the glands of the honey possum Tarsipes rostratus. The young of anaesthetised pouchless marsupials hang down from the teats; as anaesthesia wears off they are hauled up tightly into the mammary area. It is concluded that this is a result of contraction of the retractor mammae muscles and that it is a means of protecting the naked young from injury by rough terrain. The mammary gland musculature in pouched marsupials is considered to be vestigial, but its contraction may have the function of initiating a 'tap-response' contraction of myoepithelium acting synergistically with the 'let-down' hormone mesotocin. Mechanisms of imbibition of milk by marsupial neonates, based on observations that they can suck fluid from non-distortable tubes, are discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3417541

  5. Intracellular Localization of Lipoxygenases-1 and -2 in Germinating Soybean Seeds by Indirect Labeling with Protein A-Colloidal Gold Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vernooy-Gerritsen, Marjan; Leunissen, Jan L. M.; Veldink, Gerrit A.; Vliegenthart, Johannes F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Soybean lipoxygenases-1 and -2 were localized intracellularly in seeds at various stages of germination by indirect labeling of cryosections with protein A-colloidal gold complexes. Two sizes of gold particles (Au5 and Au16) were used in single- and double-labeling experiments. In primary leaves, lipoxygenases are demonstrated to occur in vacuolating parenchyma cells but not in massive, nondifferentiated cells. In cotyledons, both isoenzymes are localized in the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and in an aberrant type of protein bodies, occurring in hypodermis and vascular bundle sheath cells. No association has been found with either protein bodies in storage parenchyma cells or lipid bodies, mitochondria, and other organelles in any type of cell. The possible significance of lipoxygenase in the metabolism of storage lipids and its possible function as a regulatory enzyme are discussed on the basis of the random distribution throughout the cytoplasm of storage parenchyma cells and the course of biochemical processes during seed germination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663951

  6. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  7. A microscopic study of the lung of Testudo graeca (Chelonia).

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F

    1989-01-01

    The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791

  8. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  9. Antibody mapping of functional domains in vinculin.

    PubMed Central

    Westmeyer, A; Ruhnau, K; Wegner, A; Jockusch, B M

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the functional domain structure of vinculin, a protein involved in linking microfilaments to the cytoplasmic face of cell membranes in animal cells. For this purpose, we used several monoclonal antibodies raised against chicken gizzard vinculin whose epitopes could be assigned to discrete regions in the vinculin sequence by immunoblotting of proteolytic fragments combined with N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Two of these antibodies induced the disruption of stress fibers and changed the number of morphology of focal contacts after microinjection in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Based on the location of its epitope in comparison with vinculin domains previously identified by other groups, we propose that one of these antibodies (15B7) interferes with the binding of vinculin to talin, the most peripheral of the microfilament proteins. The second antibody (14C10) binds within a region comprising three internal repeats and might therefore distort the inner architecture of vinculin. A third antibody (As3) inhibited the binding of F-actin to vinculin in an in vitro assay but had no effect on the microfilament system in cells. These data emphasize the role of vinculin as a key protein in microfilament-membrane linkage and support previous work on a direct interaction between vinculin and actin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1694125

  10. Inflammatory skin disease in transgenic mice that express high levels of interleukin 1 alpha in basal epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R W; Mizutani, H; Kieffer, J D; Kupper, T S

    1995-01-01

    Resting epidermal keratinocytes contain large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1), but the function of this cytokine in the skin remains unclear. To further define the role of IL-1 in cutaneous biology, we have generated two lines of transgenic mice (TgIL-1.1 and TgIL-1.2) which overexpress IL-1 alpha in basal keratinocytes. There was high-level tissue-specific expression of transgene mRNA and protein and large quantities of IL-1 alpha were liberated into the circulation from epidermis in both lines. TgIL-1.1 mice, which had the highest level of transgene expression, developed a spontaneous skin disease characterized by hair loss, scaling, and focal inflammatory skin lesions. Histologically, nonlesional skin of these animals was characterized by hyperkeratosis and a dermal mononuclear cell infiltrate of macrophage/monocyte lineage. Inflammatory lesions were marked by a mixed cellular infiltrate, acanthosis, and, in some cases, parakeratosis. These findings confirm the concept of IL-1 as a primary cytokine, release of which is able to initiate and localize an inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, these mice provide the first definitive evidence that inflammatory mediators can be released from the epidermis to enter the systemic circulation and thereby influence, in a paracrine or endocrine fashion, a wide variety of other cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8524866

  11. The Planning and Operation of an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Eric C.

    1964-01-01

    It is desirable that every hospital of 100 beds or more should have an intensive care unit. An attempt is made to outline the more important features to be considered, including the physical aspects, when planning and establishing such a unit. The unit should contain 2-4% of the total number of hospital beds. It should be separate, centrally located and self-contained. Direct observation of all patients must be possible at all times. Efficient and specially trained personnel using modern and special equipment are required. Orientation lectures and demonstrations must be carried out frequently and regularly. The types of patients to be admitted to the unit are discussed, as well as the governing rules and regulations. All doctors should have a right to admit and look after their own patients in the unit; an Intensive Care Unit Committee made up of representatives of the major services is suggested as a means of controlling admissions and discharges and for general administration. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14175876

  12. Organelle pathology in metabolic neuromuscular disease: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, L E

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of metabolic neuromuscular disorders is wide. Most inherited metabolic diseases are related to enzyme defects within lysosomes but recent advances emphasize abnormalities of mitochondria, peroxisomes and intermediate filaments. In this overview, organelle pathology is described in the context of both the clinical manifestations and the biochemical and/or molecular aspects of the disease. Among the many clinical presentations of mitochondrial disorders three emerge as distinctive entities: mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, mitochondrial encephalopathy with ragged-red fibers, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Peroxisomal disorders are associated with numerous biochemical defects, the most frequent of which are Zellweger's syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, and infantile Refsum's disease. Disorders of cytoskeletal proteins are associated with distinctive pathological accumulation of intermediate filaments but are without confirmed evidence of a biochemical defect. Understanding the role that organelle pathology plays in the pathogenesis of cellular disturbance or demise is essential to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2407327

  13. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic responses to immobilization stress in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, I; Leeman, S E; Bartolak-Suki, E; Nikulasson, S; Qiu, B; Carraway, R E; Pothoulakis, C

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported that short-term immobilization stress of rats causes increased colonic mucin release, goblet cell depletion, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and colonic mast cell activation, as well as increased colonic motility. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neurotensin (NT), a peptide expressed in both brain and digestive tract, participates in these responses. Rats were pretreated with SR 48692 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an NT antagonist, 15 min before immobilization (30 min). The administration of the antagonist significantly inhibited stress-mediated secretion of colonic mucin, prostaglandin E2, and a product of rat mast cells, rat mast cell protease II (P < 0.05), but did not alter the increase in fecal pellet output caused by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress also resulted in a quantifiable decrease in the abundance of NT receptor mRNA in rat colon compared with that in colonic tissues from nonimmobilized rats as measured by densitometric analysis of in situ hybridization studies (P < 0.03). We conclude that the peptide NT is involved in colonic goblet cell release and mucosal mast cell activation after immobilization stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901630

  14. Mutagenic and tumourigenic properties of the spores of Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W.; Hardy, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Spore walls of a sputum-derived isolate of Aspergillus clavatus yielded mutagen(s) when their extracts were fractionally precipitated with ethanol following alkaline hydrolysis. After spores were given by nasal inoculation to 6-8-week-old CF-1 mice, light and electron microscopy of lung sections showed that they had been readily phagocytozed by the polymorphonuclear leucocytes and alveolar macrophages mobilized during early allergic alveolitis in immunized mice. The formation of phagosomes was followed in thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages grown in vitro. Unimmunised mice showed a comparable lung reaction, attributed to pulmonary mycotoxicosis, and revealed a rising incidence of lung tumours, from 25% at 2 months from inoculation, to 27.3% at 6 and to 55.5% at 8. Mean numbers of tumours per lung rose from 1.0 to 2.2. Total tumours, including lymphomas, reached a final incidence of 77.7% at 8 months, when control animals were tumour-free. Tumour development correlated with the retention of apparently intact spores within giant cells probably derived from aggregates of alveolar macrophages. The implications of these findings in the light of the known history of human exposure to such spores is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs 6 and 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7059453

  15. The olfactory apparatus of the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): fine structure and presence of a septal olfactory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1978-01-01

    The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961

  16. Virulence dependent and independent regulation of the Bordetella pertussis cya operon.

    PubMed Central

    Laoide, B M; Ullmann, A

    1990-01-01

    The Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase (cya) operon is composed of four open reading frames, cyaA, B, D and E (Glaser et al., 1988, EMBO J., 7, 3997-4004). The cyaA gene encodes a virulence factor, cyclolysin, a bifunctional protein exhibiting both adenylate cyclase and haemolytic activities while the cyaB, D and E gene products are necessary for cyclolysin transport. We show that the cyaA gene is activated by a promoter located 115 bp upstream from the translational start codon and that transcription is only activated in virulent strains. Termination of transcription occurs 3' to the cyaA structural gene, however there appears to be some read-through into the downstream genes, resulting in full length cyaABDE transcripts. We also identify a second start site of transcription 30 bp upstream from the cyaB gene, in the intergenic cyaA--cyaB region. Transcription is activated from this site in both Vir+ and Vir- strains. Thus, the expression of the virulence associated cyclolysin is positively controlled via a trans-acting protein encoded by the bvg locus while the transport genes show a lower level of constitutive expression which is independent of virulence control. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1691098

  17. The structure and innervation of the saccopleural membrane of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R D; Vaillant, C; King, A S

    1987-01-01

    Microscopic studies have shown the saccopleural membrane in the respiratory system of the domestic fowl to consist of a sheet of three dense layers of collagen fibres covered dorsally and ventrally by mainly simple squamous epithelium. On the ventral surface, which faces into the caudal thoracic air sac, there are occasional ridges of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. Many nerve bundles are present throughout the membrane, the larger bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons being confined to the lamina propria under the dorsal epithelium (parietal pleura). In addition to axonal profiles with the ultrastructural appearance of cholinergic or adrenergic axons, peptidergic-type axons were identified. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated VIP-, substance P-, somatostatin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive fibres in the membrane. Although it has been suggested that receptors may be present in this region of the respiratory system, none of the axons have features suggestive of sensory terminals, although many axonal profiles are closely associated with the epithelia where no obvious effector cells are present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3654325

  18. Cavernous portion of the trochlear nerve with special reference to its site of entrance.

    PubMed Central

    Bisaria, K K

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 80 cavernous sinuses in 40 cadavers, the trochlear nerve entered the cavernous sinus in 87.5% of cases before the crossing, in 7.5% at the crossing and in 5.0% after the crossing of the free and the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli. In 77.5% of specimens the trochlear nerve showed a marked bend with flattening at the site of its entrance into the cavernous sinus. The nerve ran between the superficial and deep layers of dura, partly between them, in the thickness of the deeper layer, or deep to the deep layer but adherent to it. These findings do not conform with the description of its course by other workers in the past. In 72.5% of specimens the size of the trochlear nerve was larger during its course in the cavernous sinuses but in 20.0% of specimens such an increase in thickness was noted even in the posterior cranial fossa. Only in one specimen was the trochlear nerve adherent to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Cases showing the trochlear nerve entering the cavernous sinus after the crossing of the two margins of tentorium cerebelli and the splitting and branching of the trochlear nerve in the cavernous sinus have not hitherto been reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3248970

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I receptors of fetal brain are enriched in nerve growth cones and contain a beta-subunit variant.

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, S; Garofalo, R S; Pfenninger, K H

    1995-01-01

    Nerve growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain are highly enriched in a 97-kDa glycoprotein, termed beta gc, that comigrates with the beta subunit of the IGF-I receptor upon two-dimensional PAGE and is disulfide-linked to this receptor's alpha subunit. Antibodies prepared to a conserved domain shared by the insulin and IGF-I receptor beta subunits (AbP2) or to beta gc were used to study receptor distribution further. Subcellular fractionation of the fetal brain segregated most AbP2 immunoreactivity away from growth cones, whereas most beta gc immunoreactivity copurified with growth cones. Experiments involving ligand-activated receptor autophosphorylation confirmed the concentration of IGF-I but not of insulin receptors in growth cone fractions. These results indicate the enrichment of IGF-I receptors in (presumably axonal) growth cones of the differentiating neuron. Furthermore, the segregation of beta gc from AbP2 immunoreactivity suggests that such neurons express an immunochemically distinct variant of the IGF-I receptor beta subunit at the growth cone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753803

  20. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  1. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  2. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (massive necrosis) with fat necrosis induced in mice by DL-ethionine fed with a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, B.; Estes, L. W.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Female, albino mice were fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.5% DL-ethionine. All animals died within 5 days due to the development of an acute hemorrhagic pancreatis with fat necrosis throughout the peritoneal cavity. The apancreatitis was characterized by a massive necrosis of the exocrine parenchyma with intense hemorrhage and inflammatory reaction of the stroma. The sequence of histologic and ultrastructural alterations occurring in the acinar cells of the pancreas were studied in mice fed the diet for 1, 2, and 3 days. Major findings consited of accumulation of zymogen granules, vacuolation due to foci of cytoplasmic degradation, and alterations in the morphology of the zymogen granules. The pancreatitis appears to be due to intraparenchymal activation of zymogens, resulting from a synergistic action of choline deficiency with the basic toxicity of ethionine toward the acinar cells of the pancreas. The experimental model simulates closely the acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with fat necrosis occurring in humans and may prove useful for exploring the pathogenesis of this condition. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 PMID:1094837

  3. Relations Between Metabolic Increase of Plasma Free Fatty Acids and the Occurrence of Arteriosclerotic Thromboarteritis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Richard A.; Henson, Donald E.; Lesak, Anne; Turner, Robert J.; Malikova, Stanislava; Hass, George M.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits maintained for several weeks on a regimen of modest amounts of vitamin D and dietary cholesterol were placed in three groups in accordance with their response to repeated subcutaneous injections of nicotine in mineral oil. The group that had the greatest increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections gradually developed, over a period of about 12 weeks, severe calcific atheroarteriosclerosis with peripheral thromboarteritis. Those that had a moderate increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections developed calcific atheroarteriosclerosis but no thromboarteritis. Those that had the least increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections developed no arterial lesions. Comparable or much greater increases in plasma FFA occurred in rabbits on the vitamin D-cholesterol regimen when adrenalin, ACTH or heparin was injected rather than nicotine. These animals did not develop calcific atheroarteriosclerotic thromboarteritis or any other lesions which could be correlated with the increased levels of plasma FFA. Inasmuch as nicotine, vitamin D or dietary cholesterol in the amounts used were innocuous when used alone, the interactions between the effects of at least these three factors need to be known in individual animals before the pathogenesis of the calcific atheroarteriosclerotic lesions with thrombosis can eventually be understood. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 1Fig 10Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4345831

  4. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  5. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  6. Development of the chick thymus microenvironment: a study by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J G; Sanchez, A J; Melcon, C; Chamorro, C A; Garcia, C; Paz, P

    1994-01-01

    The microenvironment of the chick thymus has been examined during development using lectin histochemistry. We have assayed WGA, Con A, RCA-I and TPA on thymic sections from 13, 15, 17 and 19 d chick embryos and 0, 5, 10 and 15 d chicks. All lectins were immunoperoxidase and colloidal gold-conjugated for transmission electron microscope observations. WGA labelled both the cortical and medullary thymic stroma at all the stages analysed. An intense reaction to WGA was observed in the subcortical region from stage 18 embryos to 5 d chicks. On the other hand, WGA did not stain medullary areas of the chick thymus. Con A lectin detected several cell clusters of stromal cells and thymocytes in cortical regions. These clusters could represent a lymphostromal complex with which Con A receptors are associated, probably in relation to cell adhesion. The residues detected by RCA were distributed both in stromal cells and thymocytes of the developing chick thymus. There was an increase of the reaction to RCA between the 19 d embryos and the 5 d chicks. This increase might be interpreted in terms of the secretion of thymic humoral factors at these stages. The thymic stromal cells stained with immunoperoxidase conjugated-TPA showed a reticular pattern in the medulla. There is a possibility that the fucosyl residues may be expressed in the Ia antigen as has previously been suggested in other species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7512541

  7. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  8. Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia with anti-IgG activity: a series of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, L.; Dammacco, F.; Tursi, A.; Trizio, D.

    1970-01-01

    Clinical, serological and cellular studies were carried out in five cases of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia with cryoglobulinaemia of the mixed IgM–IgG type and extremely high serum levels of rheumatoid factor activity. Clinically, no joint involvement or other distinctive features were found in these patients, as compared with other cases of primary macroglobulinaemia without anti-γ-globulin activity. The isolation of the monoclonal IgM immunoglobulins, as well as absorption studies with IgG and immunocytological investigations demonstrated that the whole of the rheumatoid activity was associated with the Waldenström-type paraproteins. Such cases seem to represent instances of a rheumatoid factor monoclonal gammapathy, in fact a subgroup of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, in view of the presence of an IgM paraprotein, possessing anti-IgG activity, synthesized by the lymphocytoid cells infiltrating the bone marrow. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Figs. 9-11 PMID:4991117

  9. The structure and development of dopaminergic interplexiform cells in the retina of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario: a tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, M; Manso, M J; Rodriguez-Moldes, M I; Anadón, R

    1994-01-01

    The organisation and development of the dopaminergic (DA) system in the retina of the adult brown trout were studied with tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical techniques. Adult DA cells are rather homogeneous in appearance and possess thick dendritic processes running to the ganglion cell layer and thinner axonal processes which run to the horizontal cell layer, where they form a rich plexus of varicose fibres closely associated with the surface of these cells. Contact of DA fibres with photoreceptor processes was not observed. We therefore consider this DA population to consist mainly of interplexiform cells. These cells appear late in development, being first observed in prehatching (16 mm) embryos (after photoreceptors have begun to differentiate). DA cells increased in number throughout the fry and juvenile stages, but even in the largest juveniles studied (30-35 mm) the size of the DA cell population was only about 20% of that in adults. DA cells appear to arise in the marginal retina. In developing stages (embryos and fry) only inner nuclear layer processes were observed, the horizontal cell layer DA plexus appearing late in development (28 mm juveniles). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7961143

  10. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  11. The spatial and temporal pattern of beta NGF receptor expression in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Raivich, G; Zimmermann, A; Sutter, A

    1985-01-01

    To gain insight into the developmental program of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor expression, the binding of [125I] beta NGF to frozen chick sections was investigated autorradiographically between embryonic day 3 (E3) and post-hatching day 3. Strong NGF receptor expression was observed as early as E4, throughout embryonic development and in the post-hatching period at the classical NGF target sites: the paravertebral sensory and sympathetic ganglia, the paraaortal sympathetic ganglia as well as the cranial sensory ganglia with neurons of neural crest origin and their respective nerves. Only weak [125I] beta NGF binding was observed during a restricted time span in the parasympathetic ciliary ganglion. Clear differences were observed in the intensity and in the developmental time course of [125I] beta NGF binding to the dorsomedial and ventrolateral aspects of the dorsal root ganglia. NGF receptors were also found to be expressed on central axons of the dorsal root entry zone and the dorsal tract in the spinal cord. A transient expression of specific NGF binding sites of the same high affinity as measured at the classical NGF targets, was detected in the lateral motor column and in muscle at the time of motoneuron synapse formation and elimination. Images Fig. 1.,Fig. 2., Fig. 3 Fig. 4.,Fig. 5., Fig. 6. Fig. 7., Fig. 8. PMID:2988932

  12. Percutaneous transhepatic management of complex biliary problems.

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, G D; Cameron, J L; Sitzmann, J V; Kadir, S; Smith, G W; Kaufman, S L; White, R I

    1983-01-01

    A series of 27 patients with complex biliary problems secondary to previous biliary operations is presented. The patients are divided into two groups: (1) patients with acute perioperative biliary problems; all had biliary leak with abscess, biliary cutaneous fistula, and/or stricture following cholecystectomy or common duct exploration and (2) patients with chronic postoperative biliary problems; all had previous repair of biliary stricture or injuries with late stricture formation. Early management of all patients included placement of a percutaneous biliary stent. Abscesses were drained operatively, and biliary leaks or fistulas were allowed to close spontaneously. Jaundice and cholangitis were allowed to resolve. Following stabilization, management of stricture, if present, was addressed. Eight acute patients had strictures, of which four were partial and three were dilated percutaneously. Four were complete and required operative repair. All 12 chronic patients had strictures, of which six were partial and successfully managed with percutaneous dilatation. Four patients also had common duct stones which were successfully crushed percutaneously. The authors conclude that percutaneous transhepatic drainage offers significant advantages in the early stabilization and treatment of patients with complex biliary problems, and that partial strictures of the biliary tree may be managed successfully by percutaneous dilatation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6847278

  13. The Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, A. S.; Heimbecker, R. O.; Bigelow, W. G.

    1964-01-01

    The transistorized implanted pacemaker is proving to be an effective and reliable method for long-term pacing of the heart. All patients suffering from Stokes-Adams seizures were first given a trial period of conservative therapy, including isoproterenol (Isuprel), ephedrine, atropine and steroids. Twenty-four pacemaker implants were performed on 23 patients over a 21-month period. The preoperative insertion of a pacemaker cardiac catheter was a very valuable safety precaution. In this way the heart could be safely and reliably paced during the period of preoperative assessment and during the critical periods of anesthetic induction and thoracotomy. Infection did not occur, probably because of careful gas sterilization of the units. Various models of pacemakers are compared, and the reasons for two pacemaker failures are presented. There were two early deaths and one late death in the series. The relationship of progressive coronary disease to recent infarction is stressed. Patients having intermittent heart block frequently showed the picture of “competing pacemakers” postoperatively, but without deleterious effect. Twenty patients, between 54 and 88 years of age, are alive and well at the time of reporting, with excellent pacemaker response and no further Stokes-Adams attacks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14118681

  14. A morphological study of experimental rabbit staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis. I. Formation and effect of infected and uninfected vegetations on the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Savage, T. J.; Ryan, D. M.; Acred, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the development of sterile thrombic vegetations on the aorta resulting from catheterization and the effect of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus were examined by light and electron microscopy. Thrombi of various sizes, comprising fibrin, platelets and a few leucocytes and erythrocytes, develop on the damaged surface of the aorta with minimal changes in the underlying aortic wall. After intravenous inoculation of Staph. aureus most vegetations become infected, as shown by the presence of bacterial colonies, and the underlying aortic wall is markedly inflamed. The inflammatory cells invade the wall from the base of the aorta and cause swelling plus disruption of the elastic laminae with ulceration of the luminal surface in some cases. This structural damage appears to be a direct result of the bacterial infection of the lesions on the luminal surface. Images Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3790427

  15. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  16. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  17. Glutamine Synthetase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia1

    PubMed Central

    Tingey, Scott V.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized the distinct forms of glutamine synthetase (GS) which are present in leaves and roots of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Mature leaves contain a single GS polypeptide (44 kilodaltons in size) which is localized to the stroma of intact chloroplasts. In contrast, the GS polypeptide in roots is distinct in size (38 kilodaltons) and charge. A lectin stain of leaf soluble protein indicates that the size difference of these mature GS polypeptides is not the result of posttranslational glycosylation. cDNA clones encoding a GS mRNA of N. plumbaginifolia were characterized and used as molecular probes to examine GS transcripts in leaves and roots. GS mRNA hybrid-selected from leaves or roots translated in vitro into distinct GS primary translation products (49 or 38 kilodaltons). The 49 kilodalton GS primary translation product, specific to leaf poly(A)RNA is proposed to be a precursor to the mature 44 kilodalton chloroplast stromal GS polypeptide. The 38 kilodalton GS primary translation product encoded by root GS mRNA, corresponds in size to the polypeptide encoded by the GS cDNA clones characterized. Southern blot analysis of nuclear DNA indicates that there are several different genomic fragments encoding GS in N. plumbaginifolia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16665445

  18. Embryo resorption following administration of steroidal compounds to rats in mid pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, K; Kinson, G A; Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    In the course of experiments on the effects of anabolic steroids on the myocardium of rat conceptuses, we found that subcutaneous implantation of 10 mg of estradiol, Dianabol or testosterone to rats in mid pregnancy, resulted in embryo resorption. Placental tissue was identified only in estradiol-treated rats which also demonstrated a large amount of serosanguineous fluid that dilated the horns considerably. The yellow nodules of placental attachment sites were represented histologically by cellular and vascular proliferations between the inner and outer layers of the myometrium. The nodular aggregates of cells had variable features according to the steroid administered. Neither decidual cells nor metrial glands that are reported to be the constituents of placental attachment sites were seen in our material. We conclude that anabolic steroids are potent agents for embryo resorption, and that the cells in the nodules of placental attachment sites are likely to be derived from the myometrium. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3742378

  19. Sarcoplasmic-reticulum biogenesis in contraction-inhibited skeletal-muscle cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Charuk, J H; Guerin, C; Holland, P C

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that inhibition of the spontaneous contractile activity of cultured embryonic-chick skeletal-muscle fibres with tetrodotoxin (TTX) leads to decreased sarcoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-transport rates and steady-state concentrations of the high-energy Ca(2+)-ATPase phosphoenzyme intermediate [Charuk & Holland (1983) Exp. Cell Res. 144, 143-157]. In the present study we used a monoclonal antibody to the Ca(2+)-ATPase to show that there is a decreased amount of enzyme accumulated by contraction-inhibited myotubes. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using the monoclonal antibody to the Ca(2+)-ATPase also revealed a disordered subcellular organization of the sarcotubular system in contraction-inhibited myotubes. The biogenesis of sarcoplasmic-reticulum proteins in TTX-paralysed myofibres was studied by labelling cells with [35S]methionine before isolation of the active Ca(2+)-pump membrane fraction. Protein turnover was selectively increased in that fraction from TTX-treated muscle cultures. Electrophoretic analysis and quantitative fluorography confirmed that decreased accumulation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase enzyme in contraction-inhibited myotubes was associated with increased turnover of this protein. The present results demonstrate that biogenesis of the sarcoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase is regulated by the contractile activity of skeletal-muscle fibres. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:1312329

  20. Purification and analysis of proteinase-resistant mutants of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB exhibiting improved biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, A L; Kirwin, P M; Craig, S; Bawden, L J; Green, D R; Price, M J; Richardson, S J; Fallon, A; Drummond, A H; Edwards, R M

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was expressed and secreted from yeast in order to study the structure-function relationships of this mitogen. A simple purification scheme has been developed which yields greater than 95% pure PDGF-BB. Analysis of this recombinant PDGF-BB shows partial proteolysis after arginine-32. Substitution of this arginine residue, or arginine-28 [a potential KEX2 (lysine-arginine endopeptidase) cleavage site], prevents or reduces cleavage of PDGF-BB respectively. These mutations result in a 5-fold increase in expression levels of PDGF-BB, and the resulting mutant proteins show higher activity in a number of biological assays than the cleaved wildtype PDGF-BB. These data are in accord with previous work by Giese, LaRochelle, May-Siroff, Robbins & Aaronson [(1990) Mol. Cell Biol. 10, 5496-5501] suggesting that the region isoleucine-25-phenylalanine-37 is involved in PDGF-receptor binding. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1731768

  1. Venous gangrene of the upper extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Shield, G W; Riddell, D H; Snell, J D

    1985-01-01

    Gangrene of the hand associated with acute upper extremity venous insufficiency has been seen in four limbs in three patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. All three patients had life-threatening illnesses associated with diminished tissue perfusion, hypercoagulability, and venous injury. One patient progressed to above-elbow amputation, but venous thrombectomy in one limb and thrombolytic therapy in two others were successful in preventing major tissue loss. All three patients eventually died from their underlying illness. Thirteen previously reported patients with "venous gangrene" of the upper extremity have been analyzed. An underlying life-threatening illness was present in the majority of these patients (7/13, 54%) and, like the Vanderbilt series, amputations were frequent (7/13, 54%) and mortality (5/13, 38%) was high. This unusual form of ischemia appears to be produced by permutations of global circulatory stasis, subclavian or axillary vein occlusion, and peripheral venous thrombosis. Early, aggressive restoration of adequate cardiac output and thrombectomy and/or thrombolytic therapy may provide the best chance for tissue salvage and survival in this group of patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A and B. FIG. 8. PMID:3977453

  2. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of dog and guinea-pig hyaline articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D L; O'Connor, P; Oates, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty seven blocks of cartilage excised from the femoral condyles of 20 beagle dogs, and whole lower ends of 5 guinea-pig femora, were examined at -195 degrees (78 K), by scanning electron microscopy. The unfixed tissue, taken into slushy nitrogen at -210 degrees (63 K), was not exposed to atmospheric air after quenching and remained fully hydrated throughout long periods of observation. Images susceptible to analysis were obtained from washed and from unwashed cartilage surfaces. Preliminary coating with gold or with aluminium, known to be possible without exposing cold cartilage surfaces to changes in temperature likely to cause water loss by sublimation, was valuable in minimising charging and in facilitating the recording of electron images at higher magnifications. Although examination was possible without coating, the resultant images were of low resolution. Microscopy revealed a pattern of secondary surface irregularities of tertiary elevations closely resembling those seen by the conventional scanning electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated hyaline cartilage. However, the pattern of tertiary surface structures was predominantly that of elevations, not of hollows. Quaternary surface ridges were common on the surfaces of excised dog cartilage blocks and were not seen on the surfaces of guinea-pig cartilage which remained on the femoral condyles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7024225

  3. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  4. Non-myelinated nerve fibres and their terminals in the sub-odontoblastic plexus of the feline dental pulp.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1980-01-01

    Serial thin sections of the coronal dental pulp of the cat's canine tooth were cut. Parts of the sub-odontoblastic neural plexus were photographed from 100 of the sections. The plexus consists of many slender, predominantly unmyelinated nerve fibres. Many axons are incompletely sheathed by their Schwann cell. Some axons leave the Schwann cell sheath and either end in the extracellar space or return to the Schwann cell after traveling a short distance. Several axons are often seen in close contact within a single invagination of the Schwann cell. They remain in contact for up to 7 micrometer.l Both Schwann cells and axons are see to branch in this region. These features may be characteristic of nerve fibres and terminals which respond to noxious stimuli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7410190

  5. Susceptibility of goats and calves after experimental inoculation or contact exposure to a Canadian strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides isolated from a goat.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S

    1983-01-01

    Transmissibility of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection from experimentally inoculated goats to other goats and calves was studied. Eight goats and six calves were housed in an 18 m2 room. Six of the goats were inoculated endobronchially with strain D44 isolated from a natural case of polyarthritis in Ontario. These six goats died within a week of Mycoplasma septicemia. The two contact goats or the six calves never showed signs of disease and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered from these animals. The contact goats and four calves were killed 25 days after exposure. They were all seronegative, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered at necropsy and none had pathomorphological changes attributable to this Mycoplasma. The two remaining calves were inoculated endobronchially with 10(9) CFU of strain D44 and observed for 20 days. They never showed signs of disease and did not have significant lesions at necropsy. Both developed a significant serological response to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, although this organism was not recovered during the experimental period or at necropsy. This study did not provide evidence for transmission of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from endobronchially inoculated goats to contact goats or calves and endobronchially inoculated calves did not develop pneumonia. This would suggest that the infection of the goat population in Canada with this pathogen would not be a significant threat to the cattle population. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6365296

  6. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  7. Development of the vomeronasal organ in Rousettus leschenaulti (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae).

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, K P; Wible, J R; Karim, K B

    1996-01-01

    A functional vomeronasal organ (VNO) is known to be lacking in adult bats of the suborder Megachiroptera, family Pteropodidae, studied to date. However, whether the VNO every forms during ontogeny in megachiropterans has not been addressed. We report here on the development of the VNO in megachiropterans via study of 8 stages of rousette fruit bat Rousettus leschenaulti, ranging from an early limb bud embryo to a young specimen attached to the nipple. A vomeronasal primordium appears in the 4 youngest stages (7-14 mm crown-rump length), but there is no sign of any of the components of the vomeronasal system (neuroepithelial tube, nerves, sinuses, glands, or trough-like cartilage) in the septal region of the 4 oldest stages examined, or in the adult. Given the number of genera investigated to date and their taxonomic diversity, a conclusion that a VNO is entirely lacking in Megachiroptera seems reasonable. However, final confirmation awaits study of the additional 27 genera not yet reported (out of a total of 41). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655399

  8. Distribution and fine structural analysis of undifferentiated cells in the primate subependymal layer.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, K W; Lantos, P L

    1991-01-01

    The subependymal layer (SEL) of the postnatal marmoset, a simian primate, has been investigated by histological and electron microscopic techniques. Although well documented in rodents, little is known about this layer in primates. The distribution of the SEL in marmosets is most extensive at birth around the anterior lateral ventricles, where the layer is generally 5-10 cells deep; however, there is considerable regional variation. With age the size of the SEL decreases dramatically, becoming very poorly demarcated in adult animals. Ultrastructurally, many subependymal cells in neonatal and young brains display the features of undifferentiated cells, although neurons and glia are also present. Cells displaying features intermediate between astrocytes and undifferentiated SEL cells are occasionally encountered. In adults undifferentiated cells are seen rarely and the former SEL is composed primarily of glial and neuronal processes. Thus the layer in primates probably represents a site of continued cellular differentiation in the postnatal brain and as such must play an important role in the final stages of cortical development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10(a,b) Fig. 11 PMID:1810935

  9. Ultrastructure of Leydig cells in human ageing testes.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Amat, P; Nistal, M; Martin, A

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of Leydig cells in elderly men revealed the following Leydig cell types: (1) ultrastructurally normal Leydig cells (46.2%); (2) Leydig cells either with multiple cytoplasmic or intranuclear Reinke crystals or with numerous para-crystalline inclusions (6.1%); (3) multivacuolated Leydig cells with the cytoplasm almost filled by lipid droplets (16.7%; (4) dedifferentiated Leydig cells with poor development of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and increased amounts of lipofuscin granules (22.3%); and (5) bi- or trinucleate Leydig cells (8.7%) showing either a normal (2.8%) or dedifferentiated (5.9%) cytoplasm. These results suggest an involution of Leydig cells with advancing age. A correlation between the proportion of altered Leydig cells and the decrease in testosterone and increase in luteinising hormone levels could be observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs. 6-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693056

  10. A procedure for the harvesting of mammalian plasmodia*

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Avivah; Spira, Dan; Hamburger, Joseph

    1967-01-01

    Immunochemical research into the antigenic structure of a given disease agent presupposes the availability of undegraded antigen. Some types of immunochemical studies of plasmodia can be carried out with the intracellular parasites in situ in the host cell (for example, studies using the fluorescent antibody technique). In other techniques (such as double diffusion in gel, disc electrophoresis) the presence of host cell contaminants is undesirable, and these require to be reduced to a minimum. A method is described for harvesting mammalian (rodent, simian, and human) plasmodia. Plasmodia in the product are significantly concentrated as compared with the original samples. This point is particularly important in harvesting human plasmodia, in which parasitaemias tend to be very low. Significant reduction of red- and white-cell contaminants is achieved. Antigens in the cell-free plasmodial products obtained are apparently in their native state, and give replicable results in studies of double diffusion in gel, immunoelectrophoresis and disc electrophoresis, passive haemagglutination and vaccination. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4968349

  11. The Possible Role of Hypnosis in Homograft Retention

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Sydney; Knight, Charles R.

    1965-01-01

    Hypnosis was used to alter body image in an attempt to enable a woman to retain a skin homograft from an unrelated male donor. The man also acted as a nonhypnotized control by receiving a homograft from the hypnotized woman. Oneinch square full-thickness skin homografts were exchanged between the upper arms of the two volunteers. The homograft on the arm of the woman is still viable after eight months; the homograft on the man was rejected within two weeks. A second experiment in which the same subject was told under hypnosis to reject the homograft failed to produce rejection. Definite conclusions are not yet justified. Among factors to be considered in the present case are an unusual compatibility, schizophrenia as an inhibitor of the rejection mechanism, hypnotically induced irreversible acceptance, or other unknown mechanisms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:14339293

  12. Clinical evaluation of fibre-optic sigmoidoscopy employing the Olympus CF-SB colonoscope

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, P. R.; Branch, R. A.; Collins, C.; Espiner, H.; Read, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with large bowel disease were examined with the Olympus CF-SB fibreoptic colonoscope. With adequate bowel preparation and employing inhalational analgesia administered by a self-demand valve the whole sigmoid colon could be examined in the majority of patients within 30 minutes. In 23% of cases (12/51) the diagnosis was either made or confirmed by this procedure alone. Fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is especially helpful in patients with either equivocal or failed barium enemas and is indicated in patients with unexplained rectal bleeding, extending the search for polyps and cancer, and studying patients with inflammatory bowel disease. About one quarter of biopsies taken from a flat mucosal surface with the Olympus flexible biopsy forceps may be insufficient for detailed histology due to their small size. For this reason multiple biopsies may be taken. Adequate biopsies were always obtained from projecting lesions and could be very accurately sited. Colour photography employing automatic exposure control is used to supplement the information obtained. It is concluded that fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is a valuable additional investigation in selected patients with suspected disease of the large bowel and to date has been without complications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:5315423

  13. Cell death in the embryonic brain of Gallotia galloti (Reptilia; Lacertidae): a structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, C M; Yanes, C M; Marrero, A; Perez, M A; Martin, J M

    1987-01-01

    In the striatum, thalamus and cerebellum of a Lacertid reptile, we have found three types of cellular death during embryonic development, both at the light and electron microscopic level. The first affects the undifferentiated neuro-epithelial cells and is commonest during the early stages (E. 32-E. 36). The second corresponds to the type of 'nuclear' death described in the bibliography and reaches a maximum in the middle embryonic period (E. 37-E. 39); nevertheless important variations were observed in different zones. The third is the same as the 'cytoplasmic' death type and appears in the perinatal stages. Phagocytosis involved in the elimination of dead cells is of two types. One is associated with early death and is carried out by undifferentiated neuro-epithelial cells. The other is carried out by microglial cells which appear around Stage 37. Much cellular debris was observed in the intermediate zone and this was associated with the second type of phagocytosis. In both cases lipid production was associated with the degenerative process. Comparison of the temporal cellular death pattern with synaptogenesis, gliogenesis and maturation of neuronal processes is consistent with the view that the various types of cellular death found by us had different causes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3654326

  14. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  15. Nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1990-01-01

    Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837

  16. Immunological studies of human placentae: complement components in immature and mature chorionic villi.

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, W P; Jarret, R; Keane, M; Johnson, P M; Boackle, R J

    1980-01-01

    The localization and distribution of complement components in term and pre-term normal human placentae have been studied by using haemadsorption and immunofluorescence experiments. The components Clq, C4, C5, C6 and C9 were identified in characteristic locations. Receptors for C3 and C4 were not found. Complement was associated with certain stromal cells, areas of fibrinoid necrosis within the trophoblastic mantle, and in the walls and endothelia of foetal stem vessels. Activation of the complement system on trophoblastic basement membranes (TBM) did not appear to involve the early reacting components of the classical pathway of complement activation, because C1q, C4 and C2 could not be identified on TBM. The C6 component was identified within cytoplasmic granules of foetal stem vessel endothelia, suggesting that it may be synthesized by these cells. These findings put forward the possibility that complement may play an immunobiological role in the materno-foetal relationship during normal human pregnancy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7002386

  17. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  18. The Neurological Sequelae of Electrical Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silversides, John

    1964-01-01

    Electricity is a potentially very dangerous commodity. Community safeguards, however, result in remarkably efficient control of this hazard. Mortality figures appear to be small and constant. No satisfactory morbidity figures are available with regard to general and neurological complications in non-fatal cases. Study of relevant features of such electrical phenomena as voltage level, resistance factors, current pathway, current diffusion and grounding reveals many difficulties in reconstruction of the sequence of events involved in these injuries. These features underline our frequent inability to understand the mechanisms of initiation of unconsciousness and even of differentiation between death by cardiac arrest and death by respiratory paralysis. Fourteen cases of electrical injury with a variety of neurological complications and sequelae are discussed, and the findings in these cases are compared with those of other observers. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of immediate, secondary and late neurological effects, and to illustrate some of the pathological findings in electrocution material. ImagesFigs. 1 and 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 and 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14179536

  19. Molecular organization of the maternal effect region of the Shaker complex of Drosophila: characterization of an IA channel transcript with homology to vertebrate Na+ channel

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, A.; Krah-Jentgens, I.; Müller, R.; Müller-Holtkamp, F.; Seidel, R.; Kecskemethy, N.; Casal, J.; Ferrus, A.; Pongs, O.

    1987-01-01

    We have cloned 215-kb DNA containing the maternal effect region (ME) of the Shaker gene complex (shC) at 16F of the Drosophila X chromosome. Five translocation and deletion breakpoints have been mapped on the cloned DNA allowing a correlation of the genetic map to transcription units. The ME region spans ˜100 kb. The genetic behavior of this region correlates with the occurrence of maternal RNAs in this part of the ShC. Two transcripts have been identified in the vicinity of chromosomal rearrangements which cause a Sh phenotype. These are a 4.5-kb transcript interrupted by T(x;2)B27 and a 2-kb transcript interrupted by T(X;3)ShLC and T(X;Y)W32. The latter transcript is derived from a primary transcript which spans >65 kb genomic DNA. The cDNA-sequencing data show that this Shaker (IAchannel) gene can encode a protein of ˜35 kd with three α-helical membrane-spanning sequences near its carboxyl terminus. These have a striking homology with membrane-spanning sequences of the vertabrate Na+ channel. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 11. PMID:16453805

  20. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  1. Nodule-Specific Polypeptides from Effective Alfalfa Root Nodules and from Ineffective Nodules Lacking Nitrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146

  2. Genotypic Variability of Soybean Response to Agrobacterium Strains Harboring the Ti or Ri Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Lowell D.; Cress, Dean E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four diverse cultivars of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) and three lines of its annual wild progenitor Glycine soja Sieb and Zucc. were tested for their response to Agrobacterium strains harboring either the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid (pTi) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens or the Ri (root-inducing) plasmid (pRi) from Agrobacterium rhizogenes following uniform wounding and inoculation. Based upon gall weight at 8 weeks postinfection, three G. max cultivars (Biloxi, Jupiter, and Peking) and one G. soja line, Plant Introduction (PI) 398.693B, were judged highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens strain A348 (pTiA6), ten genotypes moderately susceptible, 11 weakly susceptible, and two nonsusceptible. Of 26 genotypes inoculated with strain R1000 (pRiA4b), only seven responded in a clearly susceptible fashion by forming small, fleshy roots at internodal infection sites. Cotyledons excised from 1- or 3-day old seedlings of Peking and Biloxi cultivars also formed galls when infected in vitro with agrobacteria carrying either the Ti or Ri plasmid. Tumor lines established from cotyledon and stem galls induced by A. tumefaciens A348 (pTiA6) exhibited the T-DNA borne traits of phytohormone-independent growth and octopine synthesis. Additionally, DNA isolated from cultured tumors hybridized with labeled T-DNA probe. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664035

  3. Expression of foreign genes in regenerated plants and in their progeny

    PubMed Central

    De Block, Marc; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Van Montagu, Marc; Schell, Jeff; Zambryski, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Chimeric genes comprised of the nopaline synthase promoter and bacterial coding sequences specifying resistance to kanamycin, chloramphenicol or methotrexate, were inserted into the non-oncogenic Ti plasmid vector pGV3850 by recombination (through homologous pBR322 sequences present in the chimeric gene constructs and pGV3850). These co-integrates in Agrobacterium were used to infect single plant protoplasts of Nicotiana by co-cultivation. The resistance traits allowed the selection of transformed calli in tissue culture in the presence of the appropriate antibiotic. Furthermore, as a non-oncogenic Ti plasmid was used for the protoplast transformation, phenotypically normal and fertile plants could be regenerated from the resistant calli. We have shown that these fully differentiated plant tissues exhibit functional expression of resistance traits (KmR and CmR). All plants carrying the chimeric genes developed normally, flowered, and set seeds. The inheritance of several of these resistance traits was analyzed and shown to be Mendelian. These results are model experiments to demonstrate that genes of interest can be systematically transferred to the genome of plants using non-oncogenic Ti plasmid derivatives; and that transformed plants are capable of normal growth and differentiation, thus providing a natural environment for the study of gene expression and development of plant cells. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453538

  4. The ultrastructure of the sensory nerve endings in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat (Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles).

    PubMed Central

    Halata, Z

    1977-01-01

    Two types of mechanoreceptor have been found in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat--Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini corpuscles are situated in the stratum fibrosum and consist of 2 to 6 cylinders. Each cylinder is made up of an afferent axon (diameter 3-4 micrometer), its swellings and terminal processes, Schwann cells enveloping the nerve swellings and terminal processes, endoneural connective tissue and a perineural capsule. The perineural capsule is incomplete in Ruffini corpuscles. The Pacinian corpuscles are 20 to 40 micrometer wide and 150-250 micrometer long. They are situated in groups of up to five at the boundary between the stratum synoviale and the stratum fibrosum. The afferent axon is myelinated (diameter 3-5 micrometer). Its terminal portion is inside the inner bulb which is formed of modified Schwann cells. Each corpuscle is enveloped by a perineural capsule (4-8 layers). The ultrastructure of the Pacinian corpuscles is compared with the ultrastructure of the skin receptors in the cat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:604339

  5. New surgical concepts resulting from cranio-orbito-facial surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A; Berry, F A; Marshall, K A

    1975-01-01

    The authors have defined the subspecialty of craniofacial surgery and described the organization of the multi-disciplinary team required to care for such patients. Common features of the craniofacial patient have been summarized and three major categories of patients have been proposed. These are: I. Syndromes associated with hypertelorism; II. Syndromes associated with premature synostoses or growth arrests; III. Syndromes associated with primarily mid- and lower face anomalies. Growing out of an experience with 242 operations on 106 patients, the authors have listed 9 relatively new surgical "principles." Each has led to a current surgical approach that is now being employed by the craniofacial team at The University of Virginia. A number of examples are given to show ways in which the lessons learned from the craniofacial patients are now being applied, with improved results, to patients with neoplasms, traumatic injuries, or other conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. PMID:1099994

  6. Nonhepatic Thioacetamide Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Edward A.; Smuckler, Edward A.

    1974-01-01

    Thioacetamide given orally to rats produces centrolobular hepatic necrosis and also causes death of the cells in the terminal portion of the proximal renal tubule. The morphologic changes observed during the course of the renal toxicity include the early and transient appearance of apical dense bodies, which appear to fuse to form large lysosomes, and the appearance of nucleolar hypertrophy, reminiscent of the same change seen in the hepatocytes. In addition a variety of changes described in lethally injured tubular cells in other toxicities appear. A diuresis, which lasts for 5 days, coincides with the appearance of tubular cell destruction. The mechanism of cell injury due to thioacetamide is not identified, but the temporal sequence of morphologic and physiologic change is consistent with both a relative concentration of the thioacetamide in the proximal tubule and its potential conversion to a putative proximate toxin. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:4814902

  7. Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

  8. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  9. Photoregulated gene expression may involve ubiquitous DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, U; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    Several promoter elements have previously been shown to influence the expression of the cab-E gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Here we demonstrate, by electrophoretic mobility shift and methylation interference assays, that a complex pattern of protein-DNA interactions characterizes this promoter. Among the multiple proteins identified, we focused on five different factors which either occupied important regulatory elements and/or were present in relatively large amounts in nuclear extracts. All of these proteins were distinguished on the basis of their recognition sequence and other biochemical parameters. One, GBF, interacted with a single sequence within the cab-E promoter homologous to the G-box found in many photoregulated and other plant promoters. A second factor, GA-1, bound to the GATA element which is located between the CAAT and TATA boxes of the cab-E and all other LHCII Type I CAB promoters. GA-1 also interacted in vitro with the I-boxes of the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter and the as-2 site of the CaMV 35S promoter. Two other factors, GC-1 and AT-1, bound to multiple recognition sites localized within the GC-rich and AT-rich elements, respectively. GT-1, a protein which interacts with promoters of other light-regulated genes, bound to seven distinct sites distributed throughout the cab-E promoter. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 PMID:2209551

  10. Formation of synapses in cerebellar explants by axons from co-cultured medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, M M

    1990-01-01

    Explants of cerebellum from E12-E14 chick embryos were co-cultured with pieces of medulla from the same embryos for periods of up to 4 weeks and examined by EM with or without prior transection of the fibre bundles that formed rapidly between the co-cultured explants. The cerebellar explants developed a rich and complex neuropil within which a variety of presynaptic endings could be recognised, including some resembling climbing fibre endings and some mossy fibre endings. Four to six hours after transection of linking fibre bundles about 5% of preterminal and terminal profiles were undergoing intense degeneration indicating their origin from cell bodies in the adjacent explant of medulla and showing that most of the synaptic contacts are of intrinsic origin. The degenerating terminals contained spherical synaptic vesicles and made Gray Type I synaptic contacts. They appeared to be predominantly small-medium sized en passant terminals from long, thin, branched preterminal axons, and most closely resembled climbing fibre terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2074232

  11. Electron microscopic studies of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration of rat optic nerve after intravenous injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1978-01-01

    The origin of macrophages in the degenerating optic nerve of rats after eye enucleation was investigated electron microscopically following intravenous labelling of mononuclear leucoytes with colloidal carbon. In the various post-operative periods studied carbon-labelled macrophages were seen at the site of lesion. At 4 and 7 days after enucleation carbon-labelled cells were seen at the site of Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve over 4 mm distal to the site of the lesion. In the electron microscope these cells showed a flattened nucleus bearing coarse chromatin clumps, their cytoplasm contained a prominent Golgi complex and long isolate profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Clusters of carbon particles in the cytoplasms were membrane-bound. Lysosomal bodies embedded with carbon particles were also observed. In relation to the blood vessels of the optic nerve, endothelial cells and pericytes with ingested carbon were seen. Macrophages in the meninges covering the optic nerve were also labelled. The results suggest that some macrophages in the region of Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve, as well as those at the actual site of the lesion, were transformed blood leucocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:649492

  12. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  13. A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D

    1994-01-01

    The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7649799

  14. Immune complex glomerulonephritis in experimental kala-azar. II: Detection and characterization of parasite antigens and antibodies eluted from kidneys of Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, A; Roque-Barreira, M C; Coe, J; Campos-Neto, A

    1992-01-01

    In a previous report analysing kidney sections by immunofluorescence we showed that hamsters infected with L. donovani develop a glomerulonephritis (GN) associated with deposition of hamster immunoglobulins and parasite antigens in the glomeruli. In this study we characterize these immune components eluted from the kidneys. The eluted immunoglobulins showed specificity for L. donovani antigens and hamster immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factor-like activity). The four isotypes IgG1, IgG2, IgA and IgM were detected. Several L. donovani antigens were detected in the renal eluates by Western blot and immunoprecipitation using 125I-labelled eluates. Proteins with mol. wt of 134, 82, 52, 31, and 26 kD were detected by Western blot and proteins with 134, 110, 93, 89 and 48 kD were detected by immunoprecipitation. With the exception of the 134 kD protein which was recognized by both rabbit anti-promastigote and rabbit anti-amastigote sera all the others were recognized only by the anti-amastigote serum. The 134 kD protein was the only one isolated from the kidneys of infected hamster immunocomplexed with IgG and was the only one detected in a promastigote lysate using IgG from L. donovani-infected hamsters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1544224

  15. The orbital glands of the terrapin Pseudemys scripta in response to osmotic stress: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Baccari, G C; Minucci, S; Di Matteo, L

    1993-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural features of both orbital glands--the anterior lacrimal and harderian glands--were compared in the terrapin Pseudemys scripta following adaptation either to distilled water or to seawater. Seawater adaptation activated the harderian gland and caused a major structural reorganisation. Type I cells increased in number, whereas type II cells became smaller and less numerous. The most striking change was shown by the type IV cells which display the features of a salt-secreting cell. This cell type increased in number and changed from a unicellular form to multicellular complexes. Transfer from fresh water to distilled water caused a decrease in alcianophilia in type I and type III glandular cells and degenerative phenomena were often seen in type I and type IV cells. The anterior lacrimal gland showed only minor changes either in distilled or seawater adapted terrapins. Transfer to distilled water also caused degenerative phenomena in the lacrimal gland. These results establish for the first time the involvement of the harderian gland of a terrapin in osmoregulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8270473

  16. Composite, large spirochetes from microbial mats: spirochete structure review.

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, L; Ashen, J B; Solé, M; Guerrero, R

    1993-01-01

    Phenomena previously unknown in free-living spirochetes are reported: large-sized cells with variable diameter (length to 100 microns, width between 0.4 and 3.0 microns), composite structure (smaller spirochetes inside larger ones), and positive phototropic behavior. These bacteria, Spirosymplokos, are compared with all other spirochete genera. The large spirochete, grown in mixed culture, was studied live and by transmission EM. The protoplasmic cylinder was replete with spherical granules 20-32 nm in diameter, and three to six periplasmic 26-nm flagella were inserted subterminally. Comparably granulated and flagellated small spirochetes were located inside the protoplasmic cylinder and in the periplasm of the large ones. When exposed to air, movement became erratic, protoplasmic cylinders retracted to lie folded inside the outer membrane, and refractile membranous structures formed. From one to four structures per still-moving spirochete were seen. Spirosymplokos was enriched from laboratory samples exposed to oxygen-rich and desiccating, but not dry, conditions for at least 4 mo after removal of microbial mat from the field. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8346204

  17. Drosophila chaoptin, a member of the leucine-rich repeat family, is a photoreceptor cell-specific adhesion molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, D E; Zipursky, S L

    1990-01-01

    Drosophila chaoptin, required for photoreceptor cell morphogenesis, is a member of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins. On the basis of biochemical and genetic analyses we previously proposed that chaoptin might function as a cell adhesion molecule. To test this hypothesis, chaoptin cDNA driven by the hsp 70 promoter was transfected into non-self-adherent Drosophila Schneider line 2 (S2) cells. Following heat shock induction of chaoptin expression, the transfected S2 cells formed multicellular aggregates. Mixing experiments of chaoptin expressing and non-expressing cells suggest that chaoptin expressing cells adhere homotypically. Previously it was shown that chaoptin is exclusively localized to photoreceptor cells. Thus, chaoptin is a cell-type-specific adhesion molecule. Biochemical analyses presented in this paper demonstrate that chaoptin is linked to the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane by covalent attachment to glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. We propose that chaoptin and several other members of the leucine-rich repeat family of proteins define a new class of cell adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2189727

  18. The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1984-01-01

    The structure and distribution of nasal glands in four marsupial species were studied by light and electron microscopy. The species studied were the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus), the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis). Glands were grouped and described according to their location. Those of general distribution (goblet cells and olfactory glands) were similar in structures and distribution in all specimens. Glands of the lateral nasal wall include the lateral nasal, maxillary sinus and turbinate glands. The lateral nasal and maxillary sinus glands were absent in the adult koala but occupied large areas in the other species. Turbinate glands were best developed rostrally and ventrally in the nasal cavity. On the nasal septum, Tarsipes and Isoodon had well developed glands associated with vascular 'swell bodies'. These were poorly developed to Macropus though septal glands were abundant. 'Swell bodies' were absent in Phascolarctos and glands were sparse. Tubular vomeronasal glands were present in all species and most extensive in Tarsipes. In Isoodon, there was a posterior ventral septal gland associated with the septal olfactory organ. The fine structural features of secretory cells and ducts are described and their potential role discussed in terms of chemoreception and temperature and humidity control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6490535

  19. An electron microscopical study of chronic ulcers of the colon in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic colonic ulcers in the rat were produced by the administration of a hydrogen peroxide enema. Lesions of up to 10 months' duration were obtained by this method and a selection was examined ultrastructurally. It was hoped that the study would reveal causes for the chronicity of the lesions. From previous work it appeared that there was no failure of epithelial migration from the edge of the wound. The majority of cells at the ulcer margins demonstrated features of regeneration similar to those seen in other tissues, and that there were no specific changes concomitant with chronic ulceration. The majority of epithelial cells at the ulcer edge showed features of differentiation which indicated that there was no obvious fault in this process so essential to the basic requirements of tissue repair. It is possible that chronicity is produced by a failure of the epithelio-mesenchymal interaction mechanisms which, potentiated by an ischaemia resulting from submucosal vascular damage, results in the consequential death of migrating epithelial cells. This hypothesis is supported by the appearance of a squamous metaplasia in the healing lesions, a process which is commonly attributed to a chronic inflammatory response which may be induced by a relative vascular insufficiency. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:836769

  20. The new stem cell biology.

    PubMed Central

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:12053709

  1. A serine proteinase inhibitor locus at 18q21.3 contains a tandem duplication of the human squamous cell carcinoma antigen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S S; Schick, C; Fish, K E; Miller, E; Pena, J C; Treter, S D; Hui, S M; Silverman, G A

    1995-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is a member of the ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). A neutral form of the protein is found in normal and some malignant squamous cells, whereas an acidic form is detected exclusively in tumor cells and in the circulation of patients with squamous cell tumors. In this report, we describe the cloning of the SCCA gene from normal genomic DNA. Surprisingly, two genes were found. They were tandemly arrayed and flanked by two other closely related serpins, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI2) and maspin at 18q21.3. The genomic structure of the two genes, SCCA1 and SCCA2, was highly conserved. The predicted amino acid sequences were 92% identical and suggested that the neutral form of the protein was encoded by SCCA1 and the acidic form was encoded by SCCA2. Further characterization of the region should determine whether the differential expression of the SCCA genes plays a causal role in development of more aggressive squamous cell carcinomas. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7724531

  2. Ultrastructural study of macrophages in the rat thymus, with special reference to the cortico-medullary zone.

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, N M; Milićević, Z; Colic, M; Mujović, S

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopic study of the normal rat thymus has demonstrated that macrophages with different ultrastructural features are positioned in the thymic cortex, in the cortico-medullary zone and in the medulla. Phagocytic cells, containing necrotic lymphocytes in various stages of degradation, are distributed throughout the thymic cortex. The cortico-medullary zone, in contrast, is populated with macrophages displaying specific ultrastructural features. These cells contain numerous vacuolar inclusions of different size, filled with homogeneous, flocculent material of very low electron density. The dense bodies, occasionally positioned to the inner side of the vacuolar membrane, selectively contrast with silver methenamine and contain polysaccharides, as demonstrated by the thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate method. Very rarely, these cells contain phagocytosed lymphocyte remnants. The predominant type of mononuclear phagocytic cells in the thymic medulla are the interdigitating cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3654343

  3. The Role of Surgery and Hyperalimentation in Therapy of Gastrointestinal-Cutaneous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Alfonso; Fischer, Josef E.; Welch, Claude E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with external gastrointestinal fistulas arising from different levels of the gastrointestinal tract, observed and treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital, from December 1970 to April 1973, are analyzed. Surgical complications were the causes of fistulization in 77% of the cases. The treatment program included parenteral nutrition through a subclavian line in all cases. The 38 patients were fed parenterally for a total of 2311 days. Spontaneous fistula closure occurred in only 11 of the 38 patients. Surgical procedures were necessary in 71.05% of the cases to control fistula complications or persistent fistula drainage. Operative success rate was 70.4%. Parenteral nutrition effects on metabolic parameters, fistula secretion, nutritional status, morbidity and mortality of fistulas are discussed. Parenteral nutrition hazards are also presented. Overall mortality in this series was 21%. Roles of parenteral nutrition and surgery in the total management of external gastrointestinal fistulas are suggested. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4213479

  4. Amber, ochre and opal suppressor tRNA genes derived from a human serine tRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Capone, J P; Sharp, P A; RajBhandary, U L

    1985-01-01

    Amber, ochre and opal suppressor tRNA genes have been generated by using oligonucleotide directed site-specific mutagenesis to change one or two nucleotides in a human serine tRNA gene. The amber and ochre suppressor (Su+) tRNA genes are efficiently expressed in CV-1 cells when introduced as part of a SV40 recombinant. The expressed amber and ochre Su+ tRNAs are functional as suppressors as demonstrated by readthrough of the amber codon which terminates the NS1 gene of an influenza virus or the ochre codon which terminates the hexon gene of adenovirus, respectively. Interestingly, several attempts to obtain the equivalent virus stock of an SV40 recombinant containing the opal suppressor tRNA gene yielded virus lacking the opal suppressor tRNA gene. This suggests that expression of an efficient opal suppressor derived from a human serine tRNA gene is highly detrimental to either cellular or viral processes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2990894

  5. PubMed Central

    Fouron, J.-C.; Favreau-Ethier, M.; Marion, P.; Davignon, A.

    1967-01-01

    Sixteen cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been studied clinically and by cardiac catheterization. Diagnosis has been proved in all cases by manometric measurements and/or cineangiocardiography. All patients except two were below 2 years of age. Ten cases were of type I, i.e. the stenosis was localized to the pulmonary trunk or its main branches. Six patients were of type III, i.e. they had diffuse stenosis of the pulmonary arterial tree. The physical findings, which in many cases are typical and include the presence of a systolic murmur over both lung fields, should alert the physician to the diagnosis at the bedside. At cardiac catheterization the configuration of the pressure tracing in the main pulmonary artery is typical, showing an abrupt rise and fall of the systolic wave followed by a low situated dicrotic notch. There is no doubt that in the past many cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been wrongly diagnosed as “essential pulmonary hypertension”. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:6021054

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of the endometrium during the secretory phase.

    PubMed Central

    Motta, P M; Andrews, P M

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the rabbit endometrium during the secretory phase of the oestrous cycle. The free surfaces of ciliated and of inactive active secretory cells are described. Changes in secretory cell surface morphology resulting from accumulation and secretion of material involve the apparent retraction of microvilli and the formation of one or more bulbous protrusions of the cell's apical surface. These protrusions may be relatively smooth surfaced or exhibit long slender micro-extensions. The protrusions grow in size and are eventually pinched off. Loss of the bulbous protrusions often leaves behind crater-like invaginations of the cell's surface. Secretory cells adjacent to the endometrial glands are the first to exhibit signs of mucin accumulation and secretion. The single cilium of a secretory cell is not apparently affected by the secretory process. Signs of ciliated and secretory cell degeneration, and possible sloughing, are also described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1033932

  7. Neuronal localization of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in normal human brain and in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M

    1987-01-01

    Clones for the amyloid beta protein precursor gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the frontal cortex of a patient who had died with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; they were used to investigate the tissue and cellular distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in brain tissues from control patients and from Alzheimer's disease patients. Amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was expressed in similar amounts in all control human brain regions examined, but a reduction of the mRNA level was observed in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. By in situ hybridization amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA was present in granule and pyramidal cell bodies in the hippocampal formation and in pyramidal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex. No specific labelling of glial cells or endothelial cells was found. The same qualitative distribution was observed in tissues from control patients and from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Senile plaque amyloid thus probably derives from neurones. The tissue distribution of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA and its cellular localization demonstrate that its expression is not confined to the brain regions and cells that exhibit the selective neuronal death characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3322812

  8. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  9. Axotomized neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl2 proto-oncogene retain functional electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, S; Raggenbass, M; de Bilbao, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M

    1996-01-01

    Bcl2 overexpression prevents axotomy-induced neuronal death of neonatal facial motoneurons, as defined by morphological criteria. However, the functional properties of these surviving lesioned transgenic neurons are unknown. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the protein Bcl2, we have investigated the bioelectrical properties of transgenic facial motoneurons from 7 to 20 days after neonatal unilateral axotomy using brain-stem slices and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Nonaxotomized facial motoneurons from wild-type and transgenic mice had similar properties; they had an input resistance of 38 +/- 6 M omega and fired repetitively after injection of positive current pulses. When cells were voltage-clamped at or near their resting membrane potential, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), or vasopressin generated sustained inward currents. In transgenic axotomized mice, facial motoneurons could be found located ipsilaterally to the lesion; they had an input resistance of 150 +/- 30 M omega, indicating that they were smaller in size, fired repetitively, and were also responsive to AMPA, NMDA, and vasopressin. Morphological measurements achieved 1 week after the lesion have shown that application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented the reduction in size of axotomized transgenic motoneurons. These data indicate that Bcl2 not only prevents morphological apoptotic death of axotomized neonatal transgenic motoneurons but also permits motoneurons to conserve functional electrophysiological properties. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633001

  10. Intracerebral transplantation of the genital tubercle in the rat: the fate of the penile bone and cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, W A; Clayton, S P

    1977-01-01

    Genital tubercles of 70 newborn male and female rats were transplated into the brains of unrelated infant rats. Seven other tubercles were placed subcutaneously. All female, and some male, hosts were injected with testosterone propionate. After surviving from 2-24 days,, histological study of 49 successful grafts showed survival of the urethral and balano-preputial epithelia and growth of the preputial glands, which formed secretion-filled cysts and became the major component of the graft. The fate of the mesodermal tissues witin the glands varied between remaining in an undeveloped state, with only pale fibrouw tissue and an area of granular degeneration and giant cells, and achieving an incompletely differentiatel state in which erectile tissue and the anterior process of fibrocartilage had formed and the glans had grown but the penile bone and its secondary growth cartilage failed to appear. Grafts could reach this degree of differentiation of the glands irrespective of transplantation site, attachment to the host dura, the sex of donor or host, and whether or not male hosts were given exogenous hormone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:870471

  11. Myopathic changes in indirectly stimulated mouse diaphragm after ecothiopate in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, C. B.; Cullen, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms were stimulated in vitro in the presence of the anticholinesterase ecothiopate iodide and prepared for light and electron microscopy at different times during and after the appearance of prolonged contractions localized at the endplate. The earliest changes were at the subsynapse, without damage to the plasma membrane, and comprised hypercontraction of the sarcomeres, dilatation and vesiculation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, and dissolution of the Z-lines. Later there was damage to the plasma membrane. Also appearing later in the junctional region, but separated from the subsynapse by apparently normal muscle, were extrasynaptic hypercontractions, with a plasma membrane initially undamaged, but which became permeable after the contractile material divided into contraction clots. A hypothesis is proposed for the formation of such hypercontractions by abnormal mechanical factors arising from different contractile states along the length of the fibre, and is discussed with the role of prolonged transmitter action in the aetiology of myopathy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1843260

  12. The seeding of human aortic endothelial cells on the extra-cellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A post confluent layer (6th passage) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was treated with 3 mM ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to expose the subendothelial extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Normal human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) harvested by mechanical scraping were seeded onto the ECM of the HUVECs. The cells quickly attached and proliferated with normal morphology. To ensure confluency the HAECs were pooled after a brief trypsin/EDTA incubation and seeded onto the ECM of the same HUVECs (6th passage) cell line. They attached within 2 hours, and the cells grew to confluence displaying cobblestone morphology characteristic of phenotypic endothelium. HUVECs (11th passage) were seeded onto (6th passage) HUVECs ECM. The cells attached, proliferated to confluence within the normal time interval (7-8 days) and were positively characterized. A Corvita 6mm graft supplied with a gelatin/heparin matrix was densely seeded with HUVECs (6th passage). These cells also proliferated to confluence. The implications for improving the design of arterial grafts are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1390196

  13. The pathogenesis of leptospirosis I. Hemorrhages in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Cousineau, G

    1977-01-01

    In experimental infections of guinea pigs with a virulent strain of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae widespread hemorrhages were observed. Thrombocytopenia, prolongation of prothrombin, thrombin, partial thromboplastin and coagulation times, decrease of plasma fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and the presence of fibrinogen degradation products were demonstrated. Treatment of infected guinea pigs with heparin prolonged life for two to three days. The histological observations revealed that the main lesion is a severe injury of the vasculature, mainly arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Most of the endothelial cells are affected or destroyed and the muscular fibers of arteries and arterioles are injured. With Martius-Scarlet-Blue, Weigert or Picro-Mallory stains it was demonstrated that the organization seen in the vessels is not all made of fibrin. The conclusion reached was that the hemorrhages observed in experimental leptospirosis in guines pigs are due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:861835

  14. Rat hippocampal neurons express genes for both rod retinal and olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channels: novel targets for cAMP/cGMP function.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, P A; Zufall, F; Barnstable, C J

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonspecific cation channels that can be activated through direct interaction with cAMP and/or cGMP. Recent electrophysiological evidence for these channels in cultured hippocampal neurons prompted us to investigate the expression of CNG channel genes in hippocampus. PCR amplification detected the expression of transcripts for subunit 1 of both the rod photoreceptor (RCNGC1) and the olfactory receptor cell (OCNGC1) subtype of CNG channel in adult rat hippocampus. In situ hybridization detected expression of both channel subtypes in most principal neurons, including pyramidal cells of the CA1 through CA3 regions and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. From the hybridization patterns, we conclude that the two genes are colocalized in individual neurons. Comparison of the patterns of expression of type 1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the CNG channels suggests that hippocampal neurons can respond to changes in cGMP levels with both rapid changes in CNG channel activity and slower changes induced by phosphorylation. Future models of hippocampal function should include CNG channels and their effects on both electrical responses and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816819

  15. Lipid thioesters derived from acylated proteins accumulate in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: correction of the defect in lymphoblasts by recombinant palmitoyl-protein thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J Y; Verkruyse, L A; Hofmann, S L

    1996-01-01

    Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase is a lysosomal long-chain fatty acyl hydrolase that removes fatty acyl groups from modified cysteine residues in proteins. Mutations in palmitoyl-protein thioesterase were recently found to cause the neurodegenerative disorder infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a disease characterized by accumulation of amorphous granular deposits in cortical neurons, leading to blindness, seizures, and brain death by the age of three. In the current study, we demonstrate that [35S]cysteine-labeled lipid thioesters accumulate in immortalized lymphoblasts of patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The accumulation in cultured cells is reversed by the addition of recombinant palmitoyl-protein thioesterase that is competent for lysosomal uptake through the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. The [35S]cysteine-labeled lipids are substrates for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase in vitro, and their formation requires prior protein synthesis. These data support a role for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase in the lysosomal degradation of S-acylated proteins and define a major new pathway for the catabolism of acylated proteins in the lysosome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816748

  16. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  17. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  18. A polypeptide of 59 kDa is associated with bundles of cytoplasmic filaments in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, A L; Alvarez, M E; Lawson, D; Maccioni, H J

    1990-01-01

    Complex arrangements of filamentous structures have been isolated from vegetative cells of the fungus Neurospora crassa. They were enriched by differential centrifugation and purified by permeation chromatography. The filamentous structures are made up of units of 8-10 nm diameter and were isolated in bundles of up to six to nine units. The main constituent of these structures is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa (P59Nc), which represents 4-5% of the total N. crassa proteins. The filamentous structures are cold-stable and are not affected by high-ionic-strength solutions or by the presence of 10 mM-EDTA or 1% (w/v) Triton X-100; they were disassembled by raising the pH of the solution or by using Tris-based buffers. The disassembled form assembled into structures sedimentable at 105,000 g after dialysis against the isolation buffer. The sedimentable structures were organized in the form of regular aggregates of 42-45 nm polypeptides and reacted weakly with anti-IFA, a monoclonal antibody which recognizes an epitope common to many of the higher-eukaryote intermediate-filament polypeptides. Immunofluorescence examination of wall-digested hyphae of N. crassa using affinity-purified antibodies prepared against P59Nc showed immunostaining of abundant filamentous and dot-shaped structures distributed in the cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2141976

  19. Experimental Calcification of the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Sadun, Raffaele

    1973-01-01

    Focal areas of calcification are frequent in rat myocardium 30 and 60 days after administration of dihydrotachysterol. These areas are PAS-positive, stain deeply with alcian blue and show high affinity for colloidal iron. Calcification is almost completely confined to intracellular structures. Small clusters of needle-shaped crystals are first found in apparently undamaged mitochondria in undamaged myocardial cells. When all the mitochondria are calcified, the cell degenerates, and inorganic crystals are laid down in relationship with its myofilaments. In other myocardial cells, clusters of amorphous or finely granular inorganic substance are found in both mitochondria and myofibrils. Both structures show signs of advanced degeneration. Inorganic substance has only occasionally been found within the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These structures do not seem to be involved in myocardial calcification under the present experimental conditions. Calcification of myocardial cells gives rise to a cellular reaction. Many macrophagic cells surround the calcified areas, which are rapidly reabsorbed. The present results show that myocardial mitochondria are actively engaged in controlling the intracellular concentration and movement of calcium ions. Their role in the myocardial contraction-relaxation cycle and the possible mechanism of myocardial calcification are discussed. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13 PMID:4197422

  20. Construction of cell lines that regulate by temperature the amplification and expression of influenza virus non-structural protein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Portela, A; Melero, J A; de la Luna, S; Ortín, J

    1986-01-01

    Monkey cell lines have been transformed with a mixture of plasmids pSV2neo and pSLVa232N, a derivative of plasmid pSLVa232 (Portela et al., 1985b). Plasmid pSLVa232N contained the influenza virus genes encoding non-structural proteins under the control of the SV40 late promoter in pSLts1 vector that includes the SV40 ori and the tsA209 T-antigen gene. At restrictive temperature, plasmid sequences remained stably integrated in the cell genome, but upon temperature shift-down, defined circular DNA molecules were generated and amplified up to 2000-5000 copies/cell. Restriction analysis, Southern blot hybridization and partial sequencing indicate that one such episome, pC5, was derived from the integrated plasmid sequences by a homologous recombination event that led to deletion of the pBR322 sequences included in pSLVa232N. Concomitant with gene amplification, an induction of 20-65-fold in the expression of NS1 and NS2 proteins was observed after temperature shift-down. Thus, gene cloning into vector pSLts1 and transformation at restrictive temperature of cells permissive for SV40 DNA replication, appears to be a useful strategy for the controlled amplification and expression of cloned genes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3023072

  1. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  2. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  3. Cyclosporin A suppresses the expression of the interleukin 2 gene by inhibiting the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors to the IL-2 enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Randak, C; Brabletz, T; Hergenröther, M; Sobotta, I; Serfling, E

    1990-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful immunosuppressive drug, inhibits the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes at the level of gene transcription. Using protein extracts from El4 lymphoma cells we show that the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors interacting with the two so-called purine boxes (Pu-boxes) of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer are missing in CsA-treated cells. The CsA-sensitive factors are newly synthesized upon induction. The most prominent factor consists of 45 kd polypeptides and contacts both Pu-boxes at the two central G residues within the identical core sequence AAGAGGAAAA. The CsA-mediated suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes correlates well with functional studies in which the inducible, T cell-restricted proto-enhancer activity of Pu-boxes was selectively repressed by CsA. These observations support the conclusion that the suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes by CsA impairs the activity of IL-2 and of further lymphokine genes, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2369902

  4. Surgical progress: surgical management of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S A

    1982-01-01

    Infective endocarditis of bacterial or fungal origin may arise in either the left or the right heart and can involve both natural and prosthetic valves. The diagnosis is based primarily upon clinical criteria and positive blood cultures, but serial electrocardiograms, fluoroscopy, and two-dimensional echocardiograms may also be helpful. The initial treatment should consist of antibiotic therapy and is itself often adequate in effecting cure. However, careful observation during antibiotic treatment is mandatory, since the development of congestive heart failure due to valvular obstruction or destruction can be an indication for surgical intervention. Other surgical indications include a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, pulmonary or systemic emboli, evidence of abscess involving the valvular ring (particularly prevalent with prosthetic valve endocarditis), Brucella infection, and the onset of conduction disturbances. The goals of surgical treatment are removal of infective tissue, restoration of valve function, and correction of associated mechanical disorders. The results are surprisingly good, especially for a condition of this severity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7065743

  5. Transcription elongation factor of respiratory syncytial virus, a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, P L; Hill, M G; Cristina, J; Grosfeld, H

    1996-01-01

    RNA synthesis by the paramyxovirus respiratory syncytial virus, a ubiquitous human pathogen, was found to be more complex than previously appreciated for the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Intracellular RNA replication of a plasmid-encoded "minigenome" analog of viral genomic RNA was directed by coexpression of the N, P, and L proteins. But, under these conditions, the greater part of mRNA synthesis terminated prematurely. This difference in processivity between the replicase and the transcriptase was unanticipated because the two enzymes ostensively shared the same protein subunits and template. Coexpression of the M2 gene at a low level of input plasmid resulted in the efficient production of full-length mRNA and, in the case of a dicistronic minigenome, sequential transcription. At a higher level, coexpression of the M2 gene inhibited transcription and RNA replication. The M2 mRNA contains two overlapping translational open reading frames (ORFs), which were segregated for further analysis. Expression of the upstream ORF1, which encoded the previously described 22-kDa M2 protein, was associated with transcription elongation. A model involving this protein in the balance between transcription and replication is proposed. ORF2, which lacks an assigned protein, was associated with inhibition of RNA synthesis. We propose that this activity renders nucleocapsids synthetically quiescent prior to incorporation into virions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8552680

  6. Two types of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: immunofluorescent, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies of the antral and pancreatic gastrin cells in different clinical states

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Julia M.; Stagg, B.; Pearse, A. G. E.

    1972-01-01

    In this survey the antral, pancreatic and, where present, the neoplastic gastrin cells, were studied in eight cases of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The antral G cells alone were studied in one case of Z-E syndrome, seven cases of simple duodenal ulcer, and five cases of pernicious anaemia. The Z-E cases were divided into two numerically equal groups. The first group had `short' histories, high serum gastrin levels, and profound antral G cell hyperplasia. The second group had `long' histories, relatively lower serum gastrin levels, normal antral G cells, and either pancreatic D cell hyperplasia or gastrinoma. Antral G cell hyperplasia, with maximal gastrin storage and normal serum gastrin levels, was found in the duodenal ulcer cases. Antral G cell hyperplasia with minimal storage and high serum gastrin levels was observed in the cases of pernicious anaemia. On the basis of our findings we propose that there exist at least two distinct types (or perhaps stages) of the Z-E syndrome. Suggestions for their pathogenesis are offered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4560738

  7. Ectopic apudocarcinomas and associated endocrine hyperplasias of the foregut.

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, S R; McGuigan, J E

    1975-01-01

    Foregut endocrine polypeptide-secreting APUD cells (Amine-Precursor-Uptake and Decarboxylation), in their embryologic migration from neural crest to foregut may become "arrested" in the mesoderm or in other ectopic locations. They may become hyperplastic, adenomatous or malignant. Eight illustrative patients are reported. One patient had "pancreatic hyperparathyroidism" with hypercalcemic crises, pancreatic apudocarcinoma, normal parathyroids, biologically active parathormone, but inert immunochemically to the usual parathyroid antisera. Two had gastrin-secreting malignancies in the mesoderm. Remission after excision, but eventual recurrence of the syndrome due to islet cell hyperplasia required total gastrectomy. One patient had a gastric corpus apudocarcinoma found prospectively with hypergastrinemia which required excision of the tumor. One patient had acromegaly with hypergastrinemia and antral gastrinosis treated by pituitary irradiation, One patient had the antral or intermediary type of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with moderate hypergastrinemia, duodenal ulcer and antral gastrinosis, treated by vagotomy and antrectomy. One patient had hyperparathyroidism with antral gastrinosis, treated by parathyroidectomy. One patient had malignant Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and developed associated thyroid parafollicular cell hyperplasia and parathyroid chief cell hyperplasia, treated by total gastrectomy and multiple endocrine excisions. These investigative observations demonstrate ectopic loci and associated hyperplasias which support the concept of migration and bizarre potentiality of polypeptide-secreting cells of the foregut. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:241302

  8. Preliminary studies on the development of a live oral vaccine for anti-cholera immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mukerjee, S.

    1963-01-01

    Since humoral anti-O antibodies play little part in protective immunity against cholera, and the infecting organisms remain limited in the gut, effective prophylaxis will require the production of active immunity in cells of the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal. It has not been possible to achieve this objective satisfactorily by injections of killed cholera cultures. In laboratory studies for a solution of the problem it has been shown that Vibrio cholerae and V. El Tor strains possess identical somatic antigens. El Tor vibrio strains isolated from surface water in an area free from cholera were found to be of low pathogenicity while retaining full antigenicity. Administration of these strains to mice and rabbits was shown to confer protection against subsequent challenge with both V. cholerae and pathogenic V. El Tor strains. On the basis of the data presented a case has been made for a viable vaccine prepared from a suitable non-pathogenic El Tor strain, for administration by the oral route. It may be expected that such a vaccine will establish an effective immunity through protection of the local susceptible cells of the intestines as a result of subclinical infection. The safety and protective value of the vaccine remain to be verified in human volunteers before it can be chosen for field trials. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:14107748

  9. Expression of a cardiac Ca(2+)-release channel isoform in mammalian brain.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, F A; Dent, M; Wickenden, C; Xu, L; Kumari, G; Misra, M; Lee, H B; Sar, M; Meissner, G

    1992-01-01

    Mammalian brain possesses ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, which in muscle cells mediate rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores during excitation-contraction coupling. Analysis of bovine brain ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels suggests specific expression of the cardiac-muscle RyR isoform in mammalian brain. Localization using cardiac-muscle RyR-specific antibodies and antisense RNA revealed that brain RyRs were present in dendrites, cell bodies and terminals of rat forebrain, and highly enriched in the hippocampus. Activity of skeletal-muscle RyR channels is coupled to sarcolemmal voltage sensors, in contrast with cardiac-muscle RyR channels, which are known to be Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release channels. Thus Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by brain RyR channels may be a major Ca(2+)-signalling pathway in specific regions of mammalian brain, and hence may play a fundamental role in neuronal Ca2+ homoeostasis. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:1334409

  10. Radiologic Techniques Used to Evaluate the Temporomandibular Joint; I. Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, David; Pettigrew, James; Ram, Carol; Joseph, Peter M.

    1984-01-01

    Symptoms of temporomandibular joint pathology are present in a relatively high proportion of the population. Conventional radiographic techniques used to evaluate the morphology of the joint provide data which may be difficult to interpret. These techniques are reviewed briefly and their interpretational shortcomings are noted. Computed tomography is currently being used by some clinicians to evaluate the joint. This technique may also yield data which are difficult to interpret. Extended processing of CT data to provide three-dimensional images of the joint enhances the technique as a means of diagnosing hard tissue pathology, but despite reports in the literature detailing its use in diagnosing soft tissue pathology, CT is not optimal for this purpose. The introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging provides a means of examining the soft tissues of the joint in either two- or three-dimensional images and has the advantage over all previous techniques in that the patient is not subjected to ionizing radiation during the scan process. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:6594954

  11. Detection of vascular defects during operation by imaging ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, B; Coelho, J C; Flanigan, D P; Schuler, J J; Machi, J; Beitler, J C

    1982-01-01

    Real-time high resolution ultrasound imaging was employed during reconstructive vascular operation in 165 patients. The purpose of this diagnostic procedure was to detect unrecognized strictures, thrombi, and intimal flaps in order to permit their surgical correction at the primary operation. Defects were discovered in 48 patients (29%). In 34 patients (21%), because of size and location, defects were not considered sufficiently significant to warrant re-exploration. In 14 patients (8%), ultrasound revealed defects that prompted immediate re-exploration. Patients with ultrasound defects considered to be insignificant did as well as patients with no demonstrable defects. In the 14 patients who were re-explored, 12 had major defects that were corrected. These 12 patients also did well after operation. In two of the 14 patients, defects could not be found at re-exploration. Both these patients experienced early thrombosis of bypass grafts. In 56 patients, ultrasound was compared with arteriography at the same operation. The accuracy of operative ultrasound and operative arteriography was 96% and 85%, respectively. Operative ultrasound is more accurate, simpler and safer than arteriography and may be the preferred method for detection of vascular defects at reconstructive surgery. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7125733

  12. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  13. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  14. Extracellular matrix remodelling after coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, R. M.; Castagnino, C. G.; Berría, M. I.

    1992-01-01

    Weanling inbred Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with a myocarditic variant of coxsackievirus B3. At days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24 and 30 post-infection (p.i.), myocardial tissue was harvested for viral infectivity titrations and histological studies, including routine techniques (haematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome and von Kossa) and specialized procedures (silver impregnation for reticulin, picrosirius red stain for collagen and immunoperoxidase labelling for laminin). Virus was isolated as from day 2, reached maximal infectivity at days 6-8 and decreased gradually to become undetectable by day 14. Early histological findings during the 1st week consisted mainly of scattered foci of necrotic myocytes showing calcium deposits; slight mononuclear cell infiltration and fragmentation of both reticulin fibres and pericellular laminin were also present. From the 2nd up to 4th week p.i., inflammatory reaction abated concomitantly with the gradual development of fibrosis, as evidenced by reticulin fibre thickening, irregular laminin distribution and collagen fibre increase. Our results suggest that viral-induced necrosis is able to trigger marked extracellular matrix remodelling even in the case of minimal inflammation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1329915

  15. Morphology of nasal-cavity tumours in rats after chronic inhalation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, G.; Reznik-Schüller, H.; Ward, J. M.; Stinson, S. F.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of 50 F344 rats of each sex sere exposed to 0.6 or 3.0 pts/10(6) of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 103 weeks. Fifty rats of each sex inhaling filtered air were used as unexposed controls. All survivors were killed at 104 weeks. Up to 93% of the male and female rats developed neoplasms of the nasal cavity. Most of the tumours were adenomas, squamous-cell papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. In the low-dose group 78% of the tumours in males and 66% in females were benign, whereas in the high-dose groups 89% in males and 76% in females were malignant. Invasion through the cribriform plate into the cerebrum or metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was found in 73% of the carcinomas in males and 51% in females. Electron-microscopic examination suggested that the basal cells of the olfactory epithelium were the site of origin of the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7459212

  16. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus infected cells with cloned DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, E

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA BamH1 fragments was prepared and two cloned fragments were evaluated for their potential as probes for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The virus was purified by a modified sucrose density gradient procedure for the isolation of pure ILTV DNA. A genomic library was constructed using BamH1-digested ILTV DNA and pGEM7 as a vector. A 1.1 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA was tested in a slot or dot blot assay for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The limit of detection for this probe was at least 0.12 ng of pure ILTV DNA. The probe was able to identify both chicken embryo liver (CELi) cells and choriallantoic membranes infected with ILTV. Chicken embryo liver cells infected with several field isolates and a vaccine strain of ILTV were positive by dot blot analysis using this probe. Some qualitative differences in the degree of hybridization to cells infected by different ILTV isolates were observed. Uninfected cells and cells infected with fowlpox virus, turkey herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus or Newcastle disease virus were negative by the same assay. Compared with the 1.1 kb fragment, a larger 6 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA showed a stronger hybridization signal to DNA from ILTV infected cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1316798

  17. 125I-labeled peptide mapping of some heat-modifiable proteins of the gonococcal outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J

    1980-01-01

    Gonococci from opaque colonies have cell wall outer membrane proteins that are lacking from organisms which form transparent colonies. These "colony opacity-associated" proteins are among a group of "minor" proteins that exhibit heat modification of their apparent subunit molecular sizes, are easily extracted by deoxycholate, have apparent subunit molecular weights varying from 24,000 to 29,000 and are exposed on the surfaces of gonococci. Other minor proteins found on gonococci are the "leukocyte association proteins," whose presence correlates with reactivities of gonococci with human neutrophils. Several of the colony opacity-associated proteins and leukocyte association proteins were subjected to 125I-peptide mapping of protein bands separated by polyacrylamide electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The structural similarities and differences among these heat-modifiable surface proteins were studied, as well as their similarities with the major protein of the gonococcal outer membrane. A relatively high apparent degree of structural homology is found among the heat-modifiable proteins from different strains of opaque colony gonococcal forms. There is also some apparent structural homology for 125I-peptides of heat-modifiable versus major proteins of the gonococcal outer membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6769820

  18. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  19. Fine structure of vesiculated nerve profiles in the human lumbar facet joint.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, F; Creemers, J; Lambrichts, I; Robberechts, W

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of vesiculated nerve profiles were examined within a perivascular plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibres around small arteries and arterioles in the posterior facet joint capsule. Such profiles were exclusively observed in the dense fibrous layer and the adjacent part of the subintimal layer. The ligamentum flavum lacked any type of innervation. The vesiculated nerve profiles were tentatively classified on the basis of the fine structural appearances of their vesicular content. Two major types of nerve profiles could readily be distinguished in the capsular tissue. Both displayed a variable number of mitochondria, neurotubules and neurofilaments. The first type, containing predominantly small vesicles with an electron-dense granule or core, was frequently encountered and considered to be adrenergic in function. Profiles similar in morphology were also observed in the synovial plical tissue. A second type of profile, found in the joint capsule, contained varying proportions of small agranular (clear) vesicles and mitochondria. Some of these profiles exhibited an accumulation of mitochondria and were considered to be sensory in function. Nerve profiles filled with predominantly small flattened vesicles were occasionally encountered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8586567

  20. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  1. Disruption of the keratin filament network during epithelial cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, E B; Goodman, S L; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of keratin filaments during cell division was examined in a wide range of epithelial lines from several species. Almost half of them show keratin disruption as described previously: by immunofluorescence, filaments are replaced during mitosis by a 'speckled' pattern of discrete cytoplasmic dots. In the electron microscope these ' speckles ' are seen as granules around the cell periphery, just below the actin cortical mesh, with no detectable 10 nm filament structure inside them and no keratin filament bundles in the rest of the cytoplasm. A time course of the filament reorganization was constructed from double immunofluorescence data; filaments are disrupted in prophase, and the filament network is intact again by cytokinesis. The phenomenon is restricted to cells rich in keratin filaments, such as keratinocytes; it is unrelated to the co-existence of vimentin in many of these cells, and vimentin is generally maintained as filaments while the keratin is restructured. Some resistance to the effect may be conferred by an extended cycle time. Filament reorganization takes place within minutes, so that a reversible mechanism seems more likely than one involving de novo protein synthesis, at this metabolically quiet stage of the cell cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6202508

  2. A nutritional study of Irish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A.; Cantwell, T.; Doherty, F.; Folan, Jean C.; Ingoldsby, M.; Kevany, J. P.; O'Broin, J. D.; O'Connor, H.; O'Shea, B.; Ryan, B. A.; Vaughan, J.

    1981-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to carry out a nutritional assessment of selected Irish athletes and (2) to provide individual results and specific advice to each athlete on how to achieve an optimum diet. Dietary intakes were measured by a three-day weighed dietary record technique designed to evaluate each athlete's usual eating habits. The results were evaluated against a set of dietary standards in order to determine adequacy. Nutritional status was also assessed in a limited form by selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements. A total of 148 subjects took part in the assessment which began in May, 1979 and continued until April, 1980. The sports involved included: canoeing, cycling, rowing, swimming, hockey, squash and track and field events. The results indicated a range of sub-optimal dietary patterns relating in particular to abnormal intakes of folate, iron, pyridoxine and calcium. The significance and applications of these findings are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:7023594

  3. Sequence of cellular responses in rabbit aortas following one and two injuries with a balloon catheter.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, L.; Grøthe, A. G.; Groves, H. M.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R. L.; Richardson, M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of intimal proliferation and increased thrombogenesis following repeated arterial injuries we studied the sequence of the cellular changes following two injuries of rabbit aortas with a balloon catheter. Following the first injury, the de-endothelialized surface was covered by a platelet monolayer. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes adhered to the inner surface of this monolayer and did not appear to penetrate the vessel wall. By 4 to 7 days, areas of neointima had formed. Within seconds after the reinjury at 7 days after the de-endothelialization small platelet aggregates formed on injured neointimal smooth muscle cells. Within I min platelet thrombi and fibrin strands formed. At 30 min most of the platelet thrombi had become fibrin-rich. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes had accumulated and many had begun to penetrate into the neointimal tissue. The number and extent of penetration of leucocytes into the inner parts of the arterial wall increased with time. Four days after the injury the neointimal cushions were restored and thickened. Both following the first and second injury the formation of neointimal cushions was accompanied by a change in the polarity of the inner layers of medial smooth muscle cells, some of which appeared to have migrated into the neointima. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:3179197

  4. Differential subcellular mRNA targeting: deletion of a single nucleotide prevents the transport to axons but not to dendrites of rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, E; Morris, J F; Richter, D

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that mRNA encoding the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor is targeted to axons of rat magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract. In the homozygous Brattle-boro rat, which has a G nucleotide deletion in the coding region of the AVP gene, no such targeting is observed although the gene is transcribed. RNase protection and heteroduplex analyses demonstrate that, in heterozygous animals, which express both alleles of the AVP gene, the wild-type but not the mutant transcript is subject to axonal compartmentation. In contrast, wild-type and mutant AVP mRNAs are present in dendrites. These data suggest the existence of different mechanisms for mRNA targeting to the two subcellular compartments. Axonal mRNA localization appears to take place after protein synthesis; the mutant transcript is not available for axonal targeting because it lacks a stop codon preventing its release from ribosomes. Dendritic compartmentation, on the other hand, is likely to precede translation and, thus, would be unable to discriminate between the two mRNAs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753814

  5. Ataxia-Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, H. G.; Meuwissen, H.; Livingstone, C. S.; Pump, K. K.

    1964-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a syndrome of progressive cerebellar ataxia and other neurological manifestations associated with conjunctival and cutaneous telangiectases and with recurrent sino-pulmonary infections. Immunological and endocrine abnormalities occur. Two girls with this disease are described. The first had only minor respiratory infections; her serum proteins and immunity responses appeared normal. The second had recurrent pulmonary infections and bronchiectasis; she also exhibited sclerodermatous changes, poor development of secondary sexual characteristics with low urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, and lymphopenia. Autopsy at 17 years showed bilateral ovarian dysgerminomata and excessive cutaneous collagen as well as atrophy, and perhaps hypoplasia, of adrenals, thymus, spleen and lymphoid tissue (after steroid therapy). The cerebellum exhibited cortical degeneration. Both lungs were fibrotic with old and recent bronchopneumonia and bronchiectasis. The left lung was studied by injection of a latex preparation; no arteriovenous aneurysms were found, but the smaller pulmonary vessels showed some unusual morphological characteristics. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11aFig. 11b PMID:14229760

  6. Ontogeny of four blood-brain barrier markers: an immunocytochemical comparison of pial and cerebral cortical microvessels.

    PubMed Central

    Cassella, J P; Lawrenson, J G; Allt, G; Firth, J A

    1996-01-01

    Pial and cortical microvessels possess many blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties in common, including impermeability to electron dense tracers, high transendothelial electrical resistance and specialised endothelial cell ultrastructural features. To compare pial and cortical microvessels further, a developmental, immunocytochemical study was undertaken of 4 BBB markers in the rat: OX-47, EBA, GLUT-1 and s-laminin. The appearance of the markers was monitored from embryonic d 16, to postnatal and adult stages. Each of the 4 markers appeared simultaneously in both pial and cortical vessels. GLUT-1 and OX-47 were present in endothelial cells of the BBB from E 16 to the adult. EBA and s-laminin appeared from postnatal d 7 through to the adult. Pial microvessels lack the ensheathment of astrocytes which may be involved in the induction and/or maintenance of BBB markers in the cortex. It is possible that astrocyte-derived factors diffusing from the brain surface are responsible for induction of BBB properties in the pial microvessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8886962

  7. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  8. FRAG1, a gene that potently activates fibroblast growth factor receptor by C-terminal fusion through chromosomal rearrangement.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, M V; Horii, Y; Yamanaka, R; Sakaguchi, K; Miki, T

    1996-01-01

    A constitutively active form of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGFR2) was identified in rat osteosarcoma (ROS) cells by an expression cloning strategy. Unlike other tyrosine kinase receptors activated by N-terminal truncation in tumors, this receptor, FGFR2-ROS, contains an altered C terminus generated from chromosomal rearrangement with a novel gene, designated FGFR activating gene 1 (FRAG1). While the removal of the C terminus slightly activates FGFR2, the presence of the FRAG1 sequence drastically stimulates the transforming activity and autophosphorylation of the receptor. FGFR2-ROS is expressed as a unusually large protein and is highly phosphorylated in NIH 3T3 transfectants. FRAG1 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a predicted protein of 28 kDa lacking significant structural similarity to known proteins. Epitope-tagged FRAG1 protein showed a perinuclear localization by immunofluorescence staining. The highly activated state of FGFR2-ROS appears to be attributed to constitutive dimer formation and higher phosphorylation level as well as possibly altered subcellular localization. These results indicate a unique mechanism of receptor activation by a C terminus alteration through a chromosomal fusion with FRAG1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799135

  9. Transcriptional activation of human adult alpha-globin genes by hypersensitive site-40 enhancer: function of nuclear factor-binding motifs occupied in erythroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rombel, I; Hu, K Y; Zhang, Q; Papayannopoulou, T; Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Shen, C K

    1995-01-01

    The developmental stage- and erythroid lineage-specific activation of the human embryonic zeta- and fetal/adult alpha-globin genes is controlled by an upstream regulatory element [hypersensitive site (HS)-40] with locus control region properties, a process mediated by multiple nuclear factor-DNA complexes. In vitro DNase I protection experiments of the two G+C-rich, adult alpha-globin promoters have revealed a number of binding sites for nuclear factors that are common to HeLa and K-562 extracts. However, genomic footprinting analysis has demonstrated that only a subset of these sites, clustered between -130 and +1, is occupied in an erythroid tissue-specific manner. The function of these in vivo-occupied motifs of the alpha-globin promoters, as well as those previously mapped in the HS-40 region, is assayed by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in embryonic/fetal erythroid K-562 cells. These studies, together with our expression data on the human embryonic zeta-globin promoter, provide a comprehensive view of the functional roles of individual nuclear factor-DNA complexes in the final stages of transcriptional activation of the human alpha-like globin promoters by the HS-40 element. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7604012

  10. A new mechanical device for circular compression anastomosis. Preliminary results of animal and clinical experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, R; Rebuffat, C; Pezzuoli, G

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the preliminary results obtained in animal and clinical experimentation of a new mechanical device for circular anastomosis which they have developed. It is a gun that places an apparatus consisting of three polypropylene rings that, through the compression among them of the severed edges of the bowel, realize a sutureless anastomosis and are spontaneously evacuated. Fifty-eight colonic anastomoses were performed in dogs with this device; 23 stapled colonic anastomoses were also executed concurrently. Forty-four animals underwent a relaparotomy to remove the colonic specimen containing the anastomoses. Bursting pressure and the histologic features of the anastomoses were evaluated at different time intervals after operation. A good healing of all compression anastomoses was observed, thereby allowing them to initiate the experience in humans. Thirteen anastomoses (6 colorectal extraperitoneal, 1 colorectal intraperitoneal, 5 colocolonic, 1 ileorectal) were performed at the 1st Surgical Department, Milan University. One subclinical leakage (7.7%) spontaneously healed in a few days. No stenoses were observed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2., Fig. 4., Fig. 6. Fig. 3., Fig. 5., Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3345111

  11. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  12. The ultrastructure of the centroacinar cells within the pancreas of the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D W; Kendall, M D

    1982-01-01

    Tissues from the dorsal lobe of the pancreas of 8 starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were examined electron microscopically using conventionally prepared samples. Centroacinar cells were distinguished from exocrine pancreas cells by differences in size, shape, distribution, position and zymogen granule content. The centroacinar cells closely resembled ductal cells and were separated from them only by position. Both electron-lucent and electron-dense forms of centroacinar cells were observed. Centroacinar cells show a prominent single nucleus, often displaying at least one nucleolus, surrounded by cytoplasm in which lies a spectrum of both primary and secondary lysosomes, mitochondria which appear to have some tubulovesicular cristae amongst the predominating transverse cristae, a sparse para- or supranuclear Golgi apparatus, and variable populations of ribosomes and profiles of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Cell surface features include microvilli, 'blebs' and the occasional single cilium. Centroacinar cells are believed to be involved in electrolyte secretion although, from a study of their ultrastructure, the absence of beta cytomembranes with numerous mitochondria in their neighbourhood, would appear to contra-indicate the maintenance of an osmotic gradient between the extracellular fluid and any secretory product. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7130051

  13. Neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (enkephalinase). Biosynthesis and localization in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Lorkowski, G; Zijderhand-Bleekemolen, J E; Erdös, E G; von Figura, K; Hasilik, A

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis, glycosylation and subcellular localization of the neutral endopeptidase-24.11 were studied in cultured human fibroblasts. The enzyme was synthesized as a precursor (Mr 88,000) containing four or five N-linked oligosaccharides. Within 1 h the synthesis-mature (Mr 94,000) endopeptidase-24.11 was formed and contained sialylated oligosaccharides. The half-life of endopeptidase-24.11 was 3.7 days and in the presence of 10 mM-NH4Cl it increased to 6 days. Mature endopeptidase-24.11 was solubilized with 0.2% saponin and partitioned into Triton X-114. In intact fibroblasts, endopeptidase-24.11 was accessible to antibodies and to neuraminidase even when the treatment was performed at 4 degrees C. The localization of endopeptidase-24.11 to the plasma membrane in cultured fibroblasts was further demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3481263

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of novel stilbene derivatives isolated from Parthenocissus tricuspidata from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Il Hong; Chung, Ill-Min; Lee, Sun-Joo; Moon, Hyung-In

    2007-06-01

    New stilbene glycoside, piceid-(1-->6)-beta-D -glucopyranoside (compound 2, Fig. 1), was isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Vitaceae) together with four known compounds, piceid (compound 1, Fig. 1), resveratrol (compound 3, Fig. 1), longistylin A (compound 4, Fig. 1), and longistylin C (compound 5, Fig. 1). Their structures were determined spectroscopically, particularly by 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and chemical analysis. The antiplasmodial activity of isolated compounds were determined in vitro against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10). Among the compounds isolated, piceid-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) had the most potential inhibition, with inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.3 microM. To our knowledge, antiplasmodial activity of functional group position of stilbene is now being reported for the first time in this study. The result shows that the 3, 4'-position in stilbenes might play an essential role in antiplasmodial activity. PMID:17211658

  15. The extent of the odontoblast process in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1976-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that in the dentine of cats perfused with aldehyde fixatives for short periods the odontoblast process seems to be limited to inner dentine. This could possibly have been an artefact due either to inadequate penetration of the fixative or shrinkage of the cells. Experiments prolonging the duration of the fixation and raising the concentration of the fixatives, examining dentine from regions and species where it is narrow and more accessible to fixatives, and looking at dentine fixed by immersion both in situ and after excision, all showed the process to be limited to inner dentine. Measruing glutaraldehyde penetration through model dentine and also through dentine in the perfused animal showed that this fixative penetrates the dentine well. Variations in fixative osmotic pressure, while having a profound effect on cells and processes in vitro and causing changes in cell shape in the intact animal, do not neasurably alter the extent of the odontoblast process. The conclusion is that the odontoblast process in the cat is limited to the pulpal half of the dentine. As a consequence, no cellular mechanism can be involved in the transmission of stimuli across the outer dentine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:815232

  16. A decade of missile-induced vascular trauma.

    PubMed Central

    D'Sa, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    During 10 years of serious strife the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, has dealt with trauma inflicted by a wide variety of missiles. Injuries involving 316 vessels were sustained by 192 patients. A group of "knee-cappings' accounted for a large proportion of popliteal vessel injuries. A majority of patients also suffered damage to other regions of the body. Hypotension was a notable feature and several patients arrived in extremis, particularly those with injuries to a major vessel trunks and vital organs. The benefits of rapid evacuation in relation to ischaemia time are discussed. The operative management of a wide range of arterial and venous injuries is described. The use of simple and compound vein grafts allowed adequate excision of damaged vessels. The advantages of meticulous repair, timely fasciotomy, and early reintervention are reflected in the results, contributing to the small lower-lib amputation rate of 5.1%. Images fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:7055366

  17. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  18. The variable surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma equiperdum are phosphorylated.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, T; Giroud, C; Baltz, D; Duvillier, G; Degand, P; Demaille, J; Pautrizel, R

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoproteins from three Trypanosoma equiperdum variants were studied by labelling the parasites in vivo with 32P. Phosphoprotein analysis reveals the presence of a 58 000 mol. wt. phosphoprotein ( pp58 ) which is absent when live trypanosomes are pre-treated with proteinase K under conditions where only the surface coat containing the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) is removed. Immunological and fingerprint analysis on labelled pp58 , purified from these variants by affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, clearly identify this component as the VSG. Furthermore, the VSGs seem to be phosphorylated to the extent of 1 mol phosphate per mol glycoprotein. The phosphorylated region is located in the extreme C-terminal region representing approximately 10% of the total molecule. The phosphorylated residue is not an aliphatic or aromatic ester of serine, threonine, or tyrosine, nor an acyl phosphate involving an aspartyl or glutamyl residue, nor phosphohistidine. The evidence that VSGs are phosphorylated could have considerable implications for the transfer and function of these structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6821334

  19. Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignant Disease in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, I. T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred aspirations using a fine needle have been performed on 94 patients with a suspected diagnosis of malignant tumour, 31 of which were in patients with recurrent tumour. In 90 aspirates where histology was also available there was agreement between histological and cytological diagnosis in 81 (90%). This percentage was identical when only previously undiagnosed tumours were considered (60). In 4 aspirates no cells were obtained from tumours in which a diagnosis was made histologically and in 5 there was disagreement with histology, either regarding the presence of malignancy, or tumour type. The technique of fine needle aspiration is simple, rapid, safe and reliable. It is particularly valuable when emergency treatment is required, necessitating a very rapid diagnosis, or when the tumour is entirely intra-abdominal and the patient is unfit for laparotomy. Repeat aspirates may be performed to assess progress following treatment, or multiple suspected tumour sites may be aspirated to assist staging. The technique may be used to confirm the presence of relapsing tumour. Aspiration cytology may prove valuable as a further dimension in the interpretation of histological sections in a variety of childhood tumours, and in some circumstances may be sufficient in itself to establish a diagnosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4131498

  20. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  1. Cardiac achalasia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjit; Sethi, R. S.; Gupta, H. L.; Khetarpal, S. K.

    1969-01-01

    Cardiac achalasia is a disorder not unknown in the paediatric age-group and may occur even in the neonatal period. This disorder should, therefore, be considered in all cases presenting with persistent vomiting, as well as in those with chronic respiratory disease in whom more common causes have been excluded. It is almost universally accepted that the disorder results from a disturbed function of ganglion cells in the distal oesophagus, as the disease has been reproduced in laboratory animals by denervation of the distal oesophagus. The exact pathogenesis of this degenerative change is not well understood. However, in at least some of the cases congenital absence of the ganglion cells may be responsible for this functional disturbance. This is inferred from the fact that the disease may be found in association with Hirschsprung disease, in which there is a congenital absence of ganglion cells in the terminal colon. Moreover, the occurrence of the disease in the neonatal period itself favours a congenital lesion. Surgery was preferred to other forms of treatment in the paediatric age-group in view of the reported equivocal response to mechanical dilatation and pre-disposition of children to respiratory complications. The results of surgery were satisfactory. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5790932

  2. Endoesophageal pull through. A technique for the treatment of cancers of the cardia and lower esophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, F

    1988-01-01

    Transthoracic and extrathoracic approaches to cancers of the lower esophagus and cardia each have advantages and drawbacks; the trauma of thoracotomy must be balanced against that of blunt mediastinal extraction of the esophagus. A different surgical approach is proposed in this paper, avoiding both thoracotomy and encroachment upon thoracic mediastinal structures. This technique is based on the removal of the tumor and the esophageal mucosa above it as a distinct anatomic layer by blunt dissection through separate abdominal and neck incisions. This is followed by pulling upward a segment of stomach (or colon) through the esophageal muscular tunnel into the neck for a cervical anastomosis. This endoesophageal pull through (EEPT) approach has been used in the surgical treatment of a total of ten patients, six with adenocarcinomas of the cardia and four with squamous cell carcinomas of the lower esophagus. In nine patients the stomach, and in one patient the left colon, was brought to the neck to reestablish gastrointestinal (GI) continuity. The operation was well tolerated. There was no excessive intraoperative or postoperative bleeding, and there was no in-hospital mortality up to 30 days. The major postoperative complication was cervical anastomotic leakage seen in four patients. The EEPT technique is a palliative approach for cancers of the lower esophagus and cardia, comparing favorably with the standard extrathoracic or transthoracic transhiatal procedures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Figs. 4A and B. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3355268

  3. Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Howard D.; Breidenbach, R. William

    1987-01-01

    A major 75 kD protein group from the tomato plasma membrane was semipurified on polyacrylamide gels and used to raise a rabbit antiserum. The resulting antiserum recognized a single 75 kilodalton band from phase partitioned tomato plasma membrane (from both suspension cells and mature, green fruit) after resolution on one-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis of proteins from tomato plasma membrane showed that the 75 kilodalton antiserum recognized a group of proteins ranging from 63.1 to 88.2 kilodaltons (mean = 75.6 kilodaltons) and with isoelectric point values ranging from 5.7 to 6.3. No other spots were visible on the two-dimensional blots. This antiserum was shown to bind protoplast surface epitopes by indirect immunofluorescence. The presence of this protein group in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants was established by immunoblotting the tomato 75 kilodalton antiserum against proteins obtained from plasma membrane-enriched fractions from corn roots and soybean roots. The data suggest that this 75 kilodalton protein group is a major proteinaceous component of the plant plasma membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665801

  4. COOH-terminal processing of nascent polypeptides by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase in the presence of hydrazine is governed by the same parameters as glycosylphosphatidylinositol addition.

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, S; Maxwell, S E; Medof, M E; Chen, R; Gerber, L D; Udenfriend, S

    1996-01-01

    Proteins anchored to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety are found in all eukaryotes. After NH2-terminal peptide cleavage of the nascent protein by the signal peptidase, a second COOH-terminal signal peptide is cleaved with the concomitant addition of the GPI unit. The proposed mechanism of the GPI transfer is a transamidation reaction that involves the formation of an activated carbonyl intermediate (enzyme-substrate complex) with the ethanolamine moiety of the preassembled GPI unit serving as a nucleophile. Other nucleophilic acceptors like hydrazine (HDZ) and hydroxylamine have been shown to be possible alternate substrates for GPI. Since GPI has yet to be purified, the use of readily available nucleophilic substitutes such as HDZ and hydroxylamine is a viable alternative to study COOH-terminal processing by the putative transamidase. As a first step in developing a soluble system to study this process, we have examined the amino acid requirements at the COOH terminus for the transamidation reaction using HDZ as the nucleophilic acceptor instead of GPI. The hydrazide-forming reaction shows identical amino acid requirement profiles to that of GPI anchor addition. Additionally, we have studied other parameters relating to the kinetics of the transamidation reaction in the context of rough microsomal membranes. The findings with HDZ provide further evidence for the transamidase nature of the enzyme and also provide a starting point for development of a soluble assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8755508

  5. In vivo disruption of Xenopus U3 snRNA affects ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Savino, R; Gerbi, S A

    1990-01-01

    DNA oligonucleotide complementary to sequences in the 5' third of U3 snRNA were injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei to disrupt endogenous U3 snRNA. The effect of this treatment on rRNA processing was examined. We found that some toads have a single rRNA processing pathway, whereas in other toads, two rRNA processing pathways can coexist in a single oocyte. U3 snRNA disruption in toads with the single rRNA processing pathway caused a reduction in 20S and '32S' pre-rRNA. In addition, in toads with two rRNA processing pathways, an increase in '36S' pre-rRNA of the second pathway is observed. This is the first in vivo demonstration that U3 snRNA plays a role in rRNA processing. Cleavage site #3 is at the boundary of ITS 1 and 5.8S and links all of the affected rRNA intermediates: 20S and '32S' are the products of site #3 cleavage in the first pathway and '36S' is the substrate for cleavage at site #3 in the second pathway. We postulate that U3 snRNP folds pre-rRNA into a conformation dictating correct cleavage at processing site #3. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2357971

  6. The fine structure of initial mineralisation during tooth development in the gummy shark, Mustelus manazo, Elasmobranchia.

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In the enameloid matrix a large number of tubular vesicles appeared around the odontoblast processes at the stage of enameloid matrix formation. The tubular vesicles were limited by unit membrane and the membrane often seemed to connect with that of the odontoblast processes. The tubular vesicles probably originated from the odontoblasts. Electron-dense granules were observed in the tubular vesicles before the appearance of crystals and then, in the stage of mineralisation, initial enameloid crystals appeared in each tubular vesicle. Parts of the odontoblast process surrounded small aggregations of tubular vesicles in the unmineralised dentine matrix. There were many multivesicular bodies and lysosomes in the odontoblasts forming the dentine. The odontoblasts probably absorb and break down the tubular vesicles after the beginning of dentinogenesis. Only in the predentine, during the enameloid maturation stage, did a few matrix vesicles appear, but no crystals were found in them. Hence, the initial mineralisation in tooth germs of the shark can be said to be different from that in teleosts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:2606790

  7. Biochemical and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Concanavalin B Crystals from Jack Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert; Delozier, Gregory; Robinson, Lindsay; McPherson, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Parallel biochemical and crystallographic studies have been carried out on the protein concanavalin B from Jack Bean (Canavalis ensiformis). The studies show the protein to be a monomer of 33,000 daltons with unexceptional amino acid composition and no covalently bound carbohydrate. The molecule contains a single, firmly bound zinc ion and we present evidence that the protein specifically binds nucleotide coenzymes including at least NADPH and flavin mononucleotide. An electron density map of the concanavalin B crystals (space group P61, a = b = 80.9 Å, c = 102.2 Å) has been calculated from phases based on six isomorphous heavy atom derivatives. A description of the structure of the protein based on the 5.0 Å resolution x-ray diffraction study is provided. The structure appears to contain a substantial amount of α-helix as well as an extensive β-sheet and these are organized into two domains of unequal size. The position of the bound zinc is indicated by anomalous difference Fouriers and the nucleotide binding site by conventional difference Fourier maps. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:16663793

  8. Squamous-cell Carcinoma of the Anus and Anal Canal: An Analysis of 55 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, W. B.

    1941-01-01

    The analysis is of 55 cases admitted into St. Mark's Hospital from 1922 to 1940. The incidence was 3.35% of all cases of cancer of the rectum, anal canal and anus admitted during this period. Sex distribution—27 males and 28 females. The average age (61.7 years) is higher than that of columnar-cell carcinoma of the rectum (57.4 years). Histology.—The cases have been graded into three grades of malignancy—low grade, medium grade, and high grade. Low grade squamous carcinoma is twice as frequent in men as in women, and generally originates at the anal margin. Medium grade squamous carcinoma is equally distributed between men and women; it may arise at the anus or in the anal canal. High grade squamous carcinoma is much more common in the female sex and is almost entirely limited to the anal canal. Quadrant affected—about one-third of the anal margin growths and one-half of the anal canal growths were situated anteriorly. Differential diagnosis from simple papilloma, simple ulcer, chronic inflammation, tuberculous ulcer, tuberculide, primary chancre, amœbic ulcer, basal-cell carcinoma, columnar-cell carcinoma. Biopsy and grading essential before treatment is decided upon. The results of treatment in the three grades of malignancy are described. The best results were obtained in the early low-grade cases treated by interstitial radium needling. In the medium and high grades only three five-year survivals can be reported and these followed excision of the rectum. The management of the inguinal glands is discussed and the importance of a very close post-operative supervision emphasized. Squamous carcinoma of the anal canal may cause lymphatic metastases in the superior hæmorrhoidal glands; there have been four such cases in this series. Diathermy perineal excision is indicated in these cases. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:19992316

  9. Experience gained from treating facial injuries due to civil unrest

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, R I H

    1981-01-01

    During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp[35]-ap[42]-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260

  10. Fibrosing alveolitis in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, C J; Hull, D; Keeling, J W

    1977-01-01

    Fibrosing alveolitis is a rare, diffuse lung disease characterized by varying combinations of two histological features: thickening of alveolar walls and the presence of large mononuclear cells in the alveolar spaces. Clinical details of 10 children with fibrosing alveolitis are reported. The main symptoms in children are tachypnoea or dyspnoea, cough, poor weight gain, and cyanosis. The condition is similar to that in adults, but it is usually a more acute illness, and if untreated, more predictably fatal. Respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac failure are the major complications. Less commonly, superimposed bacterial infection and pneumothorax occur. Chest x-rays often show a sequence of changes with a ground-glass appearance and fine mottling in the early stage of the disease, progressing to a picture of mainly hilar linear markings in those children who recover. The histological features at lung biopsy or necropsy are described; these correlated poorly with the radiological features, steroid responsiveness, and clinical course. Lung function tests in 3 older children showed evidence of markedly reduced lung volumes in 2. Static lung compliance in 4 children in the acute stage of the illness was normal in 3 and diminished in one. The response to steroid therapy was analysed in cases from the literature and the 10 reported cases. No spontaneous remissions occurred, all the survivors having been treated with corticosteroids. In children fibrosing alveolitis is almost always a corticosteroid-responsive disease. An appropriate course of prednisolone would be of at least 4 week's, but preferably of 8 weeks' duration, at a minimum daily dose of 2 mg/kg. After improvement the steroid withdrawal should be cautious and protracted, comprising at least a year's continuous treatment. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:836051

  11. Automation in clinical microbiology: a new approach to identifying micro-organisms by automated pattern matching of proteins labelled with 35S-methionine.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaqchali, S; Silman, R; Holland, D

    1987-01-01

    A new rapid automated method for the identification and classification of microorganisms is described. It is based on the incorporation of 35S-methionine into cellular proteins and subsequent separation of the radiolabelled proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein patterns produced were species specific and reproducible, permitting discrimination between the species. A large number of Gram negative and Gram positive aerobic and anaerobic organisms were successfully tested. Furthermore, there were sufficient differences within species between the protein profiles to permit subdivision of the species. New typing schemes for Clostridium difficile, coagulase negative staphylococci, and Staphylococcus aureus, including the methicillin resistant strains, could thus be introduced; this has provided the basis for useful epidemiological studies. To standardise and automate the procedure an automated electrophoresis system and a two dimensional scanner were developed to scan the dried gels directly. The scanner is operated by a computer which also stores and analyses the scan data. Specific histograms are produced for each bacterial species. Pattern recognition software is used to construct databases and to compare data obtained from different gels: in this way duplicate "unknowns" can be identified. Specific small areas showing differences between various histograms can also be isolated and expanded to maximise the differences, thus providing differentiation between closely related bacterial species and the identification of differences within the species to provide new typing schemes. This system should be widely applied in clinical microbiology laboratories in the near future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3312300

  12. Coexpression of NF-kappa B/Rel and Sp1 transcription factors in human immunodeficiency virus 1-induced, dendritic cell-T-cell syncytia.

    PubMed Central

    Granelli-Piperno, A; Pope, M; Inaba, K; Steinman, R M

    1995-01-01

    Productive infection of T cells with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) typically requires that the T cells be stimulated with antigens or mitogens. This requirement has been attributed to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which synergizes with the constitutive transcription factor Sp1 to drive the HIV-1 promoter. Recently, we have found that vigorous replication of HIV-1 takes place in nonactivated memory T cells after syncytium formation with dendritic cells (DCs). These syncytia lack activated cells as determined by an absence of staining for Ki-67 cell cycle antigen. The expression and activity of NF-kappa B and Sp1 were, therefore, analyzed in isolated T cells and DCs from humans and mice. We have used immunolabeling, Western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. T cells lack active NF-kappa B but express Sp1 as expected. DCs express high levels of all known NF-kappa B and Rel proteins, with activity residing primarily within RelB, p50, and p65. However, DCs lack Sp1, which may explain the failure of HIV-1 to replicate in purified DCs. Coexpression of NF-kappa B and Sp1 occurs in the heterologous DC-T-cell syncytia that are induced by HIV-1. Therefore, HIV-1-induced cell fusion brings together factors that upregulate virus transcription. Since DCs and memory T cells frequently traffic together in situ, these unusual heterologous syncytia could develop in infected individuals and lead to chronic HIV-1 replication without ostensible immune stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479915

  13. An atlas of the dorsal thalamus of the marsupial brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula.

    PubMed Central

    Haight, J R; Neylon, L

    1978-01-01

    In several respects the dorsal thalamus of Trichosurus presents a level of organizational complexity considerably in advance of that seen in Didelphis. In particular, such features as the lamination of the dorsal lateral geniculate, the distinct subdivisions of the ventroposterior and lateroposterior complexes, and the more pronounced separation of the ventroanterior from the ventrolateral nucleus, are similar to conditions found in many eutherians. On the other hand, some features which Trichosurus shares with Didelphis, such as the lack of a median central nucleus, and the well developed midline nuclei, are usually said to be indicative of a more 'primitive' level of neural organization. In most instances the thalamic nuclei in Trichosurus are easily homologized with those of Didelphis and other mammals. The difficult areas are the lateral and posterior groups of nuclei, regions which have generally been troublesome in most mammals thus far examined. What does become apparent after this examination of the Trichosurus thalamus is that this representative of the diprotodontid radiation has produced some neurological features which strikingly parallel those of certain advanced eutherians while retaining other features generally considered to be generalized and primitive. Within the metatheria Trichosurus represents a considerable advance over Didelphis. However, as will be seen in later papers in this series, there are other features, particularly those of thalamocortical fibre distribution, which serve to set Trichosurus quite markedly apart from both Didelphis and at least certain eutherian mammals (Haight & Neylon, 1977b, c, 1978). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:670061

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a hyaluronan binding protein, hyaluronectin, from human placenta and its colocalisation with hyaluronan.

    PubMed Central

    Ponting, J M; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and is known to influence cell behaviour and to play a role in angiogenesis, morphogenesis and tissue remodelling, although little is known concerning the regulation of these effects. Until now its detection in the placenta has been by indirect methods, which has led to conflicting conclusions as to its distribution and hence its role. Hyaluronectin (HN) is one of a group of proteins with HA binding ability which may regulate the effects of HA. Although nervous tissue HN has been partly characterised with regard to its distribution, structure and biochemistry, little is known about the mesenchymal isoform and its distribution in placenta has not previously been reported. Using specific probes we have characterised the distribution of HA and HN in human placental tissue. At all stages of development studied (8, 10, 12, 30 and 38 wk gestation) HA and HN were unequivocally colocalised, being distributed in the extracellular matrix of stromal tissue of placental villi, chorioallantoic membranes and umbilical cord. Particularly strong immunoreactivity was observed in the villous stroma immediately adjacent to fibrinoid depositions at sites of denudation of the trophoblast layer. Extraction and characterisation of the HN from placental villi have revealed 4 major glycoproteins of 47, 52, 57 and 67 kDa, this being a different pattern and smaller molecular range than observed for the nervous tissue form. This is the first direct demonstration of the presence of HA and HN in the placenta and identifies an abundant new source of mesenchymal HN. The functions of mesenchymal HN are unknown but may include ion exchange, immunosuppression and regulation of the effects of HA in such roles as maintenance of tissue architecture, cell migration and angiogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7544332

  15. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  16. The histological appearance of large intestinal biopsies in dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, I

    1988-01-01

    Colonic and rectal forceps and excision biopsies of 355 dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease were investigated. Five percent of the forceps biopsies were unsuitable for examination; all excision biopsies were of good quality. Forceps biopsies were obtained from one to eight sites, up to 60 cm cranial from the anus, while excision biopsies, mostly from tumors, were from the rectoanal region. Slight to severe colitis and/or proctitis was found in 192 dogs (54%). A single type of colitis was seen in 160 dogs; in 53 cases the lesions were local, in 107 cases multiple. A combination of different types of colitis was found in 32 dogs. Atrophic colitis, diffuse colitis and canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were the most prominent findings, followed by ulcerative, superficial and eosinophilic colitis. Follicular, hypertrophic and aspecific granulomatous colitis were found in only a few cases. Tumors were diagnosed in 57 dogs (16%). Of these tumors 50 were of epithelial and seven were of mesenchymal origin. A high percentage (61%) of the epithelial tumors consisted of adenomas of the rectoanal region. In ten other dogs (3%) a differential diagnosis of lymphosarcoma or colitis had to be made. Colitis and colorectal tumors were more prevalent in Boxers, German Shepherds, Poodles, Great Danes and Spaniels. In the Boxers simple chronic colitis, as well as canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were more frequently found, the latter especially in females. Other biopsy findings were edema, crypt cysts, hemorrhages, an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and an increased or decreased number of goblet cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:3349403

  17. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  18. Oncogenic activation of the human trk proto-oncogene by recombination with the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.

    PubMed Central

    Ziemiecki, A; Müller, R G; Fu, X C; Hynes, N E; Kozma, S

    1990-01-01

    The trk-2h oncogene, isolated from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB 231 by genomic DNA-transfection into NIH3T3 cells, consists of the trk proto-oncogene receptor kinase domain fused to a N-terminal 41 amino acid activating sequence (Kozma, S.C., Redmond, S.M.S., Xiao-Chang, F., Saurer, S.M., Groner, B. and Hynes, N.E. (1988) EMBO J., 7, 147-154). Antibodies raised against a bacterially produced beta gal-trk receptor kinase fusion protein recognized a 44 kd phosphoprotein phosphorylated on serine, threonine and tyrosine in extracts of trk-2h transformed NIH3T3 cells. In vitro, in the presence of Mn2+/gamma ATP, this protein became phosphorylated extensively on tyrosine. Cells transformed by trk-2h did not, however, show an elevation in total phosphotyrosine. We have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the amino terminal activating sequences of trk-2h (Kozma et al., 1988). The encoded protein has a high basic amino acid content and the gene is expressed as an abundant 1.2 kb mRNA in human, rat and mouse cells. Antipeptide antibodies raised against a C-terminal peptide recognized specifically a 30 kd protein on Western blots of human, rat and mouse cell extracts. Immunofluorescence revealed, in addition to granular cytoplasmic fluorescence, intense nucleolar staining. The high basic amino acid content and nucleolar staining prompted us to investigate whether the 30 kd protein could be a ribosomal protein. Western immunoblotting analysis of 2D-electrophoretically resolved ribosomal proteins indicated that the 30 kd protein is the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2403926

  19. Electrical stimulation for the relief of pain.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, J.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical stimulation can relieve some severe and otherwise persisting pains. At its best it can be associated with either a gradual reduction in the pain or an increased ability by the patient to control his suffering. It seems particularly appropriate for use in the field of benign persistent pain. Equipment design and materials, particularly for implantable circuits, are not perfect. Movement towards percutaneous implantation, obviating the need for open operation, seems progressively more popular. Any unit or group using this form of treatment, must be prepared to provide major technical facilities, both in the form of people and equipment in order to cater for the many purely technical problems that occur. A great deal of knowledge both neurophysiological and neurochemical seems to be accruing from the clinical use of electrical stimulation. We would do well to take advantage of this opportunity, in the hope that it might lead us to a better understanding of the functioning of the nervous system. This consideration remarkably parallels an observation made by John Hunter in his presentation to the Royal Society in 1773 (13) which anticipated the realisation of the part played by electricity in the function of nerves. Following his description of the extraordinary innervation of the electric organs of the Torpedo fish, he wrote: 'How far this may be connected with the power of the nerves in general, or how far it may lead to an explanation of their operations, time and future discoveries alone can fully determine.' Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6608312

  20. A stable human-derived packaging cell line for production of high titer retrovirus/vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Ory, D S; Neugeboren, B A; Mulligan, R C

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a human 293-derived retroviral packaging cell line (293GPG) capable of producing high titers of recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus particles that have incorporated the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) protein. To achieve expression of the retroviral gag-pol polyprotein, the precise coding sequences for gag-pol were introduced into a vector which utilizes totally nonretroviral signals for gene expression. Because constitutive expression of the VSV-G protein is toxic in 293 cells, we used the tetR/VP 16 transactivator and teto minimal promoter system for inducible, tetracycline-regulatable expression of VSV-G. After stable transfection of the 293GPG packaging cell line with the MFG.SnlsLacZ retroviral vector construct, it was possible to readily isolate stable virus-producing cell lines with titers approaching 10(7) colony-forming units/ml. Transient transfection of 293GPG cells using a modified version of MFG.SnlsLacZ, in which the cytomegalovirus IE promoter was used to drive transcription of the proviral genome, led to titers of approximately 10(6) colony-forming units/ml. The retroviral/VSV-G pseudotypes generated using 293GPG cells were significantly more resistant to human complement than commonly used amphotropic vectors and could be highly concentrated (> 1000-fold). This new packaging cell line may prove to be particularly useful for assessing the potential use of retroviral vectors for direct in vivo gene transfer. The design of the cell line also provides at least theoretical advantages over existing cell lines with regard to the possible release of replication-competent virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8876147

  1. Function of Rhizodermal Transfer Cells in the Fe Stress Response Mechanism of Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, Ernst-Christian

    1986-01-01

    A variety of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv Yaglik) responds to Fe deficiency stress with simultaneously enhanced H+ extrusion, reduction of ferric ions and synthesis of malic and citric acid in a swollen subapical root zone densely covered with root hairs. It is demonstrated that these stress responses temporally coincide with the development of rhizodermal and hypodermal transfer cells in this root zone. During stress response the transfer cells show a marked autofluorescence which could arise from endogenous iron chelators of the phenolic acid type. The presence of organelle-rich cytoplasm which often exhibits rotational cytoplasmic streaming points to high physiological activity and makes these cells, with their increased plasmalemma surface, particularly well suited for the entire stress response mechanism. Since Fe stress-induced acidification is diminished by vanadate and erythrosin B, both specific inhibitors of plasmalemma ATPases, it seems reasonable to suppose that H+ pumping from transfer cells is activated by an ATPase located in their plasmamembrane. H+ extrusion is also shown to be inhibited by abscisic acid. Raised phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and simultaneous accumulation of malate in the swollen root zone point to the action of a pH stat preventing a detrimental rise in cytoplasmic pH of transfer cells during enhanced H+ extrusion. The simultaneous increase in citric acid concentration favors chelation of iron at the site of its uptake and thus ensures long distance transport to the areas of metabolic demand. A direct link between citrate accumulation and ferric ion reduction as proposed in recent literature further supports the crucial role of transfer cells in the response to Fe deficiency stress. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:16665060

  2. Influence of age on the late retrograde effects of sciatic nerve section in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kerezoudi, E; King, R H; Muddle, J R; O'Neill, J A; Thomas, P K

    1995-01-01

    The influence of age on the late retrograde effects of unilateral sciatic nerve section was investigated in rats. Operations were performed on young rats aged 3 months and older rats aged 15 and 18 months, with survival times ranging from 6 to 15 months depending upon age at the time of operation. As in previous studies, axonal atrophy was found in myelinated fibres proximal to nerve transection. This was observed to be greater in animals operated upon at 3 months of age than in those in which the sciatic nerve was transected at 15 and 18 months. In the sciatic nerve, focal intramyelinic oedema was present at a low frequency on the operated side just proximal to the section at all survival times but not on the unoperated side except in 1 old animal. Its frequency increased with age both in the dorsal and ventral roots on both sides but it was not more common on the operated side. Retrograde axonal atrophy is therefore unlikely to contribute to its occurrence. In the dorsal root ganglia the main abnormality was the presence of vacuolated neurons on the operated side. Nuclear eccentricity was also observed on the operated side in young animals in a proportion of the neurons; its frequency increased with age on the normal side and there was no difference in the older animals between operated and control sides. The possibility is discussed that growth factor deprivation secondary to axotomy is implicated in these changes. If so, there are age differences in its effect in giving rise to axonal atrophy and neuronal vacuolation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7591983

  3. Five enzymes of the glycolytic pathway serve as substrates for purified epidermal-growth-factor-receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, N; Kanety, H; Schlessinger, J

    1986-01-01

    Several enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by retroviral transforming protein kinases. These substrates include the enzymes phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), enolase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here we show that purified EGF (epidermal growth factor)-receptor kinase phosphorylates the enzymes PGM and enolase and also the key regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, phosphofructokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in an EGF-dependent manner. Stoichiometry of phosphate incorporation into GAPDH (calculated from native Mr) is the highest, reaching approximately 1. LDH and other enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are not phosphorylated by the purified EGF-receptor kinase. These enzymes are phosphorylated under native conditions, and the Km values of EGF-receptor kinase for their phosphorylation are close to the physiological concentrations of these enzymes in the cell. EGF stimulates the reaction by 2-5-fold by increasing the Vmax. without affecting the Km of this process. Phosphorylation is rapid at 22 degrees C and at higher temperatures. However, unlike the self-phosphorylation of EGF-receptor, which occurs at 4 degrees C, the glycolytic enzymes are poorly phosphorylated at this temperature. Some enzymes, in particular enolase, increase the receptor Km for ATP in the autophosphorylation process and thus may act as competitive inhibitors of EGF-receptor self-phosphorylation. On the basis of the Km values of EGF receptor for the substrate enzymes and for ATP in the phosphorylation reaction, these enzymes may also be substrates in vivo for the EGF-receptor kinase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3030270

  4. The collagen fibril organization in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Minns, R J; Steven, F S

    1977-01-01

    In this scanning electron microscopic study blocks of collagen fibrils were prepared from human articular cartilage, using two techinques which selectively removed either the proteoglycans alone, or both the proteoglycans and the collagen fibrils, of the non-calcified cartilage layer. Amino acid analysis of the fibrils confirmed the purity of the collagen after proteoglycan extraction. The cartilage was scanned in four different ways: (1) normal to the articular surface, (2) in superficial sections, (3) on surfaces of blocks which had been broken in planes parallel to artificial splits make by the insertion of a pin, and (4) on fracture surfaces which traversed the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone. Five features of the organization of the collagen fibrils were specially noted: (1) Individual fibrils within the trabeculae joined to form small fibre bundles which became grouped into larger bundles at the calcified/uncalcified interface. (2) Fibrils in the deep and middle zones which, exhibiting the characteristic surface periodicity of collagen, were generally oriented towars the articular surface in large bundles approximately 55 micronm across. (3) In the superficial zone, fibrils ran parallel to the surface. (4) The surface fibrils had random orientation, even at the bases of empty lacunae vacated by chondrocytes during specimen preparation. (5) The collagen fibrils of the lacunar walls appeared to be thinner and more closely packed than thos between the lacunae. The fine collagen fibrils associated with the lacunar walls were frequently observed to pass through a large lacunar space, resulting in the formation of two or more compartments, each of which was presumably filled with a chondrocyte in the living cartilage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:870478

  5. The structure and ultrastructure of the rostral cartilage in the spiny eel, Macrognathus siamensis (Teleostei: Mastacembeloidei).

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Sandhu, J S

    1990-01-01

    teleosts, are conspicuously absent. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1696572

  6. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  7. Effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants: quantitative measurement using a calmodulin assay.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, B; Rosendal, S; Ruhnke, H L; Plante, C; O'Brien, P J; Miller, R B

    1994-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) acts as an intracellular regulator of calcium, an important mediator of many cell processes. We used the CAM assay and electron microscopy to investigate the effects of Ureaplasma diversum on bovine oviductal explants obtained aseptically from slaughtered cows. A stock suspension of U. diversum (treated specimens) and sterile broth (controls) was added to replicates of cultured explants and incubated at 38 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 for 48 hours. Explants were examined for ciliary activity, extracellular CAM loss, and for histological and ultrastructural changes. Explants and their culture media were examined for changes in CAM concentration. All experiments were replicated three times. In addition, U. diversum, medium and broth were assayed for CAM content. The concentrations of CAM in explants and media changed significantly (p < 0.05) in samples which were inoculated with U. diversum when compared to controls. The controls and infected specimens did not differ histologically or ultrastructurally, but U. diversum was seen to be closely associated with infected explant tissue. In view of this close affinity it is assumed the loss of CAM from the oviductal cells was causally related, but this was not proven. The failure to show cell membrane injury on light and electron microscopic examination was probably related to the short duration of the experiment and may only point out the sensitivity of the CAM assay in detecting early cell membrane injury. Compromise in characteristics of the medium to support both, the viability of oviductal cells and U. diversum limited the experimental time to 48 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:8004536

  8. N2 fixation in marine heterotrophic bacteria: dynamics of environmental and molecular regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Coyer, J A; Cabello-Pasini, A; Swift, H; Alberte, R S

    1996-01-01

    Molecular and immunological techniques were used to examine N2 fixation in a ubiquitous heterotrophic marine bacterium, the facultative anaerobic Vibrio natriegens. When batch cultures were shifted from aerobic N-replete to anaerobic N-deplete conditions, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of N2 fixation was observed. Levels of nifHDK mRNA encoding the nitrogenase enzyme were highest at 140 min postshift and undetectable between 6 and 9 h later. Immunologically determined levels of nitrogenase enzyme (Fe protein) were highest between 6 and 15 h postshift, and nitrogenase activity peaked between 6 and 9 h postshift, declining by a factor of 2 after 12-15 h. Unlike their regulation in cyanobacteria, Fe protein and nitrogenase activity were present when nifHDK mRNA was absent in V. natriegens, indicating that nitrogenase is stored and stable under anaerobic conditions. Both nifHDK mRNA and Fe protein disappeared within 40 min after cultures were shifted from N2-fixing conditions (anaerobic, N-deplete) to non- N2-fixing conditions (aerobic, N-enriched) but reappeared when shifted to conditions favoring N2 fixation. Thus, unlike other N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria, nitrogenase must be resynthesized after aerobic exposure in V. natriegens. Immunological detection based on immunoblot (Western) analysis and immunogold labeling correlated positively with nitrogenase activity; no localization of nitrogenase was observed. Because V. natriegens continues to fix N2 for many hours after anaerobic induction, this species may play an important role in providing "new" nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:11607653

  9. A new isoleucine substitution of Val-20 in transthyretin tetramers selectively impairs dimer-dimer contacts and causes systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jenne, D E; Denzel, K; Blätzinger, P; Winter, P; Obermaier, B; Linke, R P; Altland, K

    1996-01-01

    The most frequent form of inherited amyloidoses is associated with mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene coding for 127-amino acid residues of four identical, noncovalently linked subunits that form a pair of dimers in the plasma protein complex. Amyloid fibrils containing the variant and to a lesser extent the wild-type form of the TTR molecule are deposited in various organs, including peripheral nerves and the myocardium, with polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy as major clinical manifestations. So far, more than 40 distinct amino acid substitutions distributed throughout the TTR sequence over 30 positions have been found to be correlated with an increased amyloidogenicity of TTR. Most of these amyloidogenic amino acid substitutions are suspected to alter the conformation and stability of the monomer. Here we identify and characterize by protein and DNA analysis a novel amyloidogenic Val-20 to Ile mutation in a German three-generation family. The index patient suffered from severe amyloid cardiomyopathy at the age of 60. Conformational stability and unfolding behavior of the Ile-20 monomer in urea gradients was found to be almost indistinguishable from that of wild-type TTR. In contrast, tetramer stability was significantly reduced in agreement with the expected change in the interactions between the two opposing dimers via the side chain of Ile-20. Our observations provide strong evidence for the view that amyloidogenic amino acid substitutions in TTR facilitate the conversion of tetrameric TTR complexes into those conformational intermediates of the TTR folding pathway that have an intrinsic amyloidogenic potential. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8692810

  10. Gene conversions and unequal crossovers between CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase gene) and CYP21P involve different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tusié-Luna, M T; White, P C

    1995-01-01

    Most cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol, are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is unusual among genetic diseases in that approximately 95% of the mutant alleles have apparently been generated by recombination between a normally active gene (CYP21) and a linked pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of mutant alleles carry DNA deletions of 30 kb that have presumably been generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over, whereas 75% carry one or more mutations in CYP21 that are normally found in the CYP21P pseudogene. These latter mutations are termed "gene conversions," although the mechanism by which they are generated is not well understood. To assess the frequency at which these different recombination events occur, we have used PCR to detect de novo deletions and gene conversions in matched sperm and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA samples from normal individuals. Deletions with breakpoints in a 100-bp region in intron 2 and exon 3 were detected in sperm DNA samples with frequencies of approximately 1 in 10(5)-10(6) genomes but were never detected in the matching leukocyte DNA. Gene conversions in the same region occur in approximately 1 in 10(3)-10(5) genomes in both sperm and leukocyte DNA. These data suggest that whereas deletions occur exclusively in meiosis, gene conversions occur during both meiosis and mitosis, or perhaps only during mitosis. Thus, gene conversions must occur by a mechanism distinct from unequal crossing-over. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479886

  11. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056

  12. Metastatic colonization potential of primary tumour cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D.; Price, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the capability of cells from primary murine mammary tumours to establish colonies in distant organs. The model involves the i.v. inoculation of disaggregated tumour cells into autologous and syngeneic recipients. The results show that the metastatic colonization potential of cells from a given tumour is consistent within the animals of an inoculated batch. Also, the findings are uniform in the autologous host and the syngeneic recipients. Tumours vary in their colonization potential and can be classified in 2 main groups designated high and low. These findings indicate that: (i) cells from 37% of mammary tumours can heavily colonize the lungs when inoculated i.v., even though the incidence of metastatic spread of these tumours in the undisturbed animal is almost zero. Thus, the relative infrequency of spontaneous metastasis from murine mammary tumours is not due to inability of the tumour cells to survive and colonize once free in the blood stream; and (ii) the colonization potential of the tumours is an intrinsic property of the tumour cells rather than of the host, whose prior acquaintance with the cells does not seem to confer resistance to colonization. The model presents opportunities for identification of possible differences between tumours of high and low colonization potential, and is being used to study cellular properties which favour colonization of distant organs by comparison of observations in vitro with the behaviour of cells from the same tumour in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:444412

  13. Attempts to restore abduction of the paralyzed equine arytenoid cartilage. III. Nerve anastomosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, N G; Viel, L; Partlow, G D; Hulland, T J; Horney, F D

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to attempt restoration of abduction of a recently denervated left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle in the horse by anastomosing the first cervical nerve to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Ten horses were used in the study. In six horses the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was transected and ligated while the ventral branch of the left first cervical nerve was anastomosed to the abductor branch of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The remaining four horses also had the left recurrent laryngeal nerve transected and ligated but had no nerve anastomosis performed. Each horse was evaluated preoperatively, and at one week, three and six months after surgery, by endoscopy and determination of upper airway resistance. The endoscopy was performed with the horses breathing room air and while breathing 10% carbon dioxide. All ten horses showed endoscopic signs of complete laryngeal hemiplegia immediately postoperatively. Starting at three months postoperatively clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage were observed in four of the six reinnervated horses but not in the sham operated horses. At the sixth postoperative month five reinnervated horses had clonic movements of the left arytenoid cartilage. The comparison of upper airway resistance measurements before surgery and at one week, three and six months after surgery showed no significant differences in either control or experimental horses. Following euthanasia at six months postoperatively, the left and right dorsal crioarytenoid muscles were compared for evidence of reinnervation. No significant difference in weight was noted in the reinnervated horses but the left dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle weighed less than the control horses. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2713787

  14. Purification of antigenically intact Ro ribonucleoproteins; biochemical and immunological evidence that the 52-kD protein is not a Ro protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boire, G; Gendron, M; Monast, N; Bastin, B; Ménard, H A

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Ro sera immunoprecipitate Ro ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from human cell extracts. Ro RNPs are biochemically heterogeneous particles whose functions are unknown and whose exact composition remains controversial. In addition to 60-kD Ro and to La proteins, a 52-kD polypeptide (p52) has been proposed to be a stable component of the Ro RNPs. To confirm the immunological studies supporting this hypothesis, we have biochemically purified Ro RNPs from HeLa cells using non-denaturing conditions. Ro RNPs segregated into three distinct populations, one of which only contained hY5 RNA (RohY5 RNPs). No p52 co-purified with Ro RNPs. Despite the absence of p52, purified Ro RNPs had biochemical and immunological properties identical to those of unfractionated Ro RNPs. Many anti-Ro sera only recognize p52 in immunoblots, and are said to be monospecific anti-p52. Preincubation with purified RohY5 RNPs (free of p52) of all human anti-Ro (including so-called monospecific anti-p52) sera abolished their capacity to immunoprecipitate Ro RNPs from unfractionated HeLa cell extracts. Conversely, preincubation of anti-Ro sera with purified p52 protein specifically inhibited recognition of p52 in immunoblots, but did not interfere with immunoprecipitation of Ro RNPs. Our data demonstrate that anti-p52 antibodies do not target intact Ro RNPs, nor do they target the native 60-kD Ro protein. Contrary to previous reports, p52 protein is not a stable component of antigenically intact Ro RNPs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7774061

  15. Influence of Spore Moisture Content on the Dry-Heat Resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Angelotti, Robert; Maryanski, James H.; Butler, Thomas F.; Peeler, James T.; Campbell, Jeptha E.

    1968-01-01

    The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores located in or on various materials was determined as D and z values in the range of 105 through 160 C. The systems tested included spores located on steel and paper strips, spores located between stainless-steel washers mated together under 150 inch-lb and 12 inch-lb of torque, and spores encapsulated in methylmethacrylate and epoxy plastics. D values for a given temperature varied with the test system. High D values were observed for the systems in which spores were encapsulated or under heavy torque, whereas lower D values were observed for the steel and paper strip systems and the lightly torqued system. Similar z values were obtained for the plastic and steel strip systems (zD = 21 C), but an unusually low z for spores on paper (zD = 12.9 C) and an unusually high z for spores on steel washers mated at 150 inch-lb of torque (zD = 32 C) were observed. The effect of spore moisture content on the D value of spores encapsulated in water-impermeable plastic was determined, and maximal resistance was observed for spores with a water activity (aw) of 0.2 to 0.4. Significantly decreased D values were observed for spores with moisture contents below aw 0.2 or above aw 0.4. The data indicate that the important factors to be considered when measuring the dry heat resistance of spores are (i) the initial moisture content of the spore, (ii) the rate of spore desiccation during heating, (iii) the water retention capacity of the material in or on which spores are located, and (iv) the relative humidity of the system at the test temperature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:4968962

  16. Structure of the granular layer of the rat dentate gyrus. A light microscopic and Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Seress, L; Pokorny, J

    1981-01-01

    The rat dentate gyrus was examined with the Golgi method. Cell counts were performed in Nissl-stained serial sections. The number of granule cells was 635,000 +/- 33,000. The number of basket cells in the granular layer was 3600 +/- 570. In whole dentate gyrus, the average ratio between granule and basket cells was 160-220:1. The ratio was higher in the caudal part of the dorsal and ventral blades and significantly less basket cells were found in the ventral than in the dorsal blade of dentate gyrus. 60% of all the basket cells were found at the margin between the granular layer and hilus, 35% were found in the lower half of molecular layer and 5% within the granular layer. Five types of basket cells were differentiated in Golgi sections on the basis of their location and cell morphology. The granule cells in their early development stages sent dendrites in every direction even in the hilus, but the developed granule cells never had basal dendrites. Spines were seen on the 5 days old granule cell dendrites, but the spine density was found to grow until adulthood. As a rule several axon collaterals could be seen on the granule cell axons. The whole length of granule cell dendrites totaled 2400 micron +/- 331, those of the basket cell dendrites totaled 1100 micron +/- 144. The possible role of basket cells in the regulation of the dentate gyrus granular layer was considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7333948

  17. The detection of membrane and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins in human leucocytes by immunoperoxidase staining.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Y; Labaume, S; Preud'homme, J L

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive immunoperoxidase technique for the detection of immunoglobulin (the peroxidase--anti-peroxidase or PAP procedure) has been applied to fixed smears of normal human white cells. IgM was detected in approximately 5% of lymphocytes from normal donors. Most positive cells showed a characteristic 'hairy' peripheral staining pattern; a similar morphological appearance was seen in samples stained for IgD. The membrane (rather than cytoplasmic) localization of this IgM was inferred from the redistribution of staining induced by preliminary incubation of cell suspensions with anti-mu antisera before smearing and staining. B cell-depleted and B cell-enriched suspensions showed, respectively, reduced and increased percentages of IgM-positive cells. IgG was detectable in approximately 25% of normal lymphoid cells. In contrast to the IgM and IgD reaction patterns, these cells commonly showed a discontinuous distribution of reactivity, often localized to the cell uropod or to small cytoplasmic vesicles. However, when cells were prepared at 0 degree C, staining tended to be diffuse. These findings suggested that the PAP procedure was detecting Fc receptor-bearing lymphoid cells which had bound serum IgG. IgG was also demonstrated in normal polymorphs and monocytes. The specificity of this reaction was confirmed by the use of immunoabsorbant-purified antibodies. The possible practical advantages of this immunoperoxidase procedure for the detection of leucocyte immunoglobulin are considered, and the relevance of the demonstration of IgG in non-lymphoid cells to recent reports of this immunoglobulin in Hodgkin's disease and malignant 'reticulum' cells is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:338219

  18. Efficient and specific ribozyme-mediated reduction of bovine alpha-lactalbumin expression in double transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    L'Huillier, P J; Soulier, S; Stinnakre, M G; Lepourry, L; Davis, S R; Mercier, J C; Vilotte, J L

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) specific ribozyme gene under the transcriptional control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat were generated and cross-bred with animals that highly express a bovine alpha-lac transgene (0.4 mg of alpha-lac/ml(-1) of milk). The ribozyme contains the hammerhead catalytic domain, flanked by 12-nt sequences complementary to the 3' untranslated region of bovine alpha-lac transcript. High-level expression of the ribozyme gene was detected by Northern blot analysis in the mammary gland of 7-8 day lactating transgenic mice, from 3 of 12 lines analyzed. Heterozygous expression of the ribozyme resulted in a reduction in the levels of the target mRNA to 78, 58, and 50% of that observed in the nonribozyme transgenic littermate controls for three independent lines. The ribozyme-mediated reduction in the levels of the bovine protein paralleled that observed for the mRNA, and was positively correlated with the level of expression of the ribozyme. In nonribozyme expressing transgenic mice, the level of bovine alpha-lac mRNA and protein was not affected. The specificity of this activity is demonstrated by the absence of a reduction in the levels of the endogenous murine alpha-lac mRNA or protein. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ribozyme-mediated down-regulation of highly-expressed transcripts in transgenic animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8692881

  19. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  20. Human chromosome variation: the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism (variant) analysis in distinguishing between individuals, with specific application to cases of questionable paternity.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, S B; Magenis, R E; Lovrien, E W

    1986-01-01

    The chromosomes from 57 persons were analyzed by means of quinacrine fluorescent staining in order to assess the amount of variation and the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism analysis. Chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y of each person were visually compared to those of 56 others, for a total of 1,596 comparisons. No two persons were found to have the same set of variants. The number of differences between chromosomes for each comparison ranged from 2 to 12 out of a possible total of 14 for females and 15 for males. Relatives were also distinguishable, and differences ranged from two to seven. We used the frequency with which each chromosome was useful for telling two people apart, and estimated the probability of finding two persons with the same set of quinacrine variants as .0003. Distinctly different heteromorphisms were found in the 39 unrelated persons for each of the chromosomes examined. In this small population, the number of different sets of variants observed for chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y were six, seven, 27, 16, 20, 15, 24, and five, respectively, for a total number of possible combinations of 1.14 X 10(15). As a test of the usefulness of chromosome heteromorphisms in paternity cases, 12 father-mother-child trios of virtually certain paternity, owing to the father-child segregation of a rare structural rearrangement, were coded and recombined at random to produce 120 cases of uncertain paternity. When the code was broken, 108 "alleged fathers" had been excluded correctly and the 12 biological fathers had been included correctly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3946425

  1. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  2. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  3. Evidence for a haematogenous origin of some of the macrophages appearing in the spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1979-01-01

    A single dose of colloidal carbon was given intravascularly to young adult rats in order to label circulating monocytes. Two days after injection dorsal rhizotomies were performed on the fifth to eighth cervical nerves on the right side. The rats were killed 1, 3, 4 and 8 days later. Electron microscopic examination of the spinal cord showed wide-spread tissue degeneration on the operated side in the dorsolateral fasciculus, the dorsal horn and the dorsal neuronal white column, the changes in the last named being the most severe. A variety of non-neuronal elements was found in the dorsolateral fasciculus and dorsal horn. These included astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia-like cells, plasma cells, mast cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Monocytes and macrophages were most common 3 and 4 days after operation. Some of these cells carried intracytoplasmic carbon particles. Carbon-labelled monocytes were observed in blood vessel lumina, perivascularly and in the neuropil. Monocytes crossing blood vessel walls were also encountered, indicating that the neuropil monocytes were derived from circulating cells. Macrophages were characterized by pleomorphic phagosomes which seemed to be composed largely of myelin remnants. The presence of carbon particles in their cytoplasm, and also their general similarity to monocytes, suggested that they originated from the latter. Local microglial cells were considered to be another source of macrophages. Indeed, there were present some microglia-like cells which were regarded as 'activated microglia' as they showed morphological resemblances to microglia on the one hand and to macrophages on the other. In particular their cytoplasm always included phagosomes. It is concluded that the macrophages which appear in the altered spinal cord following rhizotomy are derived both from circulating monocytes and from indigenous microglia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10

  4. Preferential expression of an ammonium transporter and of two putative nitrate transporters in root hairs of tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lauter, F R; Ninnemann, O; Bucher, M; Riesmeier, J W; Frommer, W B

    1996-01-01

    Root hairs as specialized epidermal cells represent part of the outermost interface between a plant and its soil environment. They make up to 70% of the root surface and, therefore, are likely to contribute significantly to nutrient uptake. To study uptake systems for mineral nitrogen, three genes homologous to Arabidopsis nitrate and ammonium transporters (AtNrt1 and AtAmt1) were isolated from a root hair-specific tomato cDNA library. Accumulation of LeNrt1-1, LeNrt1-2, and LeAmt1 transcripts was root-specific, with no detectable transcripts in stems or leaves. Expression was root cell type-specific and regulated by nitrogen availability. LeNrt1-2 mRNA accumulation was restricted to root hairs that had been exposed to nitrate. In contrast, LeNrt1-1 transcripts were detected in root hairs as well as other root tissues under all nitrogen treatments applied. Analogous to LeNrt1-1, the gene LeAmt1 was expressed under all nitrogen conditions tested, and root hair-specific mRNA accumulation was highest following exposure to ammonium. Expression of LeAMT1 in an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast strain restored growth on low ammonium medium, confirming its involvement in ammonium transport. Root hair specificity and characteristics of substrate regulation suggest an important role of the three genes in uptake of mineral nitrogen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8755617

  5. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1423061

  6. Myocardial cell damage and cardiovascular changes due to i.v. infusion of adrenochrome in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Singal, P. K.; Dhillon, K. S.; Beamish, R. E.; Kapur, N.; Dhalla, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo effects of adrenochrome (1-32 mg/kg), an oxidation product of catecholamines, on the heart ultrastructure, ECG and blood pressure were studied in rats over a period of 60 min following a single i.v. injection of the drug. One milligram of the drug had no influence on the myocardium or the cardiovascular system, whereas maximum changes in these parameters were recorded at 32 mg/kg of adrenochrome. The maximum structural damage, reached within 5-10 min, included marked swelling of mitochondria and sarcotubular system, intracellular and perinuclear oedema, hypercontraction of myofibrils and partial separation of the intercalated disc. Ultrastructural changes in the myocardium due to 4 and 8 mg of adrenochrome were not accompanied by any cardiovascular effects and the changes were fully reversed within 60 min of the injection of the drug. However, at 16 and 32 mg/kg of adrenochrome both heart rate and blood pressure were depressed within 5 min of drug administration. At these concentrations of adrenochrome arrhythmias, mainly due to premature ventricular contractions, were also noticed. Ultrastructural and cardiovascular changes seen at these higher concentrations of adrenochrome showed only a partial recovery. The data indicates that adrenochrome-induced ultrastructural changes in the heart are due to a direct myocardial effect of the drug which may not involve haemodynamic changes and the latter are most probably a consequence of this effect. However, the present study has not been able to rule out direct vascular effects at higher concentrations of adrenochrome. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7073958

  7. Colloidal lanthanum as a marker for impaired plasma membrane permeability in ischemic dog myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstein, S.; Gennaro, D. E.; Fox, A. C.; Hirsch, J.; Streuli, F.; Weissmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    . Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:1146960

  8. Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina.

    PubMed Central

    Dacey, D M

    1996-01-01

    Human color vision starts with the signals from three cone photoreceptor types, maximally sensitive to long (L-cone), middle (M-cone), and short (S-cone) wavelengths. Within the retina these signals combine in an antagonistic way to form red-green and blue-yellow spectral opponent pathways. In the classical model this antagonism is thought to arise from the convergence of cone type-specific excitatory and inhibitory inputs to retinal ganglion cells. The circuitry for spectral opponency is now being investigated using an in vitro preparation of the macaque monkey retina. Intracellular recording and staining has shown that blue-ON/yellow-OFF opponent responses arise from a distinctive bistratified ganglion cell type. Surprisingly, this cone opponency appears to arise by dual excitatory cone bipolar cell inputs: an ON bipolar cell that contacts only S-cones and an OFF bipolar cell that contacts L- and M-cones. Red-green spectral opponency has long been linked to the midget ganglion cells, but an underlying mechanism remains unclear. For example, receptive field mapping argues for segregation of L-and M-cone signals to the midget cell center and surround, but horizontal cell interneurons, believed to generate the inhibitory surround, lack opponency and cannot contribute selective L- or M-cone input to the midget cell surround. The solution to this color puzzle no doubt lies in the great diversity of cell types in the primate retina that still await discovery and analysis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:8570599

  9. Degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of venom from the snake Bothrops asper: a histochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Arce, V.; Brenes, F.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of Bothrops asper venom were studied by histological, lectin histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. According to our observations, the process was divided into four main stages: (a) During the first 3 days prominent degenerative events took place in skeletal muscle fibres, capillaries, arteries, veins and intramuscular nerves. An inflammatory infiltrate was abundant after the first day and removal of necrotic material was well advanced by the third day. (b) Muscle regeneration was evident by the fourth day. From 4 to 6 days there were two populations of regenerating muscle fibres, one of apparently normal fibres located in areas where capillary vessels were abundant, and another population of groups of regenerative fibres showing signs of degeneration. This second type of fibre was predominant in areas where the number of capillaries was greatly reduced. (c) One and 2 weeks after envenomation areas of small regenerative fibres of normal morphology and areas of degenerating regenerative fibres were observed. The latter were abundant in regions of dense fibrotic tissue and scarce capillaries. (d) Finally, at 4 and 8 weeks after envenomation there were both areas of fibrosis and areas where regenerating muscle fibres predominated. However, the diameter of these fibres was abnormally small, an indication that they may have been atrophic fibres. It is suggested that muscle regeneration is partially impaired after myonecrosis induced by Bothrops asper venom, probably due to the damage induced by this venom on muscle microvasculature and nerves. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:1707650

  10. Nuclear extracts of chicken embryos promote an active demethylation of DNA by excision repair of 5-methyldeoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Jost, J P

    1993-01-01

    Here I show that nuclear extracts of chicken embryos can promote the active demethylation of DNA. The evidence shows that in hemimethylated DNA (i.e., methylated on one strand only) demethylation of 5mCpG occurs through nucleotide excision repair. The first step of demethylation is the formation of specific nicks 5' from 5-methyldeoxycytidine. Nicks are also observed in vitro on symmetrically methylated CpGs (i.e., methylated on both strands) but they result in breakage of the oligonucleotide with no repair. No specific nicks are observed on the nonmethylated CpG. Nicks are strictly 5mCpG specific and do not occur on 5mCpC, 5mCpT, 5mCpA, or 6mApT. The effect of nonspecific nuclease(s) has been ruled out. The nicking of mCpG takes place in the presence of 20 mM EDTA irrespective of the nature of the sequence surrounding the 5mCpG. No methylcytosine glycosylase activity could be detected. The repair is aphidicolin and N-ethylmaleimide resistant, suggesting a repair action by DNA polymerase beta. In extracts of chicken embryos, the excision repair of mCpG is highest between the 6th and the 12th day of development, whereas it is barely detectable in nuclear extracts from different organs of adults. The possible implications of 5mCpG endonuclease activity in active demethylation of DNA during differentiation is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8506318

  11. Expression of neurotensin messenger RNA in a human carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Rajaraman, S; Thompson, J C

    1991-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a distal gut peptide, has important regulatory and trophic effects throughout the gut; however the intracellular mechanisms that regulate the gene expression and release of human NT are not known. The purpose of this endeavor was to study a functioning human pancreatic carcinoid cell line (called BON) in vitro that expresses the NT gene, and to study the effect of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal-transduction pathway on the expression and release of human NT. RNA was prepared from BON cell line (which has been established in this laboratory); the RNA was analyzed for NT mRNA expression by Northern hybridization with a complementary DNA probe. RNA blot analysis demonstrated that the NT gene is expressed in BON and is transcribed to two mRNAs of 1.0- and 1.5-kb sizes. In the second part of this study, BON cells were treated with either forskolin (FSK), which increases intracellular levels of cAMP, or with serotonin (5-HT), which reduces cAMP in BON cells. Forskolin produced a dose-dependent increase in NT peptide release and, furthermore, FSK (10(-6) mol/L) rapidly increased NT mRNA abundance 1 hour after addition; conversely, 5-HT (10(-5) mol/L) decreased NT mRNA at 1 hour. Neurotensin mRNA levels returned to control values by 3 hours after either FSK or 5-HT, which suggests that the transcript half-life for NT is relatively short. These findings show that the expression and peptide release of human NT is mediated, in part, by the cAMP signal-transduction pathway. Our human carcinoid cell line will provide a useful model to study the in vitro regulation of NT gene expression and peptide release. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1659338

  12. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  13. Hypothalamic thermo-responsive neurones in the new-born rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, T; Shinohara, K

    1979-01-01

    1. Single unit activities were recorded from the neurones in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus of developing new-born rats (aged 1-24 days old) during thermal stimulation of the brain. During the first 2 weeks of life, about 80% of these neurones had low spontaneous firing rates between 0.1 and 5 impulses/sec at 38 degrees C hypothalamic temperature (Thyp). 2. Out of 640 units studied, 118 units increased the firing rate upon elevation of Thyp (warm-units) and fourteen showed the opposite type of response to temperature changes (cold-units). Warm-units were found in the rats of all the age span studied and cold-units were recorded in the rats more than 8 days old. 3. Thermal coefficients of warm-units and cold-units varied between +0.11 and +2.47 and between -0.10 and -0.49 impulses/sec, degrees C, respectively. Number of warm-units with higher rates of firing and greater thermal coefficients, comparable to those of warm-units in the adult, gradually increased with growth. The thermal responsiveness of warm-units, when expressed by Q10, are already high even in the immediate neonatal period. Their Q10 values were in the range between 2 and 38.5 (mean 6.4). 4. Units responding to extrahypothalamic temperatures were only found in the rats more than 14 days old. 5. All the six warm-units tested increased the firing rates following subcutaneous injections of capsaicin, while the majority of thermo-unresponsive units were not affected by this drug. 6. It is suggested that thermo-responsive neurones in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus in the new-born rat have attained some degree of electrophysiological maturity, despite their slowly firing characteristics. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:512957

  14. Ultrastructure of the human spinal arachnoid mater and dura mater.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, F; Creemers, J; Lambrichts, I

    1996-01-01

    of an artifactual subdural space at spinal levels is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8886963

  15. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  16. Occurrence, distribution and origin of peptide-containing nerves of guinea-pig and rat male genitalia and the effects of denervation on sperm characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, T L; Hodson, N P; Blank, M A; Watson, P F; Mulderry, P K; Bishop, A E; Gu, J; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1986-01-01

    A systematic immunohistochemical and radio-immunological survey of the occurrence, distribution and origin of the peptidergic nerve supply in guinea-pig and rat male genitalia is presented. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), substance P and CGRP were detected in the genital organs of both species. The densities and distribution patterns of the peptidergic nerves were compared with those of the adrenergic nerves, as revealed by antibodies raised against dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the general neuronal component, as revealed by antibodies raised against neurofilament proteins (NF). Bilateral transection of the hypogastric nerves, in the guinea-pig, resulted in a decrease of substance P-containing nerves in the vas deferens and of NPY-, PHI- and VIP-containing nerves in the seminal vesicle. Unilateral disconnection of the pelvic nerves caused a decrease of VIP, PHI, substance P and CGRP nerve supply in the ipsilateral vas deferens and cauda epididymidis in the guinea-pig. A marked reduction of noradrenergic and NPY-containing nerves was observed in the vas deferens and sexual accessory glands of rats, chemically sympathectomised by chronic injection of low doses of guanethidine. Conversely, increase of substance P and CGRP immunoreactivities were observed, particularly in the vas deferens. After guanethidine, the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens were distended with spermatozoa, suggesting paralysis of the ducts. Spermatozoa had a decreased percentage of attached cytoplasmic droplets, indicating prolonged retention in the ducts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693101

  17. An ultrastructural study of the stellate ganglion of the pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    The stellate ganglia of Macaca nemestrina were studied with the electron microscope, using the conventional and chromate-dichromate methods of aldehyde fixation. The principal neurons are multipolar and mostly mononucleated. They measure between 10 and 50 microns in their average somal diameters. The organelles of the perikaryon are arranged in perinuclear, intermediate and peripheral zones. Unusual organelles consisting of stacks of closely apposed paired membranes, with or without dense bodies studded on their surfaces, are encountered. Nuclear eccentricity is a regular feature of the neuron and the nuclear membrane shows a varying degree of invagination. All parts of the neurons are surrounded by satellite or Schwann cells though dendritic surfaces in direct contact with the basal lamina associated with the satellite cells are not uncommonly seen. Features peculiar to dendrites have been described. Structures resembling dendritic growth cones are present in abundance. Most synapses are axodendritic; axosomatic synapses are much less frequently encountered. While most synapses are of the simple type, complex types are also present. Desmosome-like junctional complexes exist between dendrites, dendrites and somata and axons and dendrites. Differences between Schwann cells of myelinated axons and those of myelinated axons and satellite cells have been noted. In addition to an abundance of macrophages, other connective tissue cells such as mast cells, fibroblasts and plasma cells are also present. Degenerative profiles observed include neuronal cell bodies and cell processes, especially dendrites. They are phagocytosed by the satellite cells and macrophages. The presence of degenerative profiles, chromatolytic neurons and structures resembling dendritic growth cones in the normal stellate ganglion has been discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19

  18. Localization of vasopressin mRNA and immunoreactivity in pituicytes of pituitary stalk-transected rats after osmotic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pu, L P; Van Leeuwen, F W; Tracer, H L; Sonnemans, M A; Loh, Y P

    1995-01-01

    The presence of [arginine] vasopressin (AVP) mRNA and AVP immunoreactivity in pituicytes of the neural lobe (NL) of intact and pituitary stalk-transected rats, with and without osmotic stimulation, was examined. AVP mRNA was analyzed by Northern blotting, as well as by in situ hybridization in combination with immunocytochemistry using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a marker for pituicytes. In intact rats, a poly(A) tail-truncated 0.62-kb AVP mRNA was detected in the NL and was found to increase 10-fold with 7 days of continuous salt loading. Morphological analysis of the NL of 7-day salt-loaded rats revealed the presence of AVP mRNA in a significant number of GFAP-positive pituicytes in the NL and in areas most probably containing nerve fibers. Eight days after pituitary stalk transection the NL AVP mRNA diminished in animals given water to drink, whereas in those given 2% saline for 18 h followed by 6 h of water, a treatment repeated on 6 successive days beginning 2 days after surgery, the 0.62-kb AVP mRNA was present. The AVP mRNA in the pituitary stalk-transected, salt-loaded rats showed an exclusive cellular distribution in the NL, indicative of localization in pituicytes. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the presence of AVP immunoreactivity in a subpopulation of pituicytes 7 and 10 days after pituitary stalk transection in salt-loaded animals, when almost all AVP fibers had disappeared from the NL. These data show that a subset of pituicytes in the NL is activated to synthesize AVP mRNA and AVP in response to osmotic stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479859

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis in a dog: clinical, hematological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A

    1977-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:832183

  20. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  1. The Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1973-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that might be responsible for the normal avascularity of the cornea and for its vascularization in certain pathologic states, an experimental model was designed in which corneal vascularization could be studied under controlled conditions in hamster cheek pouch chambers. Normal corneal tissue, as well as corneas that had been altered in a variety of ways (eg, boiled, autoclaved, freeze-thawed) were implanted into hamster cheek pouch chambers. The fate of the transplanted tissue was observed at regular intervals by direct visualization within the hamster cheek pouch at various magnifications and by light and electron microscopy. This report reviews observations on more than 300 such experiments. Normal and injured corneal autografts, allografts and xenografts and nonviable (autoclaved, boiled or freeze-thawed) corneas commonly became vascularized in the cheek pouch. When this occurred, a similar morphologic sequence of events preceded and accompanied the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. Vascular invasion was generally preceded by the formation of granulation tissue around the cornea. This was followed by a leukocytic, and frequently a fibroblastic, infiltration of the cornea. When cells did not invade the transplanted cornea, the cornea invariably remained avascular. In the present model, a swollen cornea was not a sufficient stimulus for corneal vascularization. The data suggest that under certain circumstances leukocytes may produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. The findings are viewed in terms of current concepts on corneal vascularization. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14 PMID:4271966

  2. Ultrastructural observations on the terminal segment epithelium of the seminiferous tubule of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1986-01-01

    In the testes of West African dwarf goats, modified Sertoli cells comprise the major component of the terminal segment epithelium. They resemble Sertoli cells proper but differ in the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Cell attachment devices present include rudimentary desmosomes and occasional multiple contacts of opposing plasma membranes, interrupted by segments of slightly expanded intercellular space. A few generative cells are present in the proximal zone of the epithelium, but their development appears to terminate as early spermatids which hang loosely on the luminal surface. The middle zone epithelium comprises vacuolated cells lying among other cells containing abundant microtubules in their subapical cytoplasm. Globular expansions of the intercellular space are also apparent. The terminal plug contains two cell types. Type I are inclined, columnar cells which contain profuse arrays of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in their apical cytoplasm. Type II are smaller cells located at the apex of the plug. Each possesses cytoplasmic processes, which surround the apices of Type I cells. The modified Sertoli cells of all zones and the Type II plug cells contain remnants of spermatozoa at different stages of degradation. The general absence of developing generative cells in the terminal segment epithelium may be related to the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in the basal cytoplasm of modified Sertoli cells and the absence of typical Sertoli-Sertoli junctional specialisations. Structural modifications evident in the middle and distal zones facilitate distalward movement of materials, while the attenuation and modification of the lumen distally may facilitate phagocytosis of abnormal spermatozoa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3693043

  3. Characterization and localization of the putative 'link' component in rat small-intestinal mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, R E; Specian, R D; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

    1987-01-01

    Rat intestinal mucin is polymerized by a putative 'link' component of Mr 118,000 that can be released from the native mucin by thiol reduction [Fahim, Forstner & Forstner (1983) Biochem. J. 209, 117-124]. To confirm that this component is an integral part of the mucin and independent of the mucin purification technique, rat mucin was purified in the present study by three independent techniques. In all cases, the 118,000-Mr component was released after reduction. The 118 kDa band was electroeluted from SDS/polyacrylamide gels and its composition shown to resemble closely that of the link component of human intestinal mucin [Mantle, Forstner & Forstner (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 345-354]. Carbohydrates were present, including significant (10 mol/100 mol) amounts of mannose, suggesting the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides. Monospecific antibodies prepared against the rat 118,000-Mr component established its tissue localization in intestinal goblet cells. Mucins subjected to SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and Western blots using the same antibody, established that the link components of rat and human intestinal mucin are similar antigenically. Brief exposure (10 min) of native rat mucin to trypsin or Pronase (enzyme/mucin protein, 1:500, w/w) also released a 118,000-Mr component that reacted with the monospecific antibody. Thus the 118,000-Mr component is an integral part of the mucin and, although linked to large glycopeptides by disulphide bonds, this component also has proteinase-sensitive peptide bonds, presumably at terminal locations such that brief treatment with proteinases releases the molecule in a reasonably intact form. Under physiological conditions, therefore, one might expect that, after mucin is secreted into the intestinal lumen, luminal proteinases would rapidly remove the link component, thereby causing the mucin to depolymerize. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3311021

  4. The putative 'link' glycopeptide associated with mucus glycoproteins. Composition and properties of preparations from the gastrointestinal tracts of several mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Roberton, A M; Mantle, M; Fahim, R E; Specian, R D; Bennick, A; Kawagishi, S; Sherman, P; Forstner, J F

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a discrete 'link' peptide in epithelial mucins has been debated for many years. There is evidence that at least some mucins contain a specific 'link' peptide (or glycopeptide) that enhances mucin polymerization by forming disulphide bridges to large mucin glycoprotein subunits. A major difficulty has been to know whether the reported differences in putative 'link' components represent artifacts generated by inter-laboratory differences in technical procedures used in mucin purification. The present paper outlines the results of a collaborative study involving five laboratories and 53 samples of purified gastrointestinal mucins (including salivary, gastric, small-intestinal and colonic mucins) prepared by five techniques from four different animal species. An early step in mucin purification in all cases was the addition of proteinase inhibitors. Representative mucins were analysed for their composition, electrophoretic mobility in SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis before and after disulphide-bond reduction, and for their reactivity with monospecific antibodies developed against the 118 kDa putative 'link' glycopeptide isolated from either rat or human small-intestinal mucins. Our results indicate that, despite differences in laboratory techniques, preparative procedures, organs and species, each of the purified mucins contained a 'link' component that was released by disulphide-bond reduction and produced a band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at a position of approx. 118 kDa. After electroelution and analyses, the 118 kDa bands from the different mucins were found to have similar amino acid profiles and to contain carbohydrate. It would appear therefore that a 'link' glycopeptide of molecular mass approx. 118 kDa is common to all of the gastrointestinal mucins studied. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2775239

  5. Histochemical Phosphatases and Metachromasia in Murine Tumours Induced by Bone Seeking Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Bland, M. R.; Loutit, J. F.; Sansom, Janet M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours induced in mice, either CBA normal and chimaerical, or C3H, by 90Sr or 226Ra or plutonium have been examined histochemically with (1) diazotate fast red violet LB salt in naphthol AS-MX phosphate buffer at pH 8·6 and 5·2, (2) 1: 9 dimethyl methylene blue (Taylor). It is concluded: (a) The diagnosis of osteosarcoma is facilitated with Taylor's Blue which stains osteoid metachromatically. Cells of osteosarcoma, like normal osteoblasts, contain alkaline phosphatase but this may be lost by mutation either in the original tumour or subsequently on passage of the tumour serially to compatible hosts. (b) Osteosarcomata may contain giant-cells of two forms, bizarre tumour cells and osteoclasts; the latter contain acid phosphatase. Osteosarcomata which retain their osteoid on serial passage have few cells containing acid phosphatases. (c) Primitive mesenchymal cell tumours of angiomatous form may occur, if the bone marrow is irradiated, e.g. by 90Sr-90Y and Pu. These tumours lack osteoid and cells interpretable as osteoblasts or osteoclasts (though they destroy bone). (d) Tumours classifiable as fibrosarcomata occur rarely, and may be truly of fibroblastic origin or be mutated osteosarcomata. (e) Lymphomata also occur when the marrow is irradiated (90Sr-90Y and Pu). They may be generalized, when their cells may contain alkaline phosphatase or lack it. They may be localized to abdominal viscera, the reticulo-sarcomatous form, in which case the cells lack alkaline phosphatase. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 12 PMID:4133784

  6. Chromosome 3 duplication q21 leads to qter deletion p25 leads to pter syndrome in children of carriers of a pericentric inversion inv(3) (p25q21).

    PubMed Central

    Allderdice, P W; Browne, N; Murphy, D P

    1975-01-01

    Close phenotypic similarity between two cases carrying a rec(3) dup q,inv(3) (p25q21), 12 additional infants from the same inv (3)(p25q21) kindred who lived less than 1 year, and eight cases studied in other medical centers has led us to postulate the existence of a distinct chromosome 3 duplication-deletion syndrome. In the presence of trisomy for (3)q21 leads to qter and monosomy for (3)p25 leads to pter, the facial dysmorphy is unique: a distorted head shape due to irregular cranial sutures, thick low eyebrows, long eyelashes, persistent lanugo, distended veins on the scalp, hypertelorism, oblique palpebral fissures, a very short nose with a broad depressed bridge and anteverted nares, protruding maxilla, thin upper lip, micrognathia, low-set ears, and a short webbed neck. Port-wine stains, congenital glaucoma, cloudy corneas, cleft palate and harelip also occur frequently. Each infant has difficulty sucking and swallowing. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system, of midgut rotation, and of the urogenital system are noted for the infants who died neonatally. Most frequent is a ventricular septal defect, followed by atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale, and coarctation of the aorta. Omphalocele, umbilical hernia, hyperplastic kidneys, polycystic kidneys, double ureter, hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, and undescended testes often occur. The extremities are short in proportion to the length of the trunk. Clinodactyly, coxa valga, talipes, and spina bifida are frequently observed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1200027

  7. The Nature of Experimental Second-set Kidney Transport Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    The detailed characteristics of a nephrogram are more meaningful if studied in relation to the corresponding arteriogram. The appearance of a nephrogram in several forms of acute renal failure, including the second-set kidney transplant reaction, can be explained by a diversity of function among the nephrons. Those nephrons derived from outer cortical glomeruli are considered to be mainly geared to excretion and reabsorption whereas those nephrons derived from inner cortical glomeruli, are mainly geared to reabsorption and concentration. A nephrogram appearing in a severely oliguric or anuric kidney can be explained on the basis that outer cortical filtration has been seriously reduced or has ceased while inner cortical filtration continues but the filtrate is concentrated and reabsorbed. A kidney involved in this haemodynamic upset would more precisely be diagnosed as being in a state of acute excretory renal failure. The severe interference with excretory function is compatible with a total renal blood flow reduced by only 20-40 per cent. After several hours involvement in the severe haemodynamic upset evoked by a second-set kidney transplant reaction, inner cortical perfusion fails and at this stage no nephrogram is observed. A similar lack of a nephrogram associated with inadequate cortical perfusion was observed at 24 hr after subjecting a kidney to 2 hr total warm ischaemia which causes cortical necrosis. These principles permit a review of intravenous pyelographic techniques to be made with the recommendation of using small physiological doses of anti-diuretic substances, about half the currently recommended dose of contrast and free but not excessive access to water because the above injected doses of anti-diuretic hormone act maximally during an established water diuresis. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1Fig. 8Fig. 4 PMID:4944362

  8. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  9. The accessory pancreatic ducts of the starling Sturnus vulgaris: an ultrastructural and light microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Vinnicombe, S J; Kendall, M D

    1983-01-01

    Wild starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were utilised for a study of the small accessory pancreatic ducts that pass from the pancreas to the loop of the duodenum. These ducts do not appear to have been described before in the literature. Each duct was composed of an epithelial lining of a main cell type, which had small numbers of two other cell types intermixed. A lamina propria consisting of a loose collagenous network, richly endowed with a thick nerve plexus, separated the epithelium from the muscle coat. The muscle consisted of inner longitudinal, middle transverse and outermost spiral layers. This was surrounded by a dense collagenous tunica adventitia, and the ducts were accompanied by large blood vessels. The main columnar cells of the epithelium had a strong PAS positivity, and an alcian blue-positive reaction at high molarities of magnesium chloride (greater than 0.5 M). This indicated the presence of mucopolysaccharides with a high degree of sulphation, such as heparan sulphate. Both of the staining reactions were limited to a fine apical surface reaction which probably did not extend into the cells themselves. At the electron microscope level it could be seen that the surface coat corresponded to a filamentous layer overlying short stubby microvilli on the apical surface of the epithelium. Numerous apical electron-dense inclusion granules did not appear to participate in the histochemical reaction. Comparisons of these findings with work on the main ducts of the pancreas in other species have been made and discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6630045

  10. The Sertoli cell of the water buffalo--an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, T I; Bongso, T A; Harisah, M; Basrur, P K

    1990-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of water buffaloes before and during sexual maturity was studied by transmission electron microscopy, with emphasis on the intranucleolar vesicular elements. Sertoli cells of animals under 12 months of age were distinguished from the germ cells by the presence of electron dense membrane bound bodies within their cytoplasm. These cells, referred to as basal indifferent supporting cells, were probably involved in the phagocytosis and elimination of degenerating spermatocytes, which failed to differentiate into spermatids and spermatozoa in animals under one year of age. In 12 month old animals, a few Sertoli cells exhibiting the vesicular elements appeared in the nucleolar region while in animals over 15 months of age Sertoli cells could be positively identified by the characteristic cytoplasm containing microtubules, elongated and electron dense mitochondria, extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of spermatids in various stages of spermiogenesis. The vesicular elements in the nucleolar region of the Sertoli cells were most prominent at this stage. Ultrastructural features of the Sertoli cells revealed an abundance of ribosome-like particles surrounding the vesicles of varying size. Some of these vesicular elements contained amorphous material suggesting that they represent the products sequestered in the nuclear region for transport to the cytoplasm and that the process of spermiogenesis may be dependent on the ability of Sertoli cells to generate these products at sexual maturity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:2306676

  11. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A; Rasmussen, S L; Campbell, T M; Lester, W M

    1984-01-01

    An elderly man had a 10-year history of multiple pulmonary nodules that he had refused to have investigated. He died of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. At autopsy the nodules were shown to consist of amyloid. There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6744167

  12. Intestinal obstruction by an unusual foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Deitel, Mervyn; Syed, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    The case is described of a patient with complete small bowel obstruction 13 days after swallowing a condom containing hashish. Treatment by enzymatic dissolution was obviously impossible. The small bowel was emptied preoperatively by a Dennis long-tube, and the impacted bolus was removed by enterotomy. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4728949

  13. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  14. The Art of Local Treatment (Or Laying it on Right)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of formulating a topical prescription are given. Indications for the use of the range of applications in the treatment of skin disease are described. Techniques of local application, dressing materials, and methods are reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21308023

  15. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  16. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  17. Burned—But Not in a Major Way

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Walter J.

    1981-01-01

    Most minor burns can be expected to heal uneventfully if certain principles of management are followed. Prompt assessment of the etiology and classification of the burn will reveal which burns can be treated on an outpatient basis. This article outlines the principles of such treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469345

  18. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Blood Donation Venepuncture Sites

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Six patients were studied in whom sarcoidosis first showed itself by the development of granulomata at the site of previous venepunctures. The diagnosis was histologically confirmed in all cases. The treatment of the lesions with triamcinolone did not seem to hasten resolution. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4p708-a PMID:4646848

  19. Cutaneous Anthrax—the Non-industrial Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A. H.; Wynne-Williams, C. J. E.; Willis, A. T.

    1969-01-01

    Two patients contracted cutaneous anthrax after contact with infected bone meal. Awareness of the risk of infection from this source may help in achieving early clinical diagnosis and a low fatality rate following effective antibiotic therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4974297

  20. Dangers of placement of narrow bore nasogastric feeding tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Biggart, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Choudhry, A. K.; Nickalls, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Three complications of the use of narrow bore nasogastric feeding tubes are described. Clinical tests to determine correct placement are noted to be unreliable and the importance of radiological confirmation is stressed. A number of suggestions are made for safe use of these tubes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3111340

  1. Effect of the anti-oestrogen tamoxifen on the development of renal cortical necrosis induced by oestrone + vasopressin administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, J.; Karácsony, G.; Karcsú, S.; László, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral renal cortical necrosis was observed after vasopressin administration in rats pretreated with oestrone acetate. Histochemical (succinic dehydrogenase, trichrome, periodic acid Schiff) and electronmicroscopic methods were used to examine how the anti-oestrogen, Tamoxifen, influences the development of this renal cortical necrosis. The experiments revealed that in most rats vasopressin did not induce renal tubular necrosis if the anti-oestrogen was administered simultaneously, even during oestrogen pretreatment. The results suggest that oestrogen receptors in the kidney are involved in the induction of renal cortical necrosis by vasopressin. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3377960

  2. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  3. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  4. Clonal Evolution in Two Patients with Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoreticular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M.; Thorburn, Marigold J.; Gibbs, W. N.; Brooks, S. E. H.; Hanchard, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two cases are described, one with proven lymphosarcoma and doubtful autoimmune disease, and the second with the reverse situation, in which circulating abnormal mononuclear cells showed PHA responsiveness and an abnormal chromosomal constitution (clonal evolution). These findings are discussed in the light of previous cytogenetic studies of lymphoreticular neoplasia and autoimmune disease and the relationship between these two conditions. ImagesFigs. 2-3Fig. 9Fig. 4Figs. 6-7Figs. 1,5Fig. 8 PMID:4393772

  5. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  6. Child Abuse Is a Family Social Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Charles T.

    1973-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a social disease due to a breakdown in family dynamics and parent child relationships. The family doctor is closest to the family. As such he is the most suitable and effective professional for the prevention and management of the syndrome. This article outlines the types of injury common to this syndrome, with frequently heard complaints from parents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20468964

  7. Lethal Complications of the Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P.

    1968-01-01

    Death from arterial bleeding or gastrointestinal perforation has previously been reported in more than 15 patients with the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. On a basis of 100 personally examined patients and a review of published accounts, these events seem particularly likely to occur in two distinct and recognizable forms (the gravis and the ecchymotic forms) of the syndrome. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 1 PMID:5673215

  8. A preliminary investigation into the effect of thyroid hormones on the metamorphic changes in Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term dosage with thyroid powder on the metamorphic changes in Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis are described. The Lag phase of development appears to be by-passed, and the usual sequential arrangement of the Division and Synthesis phases is disrupted, the processes of normal metamorphic changes being considerably accelerated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2808112

  9. The Medical and Human Performance Problems of Living Under the Sea

    PubMed Central

    MacInnis, Joseph B.

    1966-01-01

    Recent undersea experiments in the United States and France showed that divers can live and work effectively for many days from dwellings placed on the continental shelf to depths down to 432 feet. If prolonged exposure to the hostile underwater environment is to be tolerated successfully, existing physical, biological and equipment hazards must be recognized, prepared for and, when possible, circumvented. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:4380341

  10. Tissue expansion in perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D. T.; Burd, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tissue expansion is a recent advance in skin cover technique. Its empirical use has enabled many previously difficult reconstructions to be completed without recourse to distant flaps. Its high complication rate and lack of basic scientific understanding at present restrict its use to selected cases, but the quality of repairs possible by this method encourage further serious scientific study. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 PMID:2589784

  11. Influence of carbon tetrachloride on induction of tumours of the liver and kidneys in mice by netrosamines.

    PubMed Central

    Pound, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    Mice were given a single dose of nitrosolimethylamine, nitrosoliethylamine or nitrosomethylethylamine and the yield of tumours and related lesions in the livers determined 12 months later. A hepatonecrotic dose of CCl4 24 or 48 h before the nitrosamines, increased the yields of hepatocellular tumours and proliferative foci in the livers, whereas when given 60 h before the nitrosamines there was no significant effect. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:619958

  12. A Family Physician's Approach to Acne

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Eugene

    1981-01-01

    Because of the potential for permanent physical and psychological sequelae, acne vulgaris should be regarded as a true disease—not the “normal” physiologic response one might infer from its near universal prevalence in adolescence. Effective therapy reduces pilosebaceous unit obstruction, minimizes secondary inflammation, and lessens the chance of significant scarring. This article reviews current therapeutic modalities, and suggests a sequence for implementation of specific agents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:21289790

  13. Milton C. Winternitz and the Yale Institute of Human Relations: a brief chapter in the history of social medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the antecedent events that led to the development of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, the program of interdisciplinary research and teaching established, and the principal protagonists, James Rowland Angell, President of Yale University, and Milton C. Winternitz, Dean of the School of Medicine, both of whom were committed to the concept that medicine is a social science. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:6399650

  14. Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five cases of haemochromatosis with particular regard to the pancreatic circulation

    PubMed Central

    Scuro, L. A.; Curri, G.; Monti, G.; Zuin, R.; Romani, S.

    1968-01-01

    Arteriography of the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery in five patients with haemochromatosis revealed a constant deficit of pancreatic vascularization as shown by reduced visualization of the arterial circle. These consistent results appear to be significant. There was no correlation between the existence and severity of diabetes mellitus and the pancreatic vascular involvement. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5665746

  15. The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1980-01-01

    The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

  16. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  17. PubMed Central

    Auger, Pierre; Viens, Pierre; Arnoux, Emmanuel; Bonin, André; Lambert, Jacques

    1976-01-01

    An outbreak of domestic trichinosis occurred in an Italian family living in Montreal. All patients had a fever, facial edema and extreme eosinophilia, and results of serologic tests were positive. Larvae of Trichinella spiralis were seen in a muscle biopsy from one of the patients. The discussion emphasizes some characteristic clinical, serologic and histopathological aspects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:816445

  18. Differential regulation of the p21/WAF-1 and mdm2 genes after high-dose UV irradiation: p53-dependent and p53-independent regulation of the mdm2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L.; Levine, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA damage in mammalian cells stabilizes the p53 protein which then functions as a cell cycle checkpoint by leading to growth arrest or apoptosis. p53 is a transcription factor and positively regulates the expression of the p21/WAF-1 gene and the mdm2 gene. After high-dose UV irradiation, p53 increases the expression of the p21/WAF-1 gene immediately (2 to 5 hours after irradiation) while the induction of the mdm2 gene is delayed (8 to 12 hours after irradiation). Experiments presented here explore this differential expression of two different p53-regulated genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IP-Western (protein) and Northern (mRNA) blot experiments are used to follow mdm2 and p21/WAF-1 expression in primary rat or mouse cells after a low-dose (4 J/m2) or a high-dose (20 J/M2) of UV irradiation. Northern blot and nuclear run-on experiments are employed to study mRNA stability as well as transcription rates of selected genes. RESULTS: After high-dose UV irradiation, p53 is rapidly stabilized and the expression of p21/WAF1 is immediately increased. By contrast, both protein and mRNA levels of mdm2 first decrease in a p53-independent manner, and later increase in a p53-dependent manner. The initial decline of mdm2 expression following high-dose UV irradiation is UV-dosage dependent and regulated at the level of transcription. CONCLUSION: p53 regulates two genes, p21/WAF1 (blocks cell cycle progression) and mdm2 (reverses p53 activity), that mediate opposite actions. This process is regulated in a temporal fashion after high-dose UV irradiation, so that cell cycle progression can be halted while DNA repair continues prior to reversal of p53-mediated arrest by mdm2. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:9260156

  19. Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.

    1986-01-01

    levels of lactate dehydrogenase. Isozymes LDH-3, LDH-4, and LDH-5 increased markedly, suggesting that the systemic pathology of coral snake envenoming may be more complex than previously thought. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 PMID:3947530

  20. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  1. The harderian gland of desert rodents: a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Djeridane, Y

    1992-01-01

    . Mast cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fenestrated capillaries and unmyelinated nerve endings with clear or dense-cored vesicles are present in the connective tissue. Melanocytes are very numerous in the interstices of the Gerbillidae harderian gland. The gland is surrounded by a collagenous capsule and an outer layer of endothelial cells derived from the orbital venous sinus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 PMID:1487439

  2. Developmental expression of wild-type and mutant presenilin-1 in hippocampal neurons from transgenic mice: evidence for novel species-specific properties of human presenilin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, L.; Annaert, W.; Craessaerts, K.; Mathews, P. M.; Seeger, M.; Nixon, R. A.; Van Leuven, F.; Gandy, S.; Westaway, D.; St George-Hyslop, P.; De Strooper, B.; Fraser, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    transfection systems. Our data also suggest that the molecular pathology associated with PS1 mutations results from subtle alterations in presenilin function, which can be further investigated using these transgenic neuronal cell culture models. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10501657

  3. Immunocytological and biochemical characterization of a new neuronal cell surface component (L1 antigen) which is involved in cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Rathjen, F G; Schachner, M

    1984-01-01

    neuroblastoma C1300 is inhibited by Fab fragments of the polyclonal, but not of monoclonal antibody, both of which are known to react with the surface membrane of these cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6368220

  4. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    positive cells, it is suggested that the OX-6 positive cells would have the potentiality to function in antigen presentation in the postnatal rat brain when challenged by the endotoxin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4,5 Figs 6,7 Figs 8,9 Figs 10,11 Figs 12,13 Figs 14,15 Figs 16,17 Figs 18,19 Figs 20,21 PMID:8014120

  5. The cranial cartilages of teleosts and their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M

    1990-01-01

    The structure and distribution of cartilages has been studied in 45 species from 24 families. The resulting data have been used as a basis for establishing a new classification. A cartilage is regarded as 'cell-rich' if its cells or their lacunae occupy more than half of the tissue volume. Five classes of cell-rich cartilage are recognised (a) hyaline-cell cartilage (common in the lips of bottom-dwelling cyprinids) and its subtypes fibro/hyaline-cell cartilage, elastic/hyaline-cell cartilage and lipo/hyaline-cell cartilage, (b) Schaffer's Zellknorpel, typified by the cartilage in the gill filaments of most teleosts examined, (c) elastic/cell-rich cartilage, such as that which supports the barbels and oral valves of catfish, e.g. Corydoras metae, (d) fibro/cell-rich cartilage, as in the submaxillary meniscus of Sphaerichthys osphromenoides, (e) cell-rich hyaline and (f) matrix-rich hyaline cartilage--both of which are common in the neurocranium and gill arches of most teleosts. The range of cartilages seen, and the predominant cartilage type, is recorded for each species and a list is provided of the tissues that most typify different organs or regions of the head. As a preliminary pointer to developmental relationships between the cartilages, note was taken of gradual transitions between one cartilage and another. It is suggested that hyaline-cell cartilage occupies a key position in teleosts as the most labile of the supporting tissues and is highly characteristic of Cypriniformes. The cartilage that best resembles mammalian hyaline cartilage (matrix-rich hyaline cartilage) has a very conservative distribution in different skeletal elements and the least number of associations with other tissues. It is well represented in Siluriformes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 PMID:2384333

  6. Biophysical and immunological studies on bovine immune globulins with evidence for selective transport within the mammary gland from maternal plasma to colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.; Feinstein, A.

    1965-01-01

    heterogeneity of bovine immune globulins and show that the calf receives into its circulation from ingested colostrum selected maternal serum immune globulins. This selection of proteins from maternal plasma, for admission to the calf's circulation, occurs within the mammary gland during the formation of colostrum but not during absorption across the calf's intestinal mucosa. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 8FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14 PMID:14245307

  7. Development of a single probe for documentation of chimerism following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Yam, P; Petz, L D; Ali, S; Stock, A D; Wallace, R B

    1987-01-01

    discriminate approximately 98% of sibling donor/recipient pairs. This would be accomplished using only one restriction-endonuclease digestion and only one gel electrophoresis. Since other genetic markers, e.g., red blood cell antigens, immunoglobulin allotypes, and chromosome analysis, are not uniformly informative and, in some cases, cannot be used in the early posttransplantation period, the use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes for analysis of DNA RFLP is emerging as the method of choice for studies of post-BMT chimerism. This method will allow for the development of new knowledge that has not been possible with previous methods. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2890295

  8. NO-Evoked macrophage apoptosis is attenuated by cAMP-induced gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    von Knethen, A.; Brockhaus, F.; Kleiter, I.; Brüne, B.

    1999-01-01

    inflammatory conditions in humans when macrophages become activated in close association with innate immune responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10602776

  9. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

  10. Morphological and functional interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W

    1984-01-01

    synergistically to produce an integrated, biological, hydro-elastic suspension system capable of resisting physiological compression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:6706831

  11. Immunochemical analysis of cartilage proteoglycans. Antigenic determinants of substructures.

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, J; Heinegård, D

    1979-01-01

    sulphate-peptides. Trypsin digestion of the link-proteins destroyed the antigenic site and the reactivity with the antibodies. By combining immunoassay of proteoglycan preparations before and after trypsin digestion it is feasible to quantitatively determine its substructures by using the antisera described above. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:89842

  12. Proteasome inhibitors prevent the degradation of familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 and potentiate A beta 42 recovery from human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marambaud, P.; Ancolio, K.; Lopez-Perez, E.; Checler, F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that most of the early-onset forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are due to inherited mutations borne by a chromosome 14-encoded protein, presenilin 1 (PS1). This is likely related to an increased production of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) 42, one of the main components of the extracellular deposits called senile plaques that invade human cortical areas during the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We set up stably transfected HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and various FAD-linked mutated PS1. By Western blot analysis, we examined the influence of specific proteasome inhibitors on PS1-like immunoreactivities. Furthermore, by means of metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with A beta 40 and A beta 42-directed specific antibodies, we assessed the effect of the inhibitors on the production of A beta s by wt and mutated PS1-expressing cells transiently transfected with beta APP751. RESULTS: We show that two distinct proteasome inhibitors, Z-IE (Ot-Bu)A-Leucinal and lactacystin, increase in a time- and dose-dependent manner the immunoreactivities of both wt and mutated PS1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PS1 is polyubiquitinated in these cells. Other inhibitors, ineffective on the proteasome, fail to protect wt and mutated PS1-like immunoreactivities. We also establish that the FAD-linked mutations of PS1 trigger a selective increased formation of A beta 42 as reflected by higher A beta 42 over total A beta ratios when compared with wtPS1-expressing cells. Interestingly, this augmentation was further amplified by proteasome inhibitors in cells expressing mutated but not wtPS1. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data indicate that PS1 undergoes polyubiquitination in HEK293 cells and that the proteasome contributes to the degradation of wt and FAD-linked PS1, thereby directly influencing the A beta production in human cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:9562973

  13. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    -ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978

  14. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  15. The Nature of Experimental Second-set Kidney Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    sodium because there is no outer glomerular perfusion or filtration. The significance of the nephrogram in acute renal failure is discussed and explained on the basis of lack of outer cortical glomerular perfusion with adequate perfusion of inner cortical glomeruli. Although, normally, the kidney is perfused by an unusually large volume of blood the proportion of outer cortical perfusion determines the function of the kidney rather than total renal blood flow, oxygen consumption, A-V O2 differences and rate of transit time. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:4398235

  16. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  17. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  18. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  19. The monoptychic glands of the jugulo-sternal scent gland field of Tupaia: a TEM and SEM study.

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, U; Richter, J

    1990-01-01

    exocrine glands according to the nature of the secretory epithelium into monoptychic and polyptychic glands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2272906

  20. The Otosclerosis Problem: including Reports of Two Cases Pathologically Examined (Dalby Memorial Lecture)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Albert A.

    1934-01-01

    other nerve-structures in the body. If, therefore, structural changes occur as a result of defective functioning of those nerves, such structural changes will naturally be bilaterally symmetrical in their distribution. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19989872

  1. Functional anatomy of the head-neck movement system of quadrupedal and bipedal mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Graf, W; de Waele, C; Vidal, P P

    1995-01-01

    the functional implications for head movement control of the different sagittal-plane ranges of motion in vertebrates, we hypothesise that different mechanical requirements relating to the influence of gravity have caused the observed differences between the investigated bipedal and quadrupedal mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 PMID:7649818

  2. Studies of Escherichia coli Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.; Lopez-Alvarez, J.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The pathogenesis of infection with Escherichia coli was studied in chickens using live O78:K80 cells and a heat-labile chick lethal toxin. The results obtained were compared with those observed in field outbreaks. The common histological findings of subepicardial edema and congestion, focal necrosis in the spleen and focal necrosis, congestion, edema and accumulation of fibrin in the liver support an active role for chick lethal toxin in the pathogenesis of E. coli disease. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4274822

  3. Pacesetter potential of the human gastroduodenal junction

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, H. L.; Kwong, N. K.; Brown, B. H.; Whittaker, G. E.

    1971-01-01

    The pacesetter potential of the gastric antrum and proximal duodenum has been recorded in man by electrodes placed under the serosal coat of the gut. The typical 3 cycle/min of the stomach was found to be conducted across the pylorus into the first part of the duodenum at a rate (2 cm/sec) about four times as fast as its conduction in the more proximal antrum (0·5 cm/sec). A 3 cycle/min pacesetter potential could be detected as far distally in the duodenum as 10 cm from the pylorus. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 7 PMID:5574794

  4. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  5. Transcription of the Drosophila white locus and some of its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pirrotta, V; Bröckl, C

    1984-01-01

    The white locus produces one major, though rare, RNA of 2.6 kb, found throughout development. Minor species of lower mol. wt. are also produced. One of these is male specific. Transcription was analysed by Northern blot hybridisation in the wild-type and several mutants: wa, w67c23, we, wsp and zeste. These and the results of S1 mapping reveal the presence of at least four introns. One of these, a micro-intron of 30-50 nucleotides contains the site of copia insertion in the wa mutant. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6425054

  6. The Role of Limb Torque, Muscle Action and Proprioception During Closed Kinetic Chain Rehabilitation of The Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Edwin E.; Pitney, William A.; Cappaert, Thomas A.; Kane, Alexander W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper defines the differences between open and closed kinetic chain exercise and explains the role of limb torque, muscle action, and proprioception during rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Closed kinetic chain rehabilitation is shown to decrease shear forces, increase proprioception, and increase muscle group coordination through examples of progressive exercises. The authors conclude that closed kinetic chain rehabilitation is an economical, efficient, and effective means of rehabilitation, with the ultimate goal of enhancing proprioception, thus gaining lower extremity joint stability. ImagesFig 9a-b.Fig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3a-b.Fig 4a-b.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8. PMID:16558197

  7. Molecular analysis of instability in flower pigmentation of Antirrhinum majus, following isolation of the pallida locus by transposon tagging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cathie; Carpenter, Rosemary; Sommer, Hans; Saedler, Heinz; Coen, Enrico S.

    1985-01-01

    The pal locus of Antirrhinum majus was cloned using the transposable element, Tam 3, as a probe. The pal clone was used to examine, at the molecular level, those aspects of instability previously observed phenotypically and genetically. The effects of temperature and of genetic background on excision of the element at pal are considered, and related quantitatively to the phenotype. We describe the identification of the transcript of the pal locus and show that insertion of Tam 3 blocks the production of a normal pal transcript in developing flower buds. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:16453618

  8. Properties of a cell-wall-defective variant of Brucella abortus of bovine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.; Scott, A. C.; Ross, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of an atypical Brucella strain isolated from lymph node tissue of a cow slaughtered as a brucellosis reactor were examined. The organism was Gram negative and highly pleomorphic, existing as cocci, coccobacilli, rods, branched and irregular forms which stained with fluorescent antibody conjugates prepared against rough and smooth Brucella abortus strains. It produced lecithinase and required at least 15% v/v equine or bovine serum for growth. It did not need supplementary CO2 for growth, produced H2S and was inhibited by brucella dyes and partially by i-erythritol. Growth inhibition or lysis was produced by brucella-phages. The organism was not pathogenic for guinea-pigs or mice but evoked antibodies mainly to rough Brucella antigens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6820027

  9. Adjuvant-activity of `diphtheroid' organisms isolated from the joints of cases of rhemumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Gordon, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two isolates of `diphtheroid' organisms from the joints of cases of rheumatoid arthritis were found to possess a surface network of filaments (125 Å wide) resembling the adjuvant-active peptidoglycolipid filaments of mycobacteria and some Nocardia spp. Tests for adjuvant activity in guinea-pigs showed that both isolates possessed the ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity to a simultaneously injected immunogen (ovalbumin) and to increase serum anti-ovalbumin levels (in particular γ2-immunoglobulin). The relationship of adjuvant-active bacilli to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 1 PMID:5477931

  10. Annexin proteins PP4 and PP4-X. Comparative characterization of biological activities of placental and recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Römisch, J; Grote, M; Weithmann, K U; Heimburger, N; Amann, E

    1990-01-01

    The human placental proteins PP4 and PP4-X, belonging to the annexin protein family, were expressed in Escherichia coli at high yield. The proteins were purified to homogeneity. The physicochemical parameters of the recombinant proteins were determined and compared with those of their natural placental counterparts. Except for a minor change in the pI, the proteins appeared to be indistinguishable by several criteria. Both recombinant PP4 and recombinant PP4-X were biologically active in a thromboplastin inhibition test and in a phospholipase A2 inhibition test. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2148260

  11. The Family Physician's Role During Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, John

    1986-01-01

    Family physicians can encourage disaster planning and mock disaster exercises in their community. If involved in an actual disaster, the family physician can be helpful as a triage officer in emergency, in initial resuscitation, in minor treatment, in discharging stable patients, and in counselling victims of post-traumatic shock syndrome. The key to effective performance is being prepared beforehand to cope with the stress and confusion of the incident. Use of laboratory and diagnostic imaging must be curtailed until all severely injured patients are treated. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21267128

  12. William Halsted and Theodor Kocher: "an exquisite friendship".

    PubMed Central

    Rutkow, I M

    1978-01-01

    William Halsted and Theodor Kocher were friends on both a professional and personal level. They greatly admired each other's surgical skills and judgment, and Halsted was a frequent visitor to Kocher in Switzerland. This is of interest in that both men have been described as introverted personalities with very few intimate acquaintances. An analysis of their personal correspondence, which has not been previously published, clearly demonstrates this unique relationship between the two reknowned surgeons. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:363073

  13. The N-end rule: functions, mysteries, uses.

    PubMed Central

    Varshavsky, A

    1996-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Similar but distinct versions of the N-end rule operate in all organisms examined, from mammals to fungi and bacteria. In eukaryotes, the N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin system. I discuss the mechanisms and functions of this pathway, and consider its applications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8901547

  14. The contributions of infection control to a century of surgical progress.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J W

    1985-01-01

    Although many surgical procedures were well-developed in principle before 1867, their application for the treatment of human disease was limited because of a mortality rate from postoperative infection alone of about 50%. It was the eventual acceptance of Lister's work and the development of the aseptic-antiseptic ritual that allowed operative therapy to be successful and made modern surgery possible. The background leading to the development of aseptic-antiseptic rituals is discussed. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. PMID:3883923

  15. Diagnosis of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Valecillos, R.; Hirschhaut, E.; Giordano, H.; Boccalandro, I.; Suárez, C.; Aparicio, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The natural history of Chagas' disease and its manifestations when the heart is involved are detailed clinically and pathologically. Three phases are recognized: the acute phase, lasting from 1-3 months, the latent phase, which may last from 10-20 years, and the chronic phase, which has the most serious manifestations. This phase is subdivided into three clinical stages. An analysis of the varied cardiac manifestations on 235 patients is included. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:412174

  16. Specialized contacts of astrocytes with astrocytes and with other cell types in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Najera, I; Fernandez Ruiz, B; Garcia Segura, L M

    1980-01-01

    Adult hamsters were used for this electron microscopic study of the hypothalamic region. Specialized contacts between astrocytes and astrocytes, and between astrocytes and other cellular elements, are described and illustrated. The specialized inter-astrocytic junctions occur primarily in perivascular and subpial regions, but also in areas of high synaptic density. The junctions between astrocytic processes are of hemidesmosomal type. Astrocytes are connected to oligodendroglial cells by means of desmosomes, and to neuronal processes by means of zonulae occludens. The functional significance of these arrangements is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7364663

  17. Mechanisms of tissue destruction following cryosurgery.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    Destruction of diseased tissue in situ by means of freezing is well established in many branches of surgery. The tissues are apparently unaltered at thaw but progressive necrosis ensues. There is controversy as to whether tissue death is principally due to the direct effects of freezing or to subsequent ischaemia. Studies at the ultrastructural level show that ice-crystals are formed within the cells during cryosurgery, that resultant cell damage is osmotic rather than mechanical and that microcirculatory changes are secondary in terms of the chronological development of tissue necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6435496

  18. Accumulation of ceroid in smooth muscle indicates severe malabsorption and vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, G W; Evans, D J

    1987-01-01

    Four patients had accumulation of ceroid in smooth muscle (lipofuscinosis), which indicated severe or uncontrolled malabsorption, with confirmed vitamin E deficiency in three cases. The distribution of the pigment was systematic, and there seemed to be an association between malabsorption syndrome and vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplementation seems to be indicated in such patients, and it is suggested that studies of smooth muscle function should be made in cases of heavy accumulation of ceroid. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3624501

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis in an English patient with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Jariwalla, A; Tulloch, B R; Fox, H; Kelly, J; Davies, R

    1977-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is not endemic in Britain. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an English man who had not ventured out of northern Europe for 30 years. The disease presented as painful mouth ulcers and hepatosplenomegaly six months after he had developed maturity-onset diabetes. The origin of the infecting fungus may have been from within the United Kingdom or alternatively it may have existed as an intraoral saprophyte for over 30 years. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:851818

  20. Atrial natriuretic factor mRNA and binding sites in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, D J; Davenport, A P; Brown, M J

    1990-01-01

    The factor inhibiting aldosterone secretion produced by the adrenal medulla may be atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), since the latter abolishes aldosterone release in response to a number of secretagogues, including angiotensin II and K+. In this study we have shown that cells in the adrenal medulla contain ANF mRNA and therefore have the potential to synthesize this peptide. The presence of binding sites for ANF predominantly in the adrenal zona glomerulosa suggests that, if ANF is synthesized in the medulla and transferred to the cortex, it may affect mineralocorticoid status. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2146954

  1. Recombination walking: genetic selection of clones from pooled libraries of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M; Savinelli, E A; Couture, S M; Hannigan, G M; Han, Z; Selden, R F; Treco, D A

    1993-01-01

    Recombination walking is based on the genetic selection of specific human clones from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by homologous recombination. The desired clone is selected from a pooled (unordered) YAC library, eliminating labor-intensive steps typically used in organizing and maintaining ordered YAC libraries. Recombination walking represents an efficient approach to library screening and is well suited for chromosome-walking approaches to the isolation of genes associated with common diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8367472

  2. The molecular mechanisms of scrapie encephalopathy and relevance to human neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lukiw, W J; Cho, H J; Kaufmann, J C; Crapper McLachlan, D R

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated alterations in the structure and function of nuclei isolated from normal and pathological brains in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. Here we summarize both general and specific changes in chromatin structure, gene expression, and neuropathological features for each encephalopathy and compare them in terms of their molecular biological similarities and differences. While both scrapie and Alzheimer's disease share a number of common alterations in genomic organization and gene activity during the pathogenic process, each neurological disease appears to operate on fundamentally different mechanisms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4A. Fig. 5A. PMID:2407330

  3. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  4. Mirror symmetry breaking at the molecular level.

    PubMed Central

    Avetisov, V; Goldanskii, V

    1996-01-01

    Reasoning from two basic principles of molecular physics, P invariance of electromagnetic interaction and the second law of thermodynamics, one would conclude that mirror symmetry retained in the world of chiral molecules. This inference is fully consistent with what is observed in inorganic nature. However, in the bioorganic world, the reverse is true. Mirror symmetry there is definitely broken. Is it possible to account for this phenomenon without going beyond conventional concepts of the kinetics of enantioselective processes? This study is an attempt to survey all existing hypotheses containing this phenomenon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8876153

  5. Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, R A; Banerjee, A K; Rennie, J A

    1992-01-01

    A 5-year experience of 50 endoscopic transaxillary dorsal sympathectomies is presented. The procedure was successful in either curing or improving the symptoms of hyperhidrosis in the great majority of patients. The commonest side effects were compensatory sweating (75%) and gustatory sweating (48%); despite this, there was an extremely high level of patient satisfaction. Permanent Horner's syndrome did not occur. The procedure is effective, simple, cheap, and requires only an overnight stay; and is recommended as the method of choice for the surgical treatment of upper limb hyperhidrosis. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. PMID:1543403

  6. Photocontrol of Sorghum Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Martine; Crétin, Claude; Keryer, Eliane; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the light effect on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the C4 plant sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers., var Tamaran) leaves was investigated. Following exposure to light a new isozyme of PEPC, specific for the green leaf and responsible for primary CO2 fixation in photosynthesis, was established. Northern blot experiments revealed the presence of PEPC mRNA showing a molecular weight of 3.4 kilobases. During the greening process, concomitant to enzyme activity, PEPC protein and PEPC messenger RNA amounts increased considerably. This photoresponse was shown to be under phytochrome control. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665664

  7. The chromosomal integration site determines the tissue-specific methylation of mouse mammary tumour virus proviral genes.

    PubMed Central

    Günzburg, W H; Groner, B

    1984-01-01

    Multiple endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) proviral genes are present at different chromosomal locations in inbred mouse strains. Proviral DNA methylation is location and tissue specific. The methylation patterns are stably inherited and appear to be conferred upon the viral DNA by the flanking mouse genomic DNA. In transformed cells, either mammary carcinoma cells, or cells immortalized by SV40 in vitro, the stable pattern of methylation is lost. Although hypomethylation of proviral genes, both in normal and in transformed tissue, accompanies MMTV-specific RNA expression, it is also observed in non-expressing tissues. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6329738

  8. Evaluation of the treatment of human Schistosoma mansoni infection by the quantitative oogram technique*

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, J. Romeu; da Cunha, A. Sales; de Carvalho, D. Garcia; Cambraia, J. N. Santos

    1965-01-01

    Egg output is the only measure available for quantitative assessment of the activity of chemotherapeutic agents in Schistosoma mansoni infection. In the light of eight years' experience in the preparations of oograms, the authors suggest a simplified classification of S. mansoni eggs and certain improvements in the oogram technique by which quantitative data are obtained for comparison before and after treatment. Ten cases, taken from clinical trials on a variety of schistosomicidal compounds, are presented to illustrate the use of the quantitative oogram and the types of result obtained with active, partially active and inactive drugs. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:5323117

  9. Disruption of the adenosine deaminase gene causes hepatocellular impairment and perinatal lethality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wakamiya, M; Blackburn, M R; Jurecic, R; McArthur, M J; Geske, R S; Cartwright, J; Mitani, K; Vaishnav, S; Belmont, J W; Kellems, R E

    1995-01-01

    We have generated mice with a null mutation at the Ada locus, which encodes the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4). ADA-deficient fetuses exhibited hepatocellular impairment and died perinatally. Their lymphoid tissues were not largely affected. Accumulation of ADA substrates was detectable in ADA-deficient conceptuses as early as 12.5 days postcoitum, dramatically increasing during late in utero development, and is the likely cause of liver damage and fetal death. The results presented here demonstrate that ADA is important for the homeostatic maintenance of purines in mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7731963

  10. Observation of Children's Teeth as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Wm. M.; Conchie, John M.

    1964-01-01

    Current interest in tetracycline staining of teeth and other enamel defects led to this review. In the handicapped child structural defects that were seen in the dental enamel may provide a most accurate etiological clue. The method of determining the time of insult is described. Comments are made on seven states in which enamel dysplasia may be frequently observed. A simple means of identifying tetracycline pigment incorporated in dental enamel is outlined. Bilirubin staining of teeth is also shown and warnings are given about the indelible nature of these pigments. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14118684

  11. Social Darwinism Lives! (Should it?)

    PubMed Central

    Klopfer, Peter H.

    1977-01-01

    Sociobiology has made a resurgence in recent years, but has become enmeshed in political controversy. Indeed, much of the work in sociobiology has been used to justify repressive or racist measures. It is argued that the unfortunate alliance of some sociobiologists and politicians is a poor basis for discrediting the field itself; that a science of sociobiology is possible and, if we seek to know the nature of our social heritage (if any!), needs be vigorously pursued. ImagesFIGS. 1-2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:848049

  12. Evidence for cross-pathway regulation of metabolic gene expression in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, D; Patton, D; Ward, E

    1995-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, blocking histidine biosynthesis with a specific inhibitor of imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase caused increased expression of eight genes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, histidine, lysine, and purines. A decrease in expression of glutamine synthetase was also observed. Addition of histidine eliminated the gene-regulating effects of the inhibitor, demonstrating that the changes in gene expression resulted from histidine-pathway blockage. These results show that plants are capable of cross-pathway metabolic regulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761437

  13. Demonstration of pepsinogen C in human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Szecsi, P B; Halgreen, H; Poulsen, S S; Axelsson, C K; Damkjaer-Nielsen, M; Kjaer, T; Foltmann, B

    1987-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue from 16 post mortem kidney donors have been examined for the content of pepsinogens. A zymogen with electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and molecular weight equal to that of pepsinogen C of gastric origin was found in all specimens. A comparison between pepsinogen C extracted from pancreatic tissue and gastric mucosa demonstrated immunological identity. Quantitative measurements with a radioimmunoassay showed pepsinogen C concentrations in pancreatic tissue three to 80 times higher than those of blood serum. Immunohistochemical staining gave positive reaction for pepsinogen C only in the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3315877

  14. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  15. Soft Tissue Tumours: Their Natural History and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Stanford

    1951-01-01

    A series of 153 patients, the largest yet recorded from a single source, suffering from soft tissue sarcoma is discussed. References to the literature show the rarity of such tumours, the vagueness of the nomenclature and the disappointing results of treatment. Of the 153 patients only 7 have no histological confirmation of the diagnosis. In 146, sections and histological reports are available. 148 patients have been followed up either to death or to date. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14808223

  16. The preparation and partial characterization of N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding fragments from rabbit serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Heaphy, S; Williams, J

    1982-01-01

    Two iron-binding fragments of Mr 36 000 and 33 000 corresponding to the N-terminal domain of rabbit serum transferrin were prepared. One iron-binding fragment of Mr 39 000 corresponding to the C-terminal domain was prepared. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of rabbit serum transferrin is: Val-Thr-Glu-Lys-Thr-Val-Asn-Trp-?-Ala-Val-Ser. One glycan unit is presented in rabbit serum transferrin and it is located in the C-terminal domain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816218

  17. Internal mammary lymph node biopsy guided by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Henry C.; Hardy, Graham J.

    1982-01-01

    Internal mammary lymph node enlargement may be demonstrated using computed tomography (CT), and a confirmatory tissue diagnosis of metastatic involvement may be obtained using fine needle aspiration biopsy with needle tip placement guided by the CT scanner. A case history is described to illustrate how a patient presented 9 years after mastectomy with an internal mammary lymph node metastasis and how cytopathological diagnosis of this metastasis was achieved by CT guided biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:7145793

  18. Absence of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the kidneys of sheep, cattle and pig.

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z W; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1987-01-01

    The kidneys of man, sheep, cattle and pig were all found to contain 1-aspartamido-beta-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase activity. However, among these, only human kidney was found to contain endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The absence of this enzyme in the kidneys of sheep and cattle explains why the oligosaccharides accumulated in, and excreted by, sheep and cattle afflicted with disorders of glycoprotein catabolism (i.e. alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis) contain two N-acetylglucosamine residues at the reducing terminus instead of one, as is the case for human patients afflicted with similar disorders. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3124807

  19. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  20. Esophageal achalasia associated with gastric carcinoma: lack of evidence for widespread plexus destruction.

    PubMed Central

    Shulze, K. S.; Goresky, C. A.; Jabbari, M.; Lough, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    Achalasia of the esophagus occurred in association with gastric carcinoma involving the cardia. Except in a limited area subjacent to the squamocolumnar junction, the pathologic findings were unusual in that the myenteric plexus of the body of the esophagus was intact and apparently uninvolved. The hypothesis is advanced that, in this instance, the achalasia could be classified as a tumour-associated funnctional disorder due to distant neural involvement rather than to local invasion with plexus destruction. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1122459

  1. Tissue-specific distribution of cross-linked somatostatin receptor proteins in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Srikant, C B; Murthy, K K; Patel, Y C

    1992-01-01

    labelled protein of 42 kDa was observed in the pancreas. The labelling pattern obtained with LTT*-SS-28 was identical to that observed with T*-SS-14. Labelling of the 27 kDa band by either ligand was inhibited by SS-14 and SS-28 in a dose-dependent manner. Densitometric quantification showed that SS-14 exhibited greater than 2-fold greater potency than SS-28 for inhibiting the labelling of the 27 kDa species. These findings emphasize the need for careful interpretation of cross-linking data obtained for SS receptors, and provide evidence for molecular heterogeneity and for a tissue-specific distribution of the two principal SS receptor proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1312325

  2. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Wall-Localized Peroxidases from Corn Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ha; Terry, Maurice E.; Hoops, Pepper; Dauwalder, Marianne; Roux, Stanley J.

    1988-01-01

    A library of 22 hybridomas, which make antibodies to soluble wall antigens from the coleoptiles and primary leaves of etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings, was raised and cloned three times by limit dilution to assure monoclonal growth and stability. Two of these hybridomas made immunoglobulin G antibodies, designated mWP3 and mWP19, which both effectively immunoprecipitated peroxidase activity from crude and partially purified preparations of wall peroxidases. Direct peroxidase-binding assays revealed that both antibodies bound enzymes with peroxidase activity. As judged by immunoblot analyses, mWP3 recognized a Mr 98,000 wall peroxidase with an isoelectric point near 4.2, and mWP19 recognized a Mr 58,000 wall peroxidase. Immunogold localization studies showed both peroxidases are predominately in cell walls. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:11537437

  3. Appraisal of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, H A; Ballinger, J F; Anderson, W J

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of three general surgeons performing 304 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in three private hospitals between October 1989 and November 1990. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy boasts two major advantages over the conventional procedure: the remarkable reduction in postoperative pain and economic benefit, largely due to the patient's early return to work. Revealing a complication rate of 2% and no deaths, this study has shown that this procedure can offer patients these advantages with a medical risk no greater than that accompanying conventional cholecystectomy. Patient safety must be paramount, and it is the responsibility of the surgical community to ensure that all surgeons receive the highest quality training and that the technique is applied appropriately. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1828140

  4. Clinical and roentgenographic aspects of pseudogout: a study of 50 cases and a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fam, A G; Topp, J R; Stein, H B; Little, A H

    1981-01-01

    Pseudogout, defined as recurrent acute arthritis due to intrasynovial deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, is a relatively common arthritic disorder of the elderly. The clinical and roentgenographic aspects of 50 cases of pseudogout in hospitalized patients are reviewed in this paper. Oligoarticular and polyarticular episodes were observed in half of these patients. Antecedent problems included infection, trauma, surgery and vascular events. Consistent with previous reports, most patients had roentgenographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. A third had asymptomatic capsular or periarticular calcific deposits or both, and a third had pyrophosphate arthropathy, a progressive, destructive, accelerated form of osteoarthritis. An attack of pseudogout may offer a clue to the presence of an unsuspected metabolic disease, such as primary hyperparathyroidism or idiopathic hemochromatosis. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:7008926

  5. How cellular slime molds evade nematodes.

    PubMed Central

    Kessin, R H; Gundersen, G G; Zaydfudim, V; Grimson, M

    1996-01-01

    We have found a predator-prey association between the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the free soil living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans feeds on the amoebae and multiplies indefinitely when amoebae are the sole food source. In an environment created from soil, D. discoideum grows and develops, but not in the presence of C. elegans. During development, C. elegans feeds on amoebae until they aggregate and synthesize an extracellular matrix called the slime sheath. After the sheath forms, the aggregate and slug are protected. Adult nematodes ingest Dictyostelium spores, which pass through the gut of the worm without loss of structure and remain viable. Nematodes kill the amoebae but disperse the spores. The sheath that is constructed when the social amoebae aggregate and the spore coats of the individual cells may protect against this predator. Individual amoebae may also protect themselves by secreting compounds that repel nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8643493

  6. Phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 during Ca(2+)-mediated secretion from rat parotid acini.

    PubMed Central

    Hincke, M T; Nairn, A C

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we report the rapid phosphorylation of a cytosolic 100 kDa protein during stimulation of secretion from dispersed aggregates of parotid acinar cells with Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues (carbachol, Substance P, ATP and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187). Phosphorylation was inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was not observed during stimulation with phorbol esters, suggesting that this protein is not a substrate for protein kinase C. Two-dimensional PAGE and immunoprecipitation with a specific antiserum indicated that this protein is elongation factor 2, whose Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation has been shown to inhibit protein synthesis [Nairn & Palfrey (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 17299-17303]. These results suggest that phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 is the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of protein synthesis which has been previously observed in rat parotid cells during stimulation with Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1372803

  7. The structural basis for neutrophil inactivation of C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, P A; Harrison, R A; Lachmann, P J; Carrell, R W

    1989-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) by neutrophil elastase, Pseudomonas elastase and snake venoms resulted in initial cleavage within the molecule's N-terminus followed by further cleavage within the molecule's C-terminally placed reactive centre. N-Terminal proteolysis occurred at peptide bonds 14-15, 36-37 and 40-41. This had no effect on either the inhibitory activity or the heat-stability of C1-INH. Proteolysis within the reactive centre occurred at peptide bonds 439-440, 440-441, 441-442 and 442-443. Cleavage at any one of these sites inactivated C1-INH and conferred enhanced heat-stability upon a previously heat-labile molecule. Released neutrophil proteinases also cleaved and inactivated C1-INH, suggesting that they may physiologically regulate C1-INH during inflammatory episodes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2930506

  8. The Foot and Ankle: An Overview of Arthrokinematics and Selected Joint Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Janice K.; Bell, Stephania L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited range of motion of the ankle is common following a period of immobilization or injury to the lower extremity. If not corrected, this limited range of motion will disturb normal joint arthrokinematics and could affect the athlete's performance. Consequently, the athletic trainer must thoroughly evaluate the various joints of the ankle and foot in order to determine appropriate treatment. A comprehensive evaluation should include assessment of passive accessory motions at the foot and ankle. If accessory movements are restricted at any joint, mobilization techniques can be used to restore normal ankle/foot joint arthrokinematics. This article describes the biomechanics of the tibiofibular, talocrural, subtalar, and midtarsal joints and is a presentation of basic mobilization techniques for the ankle and related joints. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13. PMID:16558394

  9. Functional anatomy of the thymic microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M D

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the nature of the thymic microenvironment, after briefly considering the major role of the gland. The epithelial cells and their products are of fundamental importance, and other cells of the macrophage series are implicated in most functional events. The embryological origin of the epithelium is still not clear, although disease conditions would suggest a single origin. Immigration and emigration of thymocytes is considered, and also the passage of antigens into the gland. The events within the thymus are under the control of the CNS acting through the innervation or via hormonal pathways. Both of these areas are considered in detail, especially thymic hormone origins, functions and interactions. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 PMID:1769884

  10. The Effect of Glucose-Insulin-Potassium on Cardiac Ultrastructure Following Acute Experimental Coronary Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sybers, H. D.; Maroko, P. R.; Ashraf, M.; Libby, P.; Braunwald, E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on cardiac ultrastructure following acute experimental coronary occlusion were studied in dogs. Epicardial ST segment elevations at multiple sites on the anterior surface of the left ventricle 15 minutes after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery were used to predict infarct development. Biopsies removed from sites of known ST segment elevation were examined with the electron microscope, and the degree of injury was correlated with the ST segment elevation. The animals receiving GIK showed significantly less necrosis than was seen in dogs with occlusion alone at corresponding levels of ST segment elevation. Other evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of GIK was the presence of a fibrillar material in several biopsies from the treated animals, which may indicate the regeneration of myofilaments. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 8Fig 9Fig 5Fig 6Fig 10Fig 7p[417]-aFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4570076

  11. Echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, J. B.; Monaghan, M. J.; Jackson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging echocardiography is an important extension of the clinical examination and will answer most questions in an emergency-for example, whether an enlarged cardiac shadow on the chest radiograph represents ventricular dilatation or an effusion. Doppler ultrasonography is essential for hospitals with an interest in cardiology because it provides direct haemodynamic data that are complementary to imaging. It requires more skill than imaging and may also be time consuming. Colour flow Doppler mapping is speedy and simple to use and aids the interpretation of continuous wave Doppler. It is therefore a natural companion to conventional Doppler, but there would have to be a high clinical load to justify its purchase. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3143434

  12. IgM–IgG cryoglobulinaemia with IgM paraprotein component

    PubMed Central

    Klein, F.; van Rood, J. J.; van Furth, R.; Radema, H.

    1968-01-01

    Four patients with mixed IgM–IgG cryoglobulinaemia are described. Clinically they all had some features of an autoimmune disease, while two of them had a lympho-epithelial tumour in the parotid gland. The mixed cryoglobulins of all patients contained an IgM paraprotein with the properties of a rheumatoid factor. They can be regarded as cryoprecipitates of a rheumatoid factor with autologous IgG. In one case the parotid tumour, and not the bone marrow, produced the IgM paraprotein. The clinical significance of the cryoglobulins is discussed. The IgM paraproteins with rheumatoid factor activity may be an expression of an underlying abnormality of the immunological system of these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5701952

  13. opaque-15, a maize mutation with properties of a defective opaque-2 modifier.

    PubMed Central

    Dannenhoffer, J M; Bostwick, D E; Or, E; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    An opaque mutation was identified that reduces gamma-zein synthesis in maize endosperm. The mutation, opaque-15, causes a 2- to 3-fold reduction in gamma-zein mRNA and protein synthesis and reduces the proportion of the 27-kDa gamma-zein A gene transcript. Although the protein bodies in opaque-15 are similar in size and morphology compared to wild type, there are fewer of them in developing endosperm cells. The opaque-15 mutation maps near the telomere of chromosome 7L, coincident with an opaque-2 modifier locus. Based on its phenotype, opaque-15 appears to be a mutation of an opaque-2 modifier gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7892202

  14. Acute toxicity of T2 mycotoxin to the guinea-pig by inhalation and subcutaneous routes.

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, T. C.; Edginton, J. A.; Price, P. N.; Upshall, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The acute inhalation and subcutaneous toxicity of T2 mycotoxin has been investigated in guinea-pigs. The toxicity by the two routes was quantitatively and qualitatively similar. The LCt50 was 5749 mg min m-3 and the subcutaneous LD50 1-2 mg kg-1. Histological changes in the decedents which were similar by both routes of administration were most marked in the lymphoreticular system but also occurred in the gut. Lymphocytolysis and phagocytosis occurred in both the cortex of the thymus and of the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were more severely affected in the decedents among the animals dosed with T2 by the subcutaneous route. The small intestine exhibited dead and dying cells throughout the lamina propria after T2 by either route. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3707855

  15. Chromosomal differences in populations of Anopheles nuneztovari

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmiller, J. B.; Kreutzer, R. D.; Tallaferro, E.

    1973-01-01

    Anopheles nuneztovari from 3 localities in Brazil, 2 in Venezuela, and 1 in Colombia were subjected to chromosome analysis. The Venezuelan and Colombian populations, responsible for malaria transmission in certain areas of these countries, differ in an X-chromosome arrangement from the Brazilian specimens, the difference apparently being due to the fixation of an inversion in the homozygous state in one population. It was possible to identify 216 specimens from Venezuela and Colombia and 190 from Brazil by the X-chromosome. A. nuneztovari and its close relatives may be easily distinguished in this way. Diagnostic descriptions of the chromosomes and a standard map, based on the Brazilian population, are provided. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4543549

  16. Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, M; Zhou, H; Nathans, J

    1996-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse physiologic and anatomic properties have been intensively studied and appear to account well for a number of psychophysical phenomena such as lateral inhibition and chromatic opponency. In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8570601

  17. Tissue-specific control elements of the Thy-1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, M; Morris, R; Grosveld, F; Spanopoulou, E

    1990-01-01

    We have exploited the structural homology, but different patterns of expression of the murine and human Thy-1 genes to map a number of tissue-specific enhancer elements in the genes. All of these are located downstream from the site of transcriptional initiation. The human gene contains separate elements which direct expression to the kidney or spleen epithelium. The murine gene lacks these elements but instead contains a thymocyte specific enhancer in the third intron. Developmentally-regulated expression in nerve cells is directed (at least in part) by an atypical element in the first intron. The latter is active on heterologous promoters, but is position and distance dependent. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1968831

  18. Complete Left Ventricular Bypass With a Paracorporeal Pump: Design and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, William S.; Brighton, John A.; O'Bannon, William; Donachy, James H.; Phillips, Winfred M.; Landis, Donald L.; White, William J.; Waldhausen, John A.

    1974-01-01

    A multidiscipline group was established at The Pennsylvania State University to design and evaluate mechanical circulatory assist devices and the artificial heart. The group has designed a left ventricular to aortic assist system which consists of a sac-type pump, a synchronization unit, a pneumatic power unit, and appropriate monitoring apparatus. The assist system has been evaluated for long-term circulatory assistance in a series of ten calves. The assist pump was placed in the paracorporeal position. The longest period of continuous pumping was over eight months. The last four calves have had synchronized assist pumping which has permitted prolonged ventricular decompression and assist pump flow rates as high as 10 L/min. Three of these four calves had no evidence of thromboemboli. Additional animal studies will be required before clinical use of such an assist pump system can be safely undertaken. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 10. PMID:4547165

  19. Induction of resistance to alkylating agents in E. coli: the ada+ gene product serves both as a regulatory protein and as an enzyme for repair of mutagenic damage.

    PubMed Central

    Teo, I; Sedgwick, B; Demple, B; Li, B; Lindahl, T

    1984-01-01

    The expression of several inducible enzymes for repair of alkylated DNA in Escherichia coli is controlled by the ada+ gene. This regulatory gene has been cloned into a multicopy plasmid and shown to code for a 37-kd protein. Antibodies raised against homogeneous O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (the main repair activity for mutagenic damage in alkylated DNA) were found to cross-react with this 37-kd protein. Cell extracts from several independently derived ada mutants contain variable amounts of an altered 37-kd protein after an inducing alkylation treatment. In addition, an 18-kd protein identical with the previously isolated O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase has been identified as a product of the ada+ gene. The smaller polypeptide is derived from the 37-kd protein by proteolytic processing. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6092060

  20. Histopathologic Lesions in Cutthroat Trout (Salmo clarki) Exposed Chronically to the Insecticide Endrin

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Lafayette L.

    1971-01-01

    Pathologic conditions associated with exposure to endrin were found in the gill, liver, pancreas, brain and gonad of cutthroat trout. Edema, hemorrhage and possibly intracapillary congestion characterized gill damage after exposure to the highest level of endrin in bath. Hepatic lesions in young trout were of a type frequently described as preceding the development of hepatomas in nutritionally deficient fish. The increased incidence and severity of hepatic degenerative changes observed in fish exposed to high levels of endrin suggested nutritional deficiency enhanced by exposure to endrin. Marked hyperplasia of pancreatic islets and irregular, atypical oocytes were observed after exposure to high endrin levels. ImagesFig 4Fig 5Fig 8Fig 9Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4946879

  1. Adenoviral protein VII packages intracellular viral DNA throughout the early phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Vayda, M E; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The proteins associated with parental, adenoviral DNA in productively-infected HeLa cells have been examined both directly and indirectly. HeLa cells infected with 32P-labelled Ad2 were irradiated with u.v. light at various points in the infectious cycle. Following degradation of the DNA, nuclear proteins carrying cross-linked nucleotides, or oligonucleotides, were distinguished from virion phosphoproteins by the resistance of their 32P radioactivity to 1 M NaOH. The major core protein of the virion, protein VII, was found to be associated with viral DNA throughout infection, even when cells were infected at a multiplicity of 0.14. Micrococcal nuclease digestion of intranuclear viral DNA 4 h after infection liberated two nucleoprotein particles containing viral DNA, neither of which co-migrated with HeLa cell mononucleosomes. These results indicate that core protein VII remains associated with parental adenoviral DNA during productive infections. The observation that protein VII can be cross-linked to DNA in cells infected at very low multiplicity, together with the results of a comparison of proteins cross-linkable to viral DNA in cells infected by wild-type virus and a non-infectious mutant containing the precursor to protein VII, suggest that nucleoproteins comprising viral DNA and protein VII must be the templates for expression of pre-early and early viral genes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3743550

  2. The Functions of the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, David

    1966-01-01

    In rodents the thymus performs at least two functions. It is a major site of lymphopoiesis in the embryo and newborn, with the resulting lymphocytes migrating from the thymus to seed the spleen, lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs. In addition, the thymus produces a hormone which has an immunotrophic effect, i.e. it endows cells having immunological potential with immunological competence. In some animals other organs, in addition to the thymus, are responsible for directing the normal development of the immunological system. These are the bursa of Fabricius in birds and the appendix in rabbits. In humans it has been postulated that the tonsillar tissues may play an analogous role. Animal experiments involving extirpation of the immunotrophic lymphoid tissues have led to a better understanding of immunological deficiency diseases in man. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5324977

  3. Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870

  4. Abdominocervical oesophagectomy in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominocervical (transhiatal) oesophagectomy was carried out in 8 patients. Five of 6 with oesophageal cancer were elderly (aged 75-88 years), and one was 59 years old. Two patients (aged 54 and 74 years) had recurrent achalasia and megaoesophagus 30 years after cardiomyotomy. Chest complications were common, but there were no anastomotic leaks and no deaths. In 2 patients with large paraoesophageal hiatal hernias oesophagectomy had not been planned; the procedure was undertaken for an unexpected carcinoma of the cardia and an oesophageal tear. Three patients have died of recurrent cancer at 12, 17 and 21 months. The 5 survivors are swallowing satisfactorily, although one has required two dilatations of an anastomotic stricture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4073762

  5. Circulating monoclonal IgM lambda cryoglobulin with collagen type I affinity in vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, I; Jensen, B A; Hølund, B; Kappelgaard, E; Neilsen, H

    1986-01-01

    A previously fit 66-years-old male primarily presented symptoms compatible with Henock-Schönlein's purpura, from which he seemingly recovered. Shortly hereafter he relapsed with an IgM lambda essential monoclonal cryoglobulinemia type I, presenting a systemic, necrotizing vasculitis, with low titer of circulating immune complexes and complement consumption. Glucocorticoid treatment and plasmapheresis did not prevent an ultimately lethal course. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique showed that the cryo-IgM bound to the interstitial connective tissue corresponding to the localization of collagen type I. In addition it bound to affinity purified human procollagen type I. These results indicate, that the IgM lambda of the proband was an autoantibody with collagen type I specificity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3098468

  6. Elective subtotal splenectomy. Indications and results in 33 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetta, P C; Ruley, E J; Merrick, H F; Verderese, C; Barton, N

    1990-01-01

    Elective subtotal splenectomy was performed in 33 patients (30 children and 3 adults) between 1981 and 1989. Indications for the procedure were (1) prevention of azathioprine-induced neutropenia (n = 20); (2) Type I Gaucher disease (n = 9); and (3) cholesteryl ester storage disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, thalassemia major, and splenic cyst in one patient each. There were no operative deaths, no reoperations for bleeding, and 30 of 33 (91%) patients had a functioning splenic remnant documented by a postoperative radionuclide spleen scan. One patient developed neutropenia without evidence of viral infection that required temporary cessation of azathioprine and the patient with thalassemia major had only transient improvement in transfusion requirements. All other patients (94%) had control of the underlying condition for which the operation was performed. We conclude that subtotal splenectomy is a safe, effective therapy for a variety of nontraumatic conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2294841

  7. Amelioration of established Sendai viral pneumonia in the nude mouse using a monoclonal antibody to the virus fusion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Carthew, P.; Riley, J.; Dinsdale, D.

    1989-01-01

    The pathological effect of parainfluenza type I (Sendai virus) is known to be a bronchopneumonia, which becomes a chronic pneumonia in the immunodeficient athymic (nude) mouse. The severity of this established chronic pneumonia can be dramatically altered by providing the nude mouse with humoral monoclonal antibodies which are neutralizing, and are directed against the fusion protein, of the virus. The alveolitis, which is a significant part of the pathology, is suppressed due to a reduction (greater than 90%) in the number of virus-infected alveolar macrophages present in the alveoli. This clearly identifies the infected alveolar macrophage as the primary effector cell in the pathogenesis of alveolitis caused by parainfluenza virus type I. The implications of using virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, which have little immunomodulatory toxicity, in the treatment of viral pneumonias are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2557882

  8. Habilitation of Patients with Congenital Malformations Associated with Thalidomide: Pediatric Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J. Kenneth; Rathbun, John C.

    1963-01-01

    Since November 1961 it became apparent that the administration of thalidomide to pregnant women was associated with the occurrence of severe congenital anomalies. These deformities are frequently symmetrical, involving the limbs, particularly the proximal part, and associated with an absent external ear, mid-line facial hemangioma with saddle nose, atresia of the bowel and other congenital anomalies. Care of these children is a complicated problem requiring a team of specialists of many disciplines, particularly a pediatrician, an orthopedic surgeon, a prosthetic specialist and a social worker. Treatment by such a team ideally would commence immediately after delivery of the infant and continue until the child has been totally habilitated. Such care ideally should be provided within existing services in the country for the habilitation and rehabilitation of handicapped children. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20327524

  9. Endemic tropical sprue in Rhodesia.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Clain, D J

    1976-01-01

    The existence of tropical sprue in Africa is controversial. In this paper we present 31 cases seen in Rhodesia over a 15 month period. They have the clinical features, small intestinal morphology, malabsorption pattern, and treatment response of tropical sprue. Other causes of malabsorption, and primary malnutrition, have been excluded. The severity of the clinical state and intestinal malabsorption distinguish these patients from those we have described with tropical enteropathy. The previous work on tropical sprue in Africa is reviewed and it is apparent that, when it has been adequately looked for, it has been found. It is clear that the question of tropical sprue in Africa must be re-examined and that it existence may have hitherto been concealed by the assumption that primary malnutrition is responsible for the high prevalence of deficiency states. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1001977

  10. Nuremberg lamentation: for the forgotten victims of medical science.

    PubMed Central

    Seidelman, W. E.

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years after the Nuremberg medical trial there remain many unanswered questions about the role of the German medical profession during the Third Reich. Other than the question of human experimentation, important ethical challenges arising from medicine in Nazi Germany which have continuing relevance were not addressed at Nuremberg. The underlying moral question is that of the exercise of professional power and its impact on vulnerable people seeking medical care. Sensitisation to the obligations of professional power may be achieved by an annual commemoration and lament to the memory of the victims of medical abuse which would serve as a recurring reminder of the physician's vulnerability and fallibility. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8973236

  11. Rapid development of renal lesions in diabetic DBA mice infected with the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D).

    PubMed Central

    Doi, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuda, T.; Onodera, T.

    1989-01-01

    Marked hyperglycaemia and renal lesions developed rapidly in DBA mice infected with 10 plaque-forming units of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D). Renal alterations were demonstrated in the glomeruli, tubular epithelium and small vessels 2 months after infection. Glomerular changes were characterized by mesangial thickening due to an increase of basement membrane-like material in the mesangial matrix. Nodular glomerular lesions were commonly observed 3 months after infection, whereas distinct thickening of the glomerular basement membrane was rarely seen. Besides these glomerular changes, glycogen inclusions in the distal tubular epithelium and medial degeneration in the arterioles were also noticed. The EMC-D-infected DBA mouse appears to be a useful experimental model for the study of human diabetic nephropathy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2765387

  12. Scatter factor induces blood vessel formation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, D S; Kleinman, H K; Goldberg, I D; Bhargava, M M; Nickoloff, B J; Kinsella, J L; Polverini, P; Rosen, E M

    1993-01-01

    Scatter factor (also known as hepatocyte growth factor) is a glycoprotein secreted by stromal cells that stimulates cell motility and proliferation. In vitro, scatter factor stimulates vascular endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and organization into capillary-like tubes. Using two different in vivo assays, we showed that physiologic quantities of purified native mouse scatter factor and recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor induce angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). The angiogenic activity was blocked by specific anti-scatter factor antibodies. Scatter factor induced cultured microvascular endothelial cells to accumulate and secrete significantly increased quantities of urokinase, an enzyme associated with development of an invasive endothelial phenotype during angiogenesis. We further showed that immunoreactive scatter factor is present surrounding sites of blood vessel formation in psoriatic skin. These findings suggest that scatter factor may act as a paracrine mediator in pathologic angiogenesis associated with human inflammatory disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7680481

  13. Three tomato genes code for heat stress transcription factors with a region of remarkable homology to the DNA-binding domain of the yeast HSF.

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, K D; Rose, S; Zott, W; Schöffl, F; Nover, L; Schöff, F

    1990-01-01

    Heat stress (hs) treatment of cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum (Lp, tomato) results in activation of preformed transcription factor(s) (HSF) binding to the heat stress consensus element (HSE). Using appropriate synthetic HSE oligonucleotides, three types of clones with potential HSE binding domains were isolated from a tomato lambda gt11 expression library by DNA-ligand screening. One of the potential HSF genes is constitutively expressed, the other two are hs-induced. Sequence comparison defines a single domain of approximately 90 amino acid residues common to all three genes and to the HSE--binding domain of the yeast HSF. The domain is flanked by proline residues and characterized by two long overlapping repeats. We speculate that the derived consensus sequence is also representative for other eukaryotic HSF and that the existence of several different HSF is not unique to plants. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2148291

  14. Fetal Renal Structure and the Genesis of Amniotic Fluid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Naeye, Richard L.; Blanc, William A.

    1972-01-01

    Newborn recipient twins in the transplacental transfusion syndrome have dilated renal tubules, enlarged bladders and an increased urinary output in the early neonatal period, suggesting that increased fetal micturition is responsible for hydramnios in the syndrome. There is the possibility that such micturition contributes to hydramnios in other disorders as well. In the present study, renal tubules were found to be dilated in single-born infants with a diverse group of disorders having hydramnios as a common feature. Many of the neonates had hypoplastic lungs, an abnormality whose role in the hydramnios is undetermined. Renal tubular lumina were of normal size in neonates associated with oligohydramnios due to chronic leak of amniotic fluid. Donor members of parabiotic transplacental transfusion pairs had contracted renal tubules which helps to explain their oligohydramnios. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4558222

  15. Tumour associated antigens in diagnosis of serous effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Mezger, J; Permanetter, W; Gerbes, A L; Wilmanns, W; Lamerz, R

    1988-01-01

    The use of tumour associated antigens in the diagnosis of serous effusions was studied in 76 patients with benign and 200 patients with malignant disease. Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), alpha fetoprotein, and CA 125 were found to be of little value. At cut off points of 3 ng/ml, 10 U/ml, and 30 U/ml, respectively, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), biliary glycoprotein I (BGP I), and CA 19-9 discriminated between benign and malignant serous effusions with a sensitivity of between 24% and 67%. The immunocytochemical staining for these markers resulted in malignant cells being detected in 18% to 33% of cases. Various combinations of conventional cytological examination, effusion fluid tumour marker determination, and immunocytochemical analysis identified malignant cells in serous effusions in up to 72% of cases; conventional cytology alone detected tumour cells in only 30%. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:2454957

  16. Endotracheal cuff pressure and tracheal mucosal blood flow: endoscopic study of effects of four large volume cuffs.

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, R D; van Hasselt, G L

    1984-01-01

    Large volume, low pressure endotracheal tube cuffs are claimed to have less deleterious effect on tracheal mucosa than high pressure, low volume cuffs. Low pressure cuffs, however, may easily be overinflated to yield pressures that will exceed capillary perfusion pressure. Various large volume cuffed endotracheal tubes were studied, including Portex Profile, Searle Sensiv, Mallinkrodt Hi-Lo, and Lanz. Tracheal mucosal blood flow in 40 patients undergoing surgery was assessed using an endoscopic photographic technique while varying the cuff inflation pressure. It was found that these cuffs when overpressurised impaired mucosal blood flow. This impairment of tracheal mucosal blood flow is an important factor in tracheal morbidity associated with intubation. Hence it is recommended that a cuff inflation pressure of 30 cm H2O (22 mm Hg) should not be exceeded. Images FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6423162

  17. An audit of the management of 250 patients with chest trauma in a regional thoracic surgical centre.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N S

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty patients with chest trauma admitted consecutively over a 6-year period to the Royal Surrey County Hospital were reviewed. This is a large series by British standards. The cause and nature of their chest and associated injuries were studied, together with the management, complications and outcome. The aim of this study was to find areas where diagnosis and treatment could be improved. It was found that where there was no lung contusion, flail chest injuries could be managed without ventilation. The review suggests that even small traumatically induced pneumothoraces should be drained. It illustrates the need for an awareness of the wide range of concurrent problems in patients with chest injuries and the variety of possible complications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2742679

  18. Possible Role of Hormones in Treatment of Metastatic Testicular Teratomas: Tumour Regression with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, H. J. G.; Hendry, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Three patients in a consecutive series of 16 cases of metastatic mallgnant teratoma testis have shown well-marked tumour regression during hormone treatment. In two cases multiple lung metastases had previously failed to respond to actinomycin D therapy, and following treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate one patient had well-marked selective tumour regression for nine months while the other is alive, well, and free from disease at seven years. The third case was treated with a combination of actinomycin D and medroxyprogesterone acetate and is alive and disease-free at two years. Attention is drawn to this preliminary study in the hope of stimulating interest in the possible value of hormones, either alone or combined with chemotherapy and irradiation, in the treatment of metastatic testicular teratoma. Multicentre prospective clinical trials are now needed if knowledge is to be advanced in this field. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4726928

  19. Heterophile Antibodies and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Taichman, Norton S.; Pulver, Wayne H.; Schönbaum, Eduard

    1973-01-01

    Platelets appear to be pathogenetic determinants in the development of lethal Forssman shock, which was provoked in guinea pigs by an intravenous injection of rabbit antiserum to sheep erythrocyte stromata. Within moments, circulating platelets (prelabeled with 14C-serotonin) were removed from the blood stream and impacted in the lungs, where they liberated 14C into the tissues. When animals were depleted of platelets prior to the production of shock, they survived for prolonged periods of time or were protected against death. Pretreatment with antiinflammatory compounds capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and release phenomena had a similar protective influence. It would appear, therefore, that Forssman shock is a convenient and accessible model for investigating the mechanisms whereby platelets mediate immune vascular damage. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4740636

  20. Viral-bacterial pneumonia in calves: duration of the interaction between bovine herpesvirus 1 and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D; Babiuk, L A; Jericho, K W

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen six to eight month old beef calves were exposed individually to a five minute aerosol of bovine herpesvirus 1, isolate 108. Aerosol exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) was administered individually for five minutes at either four, ten, 20 or 30 days after the virus. Fibrinous pneumonia and pleuritis occurred in all four groups but were most extensive and severe in those exposed to the virus and bacterium four days apart (the positive controls). Fibrinous pneumonia was associated with persistence of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the respiratory tract despite resolution of virus-induced necrotic lesions of the respiratory mucosa. The results presented here suggest that, although the severity of viral-bacterial synergism may be influenced by virus-induced morphological changes, the continued presence of viral antigens after the resolution of respiratory mucosal lesions may continue to exert some effect on host defenses and disease processes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6315196

  1. Intracellular collagen fibrils: evidence of an intracellular source from experiments with tendon fibroblasts and fibroblastic tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Michna, H

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to substantiate one or both of the two hypotheses for the explanation of intracellular collagen fibrils in collagen-producing cells. The more obvious is the phagocytosis of extracellular collagen fibrils by the cell and the other is a form of autophagocytosis of newly synthesised collagenous products. Information was collected on fibroblasts from murine tendons after exercise and simultaneously stimulating collagen synthesis by treatment with an anabolic steroid hormone. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro fibroblastic tumour cells which demonstrate enhanced protein synthesis were also treated with the anabolic steroid. The findings of intracellular collagen fibrils in tendon fibroblasts and the sarcoma cells after experimentally stimulating collagen synthesis are discussed in the light of the hypothesis that the findings may represent steps of autophagocytosis of newly synthesised collagenous products in the absence of a control mechanism to remove collagenous products which cannot be secreted. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3225213

  2. Virus-like particles in paraspinal muscle in scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, J N; Gillespie, W J

    1976-01-01

    Biopsy material from the skeletal muscle (paraxials) of 21 patients with scoliosis was examined by light and electron microscopy. Virus-like particles, 17 nm in diameter with a crystalline structure, were identified in the skeletal muscle fibres of four patients. Associated changes in the sarcoplasm included swelling of mitochondria, presence of lipid droplets, and vesicular structures. Serological studies and culture for virus isolation gave negative results. An excess of lipid (predominantly in type 1 fibres) was noted in the skeletal muscle of several other cases. The significance of these findings is obscure, but the morphology of the paraxial muscles of patients with scoliosis and controls is currently being investigated in greater detail. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:974659

  3. Identification of a cDNA clone encoding a mature blood stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum by immunization of mice with bacterial lysates.

    PubMed Central

    Coppel, R L; Brown, G V; Mitchell, G F; Anders, R F; Kemp, D J

    1984-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed in pBR322 using mRNA from blood stages of a Papua New Guinean isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. Expression of parasite antigens was not directly detectable by conventional immunological assays. To circumvent this, mice were immunized with lysates of cDNA clones, and the antisera raised were assayed for anti-parasite reactivity. One cDNA clone was identified which reliably elicited antibodies to P. falciparum. The mouse antisera were used to characterize the native P. falciparum protein as a 120-kd protein, which is antigenic during natural infection. The protein occurs in late trophozoite and schizont stages and is found in isolates of the parasite from widely separated geographical areas. The genomic context of the antigen gene is conserved in the different isolates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6370681

  4. Thrombohemorrhagic Response to Noradrenaline Following Heterologous Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Selye, Hans; Ferlini, Luigi; Tuchweber, Beatriz

    1966-01-01

    Normal rats are extremely tolerant to heterologous blood transfusion; however, after subcutaneous injection of noradrenaline, they lose this tolerance and respond with severe thrombohemorrhagic reactions both at the site of injection and in internal organs, particularly the kidney. In histological structure, the topical and general manifestations of this thrombohemorrhagic response are virtually identical with those of the local and general Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomenon, respectively. Among the blood specimens tested, those of the dog, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, chicken and man were most effective in inducing this type of noradrenaline hypersensitivity. The blood of the duck and hamster as well as homologous rat blood proved to be virtually or completely inefficacious. The possible theoretical and clinical implications of a noradrenaline test for potential blood-borne thrombohemorrhagic factors are briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5902237

  5. Apical-basal membrane polarity of membrane phosphatases in isolated capillary endothelium: alteration in ultrastructural localisation under culture conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R L; Sandra, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillaries from freshly isolated rat epididymal fat were subjected to protocols that allowed ultrastructural localisation of alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase. Alkaline phosphatase was almost entirely restricted to the capillary luminal membrane and vesicles associated with this membrane. 5'-nucleotidase was localised on the basal or abluminal membrane and associated vesicles. Arterioles and occasional venules were also present in the cell isolates, and arteriole localisation of 5'-nucleotidase was identical to that in capillaries. In venules, 5'-nucleotidase often failed to exhibit a polarised distribution and was present on both membrane domains. In confluent cultured endothelial cells, 5'-nucleotidase was not expressed in a predominantly polarised arrangement. Alkaline phosphatase was found on apical surfaces and regions of lateral cell contact. The results of these studies show that capillary endothelial cells exhibit enzyme polarity of their surface membranes which is subject to change on introduction of the cells to tissue culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8226289

  6. Electron microscopic observations on the epithelium of ram seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Plöen, L

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the ram seminal vesicle was studied on material fixed by immersion or by vascular perfusion. The signs of apocrine secretion seen after immersion fixation did not appear after perfusion fixation and are therefore interpreted as artefacts. Instead, vacuoles with a granule in them were seen. Such vacuoles were observed in the Golgi apparatus and in the apical cytoplasm. Further indications of merocrine secretion were also found. It therefore appears that protein secretion in the ram seminal vesicle follows the typical pattern of serous glands. The possibility that fructose is extruded with the protein as the vacuoles open at the luminal cell surface is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7410195

  7. Smooth muscle pseudotumours: a potentially confusing artefact of rectal biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dankwa, E K; Davies, J D

    1988-01-01

    An artefactual smooth muscle lesion was found in seven of 500 consecutive rectal biopsy specimens. The lesions had the deceptive appearance of a genuine tumour although none of the patients with the lesion had presented with a rectal mucosal swelling. The morphology of the lesion and its poor reproducibility under experimental conditions suggested that it was an artefact of the biopsy procedure: it was easily reproduced in resected specimens of large bowel using punch or basket forceps but not when using flat forceps. The presence of the lesion seems to depend on the type of forceps used rather than on differences in deployment and seems to be caused by avulsion of the superficial part of the muscularis propria and its incorporation into the tissues included in rectal biopsy specimens. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 1 Fig 4 PMID:3045159

  8. Scanning electron microscopic study of the lingual papillae of the one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, M A; Fatani, J A; Mohajir, A M

    1988-01-01

    The dorsum of the camel tongue shows filiform, fungiform, circumvallate and special (wart-like) papillae. Filiform papillae are conical in shape and show different heights and thicknesses at various levels. Fungiform papillae are rounded and are surrounded by robust filiform papillae. They can also be observed on the tip of the ventral surface. They have taste pores on their surfaces. Circumvallate papillae are encircled by a primary groove and an annular pad. Their taste pores open into the grooves. A special type of filiform papillae is wart-like and has been observed on the posterior portion. These do not show taste pores. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3253256

  9. C.-E.A. Winslow and the later years of public health at Yale, 1940-1945.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of papers in which I consider contemporary Yale medical education in general and the Yale Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in particular. It tells of the retirement in 1945 of C.-E.A. Winslow, Professor and Chairman of the Yale Department of Public Health since its inception in 1915; of the committees established by the dean of the School of Medicine and the president of the University, charged with determining the future direction of the department; and of the outcome, which, in 1945, proved favorable to Winslow's public health philosophy in contrast to the medical school's clinical needs and desires. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:3321724

  10. Experimental Teratogenic Lathyrism in Sheep and Further Comparative Aspects with Teratogenic Locoism

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, R. F.; James, Lynn F.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison of the gross anatomical deviations in malformed offspring from ewes that ingested the locoweed plant or a synthetic lathyrogen during gestation revealed many similarities but also certain essential differences. Similarities included abortions, contracture or overextension of the pastern joint, permanent flexure of the carpal joint, lateral rotation of the forelimbs, osteoporosis and bone fragility, and brachygnathia. Features restricted to the lathyrogen-induced condition included spinal malformations of various kinds especially scoliosis but occasionally kyphosis and torticollis, and forelimb abduction resulting from loose scapular attachment. The loose or hypermobile stifle joint of the loco-induced condition was rare in malformed offspring from lathyrogen-fed animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4260948

  11. Role for the class A macrophage scavenger receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Platt, N; Suzuki, H; Kurihara, Y; Kodama, T; Gordon, S

    1996-01-01

    Numerous immature thymocytes undergo apoptosis and are rapidly engulfed by phagocytic thymic macrophages. The macrophage surface receptors involved in apoptotic thymocyte recognition are unknown. We have examined the role of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) in the engulfment of apoptotic thymocytes. Uptake of steroid-treated apoptotic thymocytes by thymic and inflammatory-elicited SR-A positive macrophages is partially inhibited by an anti-SR-A mAb and more completely by a range of scavenger receptor ligands. Thymic macrophages from mice with targeted disruption of the SR-A gene show a 50% reduction in phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes in vitro. These data suggest that SR-A may play a role in the clearance of dying cells in the thymus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8901603

  12. The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, J A; Cohen, M M

    1986-01-01

    Sir Frederick Treves first showed Joseph Merrick, the famous Elephant Man, to the Pathological Society of London in 1884. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suggested in 1909 and was widely accepted. There is no evidence, however, of café au lait spots or histological proof of neurofibromas. It is also clear that Joseph Merrick's manifestations were much more bizarre than those commonly seen in neurofibromatosis. Evidence indicates that Merrick suffered from the Proteus syndrome and had the following features compatible with this diagnosis: macrocephaly; hyperostosis of the skull; hypertrophy of long bones; and thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the hands and feet, including plantar hyperplasia, lipomas, and other unspecified subcutaneous masses. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3092979

  13. Reconstitution of surfactant activity by using the 6 kDa apoprotein associated with pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S H; Possmayer, F

    1986-01-01

    Lipid extracts of bovine pulmonary surfactant containing the 6 kDa apoprotein, but lacking the 35 kDa apoprotein, can mimic the essential characteristics of pulmonary surfactant on a pulsating-bubble surfactometer. Reconstituted surfactant can be produced by combining silicic acid fractions containing 6 kDa apoprotein and phosphatidylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of the protein-containing fraction with proteolytic enzymes abolishes its efficacy. These results indicate that the presence of the 6 kDa apoprotein can account for some of the essential physical and biological characteristics of pulmonary surfactant. Immunodiffusion studies indicate that, contrary to earlier suggestions, the 6 kDa apoprotein is not structurally related to the major surfactant apoprotein that has a molecular mass of 35 kDa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3098235

  14. Morphological, immunological and immunocytochemical identification of lymphocytes extracted from cutaneous infiltrates.

    PubMed Central

    Claudy, A L; Schmitt, D; Viac, J; Alario, A; Staquet, M J; Thivolet, J

    1976-01-01

    The identification of mononuclear cells extracted from various skin disorders has been investigated and the relative amount of B and T cells determined according to various assays such as E-rosette test, FITC and peroxidase anti-immunoglobulin conjugates. It has been found that: (a) there were two different patterns of distribution of the cells in the infiltrates; one with a T/B ratio above 3 (closest to a delayed type reaction), the other with a T/B ratio below 2. (b) The morphological appearance of tissue lymphocytes differs from that of circulating lymphocytes by the presence of both membrane and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1083319

  15. Mutants of the EcoRI endonuclease with promiscuous substrate specificity implicate residues involved in substrate recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, J; Model, P

    1990-01-01

    The EcoRI restriction endonuclease cleaves DNA molecules at the sequence GAATTC. We devised a genetic screen to isolate EcoRI mutants with altered or broadened substrate specificity. In vitro, the purified mutant enzymes cleave both the wild-type substrate and sites which differ from this by one nucleotide (EcoRI star sites). These mutations identify four residues involved in substrate recognition and catalysis that are different from the amino acids proposed to recognize the substrate based on the EcoRI-DNA co-crystal structure. In fact, these mutations suppress EcoRI mutants altered at some of the proposed substrate binding residues (R145, R200). We argue that these mutations permit cleavage of additional DNA sequences either by perturbing or removing direct DNA-protein interactions or by facilitating conformational changes that allosterically couple substrate binding to DNA scission. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2209548

  16. Lethal osteogenesis imperfecta congenita and a 300 base pair gene deletion for an alpha 1(I)-like collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, F M; Cheah, K S; Nicholls, A C; Price, A B; Grosveld, F G

    1984-01-01

    Broad boned lethal osteogenesis imperfecta is a severely crippling disease of unknown cause. By means of recombinant DNA technology a 300 base pair deletion in an alpha 1(I)-like collagen gene was detected in six patients and four complete parent-child groups including patients with this disease. One from each set of the patients' clinically unaffected parents also carried the deletion, implying that affected patients were genetic compounds. The study suggests that prenatal diagnosis should be possible with 100% accuracy in subjects without the deletion and with 50% accuracy in those who possess it (who would be either heterozygous--normal, or affected with the disease). Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6419953

  17. Surface morphology of the gastroduodenal mucosa in duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Steer, H W

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic biopsies from the duodenal cap and prepyloric areas of 25 patients have been examined with the scanning electron microscope. Eleven patients had duodenal ulceration. Bacteria are related only to the surface of gastric type epithelial cells whether these cells are located at areas of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb or in the pre-pyloric region of the stomach. The bacteria are not associated with the surface of intestinal type epithelial cells. The bacteria are absent from the biopsies of those patients with a normal stomach and duodenum. Of those patients with duodenal ulceration, 73% have bacteria related to the epithelial surface. The bacteria are of two morphological types - a kidney shaped bacillus and an S-shaped bacillus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6500361

  18. Morphometric study of cartilage dynamics in the chick embryo tibia. II. Dexamethasone-treated embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Ranz, F B; Aceitero, J; Gaytan, F

    1987-01-01

    The cartilage dynamics in the tibia of dexamethasone-treated chick embryos has been studied by means of morphometric methods. Treated embryos showed a delay in the longitudinal growth of the tibia, as well as in the growth of all structures enclosed by the perichondrium-periosteum. The cartilage formation rate remained nearly unchanged (above 1 mm3/day) from Day 12 to Day 14, whereas the cartilage resorption rate was zero up to Day 13, and showed a non-significant increase from Day 13 onwards. This might be related to the scarcity of resorptive cells found in the cartilage-marrow interface. By Day 14 a certain recovery of the growth rhythm was observed. These results indicate that the greatest effect of dexamethasone occurs at the level of cartilage resorption. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3446667

  19. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  20. An intensive Alpine climbing expedition and its influence on some anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an intensive 4 week Alpine climbing expedition on percentage body fat, absolute body fat and lean body mass was investigated in 14 adult male students. Anthropometric measures were taken on two occasions during the training period prior to the expedition, twice during the expedition and finally eight weeks after the expedition had returned home. There was a 3% reduction in percentage body fat between the first testing occasion and the fourth taken towards the end of the expedition. Over the same interval there was a mean reduction of 2.6 kg in absolute body fat and a reduction in lean body mass of 2.47 kg. All three criterion mean values on the final testing session returned to or exceeded those taken on session one. Images p126-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7407450