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  1. “Organic” Erection Dysfunction: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ronald W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the basic diagnostic work-up for a physically based erection dysfunction and reviews the five current treatment options (medicinal, physical, surgical, counselling, and intracavernosal injection). ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21253073

  2. A century of pathology at Yale: personal reflections.

    PubMed Central

    Yesner, R.

    1998-01-01

    This history is largely about the players on the stage of the Yale Pathology Department acting out their roles as observed by the author in over a half century as a member of the department and as associate dean of the medical school. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10527367

  3. Genital Ulcers: Their Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    This article offers some background information on diagnosis and treatment of three major causes of genital ulcers: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21263799

  4. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  5. Potential injury mechanisms to the climber's belayer.

    PubMed Central

    Butlin, P A

    1985-01-01

    Photographs and transparencies of the techniques used in belaying, combined with information gained from discussions amongst experienced climbers, provided evidence of the potential injury mechanisms which may be subjected to the belayer in having to arrest a falling climber, whilst moving towards the belayer. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Figure 1 Plate 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4092137

  6. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  7. On pigeons and people: A preliminary look at the columban simulation project

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Simulations of complex human behaviors with pigeons are providing plausible environmental accounts of such behaviors, as well as data-based commentaries on non-behavioristic psychology. Behaviors said to show “symbolic communication,” “insight,” “self-awareness,” and the “spontaneous use of memoranda” have thus far been simulated, and other simulations are in progress. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22478538

  8. PULMONARY INFLAMMATORY HYPERINFLATION IN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Vaudagna, J. S.; Volpe, F.

    1963-01-01

    In infants less than 3 years old pulmonary hyperinflation can be a clinical and radiological sign of acute pneumonitis. It is an early, nonspecific occurrence in the presence of inflammation. The most reliable radiologic signs include flattening and undulation of the diaphragm, mediastinal elongation and narrowing, and a cardiac outline completely visualized above the diaphragm. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:13996469

  9. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  10. PubMed Central

    Mitchell, A. Girard et D.

    1962-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the techniques and equipment used at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, Que. for the production of specific pathogen-free pigs. From 23 litters delivered by cesarian section, 190 piglets have been reared. Approximately fifty of these animals were used as foundation stock for a minimal disease herd. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17649409

  11. Polymyositis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, S; Dilawari, J B; Sawhney, I M; Dang, N; Radotra, B D; Chawla, Y K

    1993-01-01

    An elderly woman with chronic ulcerative colitis who developed proximal muscle weakness, increased serum creatine phosphokinase activity, and histological and electromyographic abnormalities characteristic of polymyositis is described. Treatment with corticosteroids and 5-acetylsalicylic acid was followed by a remission in bowel symptoms, improvement in muscle power, and reversal of electromyographic changes. An autoimmune link between the two disorders seems likely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8491410

  12. Missed cervical spine fracture-dislocations prior to manipulation: A review of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Nykoliation, J. W.; Cassidy, J. D.; Dupuis, P.; Yong-Hing, K.; Crnec, M.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of patients with fracture-dislocations of their cervical spines following forced flexion injuries are presented. All received cervical manipulation without proper clinical and radiographic evaluation. These cases stress the importance of a thorough examination prior to the application of manipulative therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13

  13. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Norman, David; Newton, T. Hans; Kucharczyk, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has developed rapidly and now has superior ability to detect and to characterize disease in the central nervous system without any significant biologic hazard. It is becoming the screening method of choice in the diagnosis of neoplasm, ischemia, hemorrhage, infection and degenerative and demyelinating diseases involving the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3976220

  15. Imaging of Common Adult Neurologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Michael K.; Marotta, Thomas R.; TerBrugge, Karel G.; Marotta, Joseph T.

    1991-01-01

    The family physician is often called upon to diagnose a range of adult neurologic disorders. Clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies are required to discover their cause. Various imaging modalities can be used to evaluate common adult disorders of the central nervous system. ImagesFigures 1-2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figures 7-8Figures 9-11 PMID:21229013

  16. Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in the First Two Weeks of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bessolo, Rodney J.; Vincent, William R.

    1969-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of congenital heart disease which presents cyanosis or respiratory distress, or both, in the first two weeks of life, is difficult. Close correlation of clinical features, electrocardiogram and chest roentgenogram is most helpful. The diagnosis of congenital heart disease should lead to immediate cardiac catheterization, angiocardiography and appropriate therapy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:5773478

  17. Formation of virus-like particles when the polyprotein gene (segment A) of infectious bursal disease virus is expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, F S; Qian, B; Nagy, E; Cleghorn, J R; Wadowska, D

    1999-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system was used to examine the expression of the full-length infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) segment A cDNA, which encodes the structural proteins in a polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically cleaved to VPX, VP3, and VP4. No VP2 was observed in lysates of recombinant baculovirus infected cells indicating the lack of processing of VPX to VP2 in this system. Virus-like particles (VLP) were purified from the infected insect cells, and on negative staining electron microscopy, looked very similar to authentic IBDV particles in shape and size, suggesting that processing of VPX to VP2 is not necessary for capsid assembly. Images Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:9918334

  18. Role of Bone Graft in Reconstruction of Skull Base Defect

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuhei; Minakawa, Hidehiko; Yoshida, Tetsunori; Igawa, Hiroharu; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Ohura, Takehiko; Nohira, Kunihiko

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients underwent reconstruction of skull base defects between 1989 and 1992. In this series, the maximum size of the skull base defect was 6 × 5 cm. Three patients underwent bone grafts to reinforce the skull base. The postoperative course of seven patients without bone grafts was uneventful. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, extradural abscess, on brain herniation. On the other hand, two of the three patients with bone grafts developed extradural abseesses requiring the bone grafts to be removed. Although the number of patients in this series is not large, this study demonstrates that the use of bone grafts in reconstruction of skull base detects could be one of the factors in increasing the chances of infectious complications. We think that a bone graft is not necessary to reconstruct moderate-sized skull base defects. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4p228-aFigure 4Figure 4 PMID:17170915

  19. Life-Threatening Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Cram, David L.

    1973-01-01

    Four life-threatening dermatoses—Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Kaposi's varicelliform eruption and purpura fulminans—are unique in their abrupt onset and rapid progress to death, but prompt diagnosis and proper therapy can often cure the condition or prevent undesirable sequelae. Since two of the four conditions can follow the use of a variety of drugs and all may be secondary to an infectious agent, any physician may encounter them in practice and should be aware of their seriousness. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:4701711

  20. Transcholecystic operative cholangiography: an alternative technique.

    PubMed Central

    Tinckler, L.

    1991-01-01

    The current standard methods of carrying out operative cholangiography by cannulating the cystic duct or by direct puncture of the common bile duct are not without practical difficulties and potential hazards. An alternative method of introducing contrast material into the bile ducts for intra-operative imaging is described which is easy to perform, effective and safe. The technique consists of injecting contrast material into the previously emptied gallbladder and then propelling the contrast into the bile ducts by squeezing the viscus before taking X-ray films. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1996863

  1. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  2. A biophysical model for defibrillation of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, J P; Panfilov, A V

    1996-01-01

    We propose a new model for electrical activity of cardiac tissue that incorporates the effects of cellular microstructure. As such, this model provides insight into the mechanism of direct stimulation and defibrillation of cardiac tissue after injection of large currents. To illustrate the usefulness of the model, numerical stimulations are used to show the difference between successful and unsuccessful defibrillation of large pieces of tissue. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8874007

  3. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, D.; Lagacé, A.; Massé, R.; Morin, M.; Béland, P.

    1985-01-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed. Concurrent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from various organs of this whale is also reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17422578

  4. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to assist in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 PMID:21253078

  5. TINEA CAPITIS DUE TO TRICHOPHYTON TONSURANS—Incidence, Diagnosis and Epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay Region

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Herbert L.; Halde, Carlyn

    1955-01-01

    Eighty-five cases of tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans were observed in the San Francisco Bay area during the five years 1950-54. This disease, unlike the common microsporum infections, sometimes affects adults and adolescents. Hairs infected with T. tonsurans do not fluoresce under the Wood's light. Diagnosis is a laboratory procedure in which the fungus is isolated from the hair. There are three clinical varieties of the disease. The course is prolonged and treatment is unsatisfactory. The disease apparently has spread from Mexico, through the Southwest and Southern California. Control is difficult. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4. PMID:13260935

  6. A review of alternative approaches in the management of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, G. J.; Ray, S. A.; Lewis, J. S.; Lopez, A. J.; Powell, B. W.; Moss, A. H.; Dormandy, J. A.; Belli, A. M.; Buckenham, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (IPAs) demands close co-operation between radiologist, vascular surgeon and plastic surgeon. Ideally, each patient should be reviewed employing a team approach. Many IPAs require only observation; those with a volume greater than 6 cm3 will require treatment as spontaneous thrombosis is uncommon. Radiological treatment options include ultrasound guided compression repair (UGCR), embolisation, and covered stenting. Occasionally, these are unsuccessful or contra-indicated, and the vascular surgical approach is discussed in detail. Finally, the role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with skin ischaemia is detailed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10615187

  7. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  8. Neurofibromatosis clinical presentations: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Robert G; Waddell, Brad M; Willson, Robert D

    1987-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NFT) is an autosomal dominant disorder. Several distinctive clinical features may be discovered in the presence of the disease, including ècafé au laité spots, cutaneous neurofibromas, axillary freckling, Lisch nodules, and a positive familial history. Chiropractic management of this condition should include early recognition, appropriate supportive referral and symptomatic treatment of accompanying biomechanical dysfunctions. Early diagnosis will not only permit appropriate assessment, but will allow for vital genetic counselling. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

  9. Canine Distemper Viral Inclusions in Blood Cells of Four Vaccinated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Bruce G.; Adams, Pamela S.; Cornell, William D.; Elkins, A. Darrel

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of canine distemper were detected by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic inclusions in various circulating blood cells. Fluorescent antibody techniques and electron microscopy confirmed the identity of the viral inclusions. The cases occurred in the same geographic area and within a short time span. All four dogs had been vaccinated against canine distemper, but stress or other factors may have compromised their immune status. The possibility of an unusually virulent virus strain was also considered. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422596

  10. PubMed Central

    Breton, L.; Bonneau, N. H.; Beauregard, M.

    1984-01-01

    An osteosarcoma of the femoral diaphysis associated with the presence of a bone plate in a dog A bone tumor which developed in the middle third of the left femur of an Irish Setter, seven years after a metallic plate had been used to reduce a fracture, is described. Through radiographs, the tumor was found to involve the diaphysis of the bone. The histopathology revealed that it was an osteosarcoma. Spontaneous and induced osteosarcomas are compared, and the possible correlation between the development of a tumor of this nature and the use of orthopedic implants is discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422477

  11. Cell-Mediated Immunity and Its Role in Resistance to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Edward J.; Remington, Jack S.

    1977-01-01

    The recently acquired knowledge of the importance of cell-mediated immunity in many illnesses and the discovery of a variety of substances that can restore certain cell-mediated immune functions has served to focus the attention of physicians on this area of immunity. It is important for practicing physicians to have a clear understanding of current knowledge of the role of cell-mediated immunity in resistance to infection and how this arm of the immune system relates to the diagnosis and therapy of infectious diseases. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:318786

  12. From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1993-01-01

    Man's failure to extract deeply embedded thorns and arrowheads, with bare hands and teeth, stimulated 'instrument substitutes' mimicking these appendages. Evidence from primitive communities suggest animal, plant and mineral items were employed, both before and after metal became the standard material of today's armamentarium. Changing surgical instrument composition has mirrored concurrent technology and manufacturing methods both of which are reviewed. Particular significance is accorded flint, bronze, crucible steel, thermal sterilisation, nickel-plate, stainless steel and disposable plastics. The paper is based on an exhibition From Flint to Stainless Steel on display at the College. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8215156

  13. Pleural Empyema in Infants and Children: Analysis of 298 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebayo O.; Adejuyigbe, O.; Taiwo, O. O.

    1984-01-01

    Of 298 infants and children with empyema thoracis seen, 62 percent were under 2 years of age. The majority of the cases had underlying pulmonary infection, and Staphylococcus aureus was dominant among the organisms isolated. The diagnosis was made in all cases on the basis of chest x-ray films and thoracentesis. Full expansion of the lung and resolution of the underlying pneumonia occurred on administration of appropriate antibiotics and catheter drainage in all cases except in two patients who had decortication. The mortality rate was 5 percent; delayed presentation and suboptimal prehospitalization antibiotics influenced the morbidity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:6471117

  14. Occurrence and Effects of High Temperature Stress in Rations Stored in Container Vans: A Comparison with Storage Studies in the 1950s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    appropriate decreases in reflectance with certain TTis. Significant decreases in sensory qualities of color and other attributes in rations were noted...Proving Ground.. 41 Appendix B Container Van Codes, Time-Temperature labels ..••.•.... 45 iv Figure 1. Figure 2 . Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5...30 Top carton vs Ambient Air, Weekly Mean Temperatures (Dr) .••.•••••.••.••••.•••••••••..••• 31 Color Values of Ration

  15. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  16. TREATMENT OF DIFFICULT AND INVOLVED COLLES' FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Francis J.; Meier, August W.

    1951-01-01

    Of 105 cases of Colles' fracture, 86 were treated by closed reduction and plaster immobilization alone; 19 cases in which the fractures were more severe were treated by fixed skeletal traction using an external skeletal traction splint. Despite the greater severity of the lesions, the end results, both anatomic and functional, were generally better in those cases in which skeletal traction was used than in those treated by closed reduction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:14801716

  17. Cutaneous Manifestations of Internal Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McLean, David I.

    1987-01-01

    The skin can provide clues to the well-being of our patients. Some skin changes, such as hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita or erythema gyratum repens, are so specific that there is a virtual certainty of internal malignancy. Other changes, such as severe pruritus, are significant management problems in late-stage lymphoma and leukemia. Still others, such as herpes zoster in a cancer patient in remission, may be a marker for recurrent malignant disease. This review will discuss many of the skin changes associated with systemic cancer. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263960

  18. Diagnosis of equine stifle joint disorders: three cases

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Marc R.; Hurtig, Mark B.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, arthrographic, arthroscopic, and pathological findings of three horses with femorotibial joint injuries are presented. Overall diagnostic accuracy is improved when clinical signs, arthrography, and arthroscopy are combined. Treatment of these injuries remains limited. One horse was euthanized, and two were treated by stall rest after diagnosis. Of the two surviving horses, one became a successful breeding animal, and the other was unable to perform as a pleasure horse. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17423858

  19. Advantages of using aquatic animals for biomedical research on reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mottet, N K; Landolt, M L

    1987-01-01

    Major advantages of the use of aquatic animals, such as trout, English sole, or sea urchins, for studying the mechanisms of reproductive toxicology are discussed. The remarkable synchrony of differentiation of gametes in large quantities for detailed morphologic and biochemical measurements enables research not readily done on mammalian nonseasonal breeders. Structural differences such as the absence of a fibrous sheath in the more simple structure of fish and sea urchin sperm flagella facilitates comparative study of the mechanism of action of microtubules in flagella movement and the coupling of mitochondrial energy production to microtubules movement. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:3297666

  20. Fusobacteremia in a Calf with Necrotic Stomatitis, Enteritis and Granulocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo-Wilkie, Judith S.; Radostits, O. M.

    1981-01-01

    This case of fusobacteremia appears to be identical to an interesting and unusual syndrome previously reported. We wish to bring the syndrome to the attention of others who may be able to elucidate the etiology further. Because hematological examinations are frequently not done on calves, this condition may be more common than reports suggest. Perhaps others who observe this syndrome in calves may be able to investigate the role of other agents such as viruses or mycotoxins. Experimental work may be able to establish whether or not the exotoxins of Fusobacterium necrophorum can suppress granulopoiesis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7248893

  1. ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS BY TELEMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, Travis; Sibley, E. A.; Fisher, E. K.

    1961-01-01

    Radiocardiography makes it possible to transmit an electrocardiogram by air from patient to recording device. The distance of transmission may be a few feet, as in a physician's office; or it may be many miles, as when transmitting electrocardiograms from aircraft, rockets or satellites to the earth. The radiocardiographic method has the advantage of versatility, simplicity, freedom of movement for the patient and high amplitude, and is especially suited for recording electrocardiograms during exercise. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:13785896

  2. Vortex shedding as a precursor of turbulent electrical activity in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cabo, C; Pertsov, A M; Davidenko, J M; Baxter, W T; Gray, R A; Jalife, J

    1996-01-01

    In cardiac tissue, during partial blockade of the membrane sodium channels, or at high frequencies of excitation, inexcitable obstacles with sharp edges may destabilize the propagation of electrical excitation waves, causing the formation of self-sustained vortices and turbulent cardiac electrical activity. The formation of such vortices, which visually resembles vortex shedding in hydrodynamic turbulent flows, was observed in sheep epicardial tissue using voltage-sensitive dyes in combination with video-imaging techniques. Vortex shedding is a potential mechanism leading to the spontaneous initiation of uncontrolled high-frequency excitation of the heart. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8785270

  3. Localization of fibronectin within the renal glomerulus and its production by cultured glomerular cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oberley, T. D.; Mosher, D. F.; Mills, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Fibronectin was shown in the kidney glomerulus by the use of the peroxidase-labeled antibody technique. At the ultrastructural level, fibronectin was present in greatest quantities along those cell surfaces that abut the capillary basement membrane, especially along the capillary epithelial cell foot process. Intracellular staining was also seen in the glomerulus, most notably in the mesangial cell. Fibronectin was present extracellularly in large amounts in glomerular cell culture and was also demonstrated on the cell membrane and intracellularly. Images Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 PMID:382867

  4. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lassaletta, Luis; Roda, José María; Frutos, Remedios; Patrón, Mercedes; Gavilán, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions that may involve any segment of the facial nerve. Because of their rarity and the lack of a consistent clinical and radiological pattern, facial nerve schwannomas located at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. In this report, a case of a CPA/IAC facial nerve schwannoma is presented. Contemporary diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are analyzed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167683

  5. Studies on the Nature and Management of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Eugene M.

    1971-01-01

    Prevalence of psoriasis in Caucasians is estimated as 2 to 3 percent. Sound epidemiologic studies on a worldwide basis are needed to secure accurate prevalence rates for comparative purposes. Utilizing Stanford's psoriasis life histories records, the genetics of psoriasis has been explored by various means: statistical census data, pedigree analysis, and twin studies. This research suggests a multifactorial pattern of inheritance for psoriasis, implying that both genetic and environmental components are responsible for the manifestation of the disease. At present it is not possible to point to any single causative factor. Some of the suggested areas for research include study of uninvolved skin, growth control in the psoriatic lesion, viral causes, immunological aspects, and lipid metabolism. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:5578103

  6. Installation and Adjustment Procedure for the Portable Pier and PlaneWave CDK 17 Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Figure Page Figure 4.1 Opening stabilization strut ...2 Figure 4.2 Positioning stabilization strut onto PPR leg .......................................................................... 2...Figure 4.3 Stabilization strut onto PPR leg complete ............................................................................. 3 Figure 4.4 PPR on

  7. Immunohistochemical techniques and their applications in the histopathology of the respiratory system.

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, I; Petrusz, P

    1984-01-01

    Subsequent to the first report in the 1940s on incubation of tissue sections with fluorescein-conjugated antibodies for localization of antigens, a great number of modifications were introduced to improve the validity of immunohistochemistry which has become a growingly popular tool. The use of immunoenzymatic techniques eliminates the need for expensive fluorescence microscopy equipment, the lack of permanency of preparations and the lack of electron density required in ultrastructural localization of antigens. Regardless of the technique, it is also important to choose a correct fixation which allows the proper preservation of antigens and morphology and the penetration of antibodies through the entire thickness of the preparation. A variety of immunohistochemical techniques have been applied to study several components of the lung, such as collagen, surface active material, lung specific antigens, and enzymes and the detection of tumor markers, immunoglobulins and infectious agents in the respiratory system which is reviewed. The large surface area and the multiplicity of cell types provided by the respiratory tract epithelium of humans for exposure to microbial as well as toxic substances in the environment make this organ system very vulnerable but a good early indicator of adverse health effects. Immunohistochemistry provides valuable information complementary to the immunochemical and biochemical characterization of this barrier. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:6090113

  8. Immunolocalization of basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-A during adjuvant arthritis in the Lewis rat.

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Z.; Picou, M.; Dang, T. T.; Angell, E.; Planck, S. R.; Hart, C. E.; Rosenbaum, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    A prerequisite in defining the role of a growth factor in a disease is knowledge of its expression kinetics during the natural course of the disease. We, therefore, used immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses to examine tissue distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A) during the development of destructive arthropathy in the rat adjuvant arthritis model. In normal joints, bFGF was primarily localized in endothelial cells. In inflamed joints, increased staining for bFGF was found in the invading panni, hyperplastic synovium, and thickened periosteum where bFGF was also co-localized with two cell proliferation markers. Staining for bFGF began to increase at the onset of arthritis (days 11 to 13), reached peak level on days 17 to 24, and gradually declined afterward. In contrast, PDGF-A staining did not change until day 17 and the increased staining was restricted to areas of newly formed bone. The district temporal and spatial distribution pattern of these two growth factors during the destructive arthropathy strongly suggests that they play different roles during arthritis. Although PDGF-A seems to be exclusively related to osteogenesis, bFGF may have a more extensive impact on synovial proliferation and bone destruction as well as bone formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7977644

  9. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  10. Ultrasonographic scan in knee pain in athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Carrillo, F; Minelli, S; Beaconsfield, T

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-two knees were examined using real-time high-definition ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz probe. The extra-articular structures were easily visualized and diagnosis of patellar tendon lesions and Baker's cysts formulated. While the meniscal cartilages were shown as a homogeneous triangular structure between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau, no lesions were detected. Deeper intra-articular structures, such as the cruciate ligaments, were not shown by the scan, thus their evaluation was not possible. Given its low cost, wide availability, non-invasiveness and patients' acceptability of the technique, ultrasonography may play an important role in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in and around the knee joint. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1623366

  11. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  13. Characterization of Clonality of Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Human B Lymphoproliferative Disease in Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nakamine, Hirokazu; Masih, Aneal S.; Okano, Motohiko; Taguchi, Yuichi; Pirruccello, Samuel J.; Davis, Jack R.; Mahloch, Mark L.; Beisel, Kirk W.; Kleveland, Kimberly; Sanger, Warren G.; Purtilo, David T.

    1993-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy and understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) occurring in immunosuppressed transplant recipients (post-transplantation LPD), clonality of Epstein-Barr virus-induced human LPDs in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency was examined by analyzing: 1) human immunoglobulin genes and their products, 2) the clonality of Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and 3) genetic alteration of c-myc or bcl-2 genes. A spectrum of clonality was found in the LPDs comparable with that reported for post-transplantation LPDs, although rearrangements of c-myc or bcl-2 genes were not detected. It is confirmed that this system is useful in terms of clonality for understanding the early phases in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation LPD or LPD in immune deficient patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:8380952

  14. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  15. SPLENOPORTAGRAPHY IN PORTAL HYPERTENSION—Its Value in Selecting the Operative Procedure of Choice

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, William P.; Pattison, Arthur C.

    1957-01-01

    Splenoportagraphy has become an almost indispensable adjunct to the surgical management of portal hypertension. In many instances it will provide the basis for the selection of the operative procedure. Certain instances of intrahepatic portal hypertension due to cirrhosis that might better be managed by splenorenal shunt rather than by the generally preferred method of direct end-to-side portacaval shunt may be determined by this procedure. The procedure finds its greatest application in the accurate delineation of the three major types of extrahepatic portal hypertension, each of which demands a different surgical approach. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14. PMID:13413692

  16. Anterolateral and Posterolateral Approaches to the Foramen Magnum

    PubMed Central

    George, Bernard; Lot, Guillaume

    1995-01-01

    Over a 12-year period (1981-1993), 97 lesions located in the foramen magnum area were treated using either the posterolateral or the anterolateral approach. The former is a lateral extent of the midline posterior approach; the latter is the technique of exposure of the cervical vertebral artery applied at the C-1 to C-2 level. The choice between the two types of lateral approaches was made following three modes of localization: anteroposterior attachment, relation to the dura, and relation to the vertebral artery. Both techniques are described in detail, with special attention paid to the bone and dural openings, which vary according to the localization. The treated lesions include 91 tumors, 4 craniocervical junction malformations, 1 synovial cyst, and 1 abcess. A complete resection was realized in 95% of the tumoral cases, with a very limited morbidity and mortality (3%). ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6p16-bFigure 7 PMID:17171152

  17. Feline Muscular Dystrophy with Dystrophin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, James L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Romanul, Flaviu C. A.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Rosales, Remedios K.; Ma, Nancy S. F.; Dasbach, James J.; Rae, John F.; Moore, Frances M.; McAfee, Mary B.; Pearce, Laurie K.

    1989-01-01

    This is the first description of a dystrophin-Deficient muscular dystrophy in domestic cats. The disorder appears to be of X-linked inheritance because it affected both males of a litter of four kittens. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent detection of dystrophin showed dystrophin present in control cat muscle but no detectable dystrophin in either affected cat. The feline muscular dystrophy was progressive and histopathologically resembled human Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy except for the lack of fat infiltration and the presence of prominent hypertrophy of both muscle fibers and muscles groups in the feline disorder. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:2683799

  18. Viruses and virus-like particles detected during examination of feces from calves and piglets with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.; Norman, G.R. (Bob); Yemen, Roberta L.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 763 fecal or intestinal samples from diarrheic calves and piglets were examined for viral content by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy or cell culture. Routine fluorescent antibody and cultural tests detected rotavirus (n=126), coronavirus (n=80) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=13). Electron microscopy detected rotaviruses (n=24) and coronaviruses (n=17) not identified by standard fluorescent antibody tests. Other viruses detected by electron microscopy included Breda virus-like particles (n=49), astroviruses (n=1), caliciviruses (n=1), rhabdoviruses (n=1), parvoviruses (n=2), enteroviruses (n=3), togavirus-like particles (n=2), and “chained” particles (n=5). Mixtures of several of the viruses were detected in a number of fecal samples. The survey emphasized the value of electron microscopy as a broad-spectrum diagnostic tool. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17423455

  19. Neovascularization and tumor growth in the rabbit brain. A model for experimental studies of angiogenesis and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed Central

    Zagzag, D.; Brem, S.; Robert, F.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the study of tumor angiogenesis within the rabbit brain is presented. Implantation of the VX2 carcinoma provides a reproducible tumor accompanied by angiogenesis. The authors report the sequential growth, histology, tumor neovascularization, and vascular permeability of this tumor following its intracerebral implantation. Tumor angiogenesis correlates with the rapid and logarithmic intracerebral tumor growth. The proliferation of blood vessels in the tumor and the organization of tumor cells around tumor vessels are described. Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (detected by Evans blue leakage) starts in the early stages of tumor development and becomes prominent as the tumor vasculature and size increase. This model is useful for experimental studies of angiogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 15 PMID:2451889

  20. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  1. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  2. Carotid body disease and the physician--chronic carotid glomitis.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D.; Khan, Q.; Nash, J.; Smith, P.

    1989-01-01

    There are three types of histological change in the carotid bodies which appear to have physiological and clinical associations. A prominence of the dark variant of chief cells with their contents of met-enkephalin and other peptides appears to be associated with acute exposure to hypoxia. Proliferation of sustentacular cells around the clusters of chief cells appears to be related to ageing and also to systemic hypertension. Recently we have described a new condition of chronic carotid glomitis which is characterized by follicles of lymphocytes and may have a basis in auto-immunity. In the present review we report for the first time plasma cell activity in the carotid bodies of an elderly man, especially around nerve fibrils and unmyelinated axons ensheathed in sustentacular cells. Such appearances are consistent with the view that ageing nerve fibrils may be the antigenic stimulus for the development of chronic carotid glomitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2692011

  3. Monocyte/macrophage-reactive monoclonal antibody Ki-M6 recognizes an intracytoplasmic antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Parwaresch, M. R.; Radzun, H. J.; Kreipe, H.; Hansmann, M. L.; Barth, J.

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, termed Ki-M6, is described, which shows a restricted reactivity to cells of the monocyte/macrophage system. On light- and electron-microscopic immunoperoxidase staining Ki-M6 recognizes monocytes and the phagocytosing compartment of macrophages residing in different tissue sites; granulocytes and the so-called immune accessories of B- and T-cell immune response as closely monocyte/macrophage related cell populations do not reveal any reactivity. This is shown by comparison with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-M4 and Ki-M1 or OKT6 recognizing immune accessory cells by immunohistochemical methods. Ki-M6 binds to a lysosomal membrane-restricted antigen of 60,000 daltons without influencing significantly lysosome-related functions as far as the chemiluminescence response is concerned. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:3777131

  4. Some characteristics of a secreted chlamydial antigen recognized by IgG from C. trachomatis patient sera.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, E S; Macdonald, A B

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis serovars release a glycolipid antigen (GLXA) into the culture supernatant during the infective cycle. This antigen is recognized by IgG isolated from humans with a natural chlamydial infection; GLXA may be a major antigenic determinant of chlamydia. It can be immunopurified by molecular shift or affinity chromatography. Silver staining of SDS-PAGE gels demonstrates a pattern of bands that is essentially the same for preparations isolated by either method. GLXA can also be extracted from mature elementary bodies (EB). These preparations show the same pattern of silver staining bands, and the major bands are immunoreactive as shown by Western blot analysis. Isoelectric focusing studies demonstrate that purified GLXA has an acidic pI. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2606506

  5. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  6. Porphyrin-sensitized photoinactivation of human cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moan, J.; Johannessen, J. V.; Christensen, T.; Espevik, T.; McGhie, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    NHIK 3025 cells derived from a carcinoma in situ were exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative (Hpd) and light and examined by light microscopy, freeze-etching, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The first morphologic changes observed were shrinkage of mitochondria and formation of vesicles on the cell membrane. Furthermore, increased membrane permeability led to accumulation of Hpd and cellular swelling, with a concomitant reduction in the number and size of the microvilli. Some of the vesicles seemed to originate from microvilli. The freeze-etching appearance of the membranes of the majority of the cells was unaltered by treatment with Hpd and light. However, in some cases clustering of membrane particles was observed. At low doses membrane vesiculation and cell swelling were reversed within a few hours after treatment, indicating that repair processes were operative. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6753595

  7. Physiological responses to psychological challenge under hypnosis in patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome: implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L J; Conway, A; Nixon, P G

    1986-01-01

    Thirty patients who were considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome on clinical grounds (history and observation) were referred for testing: 29 patients completed a forced hyperventilation provocation test, and 28 underwent hypnosis during which time a psychological challenge was introduced which was meaningful to each individual patient. In 19/27 of these patients the PetCO2 fell by an average of 18.2 mmHg and persisted spontaneously for more than three minutes. In 10 normal controls studied in a similar fashion there was an average fall of 5 mmHg. The difference in response between responders and controls/non-responders was highly significant (P less than 0.001). A review of the literature is presented for comparison. It is considered that a psychological challenge under hypnosis may have important implications for diagnosis and therapy in some patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:3081708

  8. Effects of antithrombotic agents evaluated in a nonhuman primate vascular shunt model.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R. G.; Wolf, R. H.; Zucker, W. H.; Shinoda, B. A.; Mohammad, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aspirin, cyproheptadine, dextran, dipyridamole, and sulfinpyrazone on thrombus deposition were determined. These antithrombotic agents were evaluated in a nonhuman primate model for thrombus generation that employed test devices exposed to blood in an arteriovenous shunt. Thrombus deposition on test devices was quantitated gravimetrically. Of the antithrombotic agents tested, cyproheptadine was found to be the most effective, and aspirin, dextran, and dipyridamole were each somewhat less effective. Sulfinpyrazone had only a slight antithrombotic effect. Ultrastructual studies of thrombus deposited in test devices showed that the various antithrombotic agents tested did not prevent completely the formation of fibrin, aggregation of platelets, or adhesion and spreading of platelets and leukocytes. This model for thrombus generation is felt to be a more efficient means for evaluating antithrombotic agents than previously described nonhuman primate models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:820202

  9. Tonsillar mapping of determinants found on normal lymphoreticular (T,B,K, immature and macrophage) and myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, E. M.; Stoneking, L.; Humphrey, G. B.; Rapacz, J.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal immunocytochemical method with 25 monoclonal antibodies was used to study the distribution in human tonsil of determinants expressed on T cells (mature and immature), Langerhans cells, B cells, killer/natural killer cells, macrophages, immature myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Many of the respective determinants were found to have a discrete topographic distribution in normal reactive tonsil. The common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen and a determinant found on myeloblastic leukemia cells (My10) were not found in the specimens of the tonsil examined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:2435159

  10. Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Asay, Lyal D.

    1965-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis, a disease thought to be transmitted as a recessive genetic trait, is found as a disease in about one in 1,000 to one in 10,000 births. It involves all of the exocrine glands with presenting symptoms dependent upon the extent of involvement of any group of glands. Many aspects of the disease can be corrected by substitution therapy. This applies particularly to the use of animal pancreas for the steatorrhea and salt for prevention of heat prostration. Unfortunately, the obstructive pulmonary disease with secondary bronchial infections can only be treated symptomatically by the use of mucus thinning agents, postural drainage, and antibiotics. Nevertheless, longevity can be increased and a great deal of hope offered to the families of these unfortunate children by careful supervision of their medical care. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:14288148

  11. Optic Nerve Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Aijaz; Janecka, Ivo P.; Kapadia, Silloo; Johnson, Bruce L.; McVay, William

    1996-01-01

    The length of the optic nerves is a reflection of normal postnatal cranio-orbital development. Unilateral elongation of an optic nerve has been observed in two patients with orbital and skull base neoplasms. In the first case as compared to the patient's opposite, normal optic nerve, an elongated length of the involved optic nerve of 45 mm was present. The involved optic nerve in the second patient was 10 mm longer than the normal opposite optic nerve. The visual and extraocular function was preserved in the second patient. The first patient had only light perception in the affected eye. In this paper, the embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the optic nerve and its mechanisms of stretch and repair are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 13 PMID:17170975

  12. Detection of loss of heterozygosity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, A. B.; Navone, N. M.; Conti, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based procedure was used for the detection of DNA length polymorphisms generated by naturally occurring genetic deletions or insertions of known sequence. This method consists of a simple one-step assay that does not require any restriction enzyme analysis or Southern blot hybridization, allowing identification in ethidium bromide-stained gels. The procedure described here was used to detect loss of heterozygosity at various loci, including the Hbb beta-globin gene cluster, in chemically induced mouse skin tumors, using a variety of tissue preparations, including microdissection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, short-term cultures, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of epithelial populations. This approach may be useful in detecting tumor-specific reduction to homozygosity at polymorphic chromosomal loci, allowing the mapping of putative tumor-suppressor loci involved in carcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1992758

  13. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus: neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, M G

    1976-01-01

    Seven examples of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus have been described. The characteristic symptoms and signs have been described, and the diagnostic neuroradiologic features have been demonstrated. The condition is not a benign one, as is demonstrated by total blindness which occurred in one patient (Case 2). A high index of suspicion for this condition with early referral for neuroradiologic diagnosis leads to proper management and treatment which is usually successful. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 PMID:867637

  14. The Gow-Gates Technique for Mandibular Block Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kafalias, Michael C.; Gow-Gates, George A.E.; Saliba, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable profound mandibular block anesthesia is questionable when depositing the anesthetic solution at the lingula. Complications can occur and the needle may impact a number of important anatomical structures by deep penetration. The Gow-Gates technique for mandibular anesthesia obviates these problems. In this paper the Gow-Gates technique is reinterpreted using a geometrical approach based on lines and planes and is proved mathematically. In so doing a simple yet concise method of reaching the injection site is presented with a definite relationship between the anatomical pathway of the needle and a formal geometrical and mathematical pattern. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:3481514

  15. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  16. Operant psychology goes to the fair: Marian and Keller Breland in the popular press, 1947-1966

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Robert E.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Marian and Keller Breland pioneered the application of operant psychology to commercial animal training during the 1940s and 1950s. The Brelands' story is relatively unknown in the history of behavior analysis. Using information from the Breland-Bailey papers, this paper describes the development and activities of Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), the Brelands' animal training business. We also review popular press coverage of the Brelands between 1947 and 1966 to investigate the level of public exposure to ABE-trained animals and to the principles and methods of operant psychology. An examination of 308 popular print articles featuring the Brelands indicates that there was public exposure of behavior analysis through the popular press coverage of ABE-trained animals. Furthermore, the expansion of operant methods to the marine mammal and bird training industries can be linked to the Brelands' mass media exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22478446

  17. PubMed Central

    Higgins, R.; Paul, M.; Malo, R.; Picard, B.; Paquette, J. G.; Nadeau, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis infection in a dairy cow in Quebec A case of infection by Dermatophilus congonlensis is described for the first time in the Province of Quebec, in a dairy cow. Dermatophilosis was diagnosed in the area of Saint-Hyacinthe in October 1978. It was not possible to find the source of the infection. The isolation of the microorganism was successful and the three techniques used are described. The death of the animal was attributed to complications following invasion by a secondary pathogen. All the other animals in the herd were free from clinical signs of infection. Moreover, no other case of infection by D. congolensis was found in other animal species or humans in the area. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7. PMID:544005

  18. Targeting of passenger protein domains to multiple intracellular membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Janiak, F; Glover, J R; Leber, B; Rachubinski, R A; Andrews, D W

    1994-01-01

    The role of passenger domains in protein targeting was examined by fusing previously characterized targeting motifs to different protein sequences. To compare the targeting requirements for a variety of subcellular compartments, targeting of the fusion proteins was examined for endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and peroxisomes in vitro and in yeast. Although most passenger domains were only partially passive to translocation, motif-dependent targeting via motifs positioned at either end of one passenger domain (gPA) was demonstrated for all of the subcellular compartments tested. The data presented extend earlier suggestions that translocation competence is an intrinsic property of the passenger protein. However, the properties that determine protein targeting are not mutually exclusive for the compartments tested. Therefore, although the primary determinant of specificity is the targeting motif, our results suggest that translocation competence of the targeted protein augments the fidelity of transport. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8198533

  19. The role of epidemiology in the detection of harmful effects of radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A

    2000-01-01

    Data relating to acute injuries of atomic bomb survivors show that the life span study cohort is biased in favor of exceptionally low levels of radiosensitivity. These data also show that factors influencing the death rates of this cohort include irreversible damage to the immune system. These impressions are still awaiting confirmation. Meanwhile, the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers and surveys of nuclear workers show that at low dose levels the cancer risk is much greater than estimates based on atomic bomb survivors; the special association between leukemia and radiation is an exclusively high dose effect, and levels of radiosensitivity are much lower in the middle of the life span than at either extreme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10656847

  20. The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VI. The surgical blade: from finger nail to ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1995-01-01

    Elective surgery requires planned incisions and incisions require appropriate blades. In the prehistoric era, division of the umbilical cord and other minor procedures were probably undertaken with human teeth and nails, and later with plant, animal and mineral substitutes, as witnessed by studies of primitive societies still surviving or recently extinct. More efficient metallic blades appeared in historic times and ultimately generated five specific shapes which are analysed in detail. Today, as minimally invasive techniques, endoscopes, laser and ultrasound sources evolve, many hallowed incisions of surgical access diminish in length or disappear entirely. In historical terms, elective surgery of the twentieth century will be recalled as an interlude characterised by maximally invasive incisions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7486768

  1. Delay in growth and the development of nephritis in rats treated with interferon preparations in the neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, I.; Morel-Maroger, L.; Châtelet, F.; Maury, C.; Tovey, M.; Bandu, M. T.; Buywid, J.; Delauche, M.

    1979-01-01

    Suckling rats were injected for 14 to 17 days with potent rat-cell-culture interferon preparations or various heterologous interferon or control preparations. Only treatment with rat interferon resulted in a delay in growth and maturation of different organs and the subsequent development of an "immune complex" type nephritis. Thus, 38 of 43 rats treated with rat interferon developed a severe glomerulonephritis. Thus, 38 of 43 rats treated with rat interferon developed a severe glomerulonephritis, whereas only 3 of 99 rats in the various control groups had minimal renal lesions. Deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular basement membrane were only seen in interferon-treated rats. Images Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 1 PMID:156503

  2. Orbital extension of choroidal melanoma: within a long posterior ciliary nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, J R

    1983-01-01

    Following enucleation, an epithelioid type of malignant choroidal melanoma involving the posterior pole was grossly and histologically found to exhibit direct extraocular extension along the emissary for the long posterior ciliary artery and nerve on the temporal side. In addition to a small tumor nodule on the outside of the sclera, melanoma extension was found up to the cut end in the otherwise well preserved ciliary nerve. After tenonectomy, additional extraocular melanoma extension in the core of this long posterior ciliary nerve was demonstrated for a total distance of 5 mm. As a result of the present findings, intraneural melanoma extension into the orbit by the way of a ciliary nerve has to be added to the other possible ways of direct extraocular melanoma extension. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:6676977

  3. PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel

    1987-01-01

    Vasectomy is done by a family physician at the family planning clinic of le Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval. The technique used combines an occlusion with metal clips and an excision of one to two centimetres of the vas deferens. The post-operative complications encountered with 304 vasectomies were hematomas (4%), infections of the scotal skin (1%), orchi-epididymitis (1%) and granulomas (1%). All these problems were treated on an out-patient basis, and no consultation with specialists was required. Of 151 patients who came back for a post-vasectomy semen examination, one had a test result showing motile spermatozoa. These figures are comparable to other results published. The family physician can easily incorporate this simple and safe procedure into his practice. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263976

  4. Morphological and morphometric study of atrial specific granules and other secretory components in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Caliari, M. V.; Lana, M.; Leite, V. H.; Tafuri, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in blood volume can induce morphometric and morphological alterations in the secretory complex of the myoendocrine cells due to the stretching of atrial walls. These alterations were studied by electron microscopy, using dogs infected intraperitonially with Trypanosoma cruzi and necropsied during the acute phase of the infection when congestive heart failure was present. Several changes were observed in the myoendocrine cells of the heart: hypertrophy and hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, increase in telenuclear secretory complex, increase in fusion of type B atrial specific granules (ASG), decrease of the total number of ASG, enlargement of the maximum diameter of type A ASG and a relative increase in the number of type B ASG. These alterations suggest a larger secretory activity of the atrial myoendocrine cells with a larger secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7547444

  5. Differences in ligamenta flava among some mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, I. V.

    1995-01-01

    The ligamenta flava of the thoracolumbar spine of mammals with great spinal mobility have a larger content of elastin than in animals with little spinal motion. The elastin content is also higher in the ligamenta flava of mammals with arched backs and prolonged sitting posture than in nonsitting mammals with the vertebral column in the shape of a flat bow. The ligamentum flavum appears to be important; a) in the control of intervertebra movements, b) in providing intrinsic stability to the spine in the sitting and standing postures and c) in maintaining a smooth surface in the posterior wall of the spinal canal and neural foraminae. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7634024

  6. Past and current dermatological status of yusho patients.

    PubMed Central

    Urabe, H; Asahi, M

    1985-01-01

    Skin symptoms of yusho and their subsequent change were described. In the early stage, skin eruptions were the most prominent features of yusho. Acneform eruptions and pigmentation were most conspicuous. With the passage of time, these symptoms have improved considerably and most patients have very slight eruptions now, except for the severely intoxicated group. In the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in the blood, the severely intoxicated group with intense skin symptoms showed pattern A--a typical yusho-specific pattern. The blood PCB patterns of each patient were stable, with no alteration after many years; on the other hand, the blood PCB concentrations have diminished year by year. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:3157566

  7. Overexposed: The Skin and the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Arlette, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Sunlight produces many changes on our skin. Some of these we appreciate as cosmetically important, and some we see as medically destructive. Changes such as the appearance of wrinkling and skin cancer can come from the long-term direct effects of solar radiation. The sun has indirect effects on the skin which are mediated by disease processes, medications, immune reactants, and biochemical abnormalities. Understanding the nature of sun, how it produces its changes, and the wide variety of these manifestations is an important part of medical practice. By understanding the nature of sunlight, we are able to protect ourselves from its effects and to treat our patients. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263953

  8. PubMed Central

    Teuscher, E.; Lamothe, P.; Tellier, P.; Lavallée, J. -C.

    1982-01-01

    A toxic nephrosis in calves treated with a drug containing tetracycline degradation products Tetracyclines may prove to be toxic, especially when they are administered in excessive quantity. Toxicity and high mortality were experienced in calves that had been given the recommended dose of a drug which accidentally contained tetracycline degradation products, namely: 4-epianhydrotetracycline, epitetracycline and anhydrotetracycline. Lesions of acute and subacute nephrosis were observed. In calves dying rapidly, an abnormal coloration of skeletal muscles, myocardium and brain was also noted on postmortem examination, and a degeneration of the liver was evident. As the calves were already sick when they received the drug, dehydration and other pathogenic factors might have worsened their condition. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422199

  9. The relationship of a serum protein, C1t, to a common nonfibrillar constituent of amyloid (P component) as revealed by immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.; Weicker-Thorne, J.; Painter, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    C1t, a serum protein isolated by affinity chromatography on Sepharose bears a remarkable ultrastructural and physiocochemical resemblance to P component, a common constituent of amyloid. This study provides further evidence for their similarity by the demonstration of immunologic identity and by the presence of C1t in amyloid deposits of various types using immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent techniques. In addition, subcomponents of C1, as well as C3, C4, C5, and properdin, were demonstrated to a limited extent. The possible role of C1t/P component in amyloidogenesis is discussed in the light of recent advances in our knowledge of the nature of amyloid substance. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 PMID:329683

  10. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  11. The epidemiology of prescribing in an urban general practice

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The total prescribing in an urban general practice was recorded over a six-month period and classified according to the length of time that drugs were continued. The number of patients receiving any prescription rose with age, as did the total number of items per patient prescribed for; while the continued items rose with age, the number of items prescribed once only per patient remained constant in all age groups. The bulk of the total prescribing was for the elderly and this was mainly for continued items. The classification also shows that certain drug groups are liable to be continued whereas others are virtually always prescribed once only. The implications of these findings for self-audit of prescribing and the care of the elderly in general practice are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7452600

  12. Expression of the bcl-2 gene product in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gaulard, P.; d'Agay, M. F.; Peuchmaur, M.; Brousse, N.; Gisselbrecht, C.; Solal-Celigny, P.; Diebold, J.; Mason, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Expression of bcl-2 protein was analyzed in 140 cases of follicular lymphoma by immunohistologic staining of paraffin-embedded tissue; 85% of cases were positive, the frequency being related to histologic grade (100% for the small-cleaved cell type, 86% for the mixed cell type, and 76% for the large cell group). There was striking heterogeneity of bcl-2 content in a number of cases and the smaller neoplastic cells (i.e., centrocytes) were usually the most strongly labeled. In most cases, bcl-2 protein staining was much weaker in normal lymphoid cells than in the neoplastic cells. In several cases, staining for bcl-2 revealed patterns of neoplastic cell spread into adjacent tissue (e.g., normal follicles, lymphoid sinuses), and bcl-2 protein expression tended to be highest in these migratory cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1374590

  13. Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, and post-retention changes. Practical information useful to the physician who encounters patient with these disorders is balanced with good research data to support the various claims. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21249042

  14. Manipulative management of the temporomandibular joint pain-dysfunction syndrome: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Nykoliation, J. W.; Cassidy, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The temporomandibular pain-dysfunction syndrome (TMJ-PDS) is a frequent but often unappreciated cause of head, neck, and facial pain. Information regarding its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment is fragmentary, and often reflects an approach influenced by the background specialty of the involved practitioner. Current treatment is often multidisciplinary, involving the use of various dental splints in conjunction with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and analgesic medication. This paper suggests that chiropractic manipulation to the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) may be an effective approach to treatment of TJM-PDS. Illustrative cases are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

  15. Office Ophthalmology: What is Urgent?

    PubMed Central

    Condon, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The author describes eye problems in general practice, from problems appearing in neonates to those in the elderly. Refractive problems are most common. Visually threatening eye disease that requires urgent treatment or referral is important, despite its rarity. Early detection and treatment of amblyopia is important in children. In diabetic retinopathy, a potentially blinding disease, maculopathy and proliferative retinopathy require immediate referral. Chronic simple glaucoma and cataracts cause gradual loss of vision in the older adult. Sudden loss of vision can be caused by optic neuritis, which is occasionally the first sign of multiple sclerosis. Retinal artery and retinal vein thrombosis are more common in older individuals with vascular disease. One of the most common causes of gradual visual loss in the elderly is senile macular degeneration. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21234021

  16. Experimental models of lymphoproliferative disease. The mouse as a model for human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and related leukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The present review focuses on the mouse as an experimental immunopathologic model for human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and related leukemias. Immunomorphologic evidence is presented that clearly demonstrates that B- and T-cell subtypes of mouse (murine) lymphoma/leukemia closely resemble and are analogous to B- and T-cell subtypes of human lymphoma/leukemia as defined by recently proposed immunomorphologic classifications. Further evidence is presented that favors the hypothesis that certain types of murine and human B-cell lymphoma develop out of prodromal, prelymphomatous states, which exhibit antecedent morphologic and immunologic abnormalities. The many experimental advantages of the murine systems are stressed, as well as the concept that the presently defined immunomorphologic approach should be effectively combined with molecular and cytogenetic parameters. Images Table 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Table 9 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6605691

  17. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    PubMed Central

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085

  18. Localization of interferon-gamma and Ia-antigen in T cell line-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, G.; Müller, S.; Schmidt, B.; van der Meide, P.; Jung, S.; Toyka, K. V.; Hartung, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    This study reports the cellular localization of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and MHC class II antigen (Ia) in the spinal cord of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein-specific T cells. Numerous IFN-gamma-positive cells, stained with two different monoclonal antibodies against IFN-gamma, were present from days 3 to 7 after cell transfer. Their number was greatly reduced on day 10. A subpopulation of T cells was IFN-gamma positive. Moreover, a large number of ED1-positive macrophages contained IFN-gamma immunoreactivity. The transient presence of immune cells containing IFN-gamma immunoreactivity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suggests a pathogenic role of this cytokine in immune-mediated demyelination of the central nervous system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7685153

  19. Bladder exstrophy from childhood into adult life.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Chaim, J; Docimo, S G; Jeffs, R D; Gearhart, J P

    1996-01-01

    Exstrophy of the bladder is rare and the incidence of bladder exstrophy is calculated to be from 1 per 30,000 to 50,000 live births with male to female ratio ranging from 1.5-5 to 1(1-4). It was found that persistence or overgrowth of the cloacal membrane on the lower anterior abdominal area, prevents normal mesenchymal ingrowth. This causes divergence of the lower abdominal muscular structures and forces the genital ridges to fuse caudal to the cloacal membrane. The stage of ingrowth of the urorectal septum at the time of rupture determines whether one will produce an exstrophic urinary tract alone (classic bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or cloacal exstrophy with the hindgut interposed between the hemibladders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8709084

  20. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  1. Phagocytosis by cells of the pulmonary alveoli. Transformation of crystalline particles.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The progressive transformation of illite crystals in alveolar macrophages has been studied with x-ray microanalysis and electron microdiffraction. Illite particles captured by macrophages undergo a series of progressive modifications which affect their ultrastructure, crystalline state, and chemical composition. Crystalline structure progressively disappears and certain elements are eliminated. At the end of the experiment, which lasted more than 6 months, the initial characteristics of the particles were greatly transformed. The constitutive elements of the illite particles were also found in structures other than macrophages: Type I pneumocytes, interstitium, and blood platelets. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 3 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 4 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:211849

  2. Malignant Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, B.; Petchenik, L.; Williams, M.; Thomas, C.; Luken, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman underwent a translabyrinthine resection of a right intracanulicular acoustic neuroma, which had been detected in the work-up of sudden hearing loss. At the time of surgery, the tumor was roughly twice as large as indicated by the magnetic resonance scan taken only 2 months previously. The tumor eroded the vertical and transverse crests and extended well into the cerebellopontine angle. It was impossible to distinguish the facial nerve proximal to the geniculate ganglion. All visible tumor was resected, along with the facial nerve. Histological evaluation showed a highly cellular tumor, with many mitoses and areas of necrosis, meeting the criteria for malignant schwannoma. The patient has no stigmata of neurofibromatosis, and has no known relatives with that condition. This case is only the fourth reported of a malignant vestibular schwannoma. The relationships between vestibular schwannoma, neurofibromatosis, and malignancy are discussed. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171176

  3. p53 tumour suppressor gene expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, C; Ziske, C; Wiedenmann, B; Moelling, K

    1996-01-01

    Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8675094

  4. Lipid content in the liver of fatty metamorphosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, J. W.; Barker, E. A.; Smuckler, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lipid analyses were performed on the liver of a patient who died during an episode of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and on livers from normal subjects and from subjects suffering from nutritional fatty livers. Comparison of these data indicates that in fatty liver of pregnancy the increased hepatic lipids consist primarily of free fatty acids. The recognized toxicity of fatty acids suggests a pathogenic mechanism for the disease. Nutritional fatty liver is associated predominantly with an increase in triglyceride. These changes are not the result of postmortem change, and they confirm and extend the previous data concerning the fat accumulation in human hepatic illness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 PMID:1239955

  5. An analysis of the expression of cyclophilin C reveals tissue restriction and an intriguing pattern in the mouse kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, J.; Weissman, I.; Friedman, J.; Alpert, S.

    1994-01-01

    Cyclophilin C (cyp C) is a cyclosporin A (CsA) binding protein originally isolated from a mouse bone marrow stromal cell line. We have compared the expression patterns of the mammalian cyclophilins A, B, and C in mouse tissues using in situ hybridization. These studies reveal that cyp C is expressed in a restricted subset of tissues including mouse ovary, testis, bone marrow, and kidney. Within the kidney, cyp C is highly expressed in a narrow zone in the outer medulla. Using monoclonal antibodies reactive against cyp C, we find that the kidney cells expressing cyp C correspond to the S3 segment of the nephron. The S3 segment has been shown to sustain histopathological damage from high dosages of CsA, raising the possibility that cyp C may be involved in mediating this damage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8203464

  6. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678

  7. Embryonic rationale for the primary correction of classical congenital clefts of the lip and palate.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Primary correction of congenital clefts of the lip and palate should be designed to carry the interrupted embryonic process to normal completion. This is best accomplished by maxillary alignment with presurgical orthodontics, stabilisation of the maxillary alignment, obliteration of the alveolar cleft and construction of the nasal floor with periosteoplasty. This allows early construction of the lip by rotation and advancement and correction of the nose with columella lengthening, alar cartilage positioning and alar base cinching. This can be accomplished before school age. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:8017808

  8. Ocular and orbital porcupine quills in the dog: a review and case series.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Szentimrey, D; Pharr, J W; Farrow, C S; Fowler, D

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 5 cases of orbital or intraocular porcupine quills in the dog and a literature review from MEDLINE (1983-1995) is presented. This paper reviews the diagnosis, therapy, and visual prognosis of ocular and orbital quills in the dog. Distinguishing penetration and perforation of the eye and intraocular structures is paramount in establishing a visual prognosis and appropriate therapy. Perforation of the cornea or sclera, lens, or the uvea and retina necessitates prompt specialized surgical therapy to save vision. The diagnosis of orbital quills can be readily confirmed with ultrasonography. The characteristic sonographic appearance of a double-banded, linear, hyperechoic object allows accurate localization of the quill, which aids surgical removal. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:7585434

  9. Assessment of regional cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver slices using resorufin substrates and fluorescence confocal laser cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, J T; Sidhu, J S; Reilly, M T; Farin, F M; Omiecinski, C J; Eaton, D L; Kavanagh, T J

    1996-01-01

    Characterizing constitutive activities and inducibility of various cytochrome P450 isozymes is important for elucidating species and individual differences in susceptibility to many toxicants. Although expression of certain P450s has been studied in homogenized tissues, the ability to assess functional enzyme activity without tissue disruption would further our understanding of interactive factors that modulate P450 activities. We used precision-cut, viable rat liver slices and confocal laser cytometry to determine the regional enzyme activities of P450 isozymes in situ. Livers from control and beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF)-treated rats were sectioned with a Krumdieck tissue slicer into 250-microns thick sections. A slice perfusion chamber that mounts on the cytometer stage was developed to allow for successive measurement of region-specific P450-dependent O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxy-, 7-pentoxy-, and 7-benzyloxyresorufin (EROD, PROD, and BROD activity, respectively) in the same liver slice. Images of the accumulated fluorescent resorufin product within the tissue were acquired using a confocal laser cytometer in confocal mode. As expected, slices isolated from beta NF-treated rats showed high levels of centrilobular EROD activity compared to slices from control rats, whereas PROD and BROD activities remained at control levels. These techniques should allow for the accurate quantification of regional and cell-specific P450 enzyme activity and, with subsequent analysis of the same slice, the ability to correlate specific P450 mRNAs or other factors with enzymatic activity. Moreover, these techniques should be amenable to examination of similar phenomena in other tissues such as lung and kidney, where marked heterogeneity in cellular P450 expression patterns is also known to occur. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8743442

  10. Effect of an antimitotic agent colchicine on thioacetamide hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Mangipudy, R S; Rao, P S; Mehendale, H M

    1996-01-01

    studies explained this dichotomy. Antimitotic intervention with CLC resulted in a significantly diminished repair response leading to unrestrained progression of injury and lethality even from nonlethal doses. This model demonstrates the critical role of tissue repair response in determining the final outcome of toxicity. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 4. Figure 6. PMID:8841760

  11. Integrated defense system overlaps as a disease model: with examples for multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Rowat, S C

    1998-01-01

    The central nervous, immune, and endocrine systems communicate through multiple common messengers. Over evolutionary time, what may be termed integrated defense system(s) (IDS) have developed to coordinate these communications for specific contexts; these include the stress response, acute-phase response, nonspecific immune response, immune response to antigen, kindling, tolerance, time-dependent sensitization, neurogenic switching, and traumatic dissociation (TD). These IDSs are described and their overlap is examined. Three models of disease production are generated: damage, in which IDSs function incorrectly; inadequate/inappropriate, in which IDS response is outstripped by a changing context; and evolving/learning, in which the IDS learned response to a context is deemed pathologic. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are developed from several IDS disease models. Model 1A is pesticide damage to the central nervous system, overlapping with body chemical burdens, TD, and chronic zinc deficiency; model 1B is benzene disruption of interleukin-1, overlapping with childhood developmental windows and hapten-antigenic spreading; and model 1C is autoimmunity to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), overlapping with spreading to other IgG-inducers, sudden spreading of inciters, and food-contaminating chemicals. Model 2A is chemical and stress overload, including comparison with the susceptibility/sensitization/triggering/spreading model; model 2B is genetic mercury allergy, overlapping with: heavy metals/zinc displacement and childhood/gestational mercury exposures; and model 3 is MCS as evolution and learning. Remarks are offered on current MCS research. Problems with clinical measurement are suggested on the basis of IDS models. Large-sample patient self-report epidemiology is described as an alternative or addition to clinical biomarker and animal testing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9539008

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of the bacterial mutagenicity of fine organic aerosol in southern california.

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, M P; Cass, G R; Lafleur, A L; Busby, W F; Thilly, W G

    1996-01-01

    reactions occur, they likely occur in the winter and spring seasons as well as the photochemically more active summer and early fall periods. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8732954

  13. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Suppression Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-31

    Fibers 2 Figure 2: SBS “Clamped” Power Threshold 3 Figure 3 : History of Fiber Laser Power Output 3 Figure 4... 3 shows a brief history of published fiber laser and amplifier systems over the past several years. It demonstrates the remarkable improvement in...laboratory demonstrations. Figure 3 : History of Fiber Laser Power Output More recent results include 410 W,

  14. PBPK modeling/Monte Carlo simulation of methylene chloride kinetic changes in mice in relation to age and acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R S; Yang, R S; Morgan, D G; Moorman, M P; Kermani, H R; Sloane, R A; O'Connor, R W; Adkins, B; Gargas, M L; Andersen, M E

    1996-01-01

    During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap resampling for data analyses, a significant induction in the mixed function oxidase (MFO) rate constant (Vmaxc) was observed at the 1-day and 1-month exposure points when compared to concurrent control mice while decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) rate constant (Kfc) were observed in the 1-day and 1-month exposed mice. Within exposure groups, the apparent Vmaxc maintained significant increases in the 1-month and 2-year control groups. Although the same initial increase exists in the exposed group, the 2-year Vmaxc is significantly smaller than the 1-month group (p < 0.001). Within group differences in median Kfc values show a significant decrease in both 1-month and 2-year groups among control and exposed mice (p < 0.001). Although no changes in methylene chloride solubility as a result of prior exposure were observed in blood, muscle, liver, or lung, a marginal decrease in the fat:air partition coefficient was found in the exposed mice at p = 0.053. Age related solubility differences were found in muscle:air, liver:air, lung:air, and fat:air partition coefficients at p < 0.001, while the solubility of methylene chloride in blood was not affected by age (p = 0.461). As a result of this study, we conclude that age and prior exposure to methylene chloride can produce notable changes in disposition and metabolism and may represent important factors in the interpretation for toxicologic data and its application to risk assessment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8875160

  15. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  16. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9657709

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease in C.B-17 scid mice reconstituted with the CD45RBhigh subset of CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. W.; Bean, A. G.; Mauze, S.; Coffman, R. L.; Powrie, F.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic inflammation developed spontaneously in the large intestine of C.B-17 scid mice restored with the CD45RBhigh subset of CD4+ T cells obtained from normal BALB/c mice. The inflammation, which extended diffusely from the cecum to the rectum, was localized to the lamina propria of mildly affected mice but became transmural in severely affected mice. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses showed that the inflammatory infiltrate contained numerous macrophages accompanied by moderate numbers of activated CD4+ lymphocytes. Some mice also had scattered multinucleated giant cells. Mucin depletion and epithelial hyperplasia resulting in glandular elongation and mucosal thickening were also consistently seen. Less frequent findings included ulceration with fibrosis, crypt abscesses, crypt loss, and granulomatous inflammation. Immunofluorescent analysis of inflamed large intestinal sections demonstrated increased epithelial expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens. The changes in the large intestine of these mice are similar to those seen in patients with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). This murine model may be useful for studying mucosal immunoregulation as it relates to the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the large intestine of human patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8623920

  18. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  19. Growth factor expression during rat development: a comparison of TGF-beta 3, TGF-alpha, bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, P. B.; Quirke, P.; Sorensen, C. M.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L.; Bailey, L. L.; Knight, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    At least part of the mechanism underlying fetal development appears to be the production of a number of growth factors considered important in the process of tumour formation. Using immunocytochemistry, we have investigated the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of some of the important growth factors, by the fetus. We describe here the cellular localization of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta 3), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (PDGF-R), TGF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the fetal rat from day 13 to 21 of gestation. Using antisera raised against an N-terminal portion of TGF-beta 3, immunoreactivity peaked around day 16 and was seen predominantly within epithelial cells. However, using antisera raised against the C-terminal of this molecule immunoreactivity was seen exclusively within the extracellular matrix underlying adjacent epithelia, and was maintained up until day 21 of gestation. Strong expression of TGF-alpha was seen in cells of most organs throughout the gestation period studied. Immunoreactivity for bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R peaked around day 18 in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells of all major organ systems and then declined by day 21. These data suggest distinct roles for each factor during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471538

  20. Cytophilic and cytotoxic properties of human eosinophil peroxidase plus major basic protein.

    PubMed Central

    Samoszuk, M. K.; Petersen, A.; Gidanian, F.; Rietveld, C.

    1988-01-01

    The cytophilic and cytotoxic properties of an acetate-buffered solution of human eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) plus major basic protein (MBP) were studied to determine the cytotoxic potential of localized eosinophil degranulation in human tissues. When incubated with EPO + MBP for 5 minutes, viable cells of six unrelated types (Sp 2/0; HeLa; human gastric adenocarcinoma; acute lymphocytic leukemia; IM-9; benign lymphoid hyperplasia) developed varying degrees of cytochemically detectable deposits of EPO on the cell membranes. A single-step propidium iodide exclusion assay was then used to show that EPO + MBP in the absence of hydrogen peroxide is substantially cytotoxic only to the acute lymphocytic leukemia and IM-9 cells. In the presence of 0.003% hydrogen peroxide, EPO + MBP was cytotoxic to five types of cells. It is concluded that human EPO in the presence of MBP has an affinity for the membrane of diverse cell types. The toxicity of EPO + MBP is markedly enhanced by the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3414778

  1. Primary tumors of the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B. B.; Ukah, F.; Tette, A.; Villaflor, S. G.; Koh, D.; Seton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Primary tumors of the liver that are of clinical significance are rare. Ninety-five percent of such lesions when encountered will be malignant and only 5% will be benign. Malignant primary hepatic lesions represent 2% to 3% of primary cancers encountered in the United States. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes 90% of malignant liver primaries in the adult. Seventy-five percent of cases are associated with cirrhosis of the liver and patients with hepatitis B infection have a 33- to 200-fold excess risk for this malignancy. Cholangiocarcinoma represents 5% to 10% of hepatic primary malignancies while hepatoblastoma is distinctly uncommon in adults. Treatment is primarily surgical, and resectability is limited by the presence of cirrhosis and spread of the tumor within and outside of the liver. Of the benign liver tumors, the liver cell adenoma seem to be associated with oral contraception and have a proclivity for intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy. Focal nodular hyperplasia is a tumor-like condition that also may be associated with oral contraception. This article describes five cases, two of which had quite unique presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1602511

  2. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, T W

    2000-01-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854

  3. Analysis of the mitochondrial ATP synthase beta-subunit gene in Drosophilidae: structure, transcriptional regulatory features and developmental pattern of expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, P; Ugalde, C; Calleja, M; Garesse, R

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and determined the structure of the gene encoding the H(+)-ATP synthase beta subunit in two distantly related Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. virilis. The gene contains three exons that are extremely well conserved at the amino acid level, not only in the region encoding the mature protein but also in that encoding the leader peptide. Primer extension analysis indicates that the 5' untranslated region is extremely short, and reveals the presence of multiple initiation sites of transcription in both Drosophila species. The promoters of D. melanogaster and D. virilis H(+)-ATP synthase beta-subunit genes contain a conserved region surrounding the initiation transcription sites. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed the absence of canonical TATA and CCAAT boxes and the presence of several putative regulatory elements in both promoter regions, including GAGA, GATA and Ets binding sites. We have analysed the pattern of gene expression during D. melanogaster development. The mRNA is stored in oocytes, and activation of transcription takes place after 10 h of development. The expression of the nuclear-encoded H(+)-ATP synthase beta subunit is strictly coordinated with the expression of subunits 6 and 8 of the same complex that are encoded in the mitochondrial genome. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8554535

  4. Coronary atherosclerosis in transplanted mouse hearts. I. Time course and immunogenetic and immunopathological considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, P. S.; Chase, C. M.; Winn, H. J.; Colvin, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental system is described in which coronary arteries of mouse hearts transplanted heterotopically develop obstructive lesions by 4 weeks. Transient immunosuppression permits graft survival. Donor/recipient antigenic differences may be either class I or class II major histocompatibility antigens (H-2) or non-H-2 antigens. An infiltrate including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages concentrates early in the intima and adventitia of larger coronary arteries, with little in the myocardium. Subsequently, the intima expands with cells of donor origin and the infiltrate invades the media. Endothelial and intimal cells express ICAM-1, leukocytes LFA-1: Endothelium expresses class I, but not class II, antigens. As class II disparity alone suffices, the endothelium can apparently be an indirect target of immune injury. We propose that graft atherosclerosis is T cell initiated and elicited by heterogeneous antigens in the endothelium or media. It is separable from rejection of the myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7906094

  5. Periocular xanthogranulomas associated with severe adult-onset asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A; Mills, M D; Hidayat, A A; Dallow, R L; Townsend, D J; Brinker, E A; Charles, N C

    1993-01-01

    This article describes six patients who presented, usually bilaterally, with yellow-orange, elevated, indurated, and nonulcerated xanthomatous eyelid lesions, typically extending into the anterior orbital fat, and sometimes involving the extraocular muscles and the lacrimal gland. Because the eyelids remained intact and because the process did not reach the deep orbital and perioptic connective tissues, visual acuity was well preserved. There is cosmetic morbidity and occasionally motility restriction with advancing involvement of the extraocular muscles. All patients had variably severe adult-onset asthma that required treatment with systemic prednisone and inhalants. No evidence of Erdheim-Chester disease was found in any patient, but the appearance in one patient, after 25 years of follow-up, of a separate subcutaneous necrobiotic xanthogranulomatous lesion in the mandibular region with an associated paraproteinemia, suggests that at least some of our cases might be a mild form of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. For this reason, we would suggest repeated periodic serum protein immunoelectrophoretic studies as well as evaluation for lymphoma. Therapy probably should consist of low doses of periorbital radiotherapy coupled with high doses of corticosteroids. Should this not be successful, then systemic administration of corticosteroids with chemotherapeutic agents might be efficacious, as in necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:8140711

  6. The impact of imprinting: Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from chromosome translocation, recombination, and nondisjunction.

    PubMed Central

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Olson, S.; Gunter, K.; Quan, F.; Wolford, J.; Popovich, B. W.; Magenis, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is most often the result of a deletion of bands q11.2-q13 of the paternally derived chromosome 15, but it also occurs either because of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of this region or, rarely, from a methylation imprinting defect. A significant number of cases are due to structural rearrangements of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15. We report two cases of PWS with UPD in which there was a meiosis I nondisjunction error involving an altered chromosome 15 produced by both a translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and recombination. In both cases, high-resolution banding of the long arm was normal, and FISH of probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3 indicated no loss of this material. Chromosome heteromorphism analysis showed that each patient had maternal heterodisomy of the chromosome 15 short arm, whereas PCR of microsatellites demonstrated allele-specific maternal isodisomy and heterodisomy of the long arm. SNRPN gene methylation analysis revealed only a maternal imprint in both patients. We suggest that the chromosome structural rearrangements, combined with recombination in these patients, disrupted normal segregation of an imprinted region, resulting in uniparental disomy and PWS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8651261

  7. Isolation of circovirus from lesions of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J; Hassard, L; Clark, E; Harding, J; Allan, G; Willson, P; Strokappe, J; Martin, K; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Todd, D; Haines, D

    1998-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an apparently new disease, has been recognized in swine herds in western Canada. Young pigs with this disease have progressive weight loss, tachypnea, dyspnea, and jaundice, accompanied by interstitial pneumonia, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and nephritis. We examined more than 400 pigs from more than 70 herds in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba with cases of PMWS. A small virus was isolated from a range of tissues from 8 of 8 affected pigs examined. The agent was identified as a circovirus-like virus using electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining with porcine and rabbit immune serum, and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical examination of tissues from more than 100 affected pigs has revealed widespread viral antigen, often contained in circovirus-like inclusion bodies, in lesions from numerous organs. Although Koch's postulates remain to be fulfilled, these results demonstrate a high degree of association between the presence of the circovirus-like virus and PMWS in affected swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9442952

  8. Immunopathology of early and clinically silent lupus nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, T.; Cameron, W. R.; Lapenas, D.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed immunopathologic studies of early or silent renal alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been sparse. The renal biopsies of 16 lupus patients with normal renal function, including 8 with hematuria and/or proteinuria of recent onset, and 8 without clinically detectable renal disease were investigated by light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Immunoglobulins, complement components, and electron-dense deposits were detected in glomeruli of all patients, regardless of morphologic appearance or lack of clinical evidence of renal involvement. Features of membranous glomerulonepritis were observed in 4 patients with substantial proteinuria. In the remaining 12 patients, including 3 with hematuria and 4 with slight proteinuria, either minimal glomerular alterations or features of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis were seen. Transformation of the original disease was demonstrated in 3 of 3 patients rebiopsied within 2 years. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to a) the spectrum of clinical and immunopathologic alterations in lupus nephritis and b) transformation of the original disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:322502

  9. Acute, lethal, natural killer cell-resistant myeloproliferative disease induced by polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Szomolanyi-Tsuda, E.; Dundon, P. L.; Joris, I.; Shultz, L. D.; Woda, B. A.; Welsh, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice, which lack T and B lymphocytes, with polyomavirus (PyV) induced an acute hematological disorder leading to the death of the mice by 2 weeks postinfection. The disease was characterized by a dramatic decrease in megakaryocytes, multiple hemorrhages, anemia, thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, a massive myeloproliferation and splenic erythroproliferation with a defect in maturation of the myeloid elements similar to that in acute leukemia. This pathology in severe combined immunodeficient mice is very different from that of the well-characterized tumor profiles induced by PyV in normal newborn or nude mice. Viral T and capsid (VP1) antigens and viral genome were detected in some cells in the spleen, but not in the majority of the proliferating myeloid cells. This suggests that the myeloproliferation is induced by some indirect mechanism, such as secretion of growth factors or cytokines by virus-infected cells, rather than by direct transformation by PyV. Neither the spread of PyV, its replication in different organs, nor the pathogenesis or the time of death were altered by depleting natural killer cells in vivo by anti-natural killer cell antibodies. Analysis of the spleen leukocyte population indicated that the cells expressed high levels of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens and were resistant to lysis by activated natural killer cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8311119

  10. Correlation of environmental carbaryl measurements with serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements in a farmer applicator and his family.

    PubMed Central

    Shealy, D B; Barr, J R; Ashley, D L; Patterson, D G; Camann, D E; Bond, A E

    1997-01-01

    In exposure or risk assessments, both environmental and biological measurements are often used. Environmental measurements are an excellent means for evaluating regulatory compliance, but the models used to estimate body burden from these measurements are complex. Unless all possible routes of exposure (i.e., inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion) are evaluated, exposure to a toxicant can be underestimated. To circumvent this problem, measurements of the internal dose of a toxicant in blood, serum, urine, or tissues can be used singularly or in combination with environmental data for exposure assessment. In three separate laboratories, carbaryl or its primary metabolite, 1-naphthol, was measured in personal air, dermal samples, blood serum, and urine from farmer applicators and their families. The usefulness of both environmental and biological data has been demonstrated. For the farmer applicator, the environmental levels of carbaryl would have been sufficient to determine that an exposure had occurred. However, biological measurements were necessary to determine the absorbed dose of each member of the applicator's family. In addition, a correlation between serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements has been shown; therefore, either matrix can be used to accurately evaluate occupational carbaryl exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:9222136

  11. Characterisation of inorganic microparticles in pigment cells of human gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Ainley, C C; Harvey, R S; Mason, I M; Kendall, M D; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Thompson, R P

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages at the base of human gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), become loaded early in life with dark granular pigment that is rich in aluminium, silicon, and titanium. The molecular characteristics, intracellular distribution, and source of this pigment is described. Laser scanning and electron microscopy showed that pigmented macrophages were often closely related to collagen fibres and plasma cells in GALT of both small and large intestine and contained numerous phagolysosomes, previously described as granules, that are rich in electron dense submicron sized particles. Morphological assessment, x ray microanalysis, and image electron energy loss spectroscopy showed three distinct types of microparticle: type I - spheres of titanium dioxide, 100-200 nm diameter, characterised as the synthetic food-additive polymorph anatase; type II - aluminosilicates, < 100-400 nm in length, generally of flaky appearance, often with adsorbed surface iron, and mostly characteristic of the natural clay mineral kaolinite; and type III - mixed environmental silicates without aluminium, 100-700 nm in length and of variable morphology. Thus, this cellular pigment that is partly derived from food additives and partly from the environment is composed of inert inorganic microparticles and loaded into phagolysosomes of macrophages within the GALT of all human subjects. These observations suggest that the pathogenicity of this pigment should be further investigated since, in susceptible individuals, the same intracellular distribution of these three types of submicron particle causes chronic latent granulomatous inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8675092

  12. Overexpression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in human non-small-cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, M.; Rizzo, M.; Madeddu, R.; Casadio, C.; Pennacchietti, S.; Nicotra, M. R.; Prat, M.; Maggi, G.; Arena, N.; Natali, P. G.; Comoglio, P. M.; Di Renzo, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) stimulates the invasive growth of epithelial cells via the c-MET oncogene-encoded receptor. In normal lung, both the receptor and the ligand are detected, and the latter is known to be a mitogenic and a motogenic factor for both cultured bronchial epithelial cells and non-small-cell carcinoma lines. Here, ligand and receptor expression was examined in 42 samples of primary human non-small-cell lung carcinoma of different histotype. Each carcinoma sample was compared with adjacent normal lung tissue. The Met/HGF receptor was found to be 2 to 10-fold increased in 25% of carcinoma samples (P = 0.0113). The ligand, HGF/SF, was found to be 10 to 100-fold overexpressed in carcinoma samples (P < 0.0001). Notably, while HGF/SF was occasionally detectable and found exclusively as a single-chain inactive precursor in normal tissues, it was constantly in the biologically-active heterodimeric form in carcinomas. Immunohistochemical staining showed homogeneous expression of both the receptor and the ligand in carcinoma samples, whereas staining was barely detectable in their normal counterparts. These data show that HGF/SF is overexpressed and consistently activated in non-small-cell lung carcinomas and may contribute to the invasive growth of lung cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8980383

  13. Histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses. An electron-microscopic, biochemical, enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, M.; Torikata, C.; Iri, H.; Mikata, A.; Kawai, T.; Hanaoka, H.; Yakumaru, K.; Kageyama, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (CCS) as well as the problem of whether or not CCS is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, studies based on various methods were performed. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans gave the same results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma, and the DOPA reaction gave the same negative results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma. However, the DOPA reaction was also negative in an amelanotic recurrent tumor of a melanotic CCS, and electron-microscopic studies revealed a close resemblance between amelanotic CCS and melanotic CCS. Further, enzyme histochemical studies showed definite differences between synovial sarcoma and amelanotic CCS but gave identical results for amelanotic and melanotic CCS. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of S-100 protein in all CCS cases, both amelanotic and melanotic. These results indicate that CCS is not a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, and that both amelanotic and melanotic CCS are of neural crest origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6320649

  14. Intermediate filament proteins in choroid plexus and ependyma and their tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, M.; Clark, R.; Virtanen, I.

    1986-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein types of normal choroid plexus and ependymal tissue and their putative tumors were investigated. In normal human choroid plexus tissue, but not in ependyma, keratin could be demonstrated immunohistochemically. By immunoblotting, keratins 8, 18, and 19 were found, but glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was absent. In mouse and rat, choroid plexus epithelium and ependymal lining cells were keratin-positive. In addition, many ependymal cells were vimentin-positive. Keratin was immunohistochemically found in three of four choroid plexus papillomas, two of two choroid plexus carcinomas, and the lining cells of three neuroepithelial cysts. GFAP-positive cells were present in some choroid plexus tumors. In contrast, none of the eight ependymomas contained keratin, but all were strongly positive for GFAP. The results show that choroid plexus lining cells and choroid plexus tumors have true epithelial characteristics in their cytoskeleton, in contrast to ependymomas, which do not show keratin positivity but show glial filaments, as would be seen in astrocytic tumors. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:2422943

  15. A 10-bp deletion in the apolipoprotein epsilon gene causing apolipoprotein E deficiency and severe type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Feussner, G.; Dobmeyer, J.; Gröne, H. J.; Lohmer, S.; Wohlfeil, S.

    1996-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is usually associated with homozygosity for apolipoprotein (apo) E2. We identified a 30-year-old male German of Hungarian ancestry with severe type III HLP and apo E deficiency. The disease was expressed in an extreme phenotype with multiple cutaneous xanthomas. Apo E was detectable only in trace amounts in plasma but not in the different lipoprotein fractions. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified segments of the apo epsilon gene identified a 10-bp deletion in exon 4 (bp 4037-4046 coding for amino acids 209-212 of the mature protein). The mutation is predictive for a reading frameshift introducing a premature stop codon (TGA) at amino acid 229. By western blot analysis, we found small amounts of a truncated apo E in the patient's plasma. Family analysis revealed that the proband was homozygous--and 10 of 24 relatives were heterozygous--for the mutation. Heterozygotes had, as compared to unaffected family members, significantly higher triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and a significantly higher VLDL cholesterol-to-serum TG ratio, which is indicative of a delayed remnant catabolism. We propose that the absence of a functionally active apo E is the cause of the severe type III HLP in the patient and that the mutation, even in a single dose in heterozygotes, predisposes in variable severity to the phenotypic expression of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8571954

  16. Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice: pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, J. I.; Tani, E.; Orn, A.; Sánchez, C.; Goto, H.

    1993-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infected Balb/c mice developed a progressive swelling in the injected footpad that grew to a tumour-like lesion from day 80 onwards. We did not observe any typical ulcera, necrosis or metastasis to other parts of the skin. Neither did we observe any histopathological changes in liver or spleen during the experiment. At the site of injection, we observed progressive changes ranging from a moderate, mixed inflammatory infiltrate with few leishmania amastigotes in the macrophages to an extensive inflammation composed of monomorphic vacuolated macrophages containing large numbers of parasites. A granulomatous pattern with presence of epithelioid cells and a few multinucleated giant cells was observed at the initial phase of the infection. During later stages, focal necrosis with polymorphonuclear neutrophils was seen. Lymph nodes presented granulomatous lesions in the subcapsular area, numerous plasma cells in the medullary cords and macrophages with leishmania organisms in dilated cortical sinuses at the 4th and the 6th months of infection. This Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infected Balb/c mice seems to be a good model for continued studies of the pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and also for drug trials in the development of new therapeutic tools. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8217783

  17. Physical mapping of four serpin genes: alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and protein C inhibitor, within a 280-kb region on chromosome I4q32.1.

    PubMed Central

    Billingsley, G D; Walter, M A; Hammond, G L; Cox, D W

    1993-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT; protease inhibitor [PI] locus), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT; AACT locus), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; CBG locus), and protein C inhibitor (PCI; PCI locus) are members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. A noncoding PI-like (PIL) gene has been located 12 kb 3' of the PI gene. The PI, PIL, and AACT loci have been localized to 14q32.1, the CBG locus has been localized to 14q31-14q32.1, and PCI has been mapped to chromosome 14. Genetic linkage analysis suggests tight linkage between PI and AACT. We have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to generate a physical map linking these five serpin genes. The order of the genetic loci is AACT/PCI-PI-PIL-CBG, with a maximum distance of about 220 kb between the AACT/PCI and PI genes. These genes form a PI cluster at 14q32.1, similar to that of the homologous genes on murine chromosome l2. The close proximity of these genes has implications for disease-association studies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8381582

  18. Aquatic-Based Rehabilitation and Training for the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Jill M.; Brody, Lori Thein

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the application of aquatic rehabilitative exercise to injuries of the upper extremity. Background: Water has been used for centuries as a medium for rehabilitation, relaxation, and training. Athletes use the pool to rehabilitate specific injuries, as a training medium during injury recovery, and as an alternative training site. The pool can be used to rehabilitate a number of upper extremity impairments, as well as to restore functional movement patterns in a resistive medium. Description: Exercises can be modified to be performed in pools of varying size and depth. Well-chosen equipment will enhance the rehabilitative opportunities for the clinician and patient. Clinical Advantages: All aspects of the rehabilitation program, including passive stretching, resistive exercise, functional movement patterns, and cardiovascular training, can take place in the same location. The water's warmth and buoyancy enhance stretching, while the buoyancy allows initiation of resistive exercise at a low level. The water's viscosity provides resistance throughout a movement pattern in any plane. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:16558651

  19. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  20. Intracellular viral localization in murine coxsackievirus-B3 myocarditis. Ultrastructural study by electron microscopic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Ukimura, A.; Deguchi, H.; Kitaura, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Hirasawa, M.; Kawamura, K.; Hirai, K.

    1997-01-01

    Group B Coxsackieviruses are a common cause of myocarditis. To detect the viral genome and its localization in the myocardium, we examined C3H/He mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis on days 5, 8, and 14 after inoculation by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. Sense and antisense CVB3 RNA were detected in the myocardium of all mice up to day 14 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Light microscopic in situ hybridization with a cDNA probe for CVB3 showed clusters of positive signals in the areas of myocardial necrosis and cell infiltration. With electron microscopic in situ hybridization, CVB3 RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of cardiocytes, between the myofibrils, near the mitochondria, and in tubular or vesicular structures. Viral RNA was also detected in necrotic debris, in the cytoplasm of macrophages, and in the cytoplasm of interstitial fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CVB3 RNA is replicated in the cytoplasm of cardiocytes, transferred into tubular or vesicular structures, released into the interstitium, and phagocytosed by macrophages. Some positive signals were also detected in the cytoplasm of cardiocytes showing close contact with infiltrating lymphocytes, suggesting that the lymphocytes recognized virus-infected cardiocytes and caused cell-mediated immune cardiocyte damage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:9176398

  1. Postmortem findings in four litters of dogs with familial canine dermatomyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301

  2. Functional expression of human mutant phosphofructokinase in yeast: genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Raben, N; Exelbert, R; Spiegel, R; Sherman, J B; Nakajima, H; Plotz, P; Heinisch, J

    1995-01-01

    Human phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a tetrameric enzyme, encoded by muscle, liver, and platelet genes. Deficiency of muscle PFK (PFK-M), glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an exertional myopathy and hemolytic syndrome. Several disease-causing mutations have been identified in the PFK-M gene in Japanese, Ashkenazi Jewish, and Italian patients. We describe the genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with the disease, and we use a genetically well-defined yeast system devoid of endogenous PFK for structure-function studies of the mutant PFKs. A G-to-A transition at codon 209-in exon 8 of the PFK-M gene, changing an encoded Gly to Asp, is responsible for the disease in a homozygous French Canadian patient. Gly-209-mutated protein is completely inactive in the yeast system. The Swiss patient is a genetic compound, carrying a G-to-A transition at codon 100 in exon 6 (Arg to Gln) and a G-to-A transition at codon 696 in exon 22 (Arg to His). The mutants expressed in yeast generate functional enzyme with modest changes in thermal stability. The advantages and limitations of the yeast system for expression of human mutant PFKs are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825568

  3. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  4. An ultrastructural analysis of endothelial change paralleling platelet aggregation in a light/dye model of microvascular insult.

    PubMed Central

    Povlishock, J. T.; Rosenblum, W. I.; Sholley, M. M.; Wei, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Those microvascular endothelial events that parallel the evolution of platelet aggregation were evaluated in a well-controlled animal model. Cat pial microvessels were observed through a cranial window while local platelet aggregation was produced by intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein and simultaneous exposure of the pial vessels to light from a filtered mercury lamp that excited the fluorescein. The vessels were fixed in situ when the in vivo observations of a preselected vessel indicated early, intermediate, or advanced aggregation in that vessel. The preselected vessel was then harvested for ultrastructural study together with adjacent vessels from the illuminated field. These vessels and appropriate controls were compared in semiserial thin sections. The onset of platelet aggregation in both venules and arterioles was accompanied by focal endothelial lucency, vacuole formation, luminal membrane rupture, and swelling of the nuclear envelope. These changes were not found in control material. With intermediate aggregation these changes were more common, while with advanced aggregation these abnormalities occurred together with focal endothelial denudation. Thus, in this model denudation occurred only with advanced aggregation and was not a prerequisite for aggregation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6824062

  5. Density-dependent induction of 92-kd type IV collagenase activity in cultures of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B.; Bucana, C. D.; Fidler, I. J.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the in vitro regulation of the production of two type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, by A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The A431 cells were cultured under sparse or confluent conditions. The addition of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or phorbolester-TPA to sparse cultures induced low levels of MMP-9 secretion, whereas in confluent cultures only TGF-beta produced this effect. Neither treatment altered the level of constitutive secretion of MMP-2. Treatment of sparse, actively growing cultures but not confluent stationary cultures with both TGF-beta and TPA produced synergistic induction of MMP-9 but did not affect MMP-2. A431 cells were grown as discrete large monolayer colonies. Radiolabeling with [3H]leucine or [3H]thymidine followed by autoradiography revealed that all the A431 cells in the colonies were metabolically active and only those on the periphery were dividing. Only these dividing A431 cells stained positive by anti-MMP-9 antibodies. Our results demonstrate that the synergistic induction of MMP-9 secretion in A431 cells occurs subsequent to stimulation by external signals in only noncontact-inhibited dividing tumor cells. These regulatory mechanisms may account for the in vivo finding that many proteinases are localized at the invasion front of a neoplasm where tumor cells are dividing and accessible to various environmental signals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8178929

  6. Expression of NM23 in human melanoma progression and metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. J.; Maung, K.; Lascu, I.; Véron, M.; Fallowfield, M. E.; Hart, I. R.; Bennett, D. C.

    1996-01-01

    NM23 is a putative metastasis-suppressor gene for some human cancers. Here we have studied NM23 expression during melanoma progression using Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry. There was no significant difference in the average amounts of NM23 mRNA between cell lines derived from metastatic and primary melanomas. The level of NM23 mRNA was also determined for three pairs of poorly metastatic parental (P) and their highly metastatic variant (M) cell lines; the ratios for M/P were 1.2, 0.98 and 0.80. Next we used immunocytochemistry to study NM23 protein in normal skin, benign naevi and primary and metastatic melanomas. Melanocytes in all normal skin and benign samples were positive for NM23; however most primary melanomas (7/11) were not stained by the antibody. All metastatic melanoma samples (5/5) were positively stained. Findings were similar with an antiserum reactive with both forms of NM23 (H1 and H2), and with an antibody specific for NM23-H1. No relationship was apparent between NM23 immunoreactivity in primary tumours and their aggressiveness or prognosis. Hence, in contrast to the situation described for murine melanoma, the amount of NM23 mRNA or protein in human melanoma did not correlate inversely with metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8679442

  7. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  8. Differentiation patterns in two- and three-dimensional culture systems of human squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Knuechel, R.; Keng, P.; Hofstaedter, F.; Langmuir, V.; Sutherland, R. M.; Penney, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Relative quantification of the pattern of differentiation of two squamous carcinoma cell lines of the female genital tract, A431 and CaSki, was studied in various experimental tissue culture states that are frequently used to evaluate drug and radiation effects on human tumors. Two- and three-dimensional in vitro cultures, ie, monolayers and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), and nude mice-xenograft tumors as in vivo tumor models were compared. In addition, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used comparatively in the in vitro studies. Morphologic signs of epithelial differentiation could be recognized in both cell lines gradually increasing from monolayers to MCTS to xenograft tumors. Cytokeratin (CK) expression is described as stable in A431 cells. Using immunohistochemistry, however, partial masking of CK antigens was found when applying the antibody 8.12 on monolayer cells and could be quantified by flow cytometric measurements. Fundamental cellular changes were found in a CaSki xenograft tumor, which showed newly established features of a keratinizing carcinoma after late onset of tumor growth. Epidermal growth factor caused reduction of both intercellular contacts and later onset of necrosis in MCTS, leading to an increased viability of the spheroids. Significant differences in differentiation of the tumor model systems indicates that the characterization of differentiation with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry is necessary to assist interpretation of data obtained with these different tumor models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1698031

  9. Ultrastructural studies of the myotendonous junction of selenium-deficient ducklings.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeny, P. R.; Brown, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    An ultrastructural study was made of the changes occurring within the gastrocnemius insertion of normal and selenium-deficient ducklings from 1 to 12 days of age. The cytologic characteristics of the fibroblasts, vessels, collagen, and muscle cells are described. Those exposed to the selenium deficiency showed major alterations of all components. The fibroblasts showed changes ranging from collapsed cisternae and degenerating mitochondria to rupture. The capillary endothelium was abnormal, as was the smooth muscle of arteriolar walls. The collagen sizes were altered, and the muscle cell termini showed major pathologic changes. The above alterations occurred within 4 days of exposure of the deficiency. The muscle cells of the body portion of the gastrocnemius showed no alterations until Day 8. The observations present evidence that indicates that connective-tissue-vascular abnormalities precede myopathic changes in nutritionally induced dystrophy. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to the etiology of nutritionally induced dystrophy. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7406022

  10. Ultrastructural studies on the gastrocnemius tendon of selenium-deficient ducklings.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeny, P. R.; Brown, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of the changes occurring in the gastrocnemius tendon of normal and selenium-deficient ducklings from 1 to 12 days of age. The study revealed that the normal 1--8-day-old duckling tendon contained 2 morphologically distinct cell types and a third occurring at Days 8--12. The location of these cells within the endotendineum and fiber bundles and their morphologic characteristics are presented. Most cells showed cytologic alterations as early as 4 days on the deficient diet with progressive deterioration to Day 12. The various cell types showed a differential response to the deficiency. Changes included altered endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus and eventual cell rupture. The significance of these observations and their possible relationship to the etiology of selenium-deficiency-induced dystrophy is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:7234963

  11. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Y C; Zhou, C; Sherman, M; Laughton, C A; Chen, S

    1998-01-01

    Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9435150

  12. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  13. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  14. The environment and asthma in U.S. inner cities.

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, P A; Buckley, T J; Breysse, P N; Wills-Karp, M; Kleeberger, S R; Jaakkola, J J

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of asthma has increased in the last 20 years, and the greatest increase has been seen among children and young adults living in U.S. inner cities. The reasons for this increase are obviously complex, but include environmental exposures to allergens and pollutants, changing patterns of medication, and the psychosocial stresses of living in poor inner-city neighborhoods. This paper presents an overview of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. This overview can be used to provide a framework for designing an interdisciplinary research program to address the complexities of asthma etiology and exacerbation. The strongest epidemiologic association has been found between asthma morbidity and the exposure of immunologically sensitive asthmatic patients to airborne allergens. Our current understanding of the process of sensitization suggests that there is a strong genetic predisposition to form IgE to allergenic proteins on airborne particles. Much of this work has been conducted with animal models, but in a number of instances, specific confirmation has been reported in humans. Sensitized individuals respond to inhaled exposure with immediate mast-cell dependent inflammation that may be augmented by pollutant particles, especially diesel exhaust particles. Relatively little is known about the methods of assessing exposure to airborne pollutants, especially biologically active particulates. However, to examine the relationship of morbidity in genetically predisposed individuals, it will be important to determine the most relevant method of making this assessment. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10346992

  15. The mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH): a military and surgical legacy.

    PubMed Central

    King, Booker; Jatoi, Ismalil

    2005-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom was perhaps the last military campaign that will ever utilize the services of a mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH). The Army has now essentially replaced the MASH with combat surgical hospitals (CSH) and forward surgical teams (FST). MASH units were designed as mobile, flexible, forward-deployed military hospitals, providing care for the wounded near the frontlines of the battlefield. These hospitals not only saved thousands of lives during war but also greatly influenced the delivery of trauma and critical care in civilian hospitals. The MASH was made popular by the television series of the 1970s, depicting the 4077th during the Korean War. Although a comical series, these television episodes provided viewers with a glimpse of life in a MASH during time of war. This article chronicles the history of the MASH from its inception during World War II to recent experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 p656-a PMID:15926641

  16. Fibronectin biosynthesis and cell-surface expression by cardiac and non-cardiac endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. M.; Helgeson, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the biosynthesis and surface expression of fibronectin, an adhesive glycoprotein, in several types of cultured porcine endothelial cells: pulmonary artery, thoracic aorta, coronary artery, aortic valve, and mitral valve. We used immunocytochemical staining to compare the levels of fibronectin present in these same tissues in vivo. Using endogenous radiolabeling, we found that all cell types except aortic valve endothelial cells synthesized and released into the culture media substantial quantities of fibronectin. Using radioiodination of intact cells, we found that, whereas both thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery cells had measurable fibronectin on the surface, aortic valve, mitral valve, and coronary artery cells had little cell-surface fibronectin present. Immunocytochemical staining showed that all endothelial regions except aortic valve had substantial quantities of immunoreactive fibronectin in vivo. These data suggest that the aortic valve endothelium may be distinct from other endothelia. Such differences could be important for the pathogenesis of valvular disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8494044

  17. Expression of growth factor and receptor mRNAs in skin epithelial cells following acute cutaneous injury.

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, H. N.; Galanopoulos, T.; Neville-Golden, J.; Kiritsy, C. P.; Lynch, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    We report that acute injury induces the expression of selective growth factor and growth factor receptors in the epithelial cells of the wounded tissue. In situ hybridization analysis of skin biopsy specimens obtained after cutaneous injury in swine demonstrated the induction of the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha, its receptor, epidermal growth factor-R, acidic fibroblast growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor messenger RNAs in the skin epithelial cells of the wounded tissue. There was no significant expression in the epithelial cells of control, uninjured tissues. The expression levels were maximal during the period of active tissue repair (1 to 5 days after injury) and were totally suppressed upon the healing of the wounded tissues. In contrast, insulinlike growth factor-I, (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor, and IGF-II receptor messenger RNAs were expressed in the epithelial cells of both the control, uninjured tissues and in tissue specimens obtained after injury. There was no significant expression of IGF-II messenger RNA in the epithelial cells before or after injury. It seems that injury induces the coordinated expression of selective growth factor and growth factor receptor genes whose products contribute to the regulation of the complex processes involved in tissue repair and remodeling. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8386442

  18. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  19. Non-muscle myosin II heavy chain has a cryptic cell-adhesion domain.

    PubMed Central

    Grinnell, F; Ho, C H

    1995-01-01

    We have discovered a cryptic cell-adhesion domain in non-muscle myosin II heavy chain. A 205 kDa cell-adhesion-promoting polypeptide (p205) was extracted from BHK cells by Nonidet P-40 or Dounce homogenization. Adhesion to p205 was specifically inhibited by the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro, indicating a role for the Arg-Gly-Asp cell-adhesion motif. Purified p205 was identified as non-muscle myosin II heavy chain, based on sequence analysis and on the cross-reactivity of p205 with anti-(bovine trachea myosin) antibodies. Further experiments showed that the heavy chain of purified myosin II has cell-adhesion-promoting activity in a cell-blotting assay, and cross-reacted with anti-p205 antibodies. Finally, the adhesion domain was located in the tail portion of myosin II heavy chain, where an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing sequence can be found. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626021

  20. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  1. The morphology of gastritis.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    Gastritis is a histopathologic diagnosis, which correlates poorly with both clinical symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia and endoscopic abnormalities. Worldwide, most cases of gastritis are due to Helicobacter pylori and are characterized by a diffuse superficial antral gastritis. Chronic inflammatory cells and lymphoid follicles are present in the lamina propria. Neutrophils are present in the surface and pit-lining epithelium. In North America and Western Europe, reactive gastropathy due to duodenal reflux or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents is also common. In this condition, there is no increase in inflammatory cells, but the pit-lining cells become hyperplastic, and the pits have a corkscrew appearance. Most examples of multifocal atrophic gastritis are the result of long standing Helicobacter gastritis, although there may be other causes as well. It is characterized by loss of glands in both pyloric and corpus mucosae with intestinal metaplasia of the surface epithelium. A subtype of intestinal metaplasia, in which sulphomucin (large bowel mucin) is present, has been associated with the development of distal gastric cancer. However, this association is relatively weak and is not considered useful for screening purposes. Gastric dysplasia may develop in areas of the stomach affected by intestinal metaplasia. High-grade dysplasia is a significant finding, with up to 60 percent of cases having coincident carcinoma and a further 25 percent of cases likely to develop an invasive malignancy within fifteen months. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9041689

  2. Wallerian degeneration in ICAM-1-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vougioukas, V. I.; Roeske, S.; Michel, U.; Brück, W.

    1998-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration of the peripheral nervous system was studied in ICAM-1-deficient mice and compared with the phenomena observed in C57BL wild-type animals. There was a decrease in myelin density in both mice strains 4 and 6 days after transection of the sciatic nerve. The degenerating nerves were invaded by Mac-1-, LFA-1-, and F4/80-positive macrophages; significantly lower numbers of macrophages were present in ICAM-1-deficient nerves. Myelin loss decreased after nerve transection with a more prominent loss in ICAM-1-deficient animals. Schwann cells revealed a much higher myelin load in these animals when compared with wild-type nerves, and there was an increased proliferation of endoneurial cells in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These data indicate that ICAM-1 is involved in macrophage recruitment to injured peripheral nerves as well as in the proliferative and phagocytic response of Schwann cells after peripheral nerve transection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422541

  3. Electroporation-induced formation of individual calcium entry sites in the cell body and processes of adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Teruel, M N; Meyer, T

    1997-01-01

    Electroporation is a widely used method for introducing macromolecules into cells. We developed an electroporation device that requires only 1 microl of sample to load adherent cells in a 10-mm2 surface area while retaining greater than 90% cell survivability. To better understand this device, field-induced permeabilization of adherent rat basophilic leukemia and neocortical neuroblastoma cells was investigated by using fluorescent calcium and voltage indicators. Rectangular field pulses led to the formation of only a few calcium entry sites, preferentially in the hyperpolarized parts of the cell body and processes. Individual entry sites were formed at the same locations when field pulses were repeated. Before calcium entry, a partial breakdown of the membrane potential was observed in both polar regions. Based on our results, a model is proposed for the formation and closure of macromolecule entry sites in adherent cells. First, the rapid formation of a large number of small pores leads to a partial membrane potential breakdown in both polar regions of the cell. Second, over tens of milliseconds, a few entry sites for macromolecules are formed, preferentially in the hyperpolarized part of cell body and processes, at locations defined by the local membrane structure. These entry sites reseal on a time scale of 50 ms to several seconds, with residual small pores remaining open for several minutes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:9336174

  4. Experimental myocardial infarction in the rat: qualitative and quantitative changes during pathologic evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, M. C.; Maclean, D.; Maroko, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    Surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery of the rat is a relatively simple, economical technique for producing experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Histologic study of 1- to 21-day-old MI in rats showed that following a mild and brief acute inflammatory response at the margins of the necrotic myocardium, there is chronic inflammation, vascular and collagenous proliferation, and resorption of necrostic tissue which progresses until scar formation is complete, usually by 21 days. From Day 1 to Day 21 the volume of infarcted myocardium decreases from 45.9 +/- 5.9% (mean +/- SEM) to 26.1 +/- 3.2% of the left ventricle and infarct thickness decreases from 1.30 +/- 0.06 mm to 0.47 +/- 0.02 mm. Concomitantly, the percent of the surface area of the left ventricle which is infarcted decreases insignificantly from 55.7 +/- 7.2% to 48.3 +/- 4.2%, indicating that the decrease in volume of the infarcted tissue occurs primarily as a result of thinning of the MI. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the natural history of MI in rats, which should be useful as a baseline for future studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:619696

  5. Age-related decline in prostacyclin synthesis by human aortic endothelial cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, O.; Yamada, T.; Fan, J. L.; Watanabe, T.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the functional alteration of human aortic endothelial cells with aging, prostacyclin synthesis was qualitatively and quantitatively examined. The endothelial cells of human aortas and umbilical veins or inferior vena cavae were immunohistochemically examined and found positive for prostacyclin, but the intensity of aortic endothelial cells from older subjects was low. In addition to the endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells in the thickened intima, not the media, of the aorta were also immunoreactive. Endothelial cells were successfully cultured from human aortas obtained from infants through aged subjects and were subdivided into three groups: young, middle, and old. Prostacyclin synthesis by endothelial cells from all types of blood vessels was extremely great at the primary culture, but decreased abruptly in the following subcultures. Among the aortic endothelial cells, the young group synthesized the largest amount of prostacyclin in a conventional culture condition, with synthesis progressively decreasing in the older groups. The in vitro prostacyclin biosynthesis was supported by the qualitative analysis on the tissue sections. These results indicate that prostacyclin synthesis of the aortic endothelial cells decreases with age, but intimal smooth muscle cells potentially have a back-up mechanism and substitute this synthesis to some extent. The decreased synthesis of prostacyclin with age may play an important role in the development and advancement of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1707240

  6. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  7. Molecular analysis of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bondareff, W.; Wischik, C. M.; Novak, M.; Amos, W. B.; Klug, A.; Roth, M.

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies directed against three regions of tau, ubiquitin, and B-amyloid were used in a histologic study of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease to distinguish two populations of neurofibrillary tangles. Intracellular tangles were immunolabeled exclusively by two antibodies raised against antigens in the fuzzy coat of the paired helical filament (PHF). Extracellular tangles were distinguished by selective immunolabeling with a monoclonal antibody raised against antigens in the PHF core. This was associated with removal of the fuzzy coat and exposure of PHF-core epitopes. In the transition from intracellular to extracellular compartments in vivo, tangles appeared to undergo changes similar to protease digestion in vitro. The transition was associated with the appearance of amyloid immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that tangle degradation occurs in a series of distinct stages, including ubiquitination of some unknown molecule, a change in tau immunoreactivity, and partial proteolysis of tangle-bound tau in extracellular tangles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2169192

  8. Streptococcus mutans-induced nephritis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Albini, B.; Nisengard, R. J.; Glurich, I.; Neiders, M. E.; Stinson, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous administration of disrupted Streptococcus mutans into rabbits over 23-76 weeks led to severe nephritis involving glomeruli, tubules, and interstitium. Light-microscopic observation of glomeruli documented diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis accompanied often (65%) by epithelial crescents. Electron-microscopic observation revealed humps in glomeruli of 70% of kidney specimens. In the glomeruli of some rabbits, extensive fibrin deposits and sclerosis were evident. Immunofluorescence showed linear, granular, often ribbonlike or patchy immune deposits encompassing, in order of decreasing frequency, C3, IgG, streptococcal antigen, IgA, and IgM. The histopathologic and immunohistologic features of the nephritis seen in rabbits given S mutans thus shows many features of Streptococcus-associated nephritides in man, in particular, the diffuse glomerular nephritis encountered in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Further, analysis of nephritis induced by administration of S mutans may have implications for the evaluation and purification of dental caries vaccines. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:3976844

  9. Characterization of the interaction of the human mineralocorticosteroid receptor with hormone response elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lombès, M; Binart, N; Oblin, M E; Joulin, V; Baulieu, E E

    1993-01-01

    Although the mineralocorticosteroid receptor (MR) belongs to the superfamily of hormone-dependent transcription factors, the molecular mechanism by which it regulates gene expression is poorly understood. Binding of the MR to target gene promoters has never been characterized, and specific mineralocorticosteroid response elements (MREs) remain to be identified. The human MR (hMR) was overexpressed in Sf21 insect cells using the baculovirus system. The high degree of similarity between the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR) and the MR prompted us to examine the DNA-binding properties of the recombinant MR with glucocorticosteroid-regulated genes. Gel shift mobility assays demonstrated that the recombinant receptor interacted with oligonucleotides containing perfect and imperfect palindromic sequences of GRE. A monoclonal anti-hMR antibody (FD4) induced a supershift of protein-DNA complexes and identified the MR in Western blot analysis. In vitro DNAse I protection assays with the hormone-regulated murine mammary tumour virus promoter showed that recombinant hMR generated four footprints whose limits encompassed the GRE motifs. By means of these two complementary approaches, no difference between the interaction of free, agonist- or antagonist-bound MR and DNA was detected. We provide evidence that hMR functions as a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8389140

  10. Photoelectron imaging of cells: photoconductivity extends the range of applicability.

    PubMed Central

    Habliston, D L; Hedberg, K K; Birrell, G B; Rempfer, G F; Griffith, O H

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron imaging is a sensitive surface technique in which photons are used to excite electron emission. This novel method has been applied successfully in studies of relatively flat cultured cells, viruses, and protein-DNA complexes. However, rounded-up cell types such as tumor cells frequently are more difficult to image. By comparing photoelectron images of uncoated and metal-coated MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells, it is shown that the problem is specimen charging rather than a fundamental limitation of the electron imaging process. This is confirmed by emission current measurements on uncoated monolayers of MCF-7 carcinoma cells and flatter, normal Wi-38 fibroblasts. We report here that sample charging in photoelectron microscopy can be eliminated in most specimens by simultaneous use of two light sources--the standard UV excitation source (e.g., 254 nm) and a longer wavelength light source (e.g., 325 nm). The reduction in sample charging results largely from enhanced photoconduction in the bulk sample and greatly extends the range of cells that can be examined by photoelectron imaging. The contributions of photoconductivity, the electric field of the imaging system, and the short escape depths of the photoelectrons combine to make photoelectron imaging a uniquely sensitive technique for the study of biological surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8534832

  11. Structural analysis of inositol phospholipids from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms.

    PubMed Central

    Bertello, L E; Gonçalvez, M F; Colli, W; de Lederkremer, R M

    1995-01-01

    Inositol phospholipids (IPL) from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi have been investigated by metabolic labelling with [3H]palmitic acid and by GLC-MS analysis of the lipids obtained from non-labelled parasites. The IPL fraction was separated into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and inositol-phosphoceramide subfractions, the latter accounting for 80-85% of the total IPL. The neutral lipids released from the IPLs by PI-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis were analysed by silica-gel and reverse-phase TLC for the radioactive lipids and by GLC-MS for the non-radioactive samples. Ceramides containing dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids were identified. The main component in the [3H]palmitic acid-labelled ceramides was palmitoyldihydrospingosine, while in the non-labelled sample the ceramides contained mainly sphingosine. This could reflect partial uptake of phospholipid from the medium. The PI contain both alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol lipids, with the ether lipid being more abundant. The latter was identified as 1-O-hexadecylglycerol esterified by C18:2 and C18:1 fatty acids. Interestingly, the same lipid had been identified in the anchor of the 1G7 glycoprotein of T. cruzi metacyclic forms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7646454

  12. Pulsed laser imaging of rapid Ca2+ gradients in excitable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Monck, J R; Robinson, I M; Escobar, A L; Vergara, J L; Fernandez, J M

    1994-01-01

    Excitable cells are thought to respond to action potentials by forming short lived and highly localized Ca2+ gradients near sites of Ca2+ entry or near the site of Ca2+ release by intracellular stores. However, conventional imaging techniques lack the spatial and temporal resolution to capture these gradients. Here we demonstrate the use of pulsed-laser microscopy to measure Ca2+ gradients with submicron spatial resolution and millisecond time resolution in two preparations where the Ca2+ signal is thought to be fast and highly localized: adrenal chromaffin cells, where the entry of Ca2+ through voltage dependent Ca2+ channels triggers exocytotic fusion; and skeletal muscle fibers, where intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiates contraction. In chromaffin cells, Ca2+ gradients developed over 10-100 ms and were initially restricted to discrete submembrane domains, or hot spots, before developing into complete rings of elevated Ca2+ concentration. In frog skeletal muscle large, short-lived (approximately 6 ms) Ca2+ gradients were observed within individual sarcomeres following induction of action potentials. The pulsed laser imaging approach permits, for the first time, the capture and critical examination of rapid Ca2+ signaling events such as those underlying excitation-secretion and excitation-contraction coupling. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7948669

  13. Characterization of the choroidal mast cell.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, W A

    1987-01-01

    The experimental studies performed on nonpigmented rat choroids and the review of the important literature covered in this thesis seem to justify the following statements: 1. Mast cells are present in the choroid in significant numbers. 2. Mast cell numbers vary considerably from one individual to another and from one location in the choroid to another. 3. The major concentration of mast cells in the uvea is in the posterior choroid. 4. The mast cells of the choroid have a preferential location along arterial vessels. 5. Choroidal mast cell population density apparently decreases with senescence. 6. Mast cell products are present in sufficient quantity to exert substantial effects on physiologic, immunologic, and inflammatory responses in the choroid. 7. Choroidal mast cell products are released with appropriate stimulation and share some properties with the connective-tissue mast cell. 8. Choroidal mast cell demonstrate enough differences to suggest that a local differentiation may be present and may represent a locally controlled modulating effect for choroidal physiologic, immunologic, and inflammatory reactions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 PMID:3328921

  14. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: a clinical study of 12 episodes in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Sandoval, L; Wainstein, A; Ribalta, J; Donoso, S; Smok, G; Rosenberg, H; Meneses, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve episodes of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) were diagnosed in 11 patients during the past 18 years in a general hospital in Santiago, Chile, with a prevalence of 1 per 15,900 deliveries. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy started between the 31st and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with malaise, vomiting, jaundice, and lethargy as the main clinical manifestations. Polydipsia (in nine episodes) and skin pruritus (in seven episodes) were unusual clinical findings. In two patients, pruritus started two and four weeks before AFLP, suggesting that an intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy preceded AFLP in those patients. Considering the current prevalence of both diseases in Chile, their association should be considered fortuitous. In another patient, two consecutive pregnancies were affected by AFLP, raising to three the number of reported patients with recurrent AFLP. In 11 episodes, liver biopsies supported the diagnosis of AFLP by showing small and midsized vacuolar cytoplasmic transformation as the most prominent histopathological feature. Positive intracellular fat staining was found in the four samples analysed. Studies by electron microscopy showed megamitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions in four samples. All the mothers survived, but fetal mortality was 58.3%. Several extrahepatic complications delayed maternal recovery for up to four weeks after delivery. This study confirms an improvement in maternal prognosis in AFLP, discusses the possibility of an epidemiological association with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and increases the number of patients reported with recurrent AFLP. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8307428

  15. Expression of IP-10, a lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-inducible protein, in murine mesangial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Chiarri, M.; Hamilton, T. A.; Egido, J.; Emancipator, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    IP-10 is an early gene induced in multiple cell types by a variety of proinflammatory agents, notably interferons (IFNs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To determine whether this protein might play a role in amplifying immune-mediated glomerular injury, we cultured mouse mesangial cells with several stimuli for various times. Increasing amounts of IFN-gamma (to 100 units/ml) elicited increasing levels of IP-10 messenger RNA (mRNA), sustained to 24 hours, but had no effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA. LPS induced transient IP-10 mRNA expression that peaked at 8 hours; TNF-alpha mRNA was also increased. TNF-alpha at doses up to 10 ng/ml and soluble immune complexes up to 150 micrograms/ml antibody evoked 3- to 5-fold increases in IP-10 mRNA expression, much less than the 30- to 70-fold increases seen with IFN-gamma and LPS. We conclude that IFN-gamma, LPS, and other agonists can amplify glomerular immune injury, perhaps via elevated expression of IP-10. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8434640

  16. Binding of normal human IgG to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Aarli, J A; Aparicio, S R; Lumsden, C E; Tönder, O

    1975-01-01

    The binding of normal human serum, purified IgG and IgG fragments to central nervous tissue was studied by the anti-globulin consumption (AGCT) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. In the AGCT, F(ab')2 fragments failed to react, whereas IgG and Fc fragments did so. In IF experiments, the binding was localized to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons; Fab monomers at a protein concentration of 1-3 mg/ml dod not react with the tissue, but purified Fc fragments at 0-0625 mg/ml did. The binding is neither tissue- nor species-specific. Lipid and protein extraction procedures indicated that the factor responsible for binding to myelin was basic protein. It was concluded that the binding of normal IgG to central nervous tissue is medicated by the Fc part of the molecule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:803915

  17. Pathologic findings in adenosine deaminase deficient-severe combined immunodeficiency. II. Thymus, spleen, lymph node, and gastrointestinal tract lymphoid tissue alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Ratech, H.; Hirschhorn, R.; Greco, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Eight autopsies of patients with adenosine deaminase deficient-severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA-SCID) were reviewed with special emphasis on the lymphoid tissues. The thymus histology in five cases was remarkably uniform, whether or not prior ADA enzyme replacement or immunologic reconstitution therapy had been administered. Lymph nodes and spleens in all cases examined showed a residual nonlymphoid architectural framework corresponding to usual T and B cell zones found in normals. The development of an extranodal, monoclonal IgA lambda B cell immunoblastic lymphoma as a terminal event in one patient after several years of successful ADA enzyme replacement therapy through multiple red blood cell transfusions is described. In another patient with long-term ADA enzyme replacement, a terminal autoimmune hemolytic anemia developed. Autopsy revealed severe deposits of iron in the B cell zones of the lymph nodes, which is an unusual location. In addition, iron deposits outlined the splenic trabeculae, as well as the ring fibers and bridging fibers of the splenic sinuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2596574

  18. Major histocompatibility complex gene product expression on pancreatic beta cells in acutely diabetic BB rats.

    PubMed Central

    Issa-Chergui, B.; Yale, J. F.; Vigeant, C.; Seemayer, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in young, diabetes-prone BB rats by the passive transfer of concanavalin A-activated T lymphocytes from the spleens of acutely diabetic BB rats. The pancreas of the recipients was examined 1-2 days after the onset of glycosuria by immunocytochemistry by means of monoclonal antibodies for determining whether 1) Class I and/or II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products were expressed on beta cells and 2) the mononuclear cell infiltrates were represented by T cells. Marked expression of Class I MHC gene products was evident on beta cells. In contrast, Class II MHC gene products were not identified on normal-appearing beta cells. Dendritic cells dispersed throughout the acinar and interstitial pancreas were markedly increased in number. The mononuclear cell infiltrate contained few cells (1-15%) recognized by a pan-T cell marker. Although it is possible that this passive transfer model might differ considerably from the spontaneously occurring diabetic state in the rat, this study suggests that 1) Class I, rather than Class II, MHC gene expression may be pivotal to beta-cell injury in diabetic rats, and 2) non-T cells may constitute an effector cell population central to beta-cell necrosis in Type I diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3276208

  19. Alzheimer's disease. Beta-amyloid precursor protein expression in the nucleus basalis of Meynert.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G. M.; Greenberg, B. D.; Ellis, W. G.; Forno, L. S.; Salamat, S. M.; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P. A.; Lowery, D. E.; Tinklenberg, J. R.; Eng, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) was examined using immunocytochemistry for beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) expression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In mild AD cases, light labeling of the cell body and proximal processes was observed, and small intracellular structures were labeled rarely. In the more severe cases, intense cytoplasmic beta APP labeling was seen, often along with small beta APP-positive structures. Double-labeling experiments demonstrated that in the more severe cases these small structures were also decorated by a neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) antiserum. Other neurons in the severe cases showed incorporation of beta APP into large inclusions, which were also labeled with the NFT antiserum. However, some large inclusions in the severe cases were labeled by the NFT antiserum but contained no beta APP. Extraneuronal NFTs did not show beta APP labeling and did not react with an antibody to the beta-amyloid peptide. These results suggest that increased expression of beta APP coincides with intracellular NFT formation in the nbM, but that the formation of extraneuronal NFTs results in a loss of beta APP immunoreactivity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1386714

  20. Rabbit cardiomyopathy associated with a virus antigenically related to human coronavirus strain 229E.

    PubMed Central

    Small, J. D.; Aurelian, L.; Squire, R. A.; Strandberg, J. D.; Melby, E. C.; Turner, T. B.; Newman, B.

    1979-01-01

    A new disease of rabbits is described. Following an acute febrile course, animals die or recover by the 11th day postinoculation. The characteristic pathologic finding is multifocal myocardial degeneration and necrosis. The disease can be transmitted by various routes with tissue filtrates or with infectious sera diluted to 10(-6) and passed through 0.1 micron filters. Virus particles with morphologic features characteristic of a coronavirus are present in infectious but not in normal rabbit serums. The antigen(s) in the infectious serums cross-reacts with the 229E and the OC43 strains of human coronavirus. Antigen cross-reacting with the 229E virus is detectable by immunofluorescent staining in frozen sections of heart tissue from sick but not from healthy animals. Animals surviving infection seroconvert to coronavirus specificity, as demonstrated by the presence in convalescent serums of antibody capable of reacting with the 339E virus. Susceptibility to infection has not been demonstrated in mice, hamsters, or guinea pigs, and the virus was not adapted for growth in tissue culture. It is uncertain whether the agent is a natural pathogen of rabbits or a coronavirus contaminant from another species, possibly human. The name rabbit infectious cardiomyopathy is suggested for this disease. Images Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:222151

  1. Mature eosinophils stimulated to develop in human-cord blood mononuclear cell cultures supplemented with recombinant human interleukin-5. II. Vesicular transport of specific granule matrix peroxidase, a mechanism for effecting piecemeal degranulation.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, A. M.; Ackerman, S. J.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Letourneau, L.; Ishizaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of piecemeal degranulation by human eosinophils was investigated. Mature eosinophils that developed in rhIL-5-containing conditioned media from cultured human cord blood mononuclear cells were prepared for ultrastructural studies using a combined technique to image eosinophil peroxidase by cytochemistry in the same sections on which postembedding immunogold was used to demonstrate Charcot-Leyden crystal protein. Vesicular transport of eosinophil peroxidase from the specific granule matrix compartment to the cell surface was associated with piecemeal degranulation. This process involved budding of eosinophil peroxidase-loaded vesicles and tubules from specific granules. Some eosinophil peroxidase that was released from eosinophils remained bound to the cell surface; some was free among the cultured cells. Macrophages and basophils bound the released eosinophil peroxidase to their plasma membranes, internalized it in endocytotic vesicles, and stored it in their respective phagolysosomes and secretory granules. Charcot-Leyden crystal protein was diffusely present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of IL-5-stimulated mature eosinophils. Extensive amounts were generally present in granule-poor and subplasma membrane areas of the cytoplasm in contrast to eosinophil peroxidase, which was secreted and bound to the external surface of eosinophil plasma membranes. These studies establish vesicular transport as a mechanism for emptying the specific eosinophil granule matrix compartment during IL-5-associated piecemeal degranulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1562046

  2. A serial histologic study of the development and progression of acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, S. S.; Watt, I. A.; Donaldson, L. A.; Crocket, A.; Joffe, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of a serial investigation of the development and progression of the light-microscopic changes of acute pancreatitis and histologic criteria for evaluating pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, similar to that found in man, was induced in rats with the use of a closed duodenal loop technique (n = 36). Control rats underwent a laparotomy with mobilization of the duodenum (n = 12). Animals were killed every 2 hours for 24 hours, and a detailed and independent histologic evaluation was made of each. Focal acinar necrosis proceeding to a vasculitis appeared within 2--4 hours before the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Thereafter, the extent of acinar necrosis closely reflected the vasculitis with the later development of the acute inflammation. By the sixteenth hour, these changes were graded as moderate pancreatitis, and by 24 hours the process represented severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Vascular changes and acinar necrosis preceded the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The pancreatitis has been quantitated into minimal, moderate, or severe by assessing the severity of edema, acute inflammatory infiltrate, and changes in the vessels, ducts, and acini. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7223862

  3. Induction of aneurysms in the rat by a stenosing cotton ligature around the inter-renal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne-Pellegrin, M. J.; Coutard, M.; Poitevin, P.; Michel, J. B.; Levy, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms have been induced in the rat by combining the chemotactic property of cotton for inflammatory cells and the resulting granuloma formation with the mechanical and haemodynamic stress of aortic coarctation. A stenosing cotton ligature was placed around the aorta, between the renal arteries, in male Wistar rats under standardized conditions. Three months later, 7 out of 12 rats (58%) had developed saccular aneurysms of the inter-renal aorta. The aneurysmal wall consisted of a collagenous shell with a few newly formed elastic fibrils on its luminal side. Detailed histological studies of the inter-renal aorta at different times after placing stenosing or non-stenosing cotton or nylon ligatures between the renal arteries, together with studies using anti-hypertensive therapy (cilazapril) and immunohistochemical studies using an anti-macrophage antibody (ED1) were performed to try to establish cellular events involved in this aneurysmal remodelling. We conclude that in this model aneurysm formation requires (i) deep mechanical injury to the aortic wall, (ii) the presence of hypertension upstream to the stenosis and (iii) an inflammatory response to the cotton ligature. The early inflammatory reaction was less in the case of nylon and although macrophages were present in both cases the most striking difference was the greater incidence of PMNs in the case of cotton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8086315

  4. Ultrastructural organization of contractile proteins in rat glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Drenckhahn, D.; Schnittler, H.; Nobiling, R.; Kriz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells of the rat kidney contain actin, nonmuscle myosin, tropomyosin, and the muscular Z-line protein, alpha-actinin. This was shown for actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin by immunoblotting as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Tropomyosin was localized in mesangial cells by immunofluorescence. In cultured mesangial cells, actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin constitute a considerable amount of the total cellular protein contents. In mesangial cells in situ actin, myosin and alpha-actinin were found to be colocalized within conspicuous microfilament bundles that traverse the cell body or major processes in various directions and project into either the tonguelike pericapillary processes, which run toward mesangial angles, or into the microvilluslike lateral extensions that abut on the perimesangial portion of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Thereby, the GBM of opposing mesangial angles as well as of opposing portions of the perimesangial GBM are regularly interconnected by filament bundles within mesangial cells that contain actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin. The authors suggest that the major function of actin-, myosin-, and alpha-actinin-containing filament bundles in mesangial cells is to create an isometric tension (or minute isotonic contractions) to counteract the distending forces of the rather high intracapillary hydraulic pressure and its resulting pressure gradients across the capillary wall and across the perimesangial GBM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2260624

  5. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Causes Cystic Dilation of the Mammary Glands of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eunhee S.; Bedoya, Adriana A.; Lee, Hyesun; Kim, Seokhyun; Housley, Regina M.; Aukerman, Sharon L.; Tarpley, John E.; Starnes, Charles; Yin, Songmei; Pierce, Glenn F.; Ulich, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a paracrine mediator of epithelial cell proliferation that has been reported to induce marked proliferation of mammary epithelium in rats. In this study, systemic administration of KGF into naive and oophorectomized mice causes mammary gland proliferation, as evidenced histologically by the appearance of cysts lined by a single layer of epithelium and by hyperplastic epithelium. Whole mount preparations of the mammary glands reveal that the histologically noted cysts are actually ducts that are dilated along much of their length. The histology of the mammary glands of KGF-treated mice is similar to the histology of fibrocystic disease in the buman female breast. The response in mice differs significantly from the appearance of the mammary glands in KGF-treated rats in which ductal epithelial proliferation is most prominent. Estrogen and progesterone when administered in combination but not alone cause the development of numerous endbuds in the mouse mammary gland. KGF in estrogen- and progesterone-pretreated mice causes the growth of dilated ducts, hyperplastic epithelium within ducts and endbuds, and a fibrous metamorphosis of periductal adipose tissue. The mammary epithelial hyperplasia caused by KGF is rapidly reversible in both mice and rats after cessation of KGF treatment. The spectrum of KGF-, estrogen-, and progesterone-induced mammary histopathology in mice provides a model for the study of fibrocystic and hyperplastic breast disease. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7977634

  6. Lacrimal gland inflammation is responsible for ocular pathology in TGF-beta 1 null mice.

    PubMed Central

    McCartney-Francis, N. L.; Mizel, D. E.; Frazier-Jessen, M.; Kulkarni, A. B.; McCarthy, J. B.; Wahl, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Mice homozygous for a nonfunctional transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene develop rampant inflammation in vital organs that contributes to a shortened life span. The presence of circulating anti-nuclear anti-bodies, immune deposits in tissues, leukocyte infiltration, and increased major histocompatibility complex antigen expression resembles an autoimmune-like syndrome. One of the overt symptoms that appears in these mice lacking transforming growth factor-beta 1 is the development of dry crusty eyes that close persistently as their health declines. Histologically, the eyes appear normal with little or no inflammation. However, inflammatory lesions, predominantly lymphocytic, develop in the lacrimal glands, disrupting their structure and function and severely limiting their ability to generate tears. This histopathology and aberrant function mimic that of Sjögren's syndrome, a human autoimmune disease characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth. Impeding the leukocyte infiltration into the glands with synthetic fibronectin peptides, which block adhesion, not only prevents the inflammatory pathology but also prevents the persistent eye closure characteristic of these mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9358754

  7. Autism or atypical autism in maternally but not paternally derived proximal 15q duplication.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, E H; Lindgren, V; Leventhal, B L; Courchesne, R; Lincoln, A; Shulman, C; Lord, C; Courchesne, E

    1997-01-01

    Duplications of proximal 15q have been found in individuals with autistic disorder (AD) and varying degrees of mental retardation. Often these abnormalities take the form of a supernumerary inverted duplicated chromosome 15, more properly described as an isodicentric chromosome 15, or idic(15). However, intrachromosomal duplications also have been reported. In a few cases, unaffected mothers, as well as their affected children, carry the same duplications. During the course of the genotyping of trios of affected probands with AD and their parents, at the positional candidate locus D15S122, an intrachromosomal duplication of proximal 15q was detected by microsatellite analysis in a phenotypically normal mother. Microsatellite and methylation analyses of the pedigree in the following report show that, among three children, the two with autism or atypical autism have maternal inheritance of a 15q11-q13 duplication whereas the third child, who is unaffected, did not inherit this duplication. Their mother's 15q11-q13 duplication arose de novo from her father's chromosomes 15. This finding documents, for the first time, the significance of parental origin for duplications of 15q11-q13. In this family, paternal inheritance leads to a normal phenotype, and maternal inheritance leads to autism or atypical autism. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9106540

  8. Subcellular localization and translocation of the receptor for N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Sengeløv, H; Boulay, F; Kjeldsen, L; Borregaard, N

    1994-01-01

    The subcellular localization of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) receptors in human neutrophils was investigated. The fMLP receptor was detected with a high-affinity, photoactivatable, radioiodinated derivative of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanyl-lysine (fMLFK). Neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and fractionated on Percoll density gradients. fMLP receptors were located in the beta-band containing gelatinase and specific granules, and in the gamma-band containing plasma membrane and secretory vesicles. Plasma membranes and secretory vesicles were separated by high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, and secretory vesicles were demonstrated to be highly enriched in fMLP receptors. The receptors found in secretory vesicles translocated fully to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with inflammatory mediators. The receptor translocation from the beta-band indicated that the receptor present there was mainly located in gelatinase granules. A 25 kDa fMLP-binding protein was found in the beta-band. Immunoprecipitation revealed that this protein was identical with NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), a novel protein found in specific granules. In summary, we demonstrate that the compartment in human neutrophils that is mobilized most easily and fastest, the secretory vesicle, is a major reservoir of fMLP receptors. This explains the prompt and extensive upregulation of fMLP receptors on the neutrophil surface in response to inflammatory stimuli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8172608

  9. Human lung-derived mature mast cells cultured alone or with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts maintain an ultrastructural phenotype different from that of human mast cells that develop from human cord blood cells cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, A. M.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Ishizaka, T.

    1991-01-01

    Culture systems designed to maintain or develop human mast cells have proved difficult, yet these systems would provide valuable resources for future investigations of human mast cell biology. Cocultures of either isolated mature human lung mast cells (Levi-Schaffer et al., J Immunol 1987, 139:494-500) or human cord blood mononuclear cells (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043) with 3T3 embryonic mouse skin fibroblasts have implicated fibroblasts as an important factor in the successful maintenance and development of human mast cells in vitro. The authors cultured isolated, mature human lung mast cells either with or without 3T3 cells for 1 month and examined their ultrastructural phenotype. Mast cell viability in each circumstance was equivalent, but mast cell yield was improved in the presence of 3T3 cells. The ultrastructural phenotype was identical in both culture systems. Mast cells were shown to maintain the phenotype of their in vivo lung counterparts (ie, scroll granules predominanted, and numerous lipid bodies were present). This ultrastructural phenotype differs from that of mast cells that develop in cocultures of human cord blood cells and 3T3 cells, where developing mast cells with crystalline granules and few lipid bodies prevail, a phenotype much like that of human skin mast cells in vivo (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1750506

  10. The leadership principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and their relevance to surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brunicardi, F. Charles; Cotton, Ronald T.; Cole, George W.; Martinez, George

    2007-01-01

    In order to face the challenges in healthcare this century, it is essential that surgeons understand modern leadership principles. One of the greatest leaders in history was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who provides a shining example of level-5 leadership for us to study. The study of leadership principles of great leaders can provide us with practical methods of conflict resolution as well as inspiration to keep us engaged and focused. As leaders of the medical community, we face numerous challenges, including discovering and implementing new treatments for disease, providing care for the indigent, overcoming educational challenges such as incorporating the ACGME Core Competencies into our surgical training and promoting diversity in education. Achieving these goals is often hindered by the environment in which we labor-nearly 50 million are uninsured, the rising cost of medical care is currently at 16% of the GNP, and reimbursement rates are falling-which makes the practice of surgery a significant challenge. Effective leadership will be paramount in achieving these goals. In this editorial, which summarizes a presentation given to the Surgical Section of the annual National Medical Association meeting, five important leadership principles that are important for surgeons have been selected and related to the outstanding leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:17304963

  11. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic hepatic changes in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelian, I; de Lafontaine, Y; Menard, C; Tellier, P; Harshbarger, J; Martineau, D

    1998-01-01

    As part of a survey of fish diseases, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were collected in fall 1995 from the St. Lawrence River 15 km upstream of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, to assess the prevalence of liver lesions. A total of 141 fish were captured and necropsied, and three standard sections of liver were taken for histological examination. Prevalences of altered hepatocyte foci, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangioma, and cholangiocarcinoma were 0.7%, 2.1%, 0.7%, and 2.1%, respectively. Thus, the overall prevalence of liver neoplasia was 4.9% (7/141). Hepatic tumors were only observed in fish 7 years old or older. Fish age was significantly and positively correlated with the index assessing the number and size of macrophage aggregates (p<0.001; rs = 0.16). Hepatocyte vacuolation, anisokaryosis, lymphocytic infiltration, and bile duct hyperplasia were also observed but were not related to the age, length, sex, or condition factor of the fish. These results represent the first report on a series of hepatic tumors in a wild salmonid species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9485481

  12. Malignant histiocytosis. A phenotypic and genotypic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962

  13. P3 beta-amyloid peptide has a unique and potentially pathogenic immunohistochemical profile in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, L. S.; Murphy, G. M.; Forno, L. S.; Catalano, R.; Cordell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of beta-amyloid in brain tissue is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A naturally occurring derivative of the beta-amyloid peptide, p3, possesses all of the structural determinants required for fibril assembly and neurotoxicity. p3-specific antibodies were used to examine the distribution of this peptide in brain. p3 reactivity was absent or sparse in aged non-AD brains but was prevalent in selected areas of AD brain in diffuse deposits and in a subset of dystrophic neurites. p3-reactive dystrophic neurites were found both independent in the neuropil and associated with plaques. Little or no reactivity was observed to amyloid cores in classical plaques or to amyloid in the cerebral vasculature. The exclusive appearance of p3 reactivity in AD brain plus the selective localization of p3 reactivity to abnormal structures in the temporal lobe limbic system suggests that p3 may be a contributing factor to AD pathology. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8701997

  14. Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects of liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced alterations. Experimental evidence of mitochondrial division.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, O. R.; Roatta de Conti, L. L.; Bolaños, L. P.; Stoppani, A. O.

    1978-01-01

    To study the morphologic and biochemical changes occuring in liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced injury, rats fed a 6-month high-alcohol regimen plus a nutritionally adequate diet which did not induce fatty liver were compared with isocalorically fed controls. After this period the alcohol-fed animals displayed striking ultrastructural changes of liver mitochondria and a decreased respiratory activity with succinate or malate-glutamate as substrate. On the contrary, the respiratory rate with I-glycerophosphate was 50% increased. Regression changes were studied after alcohol was withdrawn from the diet. Enlarged mitochondria rapidly disappeared (in 24 hours), although a few megamitochondria were still present after 8 days of abstinence. A similar recovery was observed for the functional alterations. At the end of the experimental period, only a slight decrease of the maximal respiratory rate using malate-glutamate as a substrate was noted. The ultrastructural findings and the morphometric data suggest that the way in which mitochondrial normalization takes place is based on partition of these organelles. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 13 PMID:623205

  15. The left bundle branch block revised with novel imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, J.; Mannaerts, H.F.J.; Germans, T.; Hauer, H.A.; Knaapen, P.; Visser, C.A.; Kamp, O.

    2006-01-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is related to abnormal cardiac conduction and mechanical asynchrony and is associated with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Improved evaluation of left ventricular (LV) mechanical asynchrony is needed, because of the increasing number of patients with LBBB and heart failure. In this paper, we describe tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), strain (rate) imaging and tissue tracking in LBBB patients. A variety of patterns of mechanical activation can be observed in LBBB patients. A recent development, referred to as tissue synchronisation imaging, colour codes TDI time-to-peak systolic velocities of segments and displays mechanical asynchrony. Furthermore, real-time 3D echocardiography provides new regional information about mechanical asynchrony. Contained in an LV model and projected on a bull's eye plot, this modality helps to display the spatial distribution of mechanical asynchrony. Finally, segmental time-to-peak circumferential strain curves, produced by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, provide additional quantification of LV mechanical asynchrony. Effects of LBBB on regional and global cardiac function are impressive, myocardial involvement seems to play a role and with the help of these novel imaging modalities, new insights continue to develop. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696572

  16. The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is located on the secretory granules in human neutrophils and translocates towards the phagosome during cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Möhn, H; Le Cabec, V; Fischer, S; Maridonneau-Parini, I

    1995-01-01

    The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is mainly expressed in neutrophils; however, its functional role in these cells is unknown. Several other src-family members are localized on secretory vesicles and have been proposed to regulate intracellular traffic. We have established here the subcellular localization of p59hck in human neutrophils. Immunoblotting of subcellular fractions showed that approx. 60% of the p59hck per cell is localized on the secretory granules; the other 40% is distributed equally between non-granular membranes and the cytosol. Immunofluorescence of neutrophils and HL60 cells suggests that the p59hck-positive granules are azurophil granules. Granular p59hck is highly susceptible to degradation by an azurophil-granule proteinase. Different forms of p59hck occur in the three subcellular compartments: a 61 kDa form is mainly found in the granules, a 59 kDa form is predominant in the non-granular membranes, whereas cytosolic p59hck migrates as a doublet at 63 kDa. During the process of phagocytosis-linked degranulation, induced by serum-opsonized zymosan in neutrophils or HL60 cells, granular p59hck translocates towards the phagosome. The subcellular localization of p59hck suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the regulation of the degranulation process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626033

  17. Complex Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula and Ruptured Aneurysm in Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Tori C.; Manness, Wayne K; Hershey, Beverly L.; Yazdi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The objective and importance of this study was to describe the challenges encountered with treating a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and ruptured aneurysm in a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage. A 36-year-old female with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented 2 weeks after uneventful cesarean section with a rapidly expanding pulsatile neck mass. Angiography demonstrated a complex left vertebral AVF and multiple associated vertebral artery aneurysms. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed using a retrograde and antegrade approach to occlude the fistulas and trap the ruptured aneurysm, successfully treating the acute hemorrhage. Subsequent definitive therapy was accomplished utilizing a combined neurointerventional and neurosurgical strategy of direct-puncture acrylic embolization and ligation of the vertebral artery. Recent advances in neurointerventional technology allow novel approaches in the primary and/or preoperative treatment of complex vascular lesions such as those seen in NF1. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5p40-b PMID:17171099

  18. Predictive Value of Balloon Test Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Segal, David H.; Sen, Chandranath; Bederson, Joshua B.; Catalano, Peter; Sacher, Michael; Stollman, Aryeh L.; Lorberboym, Mordechai

    1995-01-01

    Balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is used in conjunction with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to assess the cerebrovascular collateral reserve prior to surgical manipulation of the artery. The present report reviews 56 consecutive patients with tumors or vascular lesions at the base of the skull who underwent BTO and subsequent treatment on that basis within a 3-year period. Four patients underwent carotid sacrifice, since they tolerated the BTO and had normal SPECT imaging. Postoperatively, one patient had patchy infarcts in the frontal lobe, another a middle cerebral artery territory infarction, a third had a lacunar infarct, and the fourth had an impending stroke and was treated with an emergent revascularization procedure. There were 15 patients who underwent saphenous vein bypass grafting, of these there were three graft occlusions, one of which resulted in an infarction. There were two other infarctions due to technical difficulties, one being related to the revascularization procedure. Based on these results, we suggest that passing BTO with a normal SPECT study does not necessarily indicate that the patient is immune to stroke following carotid sacrifice. Revascularization should be considered, when ICA sacrifice is deemed necessary to treat the pathologic condition adequately, to minimize the likelihood of a stroke. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17171183

  19. Ionescu-Shiley bovine pericardial bioprostheses. Histologic and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, S. L.; Ferrans, V. J.; McAllister, H. A.; Cooley, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were done on the structural changes that develop in Ionescu-Shiley valves that are used as replacement heart valves for 4 to 8 years. These changes were compared with those found in similarly used porcine aortic valve (PAV) bioprostheses. A variety of morphologic differences were observed between bovine pericardial valve (BPV) and PAV bioprostheses after orthotopic implantation including: primary tissue failure associated with the use of an alignment suture, thickening of valve leaflet, leaflet tissue delamination, leaflet calcification, and dystrophic alterations of collagen. These findings indicate that valve design criteria directly influence the durability of pericardial valves. However, other factors unique to pericardial tissue also affect the durability and performance of BPVs. These factors include the inability of pericardial tissue to accommodate dynamic stresses; the extensive insudation of plasma proteins and lipids; and the inability to reduce leaflet calcification using agents that effectively mitigate calcification in PAV bioprostheses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1580331

  20. c-myc protein in normal tissue. Effects of fixation on its apparent subcellular distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S. L.; Neckers, L. M.; Schwab, G.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1988-01-01

    The c-myc protein is thought to be a DNA-associated nuclear protein. However, immunohistochemical studies on normal or tumor tissues have shown conflicting findings on its subcellular distribution. By using various fixation procedures on cytospin preparations of HL60 cells, the authors found the subcellular distribution of the c-myc protein to be dependent on the method of fixation. When studying mouse tissues in frozen sections using a biotinylated monoclonal antibody against the c-myc protein, they found the protein to be widely distributed in various normal adult mouse tissues, in most cases localized to the nucleus. However, when these tissues were studied after formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, a loss of nuclear staining was observed concurrent with the appearance of c-myc protein immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm. It is concluded that immunohistochemical studies on the expression of this oncogene should take into consideration the effects of fixation when its subcellular distribution is being examined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3281469

  1. Pulmonary response and transmigration of inorganic fibers by inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. P.; Barras, C. E.; Griffith, F. D.; Waritz, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation to different concentrations of potassium octatitanate fibers. Following 3 months of exposure, the animals were sacrificed between the 15th and 24th month. The exposed animals showed dose-related dust deposition and pulmonary fibrosis mainly in the respiratory bronchiolar region. Most short fibers (less than 5 micrograms) were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages, but long fibers (greater than 10 micrograms) were phagocytized by foreign body giant cells. Dust-laden macrophages (dust cells) entered into the lumen of bronchial lymphatic or pulmonary blood vessels. Numerous dust cells were transported from the lung to the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes where some dust cells penetrated into the blood or lymphatic circulation. Massive direct cell migration of the mediastinal adipose tissue from the lymph nodes occurred occasionally. Dust-laden giant cells were found only occasionally in the liver, and there was widespread migration of the fibers into other vital organs and tissues without any significant responses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:7212016

  2. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Szanto, A. J.; Terzaghi, M.; Mirkin, L. D.; Martin, D.; Shiba, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6821529

  3. Macrophage fusion factor elicited from BGG-sensitized lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, A. H.; Hadden, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocytes obtained from rabbit lymph nodes sensitized to bovine gamma globulin produce in vitro the lymphokine macrophage fusion factor (MFF) which mediates the fusion of approximately 100% of normal alveolar and oil-induced peritoneal macrophages. Giant cells (GC) of Langhans and foreign body type form large syncytia containing as many as several hundred nuclei per cell. Nuclei of GC appear more spherical and larger than those of the normal mononucleated macrophages, and they possess several prominent nucleoli. Giant cells of peritoneal macrophage origin show enhanced intracytoplasmic vacuolization. Normal macrophages cultured as a monolayer in MFF-rich supernatants form cell clusters which progressively fuse during the 24-hour incubation period. A signoid dose-response curve was obtained for cell fusion with MFF-rich supernatants possessing high titers, ie, the latter supernatants undiluted partially inhibited macrophage fusion. MIF-like activity was detected in MFF-rich supernatants as well as a factor(s) which inhibited 3H-thymidine uptake by giant cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:362945

  4. Antigenic heterogeneity of vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Page, C.; Rose, M.; Yacoub, M.; Pigott, R.

    1992-01-01

    The antigenic status of vascular endothelium from different sites of the normal adult and fetal human cardiovascular system was investigated. Tissues included aorta (n = 9), pulmonary artery (n = 8), coronary artery (n = 6), ventricle/atrium (n = greater than 10), lymph node (n = 2), fetal whole heart (n = 3), and umbilical cord (n = 7). Frozen sections were studied using monoclonal antibodies recognizing endothelial markers (EN4, vWf, Pal-E, and 44G4), vascular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, ELAM, VCAM, and PECAM), the monocyte/endothelial marker (OKM5), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (class I and class II). Results demonstrate that capillary endothelium is phenotypically different from endothelial cells (EC) lining large vessels. Capillary EC strongly express MHC classes I and II, ICAM, and OKM5, which are variably weak to undetectable on large vessels. In contrast, the large vessels strongly express vWf and appear to constitutively express ELAM-1. This suggests that the capillary EC may be more efficient at antigen presentation or more susceptible to immune attack in vivo. Interestingly, normal coronary arteries, unlike all other large vessels, express MHC class II and VCAM molecules. Future studies should concentrate on comparative functional studies between capillary, coronary, and large vessel EC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1519671

  5. Accelerated degradation of 160 kDa epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor precursor by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A in the endoplasmic reticulum of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Mizuno, S; Uehara, Y

    1994-01-01

    The effect of herbimycin A on the biosynthesis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was examined in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cells were pulse-labelled with [35S]methionine, and EGF receptor biosynthesis was quantified by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal anti-(EGF receptor) antibody. In the presence of herbimycin A, an immature 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor accumulated in 1 h and disappeared completely in 4 h. Pulse-labelled 160 kDa receptor precursor in the absence of herbimycin A, however, was converted normally into a 170 kDa one by chase with herbimycin A. Herbimycin A affected neither the synthesis of the secreted form of EGF receptor devoid of cytoplasmic domain, nor that of the transferrin receptor in A431 cells. The herbimycin A-induced degradation of 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor was not inhibited by an inhibitor of lysosomal enzymes, NH4Cl. Endoglycosidase H digestion of the 160 kDa precursor converted it into the deglycosylated 130 kDa precursor peptide. These results suggested that herbimycin A selectively acted on the EGF receptor precursor during the synthesis of the 160 kDa form, probably on the cytoplasmic domain, to form an aberrant molecule which was subjected to rapid degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8037692

  6. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  7. Myocarditis induced by targeted expression of the MCP-1 gene in murine cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kolattukudy, P. E.; Quach, T.; Bergese, S.; Breckenridge, S.; Hensley, J.; Altschuld, R.; Gordillo, G.; Klenotic, S.; Orosz, C.; Parker-Thornburg, J.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the possible role of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) in inflammatory diseases of the heart, we expressed the murine MCP-1(JE) gene under the control of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain promoter to attempt to target MCP-1 expression to the adult heart muscle. The five lines of transgenic mice thus produced showed targeted expression of MCP-1 transcripts and protein in the adult heart muscle and pulmonary vein but not in skeletal muscle. MCP-1 level in the transgenic hearts increased up to 30 to 45 days of age, and leukocyte infiltration into interstitium between cardiomyocytes increased up to 60 to 75 days. The infiltrate was mainly macrophages but not T cells. The presence of MCP-1 in the transgenic hearts did not induce cytokine production indicative of leukocyte activation. Echocardiographic analysis of 1-year-old mice that express MCP-1 in the myocardium and of age-matched controls revealed cardiac hypertrophy and dilation, increases in left ventricular (LV) mass, and systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameters. A significant decline in M-mode shortening fraction showed depressed contractile function. Transgenic hearts were 65% heavier, and histological analysis showed moderate myocarditis, edema, and some fibrosis. Thus, MCP-1 expression in the heart muscle may provide a model to investigate myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9422528

  8. Three-dimensional models of non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, M J; Wo, Z G; Oswald, R E

    1996-01-01

    Structural models have been produced for three types of non-NMDA inotropic glutamate receptors: an AMPA receptor, GluR1, a kainate receptor, GluR6; and a low-molecular-weight kainate receptor from goldfish, GFKAR alpha. Modeling was restricted to the domains of the proteins that bind the neurotransmitter glutamate and that form the ion channel. Model building combined homology modeling, distance geometry, molecular mechanics, interactive modeling, and known constraints. The models indicate new potential interactions in the extracellular domain between protein and agonists, and suggest that the transition from the "closed" to the "open" state involves the movement of a conserved positive residue away from, and two conserved negative residues into, the extracellular entrance to the pore upon binding. As a first approximation, the ion channel domain was modeled with a structure comprising a central antiparallel beta-barrel that partially crosses the membrane, and against which alpha-helices from each subunit are packed; a third alpha-helix packs against these two helices in each subunit. Much, but not all, of the available data were consistent with this structure. Modifying the beta-barrel to a loop-like topology produced a model consistent with available data. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8785317

  9. Presence of CD3+CD8+Bcl-2(low) lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis and activated macrophages in lymph nodes of HIV-1+ patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bofill, M.; Gombert, W.; Borthwick, N. J.; Akbar, A. N.; McLaughlin, J. E.; Lee, C. A.; Johnson, M. A.; Pinching, A. J.; Janossy, G.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 causes profound changes in the lymph nodes of infected patients. In particular, large numbers of CD8+CD45RO+ T cells infiltrate both the paracortex and the germinal centers. These cells contained the cytotoxic granule-associated protein TIA-1 but showed no detectable levels of perforin and shared the same characteristics of the expanded, activated, short-lived CD8+ population found during acute viral infections. These cells expressed low levels of Bcl-2 and are likely to be short-lived in vivo as evidenced by the direct observation of CD8+ apoptotic cells in the paracortical areas of the infected nodes. Changes in the paracortical nonlymphoid populations were also seen. There were reactive changes in the blood vessels, and the macrophage population was expanded and activated. Furthermore, apoptotic bodies were seen in the cytoplasm of the activated CD68+RFD-7+RFD-1+ macrophages pointing to the phagocytic capacity of these cells and their role in the clearance of the apoptotic cells from the tissues. These observations suggest that the persistance of CD8+ population in human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection is not a result of the presence of an abnormal CD8+ population but rather a result of an inappropriate over-stimulation of the CD8+ cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7778692

  10. Chronic Lyme borreliosis in the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, S. W.; de Souza, M. S.; Janotka, J. L.; Smith, A. L.; Persing, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    C3H/HeJ mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(7) uncloned Borrelia burgdorferi at 4 weeks of age and examined on days 30, 90, 180, and 360. Spirochetes were isolated from multiple tissues at all intervals. Joint and heart disease were present in all mice at 30 days and resolved after 90 days. At 180 and 360 days, some mice had mild recurrent joint and heart disease, and most had peripheral segmental periarteritis. The protein electrophoretic migration of 360-day isolates differed from the original inoculum. The experiment was repeated with C3H/HeN and BALB/cByJ mice inoculated intradermally with 10(4) cloned B. burgdorferi. Characterization of infection and disease at 180 and 360 days were similar to those of the first experiment, but spirochetal proteins of isolates from both intervals displayed no protein variation in electrophoretic mobilities. Spirochetes isolated at 360 days were fully pathogenic in naive mice. Sera from infected mice showed an initial immunoglobulin M response, followed by a sustained immunoglobulin G response, involving IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3, with expanding reactivity against multiple antigens over time. These results indicate that immunocompetent mice sustain persistent infections and develop early acute joint and heart lesions that resolve and then recur intermittently. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8362988

  11. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in relation to hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kameya, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Adachi, I.; Abe, K.; Kasai, N.; Kimura, K.; Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were analyzed immunohistochemically for calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells, and tumor cells in 8 cases were examined by an electron microscope and analyzed by manual and computer procedures with particular attention paid to the size and quality of secretory granules. Calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells were found singly or in clusters in 14 and 11 tumors, respectively. In 4 cases, calcitonin-positive cell clusters and an increase in number of singly scattered C cells were seen apart from the main tumor, suggesting a multicentric nature of certain medullary carcinomas. Some ACTH-containing cells were apparently also positive for calcitonin. In a case of familial Sipple disease, follicular lining cells were replaced in areas with ACTH-containing cells. Three to five frequency distribution curves of the size of secretory granules were obtained in all of 6 cases analyzed, and at least two different types of granule matrix were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 PMID:202164

  12. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  13. Rabbit models of arthritis: immunolocalization of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in synovium and cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Hembry, R. M.; Bagga, M. R.; Murphy, G.; Henderson, B.; Reynolds, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of the matrix metalloproteinases, collagenase, stromelysin, gelatinases A and B, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases in cartilage and synovium removed from rabbits up to 27 days after induction of two models of arthritis was investigated by immunolocalization. Following intra-articular injection of poly-D-lysine/hyaluronic acid coacervate, collagenase and stromelysin were found bound to cartilage matrix, but there was little increase in chondrocyte synthesis of these enzymes. The synovium underwent a complex wound healing response involving invagination and encapsulation of the coacervate and inflammatory cell debris, during which all four metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase could be immunolocalized. The second model, intra-articular injection of ovalbumin into sensitized rabbits, caused considerable chondrocyte necrosis; collagenase was found bound to cartilage matrix on day 13, although again there was little evidence of synthesis by chondrocytes. Inflammatory cell infiltration of meniscoid synovia took place initially, followed by fibrosis involving macrophagelike cells secreting gelatinase A. In both models there was rapid loss of glycosaminoglycan metachromasia from the cartilage matrix. These results are discussed in relation to current knowledge of metalloproteinase involvement in the chronic rheumatoid synovial pannus erosion of cartilage in humans. The data suggest that there are considerable differences between rheumatoid arthritis and these models, and their use must therefore be carefully defined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8342606

  14. Mapping the distribution of neuroepithelial bodies of the rat lung. A whole-mount immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed Central

    Avadhanam, K. P.; Plopper, C. G.; Pinkerton, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    We report an immunohistochemical method for mapping the distribution of neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in whole-mount preparations of the intrapulmonary airways. The lungs of 8- and 50-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with ethanol-acetic acid by intratracheal instillation. The major axial airway path of the infracardiac lobe was exposed and isolated by microdissection. NEBs were identified by calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity and their distribution mapped by generation and branch-point number. A distinct pattern was noted with greater prevalence of NEBs in proximal airway generations compared with more distal airways. No significant difference was noted in the distribution pattern or absolute number of NEBs between neonates and adults when compared by airway generation. NEBs were found more frequently on the ridges of the bifurcation than in other regions of the bifurcating airway wall. The ease of identification of total numbers of NEBs and their specific location by airway generation in whole-mount preparations of the bronchial tree completely removes the necessity of examining multiple sections and performing extensive morphometric procedures. Whole-mount airway preparations allow for the analysis and comparison of larger sample sizes per experimental group without labor-intensive approaches. The application of this method should enhance our knowledge of the role of NEBs in lung development and in response to disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060823

  15. Brain tumors in man and animals: report of a workshop.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop on brain tumors in man and animals. Animals, especially rodents are often used as surrogates for man to detect chemicals that have the potential to induce brain tumors in man. Therefore, the workshop was focused mainly on brain tumors in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse because of the frequent use of these strains in long-term carcinogenesis studies. Over 100 brain tumors in F344 rats and more than 50 brain tumors in B6C3F1 mice were reviewed and compared to tumors found in man and domestic or companion animals. In the F344 rat, spontaneous brain tumors are uncommon, most are of glial origin, and the highly undifferentiated glioblastoma multiforme, a frequent tumor of man was not found. In the B6C3F1 mouse, brain tumors are exceedingly rare. Lipomas of the choroid plexus and meningiomas together account for more than 50% of the tumors found. Both rodent strains examined have low background rates and very little variability between control groups. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:3536473

  16. Risk reversals in predictive testing for Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, E; Adam, S; Bloch, M; Fuller, A; Welch, P; Eisenberg, D; Whelan, D; Macgregor, D; Meschino, W; Hayden, M R

    1997-01-01

    The first predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD) was based on analysis of linked polymorphic DNA markers to estimate the likelihood of inheriting the mutation for HD. Limits to accuracy included recombination between the DNA markers and the mutation, pedigree structure, and whether DNA samples were available from family members. With direct tests for the HD mutation, we have assessed the accuracy of results obtained by linkage approaches when requested to do so by the test individuals. For six such individuals, there was significant disparity between the tests. Three went from a decreased risk to an increased risk, while in another three the risk was decreased. Knowledge of the potential reasons for these changes in results and impact of these risk reversals on both patients and the counseling team can assist in the development of strategies for the prevention and, where necessary, management of a risk reversal in any predictive testing program. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9382108

  17. Structural characterization of the mesangial cell type IV collagenase and enhanced expression in a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565

  18. A murine model of experimental autoimmune lens-induced uveitis using Klebsiella O3 lipopolysaccharide as a potent immunological adjuvant.

    PubMed Central

    Yokochi, T.; Fujii, Y.; Nakashima, I.; Asai, J.; Kiuchi, M.; Kojima, K.; Kato, N.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune uveitis and finally panophthalmitis could be produced in mice by repeated immunization of syngeneic eyeball extract mixed with Klebsiella O3 lipopolysaccharide (KO3 LPS) as a powerful immunological adjuvant. No ocular lesions were produced in mice given eyeball extract emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), KO3 LPS alone or eyeball extract alone. Histopathological changes in the ocular lesions at the early stage after the second or tertiary immunization were characterized by infiltration with inflammatory cells in the ciliary body and iris. The iridocyclitis was followed by extensive infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) into the cornea, lens and the surrounding tissues after repeated immunization. Finally, these areas were replaced by granulomatous tissues infiltrated with mononuclear cells. On the other hand, the structure of the retina and sclera was partially preserved. Those mice exhibited production of autoantibodies and development of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to syngeneic eyeball extract. Moreover, ocular lesions could be produced in normal recipient mice by transfer of sensitized lymphocytes from hyperimmunized mice. Therefore, it was suggested that the ocular lesions produced by repeated immunization with the mixture of eyeball extract and KO3 LPS were due to the autoimmune mechanism. This might be useful to model immunological phenomena in the pathogenesis of human phacoantigenic uveitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8292555

  19. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  20. Statistical mechanics of simple models of protein folding and design.

    PubMed Central

    Pande, V S; Grosberg, A Y; Tanaka, T

    1997-01-01

    It is now believed that the primary equilibrium aspects of simple models of protein folding are understood theoretically. However, current theories often resort to rather heavy mathematics to overcome some technical difficulties inherent in the problem or start from a phenomenological model. To this end, we take a new approach in this pedagogical review of the statistical mechanics of protein folding. The benefit of our approach is a drastic mathematical simplification of the theory, without resort to any new approximations or phenomenological prescriptions. Indeed, the results we obtain agree precisely with previous calculations. Because of this simplification, we are able to present here a thorough and self contained treatment of the problem. Topics discussed include the statistical mechanics of the random energy model (REM), tests of the validity of REM as a model for heteropolymer freezing, freezing transition of random sequences, phase diagram of designed ("minimally frustrated") sequences, and the degree to which errors in the interactions employed in simulations of either folding and design can still lead to correct folding behavior. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 PMID:9414231

  1. Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury.

    PubMed Central

    Smuckler, E A

    1976-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 11. PMID:1001290

  2. Structure of Lipid Tubules Formed from a Polymerizable Lecithin

    PubMed Central

    Yager, Paul; Schoen, Paul E.; Davies, Carol; Price, Ronald; Singh, Alok

    1985-01-01

    We have studied tubules formed from a polymerizable lipid in aqueous dispersion using freeze-fracture replication and transmission electron microscopy. The polymerizable diacetylenic lecithin 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine converts from liposomes to hollow cylinders, which we call tubules, on cooling through its chain melting phase transition temperature. These tubules differ substantially from cochleate cylinders formed by phosphatidylserines on binding of calcium. The tubules have diameters that range from 0.3 to 1 μm and lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers depending on conditions of formation. The thickness of the walls varies from as few as two bilayers to tens of bilayers in some longer tubules. Their surfaces may be either smooth, gently rippled, or with spiral steps depending on sample preparation conditions, including whether the lipids have been polymerized. The spiral steps may reflect the growth of the tubules by rolling up of flattened liposomes. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9 PMID:19431600

  3. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  4. Regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and integrin cell substratum adhesion receptors on epithelium during cutaneous human wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, I.; Murphy, G. F.; Yan, H. C.; Herlyn, M.; Albelda, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although changes in extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing have been well documented, little is known about the regulation of corresponding extracellular matrix adhesion receptors (integrins). To study this process in a human in vivo model, full thickness human skin grafts were transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficient mice and deep excisional wounds involving both the epidermal and dermal layers were then made. The changes in the expression of cell matrix proteins and epithelial integrins over time were analyzed with specific antibodies using immunohistochemistry. Wounding was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix proteins, namely, loss of laminin and type IV collagen in the region of the wound and expression of tenascin and fibronectin. Changes were also noted in the integrins on the migrating keratinocytes. There was marked up-regulation of the alpha v subunit and de novo expression of the fibronectin receptor (alpha 5 beta 1) during the stage of active migration (days 1 to 3 after wounding). In the later stages of wound healing, after epithelial integrity had been established, redistribution of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 4 collagen/laminin-binding integrin subunits to suprabasal epidermal layers was noted. Thus, during cutaneous wound healing, keratinocytes up-regulate fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding integrins and redistribute collagen/laminin-binding integrins. This study demonstrates that the human skin/severe combined immunodeficient chimera provides a useful model to study events during human wound repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694470

  5. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  6. Physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of polymeric materials.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, I N

    1975-01-01

    Normally one expects that flame contact is the major cause of injury and death during fires. Analysis of the factors involved in numerous fires has revealed that most deaths were not due to flame contact, but were a consequence of the production of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other combustion products, such as aldehydes, low molecular weight alcohols, hydrogen cyanide, and other noxious species. The major emphasis within the scope of this paper relates to the physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of materials. Special emphasis is directed toward laboratory procedures which have been developed to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of smoke, factors pertaining to smoke development, and to measure the response of laboratory animals exposed to smoke. The effects that fire retardants, incorporated into polymeric materials as a means of improving flammability characteristics, may have on smoke development, the mechanism of polymer degradation, and on the survival response of laboratory animals are also considered. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:170077

  7. Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Z

    1984-01-01

    Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

  8. The influence of prostaglandin G2 on platelet ultrastructure and platelet secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, J. M.; Townsend, D.; Stoddard, S.; Witkop, C. J.; White, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) is a labile endoperoxide produced physiologically following exposure of platelets to aggregating agents. We report here studies using isolated PGG2. This agent stimulates a concentration-dependent internal platelet contraction very similar to that produced by the calcium ionophore A23187. EDTA prevented platelet aggregation but did not prevent PGG2-stimulated internal contraction or secretion. In contrast, prostaglandin E1 and dibutyryl cyclic AMP inhich selectively labilizes platelet granules, was added to platelets together with PGG2 there was a superadditive effect on platelet secretion. Thus, granule labilization induced by PMA is a separable phenomenon and complementary to the effect of PGG2 on contraction. The ultimate degree of secretion is dependent on both processes. Studies using additional inhibitors supported the hypothesis that PGG2 activates platelets (either directly or following conversion to thromboxane A2) by transporting calcium from an intracellular store to the cytoplasmic site of the platelet contractile proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:188341

  9. Inhaled particles in human disease and animal models: use of electron beam instrumentation.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, A R

    1984-01-01

    The mineral pneumoconioses (lung disease caused by inhalation of inorganic dust) have been an important disease entity for centuries. In the last several decades, the electron microscope has been used to elucidate the distribution and identification of inhaled minerals, to aid in establishing etiologic factors, and less commonly, to determine the basic biologic mechanisms through which inhaled minerals cause lung disease. In this section, I review the instrumentation and tissue preparation currently used to address some modern problems in particle-induced lung disease. For example, human pneumoconioses of undetermined etiology can be clarified by electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometry. In addition, the initial deposition patterns of asbestos and silica are demonstrated in animal models, and the contributions of electron microscopy in establishing the initial lesions of asbestosis are described. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:6090114

  10. Interstitial accumulation of inhaled chrysotile asbestos fibers and consequent formation of microcalcifications.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, A. R.; Hill, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that inhaled chrysotile asbestos impacts initially at the bifurcations of alveolar ducts in the lungs of rats. Asbestos fibers are transported through alveolar epithelial cells at these bifurcation regions to the interstitium during the 24-hour period after a 1-hour exposure. To further these studies, white rats were exposed to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos for 1 hour. Animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion immediately after and 1 month after exposure. Blocks of tissue were prepared for light and electron microscopy. We report here, at 1 month after exposure, that numerous asbestos fibers had accumulated within the lung interstitium at alveolar duct bifurcations. Many of these interstitial fibers were found in te center of intracellular microcalcifications. The presence of calcifications was proven by X-ray energy spectrometric analysis of the inclusions in situ. Clear X-ray peaks for calcium and phosphorus were demonstrated. The authors propose that 1 month after a 1-hour exposure to chrysotile asbestos, fiber-induced membrane injury in cells of the lung interstitium leads to formation of microcalcifications. This may represent the presence of early cell injury in the initial pathogenetic sequence of asbestosis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7124904

  11. An ultrastructural and morphometric study of the liver of normal and copper-poisoned sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, S. R.; Howell, J. M.; Cook, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    In sheep given copper (Cu) at the level of 10 ml of a 0.2% solution of CuSO4.5H2O/kg body weight, the volume density of nuclei and cytoplasm of hepatocytes increased and the volume density of the sinusoids and the space of Disse decreased. These changes were interpreted as an indication of cellular swelling. There was a significant increase in volume density, number, and absolute volume of lysosomes when Cu was given. The greatest increase in number occurred during the pre-hemolytic period (mean = 48 days), and the highest increase in volume occurred thereafter. Thus, the most extensive proliferation of lysosomes occurred in livers of the pre-hemolytic sheep, and the hemolytic sheep had the largest and heaviest lysosomes. The liver necrosis in sheep undergoing hemolysis was possible caused by hydrolytic enzymes released by the rupture of the enclosing lysosomal membranes. The significant increase in volume density of mitochondria observed in livers of sheep given Cu was due to an increase in volume (swelling) rather than an increase in number. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7377289

  12. DNA fragmentation in mouse organs during endotoxic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bohlinger, I.; Leist, M.; Gantner, F.; Angermüller, S.; Tiegs, G.; Wendel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome has still an unpredictable outcome, and patients often die of multiple organ failure despite circulatory stabilization therapy. The still incompletely understood pathophysiological mechanisms include organ damage due to direct toxic actions of cytokines elicited by overactivation of the host response. To study this process of organ failure in experimental septic shock, we injected mice with a lethal dose of endotoxin and examined apoptotic and necrotic tissue damage biochemically, histologically, and ultrastructurally. Endotoxin administration caused oligonucleosomal as well as random DNA fragmentation in liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. In the liver, DNA fragmentation was not restricted to hepatocytes but also occurred in nonparenchymal cells. The DNA fragmentation was mediated by tumor necrosis factor and attenuated by endogenous nitric oxide release. Unlike the situation in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice, in which injection or release of tumor necrosis factor causes massive hepatocyte apoptosis, liver failure due to high doses of endotoxin was characterized by single-cell necrosis, a low incidence of apoptosis, and simultaneous damage to nonparenchymal cells. We conclude that, even though endotoxin causes cytokine-mediated DNA fragmentation in several organs including the liver, hepatocyte apoptosis itself seems to be a minor phenomenon in high-dose endotoxic shock in mice. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8863685

  13. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  14. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  15. Influence of dopamine as noradrenaline precursor on the secretory function of the bovine corpus luteum in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kotwica, J.; Skarzynski, D.; Bogacki, M.; Miszkiel, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Dopamine is assumed to affect the ovary function after its conversion into noradrenaline (NA). 2. To study this bovine luteal slices from 11-14 days of the oestrous cycle were preincubated for 24 h to recover beta-receptors and next they were incubated for 1, 2 or 4 h with (a) different doses of dopamine; (b) dopamine together with a beta-antagonist (propranolol) or with a dopamine receptor blocker (droperidol); (c) dopamine with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor. 3. Dopamine stimulated the luteal content of oxytocin (OT) and progesterone. This effect was inhibited by propanolol but not by droperidol. 4. Dopamine added to the medium was followed by an increase of noradrenaline there. This rise was dose and time-dependent. 5. The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, inhibited the stimulating effect of dopamine on luteal progesterone and OT content. 6. Bovine corpus luteum can synthesize de novo NA from dopamine as a precursor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8842430

  16. Fibroblast-dependent induction of a murine skin lesion with similarity to human common blue nevus.

    PubMed Central

    Prouty, S. M.; Lawrence, L.; Stenn, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to define epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in skin appendage formation, we have been studying a nude mouse grafting model that permits the combination of heterotypic and heterochronic epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this study using neonatal hair bud cells combined with various mesenchymal cell preparations, we show that one can regenerate near-complete skin with intact epidermal and dermal layers plus mature hair follicles. It was determined that the character of the resulting regenerated skin could be manipulated as a function of the specific mesenchymal component. Lack of dermal cells resulted in a scar, whereas inclusion of a suspension of dissociated total dermal cells resulted in near-complete skin regeneration, and in the presence of follicular papilla fibroblasts (both hair-inductive and non-hair-inductive) or NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the reconstitution had similarity to the common blue nevus. The results indicate that 1) a stimulant of human common blue nevus can be produced in an animal model, 2) the underlying disorder of the lesion in mice appears to be entirely dermal in origin, arising independent of the epidermal component, and 3) complex dermal cell interactions involving lesion-initiative and lesion-suppressive activities underlie the pathogenesis. This experimental system will serve as a valuable tool in elucidating cutaneous dermal-epidermal signals in normal skin as well as the alteration of these signals in malformations such as the hamartoma described here. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8669473

  17. A Combined Intradural Presigmoid-Transtransversarium-Transcondylar Approach to the Whole Clivus and Anterior Craniospinal Region

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Mario; Ma, Jianya; Canalis, Rinaldo; Martin, Neil; Black, Keith; Cheatham, Mel; Bloch, Joseph; Becker, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Surgical exposure of the clivus is difficult because of its proximity to vital neurovascular structures. The anatomic bases of a new surgical approach to this area are discussed. A supra-auricular skin incision is extended toward the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The vertebral artery is exposed from C2 to the occiput unroofing the foramen transversarium of C1. The bone removal consists of a posterior temporal craniotomy, a suboccipital craniectomy, including mastoidectomy with sigmoid sinus unroofing, removal of the lateral margin of the foramen magnum, of the medial third of the occipital condyle, and retrolabyrinthine petrous drilling. Posterior retraction of the vertebral artery facilitates occipital condyle drilling. Intradural exposure of the petroclival region is achieved by L-shaped cutting of the dura with the long branch placed infratentorially anterior to the sigmoid sinus. Intradural exposure of the craniospinal/upper cervical areas is achieved by cutting of the dura medial to the distal sigmoid sinus and by longitudinal cutting of the dura anterior to the vertebral artery. This approach allows multiple ports of entry to the clivus with full control of the vertebrobasilar system, and of the dural sinuses, and is anatomically suited for controlled removal of tumors located in these areas. This approach, or segments of it, has been used successfully in the treatment of large neoplasms of the craniovertebral junction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17170911

  18. Leukocytes in chemotactic-fragment-induced lung inflammation. Vascular emigration and alveolar surface migration.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J. O.

    1980-01-01

    Lung inflammation was induced in rabbits by intratracheal injections of chemotactic fragments obtained from zymosan-activated serum (CF-ZAS), and the route of vascular emigration and alveolar surface interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes migrating into the lung was characterized by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron-microscopic examination. Leukocytes migrated from capillaries and venules into the alveolar wall interstitium by adherence to the vascular endothelium and migration through the endothelial intracellular junction to attain a position between a reapposed endothelial cell junction and the vascular basement membrane. The cells then migrated into the interstitium through a narrow opening in the basement membrane. Leukocyte entrance into the alveolar space from the interstitium appeared to occur through small openings in the epithelial basement membrane at or near the Type I epithelial intercellular junction. Once in the alveolus, PMNs and macrophages demonstrated surface adherence and spreading along with evidence of migration, pseudopod extension, interalveolar pore transit, and retraction fiber formation. This study indicates the leukocyte influx into the alveolus in acute chemotactic-factor-induced inflammation is via a continuum of migrational activity, beginning at the pulmonary capillary endothelial surface and persisting on the alveolar epithelial surface. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 9 PMID:7435538

  19. Ultrastructural lesions of the liver in human peliosis. A report of 12 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Zafrani, E. S.; Cazier, A.; Baudelot, A. M.; Feldmann, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrastructural lesions of the liver were studied in 12 patients with peliosis hepatis. This vascular lesion consisted of cavities filled with red blood cells and sometimes lined with an endothelial barrier; the cavities were due to cystic dilatation of the space of Disse and/or sinusoidal lumen. The passage of red blood cells through the endothelial barrier was occasionally demonstrated. Other striking alterations included the presence of numerous blebs on the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes and the existence of multiple cellular layers lining the sinusoids. Perisinusoidal fibrosis appeared on follow-up biopsies in 3 patients. There was no major abnormality of the hepatocytes or of the hepatic venules. These findings suggest that alterations of the sinusoidal barrier might constitute the primary event in peliosis, although secondary changes to increased pressure and hypoxia within the lobules cannot be excluded. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6696047

  20. A comparison between monoclonal antibody MT2 and immunoglobulin staining in the differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoid proliferations in routinely fixed wax-embedded biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, A. J.; Rivas, C.; Isaacson, P. G.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody MT2 and anti-immunoglobulins were tested for their ability to discriminate between reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular lymphoma (centroblastic/centrocytic; CB/CC) informalin-fixed and wax-embedded biopsies. The streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method was used. In 46 of 49 cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia the follicle center cells were unstained by MT2 whereas the mantle zone B cells and interfollicular T cells were positive. In three reactive cases up to 30% of follicle center cells also were stained. In contrast, more than 50% of neoplastic follicle center cells were stained by MT2 in 27 of 62 cases of CB/CC, and light chain restriction was shown in 52 of 62 cases. MT2 staining and/or light chain restriction was seen in 57 of 62 cases. In 106 further cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, MT2 was positive in 59 of 77 B cell lymphomas and 3 of 29 T cell lymphomas. Although not a B cell specific reagent, MT2 is useful in the differential diagnosis of reactive vs. neoplastic follicular lymphoid proliferations but is less sensitive than immunoglobulin stains. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2464283

  1. Histogenesis of glomerular crescents. Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytokeratin in crescent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Magil, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that crescents are primarily of monocytic origin and that epithelial cells are a minor factor in their composition. Frozen sections of renal biopsies from 11 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and 5 controls (2 acute interstitial nephritis, 1 focal glomerulosclerosis, 1 benign recurrent hematuria, 1 normal kidney) were stained for intracellular cytokeratin (CK) with a mouse monoclonal anti-CK antiserum (PKK1) and nonspecific esterase (NSE) activity. Indirect immunofluorescence with PKK1 antiserum showed that in all biopsies there was positive staining of collecting duct and proximal and distal tubular epithelium but no reactions in blood vessels or interstitium. In control case glomeruli there was no staining of the tuft, including the visceral epithelium. In all cases some parietal epithelium was CK-positive. In 4 CGN biopsies the majority of the crescents showed cytoplasmic staining for CK in more than 50% of the crescent cells. In 2 cases most crescents contained between 10-50% CK-positive cells, whereas in 5 biopsies little or no CK was present in the majority of crescents. In all but one CGN case the majority of crescents contained fewer than 30% NSE-positive cells (monocytes). Electron microscopy demonstrated intermediate filaments in many crescent cells and scattered desmosomes within crescents. The results indicate that epithelial cells, probably of parietal epithelial origin, contribute significantly to crescent formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2411141

  2. Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibers studied by a plunge quick freezing method: myofilament lengths.

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, H; Popp, D; Ouyang, G; Huxley, H E

    1994-01-01

    We have set up a system to rapidly freeze muscle fibers during contraction to investigate by electron microscopy the ultrastructure of active muscles. Glycerinated fiber bundles of rabbit psoas muscles were frozen in conditions of rigor, relaxation, isometric contraction, and active shortening. Freezing was carried out by plunging the bundles into liquid ethane. The frozen bundles were then freeze-substituted, plastic-embedded, and sectioned for electron microscopic observation. X-ray diffraction patterns of the embedded bundles and optical diffraction patterns of the micrographs resemble the x-ray diffraction patterns of unfixed muscles, showing the ability of the method to preserve the muscle ultrastructure. In the optical diffraction patterns layer lines up to 1/5.9 nm-1 were observed. Using this method we have investigated the myofilament lengths and concluded that there are no major changes in length in either the actin or the myosin filaments under any of the conditions explored. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 PMID:7918996

  3. Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (GIPACT): gastrointestinal stromal tumors show phenotypic characteristics of the interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed Central

    Kindblom, L. G.; Remotti, H. E.; Aldenborg, F.; Meis-Kindblom, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) form a complex cell network within the gastrointestinal tract wall where they function as a pacemaker system. Expression of the kit proto-oncogene is essential for the development of this system. The aim of our study was to examine the hypothesis that gastrointestinal stromal tumors differentiate toward cells with an ICC phenotype. Ultrastructurally, 58 stromal tumors were characterized and found to share many features with ICC. Seventy-eight stromal tumors were immunophenotyped, particularly with regard to the kit receptor. All 78 tumors revealed strong, homogeneous immunoreactivity for the kit receptor as did ICC of adjacent and control gastrointestinal walls. Focal hyperplasia and hypertrophy of kit receptor positive cells were also observed in the gastrointestinal wall adjacent to the tumors. CD34 immunoreactivity observed in interstitial cells surrounding Auerbach's ganglia suggests that a subpopulation of ICC is CD34 positive and may explain why 56 of 78 stromal tumors were CD34 positive. Thirty control tumors, including gastrointestinal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, were all negative for the kit receptor. We conclude that gastrointestinal stromal tumors show striking morphological and immunophenotypic similarities with ICC and that they may originate from stem cells that differentiate toward a pacemaker cell phenotype. We propose that the noncommittal name "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" be replaced by gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9588894

  4. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  5. Differential expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in a murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Swiderski, R. E.; Dencoff, J. E.; Floerchinger, C. S.; Shapiro, S. D.; Hunninghake, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin leads to pulmonary fibrosis in humans and has been widely used in animal models of the disease. Using C57BL/6 bleomycin-sensitive mice, pulmonary fibrosis was induced by multiple intraperitoneal injections of the drug. An increase in the relative amounts of steady-state alpha1(I) procollagen, alpha1(III) procollagen, and fibronectin mRNA as well as histopathological evidence of fibrosis was observed. The effect of bleomycin on the expression of the enzymes responsible for extracellular matrix degradation, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their inhibitors (TIMPs), was selective and showed temporal differences during the development of fibrosis. Of the MMPs tested, bleomycin treatment resulted in the up-regulation of gelatinase A and macrophage metalloelastase gene expression in whole-lung homogenates, whereas gelatinase B, stromelysin-1, and interstitial collagenase gene expression was not significantly changed. Timp2 and Timp3, the murine homologues of the respective TIMP genes, were constitutively expressed, whereas Timp1 was markedly up-regulated during fibrosis. The strong correlation between enhanced extracellular matrix gene expression, differential MMP and TIMP gene expression, and histopathological evidence of fibrosis suggest that dysregulated matrix remodeling is likely to contribute to the pathology of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9502424

  6. Morphological study of bacterial pneumonia of feedlot cattle: Determination of age of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    1989-01-01

    Lungs from 48 feedlot cattle that had died from bacterial pneumonia were examined grossly and microscopically. Criteria based on microscopic lesions were adopted to age these pneumonias. In 38 cases, pneumonic lesions were of relatively uniform age throughout the affected tissue. In eight other cases, the presence of older lesions confined to one or two lobes suggested a previous episode of pneumonia. The aging criteria adopted were in agreement with the duration of the observed clinical signs in 26 cases. In 13 other cases, the pneumonia was estimated to be of longer duration than suggested by the history, whereas in the remaining nine cases, it was estimated to be more recent. Areas of tan discoloration of the parenchyma surrounded by white or yellow borders were considered the best areas to examine microscopically since they offered the best chances of revealing necrosis and fibrosis, the main lesions used to age the pneumonia. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423236

  7. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the kinetic chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed kinetic chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: Kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the kinetic link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed kinetic chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed kinetic chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent kinetic link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646

  8. Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, G; Clegg, R M; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    1991-01-01

    An optical microscope capable of measuring time resolved luminescence (phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence) images has been developed. The technique employs two phase-locked mechanical choppers and a slow-scan scientific CCD camera attached to a normal fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated by a periodic train of light pulses and the image is recorded within a defined time interval after the end of each excitation period. The time resolution discriminates completely against light scattering, reflection, autofluorescence, and extraneous prompt fluorescence, which ordinarily decrease contrast in normal fluorescence microscopy measurements. Time resolved image microscopy produces a high contrast image and particular structures can be emphasized by displaying a new parameter, the ratio of the phosphorescence to fluorescence. Objects differing in luminescence decay rates are easily resolved. The lifetime of the long lived luminescence can be measured at each pixel of the microscope image by analyzing a series of images that differ by a variable time delay. The distribution of luminescence decay rates is displayed directly as an image. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the instrument and the complementarity it offers to conventional fluorescence microscopy. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1723311

  9. The severe phenotype of females with tiny ring X chromosomes is associated with inability of these chromosomes to undergo X inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Migeon, B. R.; Luo, S.; Jani, M.; Jeppesen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Mental retardation and a constellation of congenital malformations not usually associated with Turner syndrome are seen in some females with a mosaic 45,X/46,X,r(X) karyotype. Studies of these females show that the XIST locus on their tiny ring X chromosomes is either not present or not expressed. As XIST transcription is well correlated with inactivation of the X chromosome in female somatic cells and spermatogonia, nonexpression of the locus even when it is present suggests that these chromosomes are transcriptionally active. We examined the transcriptional activity of ring X chromosomes lacking XIST expression (XISTE-), from three females with severe phenotypes. The two tiny ring X chromosomes studied with an antibody specific for the acetylated isoforms of histone H4 marking transcribed chromatin domains were labeled at a level consistent with their being active. We also examined tow of the XISTE- ring chromosomes to determine whether genes that are normally silent on an inactive X are expressed from these chromosomes. Analyses of hybrid cells show that TIMP, ZXDA, and ZXDB loci on the proximal short arm, and AR and PHKA1 loci on the long arm, are well expressed from the tiny ring X chromosome lacking XIST DNA. Studies of the ring chromosome that has XIST DNA but does not transcribe it show that its AR allele is transcribed along with the one on the normal X allele.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8079992

  10. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: novel mutations at the E1 alpha locus that impair E1(alpha 2 beta 2) assembly or decrease steady-state E1 alpha mRNA levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, J. L.; Fisher, C. R.; Cox, R. P.; Chuang, D. T.

    1994-01-01

    We report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1 alpha (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1 alpha gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1 alpha subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertion generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1 alpha mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1 alpha subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1 beta. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits are degraded in the cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8037208

  11. Pretargeted immunoscintigraphy in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, P.; Paganelli, G.; Songini, C.; Samuel, A.; Sudati, F.; Siccardi, A. G.; Fazio, F.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the use of pretargeted immunoscintigraphy (ISG) in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we studied 25 patients with histologically proven disease; ISG was repeated after surgery in two patients. The antibody, either an anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or an antichromogranin A (CgA) biotinylated monoclonal antibody (MAb) or a cocktail of the two biotinylated MAbs was first injected. After 24 h, avidin was administrated i.v., followed by 111In-labelled biotin 24 h later. Fifty-two lesions were visualised. Six primary tumours, diagnosed by increased calcitonin levels, were all correctly diagnosed; 47 recurrences, also suspected by blood tumour markers, were detected and confirmed by cytology or histology. In one case, single photon emission tomography allowed the detection of small lymph nodes with a diameter of 4-7 mm. These lesions, not judged neoplastic by ultrasound, were confirmed to be neoplastic by fine needle aspiration. Pretargeted ISG correctly localises primary tumours and recurrences in MTC patients, when the only marker of relapse is serum elevation of calcitonin. With this three-step pretargeting method, cocktails of potentially useful MAbs can be used, avoiding false-negative studies that may occur when CEA or CgA are not expressed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8795589

  12. Methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites near the polymorphic CAG repeat in the human androgen-receptor gene correlates with X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R C; Zoghbi, H Y; Moseley, A B; Rosenblatt, H M; Belmont, J W

    1992-01-01

    The human androgen-receptor gene (HUMARA; GenBank) contains a highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the first exon. We have found that the methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites less than 100 bp away from this polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) correlates with X inactivation. The close proximity of the restriction-enzyme sites to the STR allows the development of a PCR assay that distinguishes between the maternal and paternal alleles and identifies their methylation status. The accuracy of this assay was tested on (a) DNA from hamster/human hybrid cell lines containing either an active or inactive human X chromosome; (b) DNA from normal males and females; and (c) DNA from females showing nonrandom patterns of X inactivation. Data obtained using this assay correlated substantially with those obtained using the PGK, HPRT, and M27 beta probes, which detect X inactivation patterns by Southern blot analysis. In order to demonstrate one application of this assay, we examined X inactivation patterns in the B lymphocytes of potential and obligate carriers of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1281384

  13. Immunohistochemistry of a gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) of the breast. A marker of apocrine epithelium and breast carcinomas with apocrine features.

    PubMed Central

    Mazoujian, G.; Pinkus, G. S.; Davis, S.; Haagensen, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gross cystic disease fluid is a pathologic secretion from breast composed of several glycoproteins, including a unique 15,000-dalton monomer protein, GCDFP-15. By the immunoperoxidase technique, GCDFP-15 was localized in the apocrine metaplastic epithelium lining breast cysts and in apocrine glands in the axilla, vulva, eyelid, and ear canal. In normal breast tissue, a few individual epithelial cells within lobules and small ducts were focally positive for GCDFP-15. Fourteen of 30 breast carcinomas stained positively for GCDFP-15. Of 16 carcinomas with apocrine features, 12 stained positively. Benign and malignant lesions from other tissues, including lung, colon, ovary, endometrium, stomach, prostate, liver, esophagus, and kidney, revealed no immunoreactivity. The only cells of "non-apocrine" tissues that contained GCDFP-15 were serous cells of the submandibular salivary gland, submucosal glands of the bronchi, and accessory lacrimal glands. Phylogenetically, these tissues have biologic features in common with apocrine glands. This report is the first to characterize GCDFP-15 as a specific tissue marker of apocrine epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6130702

  14. Misrepresentations of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) is the subject of medical research, healthcare, ethics, race relations and fictitious media portrayals (e.g., movie, play). Unraveling misrepresentations about the TSUS is important because prevailing views continue to contribute to alleged mistrust of the medical system by the black community and compromised doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships. A comparative analysis of standard TSUS information was conducted and included evidenced-based alternative information in an effort to: (a) contextualize the TSUS with accurate medical, public health and historical information and (b) balance claims of racism, nontreatment and denial of treatment. An article in the Winter 2003 Radcliffe Quarterly misrepresented the images of two historical African-American health institutions, the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital and the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital. A critical analysis challenges these pictorial misrepresentations and documents, in part, a continuing and prevailing pattern of biased misrepresentations in discussions about the TSUS. The National Medical Association (NMA) and the Journal of the National Medical Association have a history of advocacy for African-American health, a record of combating racial discrimination and a quest for truth about the status of the black community. As past NMA historical notables have performed through their advancement, service and leadership, health professionals now have the opportunity, obligation and information to educate the American community about the TSUS with evidenced-based information. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p581-a PMID:15868777

  15. A morphological and functional study on antigen binding and endocytosis by immunocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Goud, B; Antoine, J C; Gonatas, N K; Stieber, A; Avrameas, S

    1980-01-01

    Immunoenzymatic techniques were used to study antigen binding and endocytosis by lymph node cells of rats immunized against horseradish peroxidase, hen ovalbumin and rabbit IgG. The number of antigen-binding cells varied and depended on the type of antigen used, the time after immunization, and was higher after a booster injection. In secondary responses (4 days after booster), about 80% of antigen-binding cells were proplasmocytes and plasmocytes; by a double staining procedure it was found that 82% of these cells bore in addition to surface antigen, specific intracytoplasmic antibody as well. About 20% of antigen-binding cells were small and medium lymphocytes which did not contain detectable intracytoplasmic antibody. For ultrastructural studies of the endocytosis, peroxidase was used as the antigen. This antigen was found in cytoplasmic compartments which consisted of vesicles, cisternae and large round bodies (lysosomes?) often located near the Golgi apparatus. However, the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, involved in the synthesis of specific antibody were not sites of retrieval of endocytosed antigen. The effect of endocytosis of antigen on the secretion and synthesis of antibody was studied by the local haemolysis plaque assay and biosynthetic labelling. No change was detected in antibody secretion and synthesis as a result of antigen endocytosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7007216

  16. The embryonic RNA helicase gene (ERH): a new member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Putt, W; Morrison, K; Beddington, R; Edwards, Y

    1995-01-01

    DEAD box proteins share several highly conserved motifs including the characteristic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (D-E-A-D in the amino acid single-letter code) motif and have established or putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. These proteins are implicated in a range of cellular processes that involve regulation of RNA function, including translation initiation, RNA splicing and ribosome assembly. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of an embryonic RNA helicase gene, ERH, which maps to mouse chromosome 1 and encodes a new member of the DEAD box family of proteins. The predicted ERH protein shows high sequence similarity to the testes-specific mouse PL10 and to the maternally acting Xenopus An3 helicase proteins. The ERH expression profile is similar, to that of An3, which localizes to the animal hemisphere of oocytes and is abundantly expressed in the embryo. ERH is expressed in oocytes and is a ubiquitous mRNA in the 9 days-post-conception embryo, and at later stages of development shows a more restricted pattern of expression in brain and kidney. The similarities in sequence and in expression profile suggest that ERH is the murine equivalent of the Xenopus An3 gene, and we propose that ERH plays a role in translational activation of mRNA in the oocyte and early embryo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8948440

  17. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  18. Cellular bases of experimental amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, V.; Mena-Lopez, R.; Anaya-Velazquez, F.; Martinez-Palomo, A.

    1984-01-01

    The complete sequence of morphologic events during amebic liver abscess formation in the hamster has been studied, from the lodgement of amebas in the hepatic sinusoids to the development of extensive liver necrosis. Following intraportal inoculation of live amebas, the early stages of the lesion (from 1 to 12 hours) were characterized by acute cellular infiltration composed of an increasingly large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which surrounded centrally located trophozoites. Histiocytes and lysed leukocytes were situated on the periphery of the lesions. Hepatocytes close to the early lesions showed degenerative changes which led to necrosis; however, direct contact of liver cells with amebas was very rarely observed. At later stages, the extent of necrosis increased, macrophages and epithelioid cells replaced most leukocytes, and well-organized granulomas developed. Extensive necrosis associated with fused granulomas was present by Day 7. The results suggest that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites do not produce amebic liver abscesses in hamsters through direct lysis of hepatocytes. Rather, tissue destruction is the result of the accumulation and subsequent lysis of leukocytes and macrophages surrounding the amebas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6385728

  19. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  20. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  1. Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B P; Miller, S L; Drummond, E J

    1976-01-01

    Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:1017423

  2. Gap junctional communication between vascular cells. Induction of connexin43 messenger RNA in macrophage foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Polacek, D.; Lal, R.; Volin, M. V.; Davies, P. F.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and function of blood vessels depend on the ability of vascular cells to receive and transduce signals and to communicate with each other. One means by which vascular cells have been shown to communicate is via gap junctions, specifically connexin43. In atherosclerosis, the normal physical patterns of communication are disrupted by the subendothelial infiltration and accumulation of blood monocytes, which in turn can differentiate into resident foam cells. In this paper we report that neither freshly isolated human peripheral blood monocytes nor differentiated monocytes/macrophages exhibit functional gap junctional dye transfer in homo-cellular culture or in co-culture with endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. By Northern analysis, neither freshly isolated blood monocytes nor pure cultures of differentiated monocyte/macrophages expressed gap junction messenger RNA. However, immunohistochemical staining followed by in situ hybridization on sections of human atherosclerotic carotid arteries revealed strong expression of gap junction connexin43 messenger RNA by macrophage foam cells. These results suggest that tissue-specific conditions present in atherosclerotic arteries induce expression of connexin43 messenger RNA in monocyte/macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8382009

  3. Immunoreactivity of anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies to human heart valves. Evidence for multiple cross-reactive epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, J. M.; Cunningham, M. W.; McManus, B. M.

    1991-01-01

    Association of group A streptococci with acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease is well established; however the basis of valve injury remains unclear. In this study, anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cross-reactive with myocardium were reacted with sections from 22 rheumatic valves, nine normal, five endocarditic, one 'floppy,' and one Marfan valve. In immunohistochemical studies, MAb reactivity was observed with cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, cell surface and cytoplasm of endothelial cells lining valves, and valvular interstitial cells. Endothelial basement membrane and elastin fibrils reacted with the MAbs, whereas collagen was unreactive. Similar reactivity was seen with sera from acute rheumatic fever patients. The anti-streptococcal MAbs reacted with intravalvular myosin and vimentin in Western blots, and purified elastin competitively inhibited the binding of the anti-streptococcal MAbs to whole group A streptococci. The data show that human heart valves have numerous sites of immunoreactivity with anti-streptococcal MAbs and acute rheumatic fever sera of potential importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatic valvular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1704188

  4. Synthesis of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta by arterial cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, C. F.; Sajuthi, D.; Tulli, H.; Williams, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated as a regulatory protein in the development and clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. To determine which cells in the atherosclerotic plaque synthesize IL-1 in situ, the authors evaluated histologic sections of iliac arteries from cynomolgus monkeys using probes for IL-1 alpha and beta. A polyclonal antibody to IL-1 alpha and beta was used to determine if proteins were concomitantly produced. The predominant cells expressing IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA were foam cells in the intima. Adherent leukocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) expressed mRNA for IL-1 alpha. Microvascular endothelium expressed mRNA for both IL-1 alpha and beta. IL-1 proteins were located frequently in cells expressing IL-1 mRNA. These results indicate that endothelium and VSMCs, in conjunction with macrophages, serve as localized sources of IL-1 protein synthesis. These findings suggest that vascular cells may contribute directly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease by actively secreting potent biologic mediators that modify vascular and immune cell function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2012178

  5. Defective anti-listerial responses in deciduoma of pseudopregnant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Redline, R. W.; Shea, C. M.; Papaioannou, V. E.; Lu, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different hormonal regimens to induce pseudopregnancy resulted in a pronounced increase in the susceptibility of the murine uterus to intraluminal injections of Listeria monocytogenes. Preimmunization, which profoundly augments systemic listeria resistance, had no effect on this increased uterine susceptibility. Anti-listerial responses in other organs were unaffected by pseudopregnancy. Animals manifesting increased susceptibility formed distinct uterine swellings in response to the combination of hormones and uterine listeria. These swellings correspond to previously described deciduoma and closely mimic the decidualized endometrium of pregnancy. The nature of the defective response to listeria was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Increased bacterial titers were correlated with an inability of macrophages and T lymphocytes to reach tissue listeria in discrete regions of deciduoma-bearing uteri. Control uteri showed a normal granulomatous pattern of inflammation. These findings closely parallel previous findings in the murine decidua basalis and suggest that properties of decidualized endometrial stromal cells regulate local immune responsiveness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3144175

  6. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, K. H.; Guerra, W. F.; Tomiyasu, U.; Verity, M. A.; Vinters, H. V.

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has been examined at autopsy in 89 patients who died of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including 14 patients who died primarily of neurologic complications of the disease. A total of 66 brains (74%) showed significant pathologic abnormalities, with opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (14) and cryptococcal (11) infections, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (6), toxoplasmosis (6), and histoplasma microabscesses (1). Incidental Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection was found in 4 cases. Simultaneous CNS infection by more than one microorganism was encountered in 5 patients. Subacute (microglial nodule) encephalitis-related to cytomegalovirus infection or possibly brain infection by the causative agent of AIDS was present in 56 cases. Primary CNS lymphoma was noted in 3 patients. Secondary CNS deposits of lymphoma were found in 1 patient, and another patient had lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Vascular complications were not infrequently seen, and included infarcts secondary to vessel occlusion and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 patients and intracranial hemorrhage of variable severity in 13. White matter changes included vacuolar myelopathy (3 cases), central pontine myelinolysis (1 case), and foci of calcified, necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in pontocerebellar fibers of the basis pontis (2 cases). These findings highlight the variety of CNS complications in AIDS, some of which are not associated with clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, characterization of all lesions may be important in understanding the neurologic sequelae of AIDS. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p540-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2876640

  7. Glomerular lesions in HIV-infected patients: a Yale University Department of Medicine Residency Peer-Teaching Conference.

    PubMed Central

    Wrone, E. M.; Carey, H.; Reilly, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by heavy proteinuria, absence of edema and an irreversible decline in renal function. Findings on renal biopsy include: collapsed glomerular capillaries; visceral glomerular epitheliosis; microcystic tubules; mesangial prominence; and endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions. Early in the AIDS epidemic, HIVAN was the predominant glomerular lesion observed in HIV-infected patients. It is being increasingly recognized, especially in Caucasian populations, that a variety of immune complex-mediated lesions such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, proliferative glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy are associated with HIV infection. In this review we present two cases: one patient whose first presentation of AIDS was end-stage renal disease, who on biopsy was found to have HIVAN, and the second, who was infected with HIV, and on biopsy was found to have hepatitis C-related hepatitis C related membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. We also review the current literature on HIVAN and HIV-associated immune complex diseases (HIVICDs). Each case illustrates an important clinical point. The first that renal disease can be the first manifestation of HIV infection and the second that HIV-infected patients may develop immune complex related renal diseases, some of which may be potentially treatable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9493848

  8. Modulation of the expression of integrins on glial cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A central role for TNF-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Previtali, S. C.; Archelos, J. J.; Hartung, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins comprise a group of adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Evidence is accumulating that integrins expressed on mononuclear cells play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. The effects of integrins on glial cell behavior, myelination, and angiogenesis suggest that they may also have a role in resolving inflammation in the nervous system and in promoting tissue repair. We investigated the temporospatial expression of integrins in the rat central nervous system during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. A higher expression of alpha v- and beta 4-integrin subunits in astrocytes and alpha 2 integrin in oligodendrocytes was observed in active lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, in comparison with controls. Proinflammatory cytokines, primarily TNF-alpha, also enhanced alpha v, beta 4, and alpha 2 expression in purified glial cells ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of some integrin subunits was modulated in the cerebral vasculature during inflammation. Our results suggest an active role for glial and vascular integrins in the regulation of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, opening an avenue for new potential immunotherapies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:9358769

  9. Unilateral facet subluxations: an example of a missed post-traumatic unilateral facet subluxation — a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tuling, Jeffrey R; Hsu, William H

    1999-01-01

    Unilateral facet injuries occur in 4-16% of patients with cervical spine injuries, (of which unilateral facet subluxations occur as a subgroup in this population). These injuries arise in motor vehicle accidents because of flexion-distraction forces, or flexion of an already rotated head. Due to the common presentation of a lack of neurological signs and symptoms, delayed diagnosis of unilateral facet subluxations are common. As a result, it is imperative that the proper diagnosis is made so that patient care can be made more effective with ultimately less sequelae. For the clinician, diagnosis can be aided by the use of radiographic analysis. Adequate radiographic analysis is an important tool to accurately assess whiplash associated disorders. Radiographic findings of facet subluxations are subtle on routine views. Utilizing oblique views, the diagnoses are usually evident. Therefore, oblique views are very useful in the clinical setting. This case report will describe a 29-year-old female with a missed unilateral facet subluxation, radiographic findings and characteristics, and the clinical utility of oblique views in patients suffering from whiplash associated disorders. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  10. Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi cardiomyopathy in BALB/c mice. The potential role of intravascular platelet aggregation in its genesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.; Gonçalves, S.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, R.

    1984-01-01

    In male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks inoculated three times at intervals of 15 days with 1 X 10(7) epimastigote forms of the PF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and challenged 30 days after the last inoculation with 2 X 10(4) trypomastigote forms of the Colombia strain of T cruzi (the mice were sacrificed 80-100 days after the challenge) a cardiomyopathy very similar to that observed in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease in man develops. The cardiac syndrome is characterized grossly by cardiomegaly with hypertrophy, dilatation of ventricular chambers, and thinning of the apex of the left ventricle (apical aneurysm) and microscopically by focal areas of myocytolytic necrosis and myocardial degeneration with an inflammatory response composed of mononuclear cells (predominantly macrophages and a few lymphocytes) with concurrent interstitial fibrosis and occasional myofibers containing pseudocysts. In addition, aggregated platelets and occlusive thrombi were found in small epicardial and intramyocardial vessels of infected mice as compared with controls. The potential role of intravascular platelet aggregation in the causation of focal myocardial necrosis and degeneration and apical aneurysm in experimental T cruzi cardiomyopathy in BALB/c mice is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6230012

  11. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  12. Extension of the life span of pressure ulcer fibroblasts with recombinant human interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Vande Berg, J. S.; Robson, M. C.; Mikhail, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rhuIL-1 beta) was investigated in a randomized, blinded placebo-controlled trial to evaluate its effect on the healing of chronic pressure ulcers. The influence of this topically applied cytokine to 26 pressure ulcer patients was correlated with tissue culture and electron microscopic evaluation. Cellular replication studies showed that low (0.01 micrograms/cm2/day) and medium (0.1 micrograms/cm2/day) concentrations of rhuIL-1 beta were not effective in extending replication in pressure ulcer fibroblasts, in vitro. Tissue culture measurements from pressure ulcer biopsies demonstrated that, after 29 days of a high level of rhuIL-1 beta treatment (1.0 micrograms/cm2/day), the cytokine was effective in extending the ability of pressure ulcer fibroblasts to replicate. Tissue culture and electron microscopy suggested that, although rhuIL-1 beta promoted increases in fibroblast numbers, the primary effect appeared to be development of the extracellular matrix. The possible direct and indirect influences of rhuIL-1 beta therapy on pressure ulcers are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:7747819

  13. The tumor microenvironment: possible role of integrins and the extracellular matrix in tumor biological behavior of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and testicular seminomas.

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, A.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Szabo, B. G.; Timens, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the distribution of integrin subunits and extracellular matrix proteins in normal testis, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), and primary and metastatic seminomas. Compared to normal testis in ITGCN, Sertoli cells showed increased expression of alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 integrin subunits. Malignant intratubular germ cells stained for alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 1 integrin subunits. Progression of ITGCN to invasive seminoma was associated with loss of alpha 3 integrin subunit expression by tumor cells. Consequent to this loss, it can be speculated that the strong expression on ITGCN may be related to the noninvasive character of the lesion as is also known from other noninvasive tumors. All tumors showed a strong expression of alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin subunits. The alpha 5 integrin subunit was weakly expressed in primary seminomas in all stages. No differences were observed in integrin expression between primary and metastatic tumors. The distribution of extracellular matrix proteins was heterogeneous and revealed clear architectural differences between seminomas that may reflect different stages of tumor stroma formation. To our knowledge, the results presented in this study provide the first information on the possible role of tumor-extracellular matrix interactions in the biological behavior of ITGCN and testicular seminomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8178927

  14. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, H.; Wege, T.; Milani, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Bechstein, W. O.; Neuhaus, P.; Gressner, A. M.; Schuppan, D.

    1997-01-01

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix during chronic liver disease may partially be attributed to altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Expression of TIMP-1 and -2 was studied by in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry in rat (acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication and secondary biliary fibrosis) and human livers and on isolated rat hepatic stellate cells. TIMP-1 and -2 transcripts appeared in rat livers within 1 to 3 hours after intoxication, pointing to a role in the protection against accidental activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and were present at high levels in all fibrotic rat and human livers predominantly in stellate cells. TIMP-2 RNA distribution largely matched with previously reported patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (72-kd gelatinase) expression, suggesting generation of a TIMP-2/matrix metalloproteinase-2 complex (large inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Isolated stellate cells expressed TIMP-1 and -2 RNA. Addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 enhanced TIMP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 RNA levels in vitro, whereas TIMP-2-specific signals were reduced, likely to result in a stoichiometric excess of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 over TIMP-2. In the context of previous demonstrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vivo, these patterns suggest an intrahepatic environment permitting only limited matrix degradation, ultimately resulting in redistribution of extracellular matrix with relative accumulation of collagen type 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9137090

  15. Differential Expression of Matrix-Metalloproteinase-1 and -2 Genes in Normal and Fibrotic Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Stefano; Herbst, Hermann; Schuppan, Detlef; Grappone, Cecilia; Pellegrini, Giulia; Pinzani, Massimo; Casini, Alessandro; Calabró, Antonio; Ciancio, Giuseppe; Stefanini, Francesco; Ciancio, Andrew K.; Surrenti, Calogero

    1994-01-01

    Altered degradation of extracellular matrix has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. We investigated levels and cellular sites of gene expression of two major collagebn-degrading enzymes, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-l (fibroblast type-interstitial collagenase)and MMP-2 (72-kd gelatinase, type IV collagenase) in five normal and 18 fibrotic human livers as well as in cultured human hepatic fat-storing cells by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Fatstoring cells expressed both MMP-1 and MMP-2 RNA in vitro. In vivo, MMP-1 was undetectable in mesenchymal and parenchymal cells of all liver specimens, whereas MMP-2 transcripts were expressed in all livers by vimentin-positive, CD68 negative mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells of all fibrotic livers displayed high transcript levels of transforming growth factor-β1, which is known to modulate MMP expression. Along with de novo fibrogenesis and possibly influenced by transforming growth factor-β1, expression of MMP-2 in the absence of MMP-1 expression may be responsible for the quantitative and qualitative changes of extracellular matrix observed in chronic liver disease. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 7 PMID:8129038

  16. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix and Developmental Dysregulation in the Pancreas by Transgenic Production of Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Shik; Gu, Danling; Feng, Lili; Curriden, Scott; Arnush, Marc; Krahl, Troy; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak; Wilson, Curtis; Loskutoff, David L.; Fox, Howard; Sarvetnick, Nora

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the pancreatic β-islet cells directed by human insulin promoter were produced to study in vivo effects of TGF-β1. Fibroblast proliferation and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix were observed from birth onward, finally replacing almost all the exocrine pancreas. Cellular infiltrates comprising macrophages and neutrophils were also observed. Plasminogen activator inhibitor was induced in the transgenic pancreas as well as fibronectin and laminin, partly explaining accumulation of extracellular matrix. TGF-β1 inhibited proliferation of acinar cells in vivo as evidenced by decreased bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Development of pancreatic islets was dysregulated, resulting in small islet cell clusters without formation of normal adult islets; however, the overall islet cell mass was not signfifcantly diminished. Additional transgenic lines with less pronounced phenotypes had less expression of TGF-β1 transgene. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 might be a mediator of diseases associated with extracellular matrix deposition such as chronic pancreatitis, and this mouse model will be useful for further analysis of the in vivo effects of TGF-β1, including its potential for immunosuppression. Imagesp43-aFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7604884

  17. Increased central nervous system production of extracellular matrix components and development of hydrocephalus in transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss-Coray, T.; Feng, L.; Masliah, E.; Ruppe, M. D.; Lee, H. S.; Toggas, S. M.; Rockenstein, E. M.; Mucke, L.

    1995-01-01

    A number of important neurological diseases, including HIV-1 encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and brain trauma, are associated with increased cerebral expression of the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). To determine whether overexpression of TGF-beta 1 within the central nervous system (CNS) can contribute to the development of neuropathological alterations, a bioactive form of TGF-beta 1 was expressed in astrocytes of transgenic mice. Transgenic mice with high levels of cerebral TGF-beta 1 expression developed a severe communicating hydrocephalus, seizures, motor incoordination, and early runting. While unmanipulated heterozygous transgenic mice from a low expressor line showed no such alterations, increasing TGF-beta 1 expression in this line by injury-induced astroglial activation or generation of homozygous offspring did result in the abnormal phenotype. Notably, astroglial overexpression of TGF-beta 1 consistently induced a strong upmodulation of the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin in the CNS, particularly in the vicinity of TGF-beta 1-expressing perivascular astrocytes, but was not associated with obvious CNS infiltration by hematogenous cells. While low levels of extracellular matrix protein expression may assist in CNS wound repair and regeneration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition could result in the development of hydrocephalus. As an effective inducer of extracellular matrix components, TGF-beta 1 may also contribute to the development of other neuropathological alterations, eg, the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7604885

  18. Aging-associated changes in renal extracellular matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Abrass, C. K.; Adcox, M. J.; Raugi, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of renal extracellular matrices was examined in 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats by immunofluorescence microscopy. No change in composition of tubular basement membrane was detected. Increased immunostaining for laminin chains B1 and s-laminin and thrombospondin characterized the thickened glomerular basement membrane. Interstitial collagens I and III were not detected in globally sclerotic glomeruli. The major change noted in the aged rat kidney at 24 months was generalized expansion of the interstitium by thrombospondin and fibronectin. In areas of tubular atrophy there was new expression of extra domain A (EDA)+ fibronectin. Collagens I and III were detected focally in the interstitium adjacent to areas of tubular atrophy, but otherwise collagens I, III, and IV and laminin did not contribute to the interstitial fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was detectable at 18 months of age and preceded the development of sclerotic glomeruli, tubular atrophy, or accumulations of interstitial collagen. These changes in extracellular matrix composition distinguish the aging kidney from other sclerotic forms of renal disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7887455

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cells from injured rat aortas display elevated matrix production associated with transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Wolf, Y. G.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1995-01-01

    The arterial response to injury is characterized by a short period of increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, followed by an extended period of extracellular matrix accumulation in the intima. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated as a causative factor in the formation of extracellular matrix in this process, which leads to progressive thickening of the intima, known as intimal hyperplasia. In vitro analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells harvested from normal rat aortas and from aortas injured 14 days earlier showed that both types of cells attached equally well to culture dishes but that the initial spreading of the cells was increased in cells derived from injured vessels. Cells from the injured arteries produced more fibronectin and proteoglycans into the culture medium than the cells from normal arteries and contained more TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 increased proteoglycan synthesis by normal smooth muscle cells, and the presence of a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody reduced proteoglycan synthesis by the cells from injured arteries in culture. Fibronectin synthesis was not altered by these treatments. These results indicate that the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in neointimal lesions is at least partially caused by autocrine TGF-beta activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7573349

  20. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  1. Routine immunofluorescent and histochemical analysis of bone marrow involvement of lymphoma/leukaemia: the use of cryostat sections.

    PubMed Central

    Chilosi, M.; Pizzolo, G.; Fiore-Donati, L.; Bofill, M.; Janossy, G.

    1983-01-01

    Enzyme histochemical and immunohistological (immuno-fluorescence and -peroxidase) techniques have been routinely used for investigating over 70 normal and pathological bone marrow samples. This recently standardized diagnostic procedure is very quick and can be performed in a few hours. In 6 cases the clinical diagnosis of leukaemia/lymphoma has become apparent only after the immunohistological analysis of the bone marrow. In 6 other cases the information about the staging of B cell malignancies was superior in the frozen biopsies to the paraffin embedded preparations. Amongst many other features the monoclonality of B CLL/lymphomas, the special features of B CLL infiltrates (RFA-1+, Leu-1+, HLA-DR+, SmIg+), follicular lymphoma deposits (containing follicular dendritic cells) and non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemic blasts (terminal transferase+, HLA-DR+) as well as the sometimes conspicuous presence of infiltrating normal T cells could be clearly and reproducibly demonstrated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:6360192

  2. Syndecan-1 is up-regulated in ras-transformed intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Z. M.; Choo, B.; Li, M.; Carey, D. J.; Cano-Gauci, D. F.; Buick, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The syndecans, a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans, have been proposed to mediate cellular interactions with extracellular effector molecules, such as growth factors and components of the extracellular matrix, during critical phases of development. Transcripts of all four syndecans are expressed at varying levels in the developing rat intestine and in a series of immature rat intestinal epithelial cell lines. In addition, we report the novel finding that, in the intestinal epithelial cell lines, expression of syndecan-1 transcript is up-regulated by transformation with activated H-ras. This is in contrast to other cell lines in which ras transformation is associated with a decrease in syndecan-1 levels. The observed increase in the syndecan-1 occurs as a result of increased transcription and can be correlated with the degree of transformation of the IEC-18 cells. Transformation is also associated with a decrease in apparent molecular weight and increased shedding of the proteoglycan into the culture medium. Increased shedding of syndecan-1 into the culture medium after transformation with H-ras may contribute to the disruption of proteoglycan interactions with the extracellular matrix, leading to alterations in cell adhesion and organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9528830

  3. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  4. National Museum of Dentistry exhibition: the future is now! African Americans in dentistry.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, Clifton O.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:14527058

  5. Identification of carcinoembryonic antigen-producing cells circulating in the blood of patients with colorectal carcinoma by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, S; Windeatt, S; O-Boateng, A; Fordy, C; Allen-Mersh, T G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identification of circulating tumour cells in colorectal cancer. AIMS: To assess whether circulating malignant cells in patients with colorectal liver metastasis could be identified by RT-PCR recognition of mRNA coding for the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). PATIENTS: A total of 31 with colorectal liver metastases and 22 no-cancer controls. METHODS: Specific cDNA primers for CEA transcripts were used to apply RT-PCR to tissue biopsy specimens, colon carcinoma cell lines, and peripheral blood samples from patients with colorectal liver metastases. A strongly CEA-expressive HT115 colorectal carcinoma cell line was used to spike blood samples from no-cancer control subjects. RESULTS: The limit for detection of CEA cDNA by Southern blotting using HT115 cells was 50 cells per 14 ml of spiked blood. There was a significant difference (p = 0.007) in RT-PCR positive expression between patients with liver metastasis (26/31) compared with controls (5/22). There was no significant relation between the prevalence of CEA cDNA amplification and serum CEA level or metastasis volume in patients with liver metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to suggest that identification of circulating colorectal cancer cells using RT-PCR for detection of CEA cDNA is feasible. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9014772

  6. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  7. Response of the macaque nasal epithelium to ambient levels of ozone. A morphologic and morphometric study of the transitional and respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    Although ozone (O3)-induced bronchiolitis has been morphologically characterized, effects of O3 on the upper respiratory tract have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposures to ambient levels of O3 induce lesions in the nasal mucosa. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to 0.00, 0.15, or 0.30 ppm O3 for 6 or 90 days, 8 hours/day. After exposure, nasal mucosa was processed for light and electron microscopy. Quantitative changes were evident in the nasal transitional and respiratory epithelium. At 6 or 90 days of exposure to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm O3 lesions consisted of ciliated cell necrosis, shortened cilia, and secretory cell hyperplasia. Inflammatory cell influx was only present at 6 days of exposure. Ultrastructural changes in goblet cells were evident at 90 days. Ambient levels of O3 can induce significant nasal epithelial lesions, which may compromise upper respiratory defense mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:3605312

  8. Helium-neon laser treatment transforms fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Ahmed, A.; Soudry, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Kopp, F.; Franquin, J. C.; Martin, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    The differentiation of myofibroblastic cells from normal human gingival fibroblasts in vitro has been established by transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by immunohistochemistry, using antigelsolin monoclonal antibodies. Untreated control cultures were compared to cultures exposed to Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation. A direct and massive transformation of the cultured fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was observed as early as 24 hours after laser treatment, whereas control cultures were comprised of only resting fibroblasts and active fibroblasts. This in vitro induction of myofibroblasts may be analogous to that which occurs in vivo. Therefore we undertook a similar study using biopsies from gingival tissues after wisdom tooth extraction. Myofibroblasts were present in the connective tissue of laser-treated gums 48 hours after irradiation, but not in untreated contralateral control tissues. These data provide evidence that the primary biologic effect of the Helium-Neon laser on connective tissue is the rapid generation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts. The induction of a phenotype with contractile properties may have clinical significance in the acceleration of the wound-healing process. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2372040

  9. Comparative analysis of tissue reactions to anesthetic solutions: histological analysis in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2003-01-01

    Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetic technique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905

  10. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression in human monocytes stimulated with Salmonella typhimurium porins.

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, M; Cipollaro de L'ero, G; Donnarumma, G; Marcatili, A; Galdiero, F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether Salmonella typhimurium porins can affect the expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) genes. Human monocytes were treated with porins, and total RNAs were analysed by Northern blotting to evaluate the expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 in both treated and untreated cell cultures. Porins induced a significant increase in IL-1 and IL-6 transcripts. This increase was related to the dose of porins, and it peaked 5 hr after treatment. The same results were obtained when polymyxin B was added to the porin preparation to eliminate eventual traces of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with porins. The porins-mediated increase in interleukin transcripts did not require de novo protein synthesis, and it was because of the enhanced half-life of IL-1 and IL-6 mRNAs, rather an increased rate of gene transcription. These data suggest that porins may affect inflammatory and immunological responses by enhancing the expression of cytokine genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8567029

  11. VASCULAR LESIONS IN SARCOIDOSIS—Probable Relationship to Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Carl C.

    1957-01-01

    In two patients with sarcoidosis treated with cortisone, localized vascular lesions, proven by biopsy, subsequently developed. Vascular lesions occurring in sarcoidosis, basically a granulomatous disease, are rarely described. However, a clinical picture of combined arteritis-sarcoidosis with overlapping features is not infrequently observed. Hence clinical differentiation may be difficult. Some observers suggest an interrelationship, perhaps a common etiological grouping in the hypersensitivity disease classification, because of the basic pathological lesions of granuloma and arteritis. The possible relationship of steroid therapy to the development of diffuse vascular lesions or arteritis appears to be gaining recognition, particularly in the case of susceptible patients with rheumatoid arthritis, although in the two cases here reported the disease for which steroids were administered was sarcoidosis and the arterial lesions observed subsequent to therapy were localized rather than diffuse. Since it seems unlikely that arteritis would be part of the clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis, it is implied that a higher incidence of such lesions (localized or diffuse) may be related to prolonged steroid therapy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:13489498

  12. Comparison between interstitial laser thermotherapy and excision of an adenocarcinoma transplanted into rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, P. H.; Ivarsson, K.; Stenram, U.; Radnell, M.; Tranberg, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare interstitial laser thermotherapy with excision of a liver tumour. A dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma was transplanted (implanted if not stated otherwise) into the left lateral lobe of the rat liver, and treatment was performed 8 days later. In the main experiment, rats were treated with resection of the tumour-bearing lobe or underwent interstitial laser thermotherapy, which was performed at a steady-state temperature of 46 degrees C for 30 min, 3 mm from the tumour margin. The incidence and extent of intraperitoneal spread was smaller after laser thermotherapy than after resection of the tumour-bearing lobe, with no difference in local control. Metastatic spread after resection of the median liver lobe was similar to that observed after sham procedures for thermotherapy or resection, suggesting that the advantage of thermotherapy was not due to a difference in surgical trauma. Additional studies showed that laser thermotherapy reduced intraperitoneal spread when treatment was suboptimal or in a tumour inoculation model and suggested that immunological mechanisms might be involved. It is concluded that interstitial laser thermotherapy reduces spread of liver tumour compared with resection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9667664

  13. Basal cell-specific and hyperproliferation-related keratins in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzels, R. H.; Kuijpers, H. J.; Lane, E. B.; Leigh, I. M.; Troyanovsky, S. M.; Holland, R.; van Haelst, U. J.; Ramaekers, F. C.

    1991-01-01

    In normal breast tissue and in noninvasive breast carcinomas, various keratin-14 antibodies were reactive predominantly with the basal/myoepithelial cell layer, although mainly in terminal and larger ducts luminal cells sometimes also were stained. A similar reaction pattern was found with an antibody directed against keratin 17, although this antibody was more often found negative than keratin 14 in the pre-existing myoepithelial cells in intraductal carcinomas. Furthermore antibodies reactive with hyperproliferation-related keratins 6 and 16 were used. One of these (LL025) was completely negative in normal breast tissue and noninvasive breast carcinomas. However 10% of the invasive carcinomas were diffusely or focally positive with this latter antibody, while in 18 of 115 cases of invasive breast carcinomas studied, a basal cell phenotype was detected. A relatively high concordance was found between the carcinomas immunostaining with the basal cell and the hyperproliferation-related keratins, but not between these markers and the proliferation marker Ki-67. This supports the conclusion that basal cells in breast cancer may show extensive proliferation, and that absence of Ki-67 staining does not mean that (tumor) cells are not proliferating. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1705754

  14. Enteric vascular endothelial response to bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Koshi, R.; Mathan, V. I.; David, S.; Mathan, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The response of enteric vasculature to endotoxin was examined at the ultrastructural level using a murine model of endotoxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Morphological changes indicative of endothelial damage were evident as early as 15 minutes following endotoxin challenge. These changes, characterized by widening of intercellular spaces, increased microvillous projections and the appearance of stress fibres, preceded the leucocytic response. Endothelial damage increased with time, being associated with progressive degenerative changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles, ultimately leading to desquamation. These latter changes were temporally associated with margination of neutrophils and platelet adhesion to the denuded subendothelium. The venules were the primary site of these changes while the capillaries were the least affected. The arterioles were markedly constricted with minimal endothelial damage. These changes suggest that the enteric vascular endothelium may be an important target organ, and the resultant endothelial injury may have implications in host responses to endotoxin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8292557

  15. Rheumatoid Hand Deformities: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Apfelberg, David B.; Maser, Morton R.; Lash, Harvey; Kaye, Ronald L.; Britton, Melvin C.; Bobrove, Arthur

    1978-01-01

    Rheumatoid disease, as it affects the hand, is a disease of the synovium lining the joints and sheaths of the tendon. The proliferating synovium destroys the articular surfaces of the joint, interferes with the gliding mechanism of the tendons and weakens the supporting ligaments of the joints. The degree and variety of deformities is multifold. Treatment of the rheumatoid hand is aimed at conservation and restoration of hand function, as well as prevention of future deformities. Rheumatologists, physical therapists and hand surgeons carry out important functions in the well-planned, integrated regimen. Surgical treatment of the rheumatoid hand deformity may alleviate pain, lessen deformity and improve function in selected cases. It should be integrated in the general medical management of a patient. Treatment of tendon ruptures includes tenorrhaphy, tendon grafting and arthrodesis in the case of mallet finger deformity. The wrist joint is improved by synovectomy and carpal tunnel release is accomplished by median nerve decompression. Metacarpal phalangeal joint deformities may be treated by synovectomy or silastic joint replacement when there is destruction of the articular joint surface, severe subluxation, or persistent painful motion. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:716388

  16. An ultrastructural study of the effect of treatment with atovaquone in brains of mice chronically infected with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; Huskinson-Mark, J.; Araujo, F. G.; Remington, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    The morphological effects of drug treatment with atovaquone in the brains of mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii was examined by light and electron microscopy. As early as 1 and 2 weeks of treatment there appeared to be fewer tissue cysts compared to untreated controls and this reduction was more significant after 4 weeks treatment. There also appeared to be a decrease in the number of inflammatory nodules and the severity of the meningitis. Ultrastructurally, the cysts of both treated and control animals were located within host cells. There was a marked increase in both the number of cysts with lysed bradyzoites and the number of degenerate bradyzoites after 4 weeks treatment. It is probable that the drug is more active against the metabolically active immature bradyzoites than the mature organisms. Drug treatment does not appear to result in rupture of tissue cysts or release of Toxoplasma antigens since there is a reduction rather than an increase in the inflammatory response. This drug may be useful in treating chronic toxoplasmosis since it appears to be active against the bradyzoites reducing the parasite burden (cyst number) without initiating a destructive inflammatory response. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5 and 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8199003

  17. Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, L M; Rummel, A M; Masten, S J; Trosko, J E; Upham, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9417772

  18. Ultrastructural alterations in the atrial myocardium of pigs with acute monensin toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monensin, A Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produces left atrial damage in pigs given toxic doses. Eight weanling pigs were given mycelial monensin orally (40 mg/kg body weight) and were killed on days 1, 2, 4, and 16 (two animals at each time interval) for ultrastructural study of the left atrial lesions. On days 1-4, extensive necrosis with contraction bands was present. Rapid macrophagic invasion and phagocytosis of sarcoplasmic debris was seen on days 2 and 4. Missing necrotic myocytes were outlined by persistent "tubes" of external laminas. In some surviving myocytes, sublethal injury was evident on day 1 by mitochondria with condensed conformation and on days 2, 4, and 16 by moderate to marked myofibrillar lysis and sarcoplasmic vacuolation. Monensin cardiotoxicity in pigs constitutes a unique example of selective injury to atrial myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6696048

  19. Sequential changes of extracellular matrix and proliferation of Ito cells with enhanced expression of desmin and actin in focal hepatic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Mukai, H.; Mori, M.

    1986-01-01

    Immunohistochemical investigations were carried out on the properties of the cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in focal hepatic injuries. A liquid nitrogen-cooled syringe needle was thrust into the rat liver. Necrotic areas became permeated with plasma within 24-hour period. Areas became strongly positive for fibronectin and were infiltrated with inflammatory cells positive for lysozyme. By the third day, Ito cells were proliferated in the peripheral portions of the damaged areas. These Ito cells showed enhanced immunostaining for desmin and actin but were negative for lysozyme. Interstitial fibers which were immunochemically positive for Types I and IV collagens, laminin, and fibronectin, began to increase from Day 3. They appeared on the rim of the hepatocytes adjacent to the damaged areas and extended into the injured regions with the Ito cells. An increase in basal laminas associated with capillaries and bile ducts also increased with a 1-day delay. The damaged areas were replaced by granulation tissue by Day 5. A rapid diminution then occurred in the granulation tissue, and normal hepatic tissue was restored in 7-10 days. These observations demonstrate that ECM changed in a sequential manner and then finally disappeared from the damaged site within 10 days. Although various cells, including parenchymal cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and cholangiolar cells contributed to the healing of the damaged area, Ito cells, which exhibit unique phenotypic changes, presumably had a major role in the process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3799820

  20. Serum vitellogenin levels and reproductive impairment of male Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to 4-tert-octylphenol.

    PubMed Central

    Gronen, S; Denslow, N; Manning, S; Barnes, S; Barnes, D; Brouwer, M

    1999-01-01

    The induction of synthesis of the "female" yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish by estrogenic chemicals in the environment has been demonstrated in many recent reports. However, little is known about the organismal and biological significance of this phenomenon. To examine the relationship between VTG production in male fish and reproductive impairment, adult male medaka were exposed to 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), a known environmental estrogen, in concentrations ranging from 20 to 230 ppb for 21 days, under flow-through conditions. Following exposure, male fish were mated, in the absence of OP, with unexposed females. Breeding groups composed of exposed males and control females produced about 50% fewer eggs than control groups. VTG levels in serum of male fish increased with increasing OP exposure concentration and decreased after OP exposure was discontinued. Nevertheless, significant correlations (p<0.01) were observed between VTG levels in exposed male fish and 1) OP exposure concentrations, 2) percent of fertilized eggs, and 3) survival of embryos. OP-induced VTG synthesis and reproductive impairment appear to be closely linked phenomena. Histological examination indicated spermatogenesis in OP-exposed fish was inhibited, and some exposed fish had oocytes in their testes. Finally, OP caused a significant increase in the number of abnormally developing embryos, suggesting that OP may be genotoxic as well as estrogenic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10210694

  1. A model for primitive neuroectodermal tumors in transgenic neural transplants harboring the SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, R. H.; Kleihues, P.; Jat, P. S.; Wiestler, O. D.

    1994-01-01

    Using retrovirus-mediated transfer of the SV40 virus large T antigen into neural transplants, we have observed a high incidence of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). These neoplasms developed in 8 of 14 (57%) neural grafts after latency periods of 176 to 311 days. Histopathologically, the tumors exhibited features of human PNET such as formation of neuroblastic rosettes and immunocytochemical evidence for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and focal astrocytic differentiation. All neoplasms showed a striking migratory potential. The presence of the large T gene in the tumors was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction-mediated amplification of a specific 242 bp segment of large T and DNA sequence analysis. Large T antigen was identified in tissue sections using an immunocytochemical reaction with the monoclonal antibody Pab 108. Cell lines were established from several tumors and subjected to G418 selection. Secondary tumors induced by intracerebral transplantation of these cells retained the characteristic morphological and immunocytochemical properties of PNETs. These experiments demonstrate a considerable transforming potential of SV40 large T antigen for neural precursor cells. The long latency period suggests that neoplastic transformation initiated by the large T gene requires additional spontaneous mutations of cooperating cellular genes. Because the mechanism of transformation by large T antigen appears to involve complex formation with and inactivation of cellular tumor suppressor gene products, these cell lines may serve as an interesting tool to search for novel neural tumor suppressor genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8129041

  2. Topographic abnormalities of proinsulin to insulin conversion in functioning human insulinomas. Comparison of immunoelectron microscopic and clinical data.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, J.; Komminoth, P.; Heitz, P. U.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the major defect in human insulinomas is a decreased hormone storage capacity resulting in uncontrolled release of proinsulin and insulin. By immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies we studied the subcellular distribution of proinsulin and insulin in benign and malignant functioning insulinomas of different histology and compared the findings with various clinical and pathohistological parameters. We found that, in contrast to normal B cells, the proinsulin to insulin conversion in insulinomas occurs already in the trans Golgi apparatus but remains incomplete, resulting in the formation of secretory granules containing both proinsulin and insulin. Thus, in functioning insulinomas, sorting into secretory granules is not a prerequisite for hormone conversion. Furthermore, proinsulin and insulin storage and most probably subsequent secretion occurs through the secretory granules via the regulated pathway. A substantial variability for both proinsulin and insulin immunolabeling in secretory granules was found not only in individual tumor cells but also among the insulinomas studied. This observed variability may account for the lack of correlation between pathohistological, immunohistochemical, and clinical parameters in functioning insulinomas. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7639339

  3. Changes in levels of argininosuccinate lyase mRNA during induction by glucagon and cyclic AMP in cultured foetal-rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Renouf, S; Buquet, C; Fairand, A; Benamar, M; Husson, A

    1993-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the activity of the urea-cycle enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is regulated by glucocorticoids, glucagon and insulin. In this study, the effects of glucagon and cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogues were examined on the synthesis of ASL and on the level of its corresponding mRNA in cultured foetal hepatocytes. Northern-blot analysis revealed that these agents only gave a transient induction of ASL mRNA amount, which reached a peak at 6 h and declined thereafter. This induction preceded the increase in enzyme activity and amount which could be observed for 2 or 3 days of culture. Stimulation of ASL mRNA accumulation by a combination of cAMP analogues and dexamethasone was additive, indicating that glucocorticoids and cAMP are both necessary to promote hepatocyte differentiation and that inductions could occur via independent pathways. Induction by cAMP analogues could be abolished by actinomycin D, suggesting a control mechanism at the transcriptional level. Puromycin was without effect on ASL mRNA induction by cAMP, indicating that no ongoing protein synthesis was required in the stimulation process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8387274

  4. The image and advocacy of public health in American caricature and cartoons from 1860 to 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637

  5. Hyperglycemic glucose concentrations up-regulate the expression of type VI collagen in vitro. Relevance to alterations of peripheral nerves in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Muona, P.; Jaakkola, S.; Zhang, R. Z.; Pan, T. C.; Pelliniemi, L.; Risteli, L.; Chu, M. L.; Uitto, J.; Peltonen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Electron microscopy of peripheral nerves obtained from two diabetic patients revealed large deposits of microfibrils and the presence of Luse bodies in the vicinity of perineurial cells. Microfibrils were found to accumulate also in the sciatic nerves of diabetic BB rats; these microfibrillar deposits were shown to contain type VI collagen by immunoelectron microscopy. Connective tissue cells cultured from rat sciatic nerves were exposed to high glucose concentrations. High glucose concentrations up-regulated the mRNA steady-state levels of alpha 1(VI), alpha 2(VI), and alpha 3(VI) chains of type VI collagen and caused accumulation of type VI collagen-containing fibrils in the cultures. Immunostaining and in situ hybridizations demonstrated that perineurial cells, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts expressed type VI collagen at the mRNA and protein levels. The results suggest that the turnover and supramolecular assembly of type VI collagen are perturbed in diabetic nerves and that glucose per se increases the expression of type VI collagen in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8494053

  6. Malignant progression of an SV40-transformed human epidermal keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K. W.; Gallimore, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    Human foetal keratinocytes were transfected with a recombinant plasmid (pSV6-1) which contained an origin defective SV40 genome. The resulting transformed cell line had many properties in common with previously described SV40-transformed keratinocytes, including expression of simple epithelial-type keratins. It was non-tumourigenic in nude mice at early passages, forming small benign cysts, however, after approximately 46 in vitro passages, these transformed keratinocytes formed invasive squamous cell carcinomas in athymic nude mice. Several in vitro changes were associated with this acquisition of tumourigenicity (a) an alteration in cellular morphology, (b) development of a cytogenetically marked clone and (c) loss of cell surface fibronectin. The loss of fibronectin was also observed in vivo; cysts formed by SV6-1 Bam/HFK produced human fibronectin whereas tumours did not, although both tumours and cysts were laminin- and keratin-positive. These results indicate that the spontaneous development of secondary events in immortalised human cells may lead to the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2447927

  7. Testicular Sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Jagadishwar; White, Sherry

    1980-01-01

    Precise localization, detection, and recognition of minor changes in testicular lesions are important because teratocarcinoma is notorious for manifesting as secondaries at the time the primary site is obvious to the clinician. In the past, questionable enlargement of the testis due to significant pathology required numerous radiographic invasive special procedures to provide a correct diagnosis. Due to the advent of the sophisticated digital ultrasound imager with high frequency quarter wave transducer, it is possible to detect minor changes in the tissue character of the testis, thus enabling the physician to tackle primary neoplasms prior to distant spread. In our case we were able to detect the abnormality in the testis, but unfortunately a large secondary abnormal mass was present. Even at that stage we were able to map out the extent of the lesion which was beneficial to the surgeon and the patient. Ultrasound studies were utilized in serial follow-up studies. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7401191

  8. Cell-to-cell herniae in the arterial wall. I. The pathogenesis of vacuoles in the normal media.

    PubMed Central

    Joris, I.; Majno, G.

    1977-01-01

    Vacuoles were observed by light microscopy in the smooth muscle cells of the media in normal rat arteries. By electron microscopy these vacuoles were limited by two membranes; they usually contained myelin figures, a few organelles (especially mitochondria and microfilaments), and an amorphous background material that varied greatly in density. Morphologic evidence indicates that these structures arise by herniation of one smooth muscle cell into another; it is presumed that herniation occurs during contraction at weak points corresponding to areas where adjacent cells come in close contact. Such cell-to-cell herniae were mostly seen in small arteries (arterioles) with a diameter of 0.4 to 0.2 mm; however, none was found in coronary arteries of this size. This discrepancy suggests that the pathogenesis of cell-to-cell herniae is correlated not only with the caliber of the artery but also with functional demands. (Am J Pathol 87:375-398). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:557903

  9. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  10. Identification of three novel mutations in non-Ashkenazi Italian patients with muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, S.; Servidei, S.; Tonin, P.; Shanske, S.; Azan, G.; DiMauro, S.

    1994-01-01

    We have identified three novel mutations in four non-Ashkenazi Italian patients with muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK-M) deficiency (Tarui disease). Patient 1 was homozygous for an A-to-C substitution at the 3' end of intron 6 of the PFK-M gene, changing the consensus splice-junction sequence AG to CG. The mutation leads to activation of two cryptic splice sites in exon 7, resulting in one 5 bp- and one 12 bp-deleted transcript. An affected brother was also homozygous, and both parents were heterozygous, for the splice-junction mutation. Patient 2 was homozygous for a G-to-C substitution at codon 39, changing an encoded arginine (CGA) to proline (CCA). Patient 3 was heterozygous for an A-to-C substitution at codon 543, changing an encoded aspartate (GAC) to alanine (GCC); the PFK-M gene on the other allele was not expressed, but sequencing of the reported regulatory region of the gene did not reveal any mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7513946

  11. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  12. Congenital Stenosis of the Cervical Spine: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Countee, Roger W.; Vijayanathan, Thurairasah

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of 11 cases of congenital stenosis of the cervical spine seen over the past three years is reported. The authors' experiences at an urban community hospital, as well as a large Veterans Administration Hospital, lead them to conclude that this disorder is a neurologically significant anomaly which is probably more common than published reports would imply. It can be clinically and radiographically distinguished from “pure” cervical spondylosis, to which it is related, and its treatment should be appropriately modified. It appears to have a predilection for young adult black males, and cervical myelopathy is the predominant clinical feature. Varying degrees of trauma, a disease endemic to the inner city, plays a major role in precipitating the neurological catastrophes associated with this potentially correctable disorder. Proper management of this entity demands a heightened awareness of its existence as well as a high standard of neurological and roentgenographic diagnosis, and operative performance. A flexible operative strategy which takes into account the specific biomechanical factors involved in this disorder as well as the patient's individual physiological and social status is imperative. Surgery offers a good opportunity for improving neurological function. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:439156

  13. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  14. Vascular growth factors and receptors in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Böhling, T.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Persico, M. G.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas are highly vascular central nervous system tumors of controversial origin. Of interest in their pathogenesis are mechanisms regulating endothelial cell growth. The endothelial cell mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis, and together with its two receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1(FLT1) and VEGFR-2(KDR), is up-regulated during the malignant progression of gliomas. We have analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors, the related placental growth factor (PlGF) and the endothelial receptors FLT4 and Tie by in situ hybridization in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in all of the hemangiopericytomas studied and highly expressed in the stromal cells of hemangioblastomas. In addition, some hemangioblastoma tumor cells expressed high levels of PlGF. Significantly elevated levels of Tie mRNA, Tie protein, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 but not FLT4 mRNAs were observed in the endothelia of both tumor types. In hemangioblastomas, however, the receptors were also highly expressed by a subpopulation of stromal cells. Consistent results were obtained for a human hemangioblastoma cell line in culture. Up-regulation of the endothelial growth factors and receptors may result in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of endothelial cells and their precursors involved in the genesis of these two vascular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774132

  15. Oblique section 3-D reconstruction of relaxed insect flight muscle reveals the cross-bridge lattice in helical registration.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, H; Lucaveche, C; Reedy, M K; Taylor, K A

    1994-01-01

    In this work we examined the arrangement of cross-bridges on the surface of myosin filaments in the A-band of Lethocerus flight muscle. Muscle fibers were fixed using the tannic-acid-uranyl-acetate, ("TAURAC") procedure. This new procedure provides remarkably good preservation of native features in relaxed insect flight muscle. We computed 3-D reconstructions from single images of oblique transverse sections. The reconstructions reveal a square profile of the averaged myosin filaments in cross section view, resulting from the symmetrical arrangement of four pairs of myosin heads in each 14.5-nm repeat along the filament. The square profiles form a very regular right-handed helical arrangement along the surface of the myosin filament. Furthermore, TAURAC fixation traps a near complete 38.7 nm labeling of the thin filaments in relaxed muscle marking the left-handed helix of actin targets surrounding the thick filaments. These features observed in an averaged reconstruction encompassing nearly an entire myofibril indicate that the myosin heads, even in relaxed muscle, are in excellent helical register in the A-band. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7819494

  16. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with premature chromosome condensation for the identification of chromosome damage.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J. W.; Chang, J. A.; Giaccia, A. J.; Pinkel, D.; Brown, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of fusing mitotic cells to interphase cells, thereby producing condensation of the chromosomes of the interphase cell (so-called 'premature chromosome condensation' or PCC), has allowed detection of the initial number of chromosome breaks and their repair following ionising radiation. However, the difficulty and tedium of scoring all the chromosome fragments, as well as the inability to readily detect exchange aberrations, has limited the use of PCC. We describe here the use of the recently developed technique of fluorescence in situ hybridisation with whole chromosome libraries to stain individual human chromosomes (also called 'chromosome painting') with the PCC's and show that this overcomes most of the limitations with the analysis of PCC's. First, by focusing on a single chromosome, scoring of breaks in the target chromosome is easy and rapid and greatly expands the radiation dose range over which the PCC technique can be used. Second, it allows the easy recognition of exchange type aberrations. A number of new applications of this technology, such as predicting the radiosensitivity of human tumours in situ, are feasible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2021536

  17. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  18. Electro-optical property of extremely stretched skinned muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Umazume, Y; Fujime, S

    1975-01-01

    Skinned fibers of frog semitendinosus muscle could easily be stretched up to 8 mum or more in sarcomere length. Such extremely stretched fibers gave quite sharp optical diffraction patterns. The intensities of all observable diffraction lines were found to increase on application of electric field (10 similar to 100 V/cm) parallel to the fiber axis, provided that there was no overlap between thin and thick filaments. By use of a polarizing microscope, it was concluded that I-bands were mainly responsible for this intensity increase. By application of square pulses, the time course of the intensity increase and decay was followed. The analysis based on a simple model suggests: (a) Each thin filament has a permanent dipole movement and the movement directs from Z-bands to the free end of the thin filament. (b) The flexural rigidity of thin filaments is estimated to be similar to 3 with 10-17 dyn with cm-2. The present fibers will provide various applications in physiochemical studies of in vivo thin and thick filaments. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:1078630

  19. A rivalry of foulness: official and unofficial investigations of the London cholera epidemic of 1854.

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, N; Vinten-Johansen, P; Brody, H; Rip, M

    1998-01-01

    Contemporaneous with John Snow's famous study of the 1854 London cholera epidemic were 2 other investigations: a local study of the Broad Street outbreak and an investigation of the entire epidemic, undertaken by England's General Board of Health. More than a quarter-century prior to Koch's description of Vibrio comma, a Board of Health investigator saw microscopic "vibriones" in the rice-water stools of cholera patients that, in his later life, he concluded had been cholera bacilli. Although this finding was potential evidence for Snow's view that cholera was due to a contagious and probably live agent transmitted in the water supply, the Board of Health rejected Snow's conclusions. The Board of Health amassed a huge amount of information which it interpreted as supportive of its conclusion that the epidemic was attributable not so much to water as to air. Snow, by contrast, systematically tested his hypothesis that cholera was water-borne by exploring evidence that at first glance ran contrary to his expectations. Snow's success provides support for using a hypothetico-deductive approach in epidemiology, based on tightly focused hypotheses strongly grounded in pathophysiology. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9772861

  20. Culicoides Hypersensitivity in the Horse: 15 Cases in Southwestern British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kleider, N.; Lees, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal. The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.Figure 3.FIGURE 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422351

  1. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to lung injury. The intra-alveolar material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for surfactant apoprotein, indicating that the accumulated proteinaceous material contained pulmonary surfactant. Type II pneumocytes in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis exhibited hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy. The few macrophages in lung affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for lysozyme. The excessive intraalveolar accumulation of proteinaceous material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be the result of both an over-production as well as a deficient removal of pulmonary surfactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 p[57]-a PMID:7004201

  2. Carcinoma of type II pneumocytes: immunodiagnosis of a subtype of "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas".

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Torikata, C.

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from North American (N = 12) and Japanese (N = 11) patients with lung carcinomas were stained by the immunoperoxidase method for surfactant-specific apoprotein. Cytoplasmic and focal nuclear staining was seen in three "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" occurring in Japanese patients. We refer to these three tumors as carcinomas of Type II pneumocytes. These neoplasms formed discrete masses with minimal growth along the alveolar septa at margins of the tumors. Papillary growth with lymphocytic infiltrates in the stalks of the papillary processes was the usual growth pattern. Focal noncaseating granulomas were seen in the stroma of 2 cases, and similar granulomas in the draining lymph nodes were noted in 1. The abundant cytoplasm was foamy, and the nuclei were generally vacuolated with frequent eosinophilic inclusions in the vacuoles. By electron microscopy, osmiophilic lamellar bodies or whorled lamellas were seen in the cytoplasm of the 3 tumors staining for surfactant apoprotein. The nuclei in 2 of the 3 cases contained tubular inclusions; the tubules had a diameter of 60 nm and a 20-nm core. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 and 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6258440

  3. Keratin proteins in human lung carcinomas. Combined use of morphology, keratin immunocytochemistry, and keratin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, S. P.; McDowell, E. M.; Wilson, T. S.; Trump, B. F.; Harris, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy demonstrated that adenocarcinomas (AC) and squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas (SCCs) of human lung contained keratin proteins in the form of tonofilament bundles. However, moderately differentiated (md) SCCs contained abundant keratin, whereas poorly differentiated (pd) SCCs and all ACs contained lesser amounts. Lung tumors with the diagnosis of AC or SCC, as defined by WHO criteria, were also analyzed by immunoprecipitation techniques for the presence of keratin proteins. Regardless of the degree of tumor differentiation, SCCs contained a 44 kd keratin which was lacking in ACs. Interestingly, normal bronchial epithelium also contained the same 44 kd keratin. In addition, as SCCs became more differentiated, they exhibited even greater differences in the profile of synthesized keratins. Specifically, the relative abundance of the intermediate-sized keratins (57 and 59 kd) was increased in the md SCCs. Although keratin protein patterns appear to be a valuable adjunct in distinguishing AC from SCC, their usefulness as a diagnostic tool will require survey of a larger number of poorly differentiated tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6198920

  4. Surgical Anatomy of the Extended Middle Cranial Fossa Approach

    PubMed Central

    Arìstegui, Miguel; Cokkeser, Yasar; Saleh, Essam; Naguib, Maged; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdel; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    The extended middle cranial fossa approach includes removal of the petrous bone from its subtemporal surface in order to expose widely the internal auditory canal and the posterior fossa dura around its porus while preserving all the important and closely related anatomical structures. We have dissected 25 temporal bones and five fresh cadavers in order to define the limits of this approach. Measurements were obtained between the different structures to find reliable angles and distances that could guide working in this area. A new method of identification of the internal auditory canal is discussed based on the measurements taken. The results of the present work showed wide variations in the different structures. The arcuate eminence was coincident with the superior semicircular canal in only 48% of bones. Dehiscence of the geniculate ganglion and of the internal carotid artery was noted in 16% and 20% of specimens, respectively. The angles measured between the different structures showed great variations. However, the angle between the internal auditory canal and superior petrosal sinus was constant. Though the extended middle cranial fossa is a versatile approach, it affords a limited access to the cerebellopontine angle. A thorough understanding of the complex and variable anatomy of this area is necessary should this approach be utilized. ImagesFigure 1p183-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171170

  5. Pancreas transplantation. An immunohistologic and histopathologic examination of 100 grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, R. K.; Sutherland, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined tissues obtained by biopsy, pancreatectomy, and autopsy from 100 pancreas grafts to determine the cause of dysfunction or failure of the graft. Immunohistologic examination of 42 tissues to determine the mononuclear cell phenotypes and Class I and II antigen expression was performed as well. Technical factors--infections, thrombosis, obstruction--accounted for a large number of graft losses, but immunologic-mediated mechanisms resulted in graft dysfunction and failure as well. Pleomorphic inflammatory infiltrates were present in grafts with acute rejection, as well as Silastic and Prolamine duct-obstructed grafts. Criteria useful in the identification of acute rejection from pancreatitis included a more intense, predominantly mononuclear cell infiltration of transformed lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas and evidence of vascular rejection--endovasculitis or fibrinoid necrosis. Increased expression and/or induction of Class I and II antigens on pancreatic constituents occurred in grafts with evidence of acute rejection, but also with Silastic and prolamine duct-obstructed pancreatitis. An isletitis occurred in 25% of the grafts. Nine of the 25 grafts (36%) with isletitis also had selective loss of beta cells from the islets. Recurrent diabetes mellitus appeared to have developed in these cases, which accounted for loss of graft function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3037911

  6. Hot-spot mutations in the p53 gene of liver nodules induced in rats fed DL-ethionine with a methyl-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujiuchi, T.; Yeleswarapu, L.; Konishi, Y.; Lombardi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Male F-344 rats were fed for 15 weeks a methyl-deficient L-amino acid defined diet containing 0.05% DL-ethionine. Nodules protruding from the surface of the liver were dissected free of surrounding tissue, and polyadenylated RNA isolated from the nodules was reverse transcribed. The region of the p53 gene comprising codons 120-290 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and cDNAs were sequenced. Mutations were detected in nodules obtained from 7 of 12 rats. In all seven cases, the same two point mutations were present. The first was at the first base of codon 246 and consisted of a C-->T transition (C:G-->T:A, Arg-->Cys), while the second was at the second base of codon 247 and consisted of a G-->T transversion (G:C-->T:A, Arg-->Leu). It is concluded that the hepatocarcinogen ethionine induces specific hot-spot p53 gene mutations; this is in contrast to the mutations at various sites previously observed to occur in rats fed a hepatocarcinogenic methyl-deficient diet alone. The results also provide the first evidence that ethionine is mutagenic in the rat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9218726

  7. Are metaplasias in colorectal adenomas truly metaplasias?

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, M.; Fenoglio, C. M.; Robboy, S. J.; King, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five thousand seven hundred seventy-eight adenomas or adenomas containing carcinoma from 3215 patients were examined by routine histologic methods for the presence of epithelial metaplasias. Three forms of epithelial metaplasia were encountered: squamous cell metaplasia (0.44%), Paneth cell metaplasia (0.20%), and melanocytic metaplasia (0.017%). In several instances multiple forms of metaplasia were encountered in the same polyp. In those cases in which the paraffin blocks were available, a Grimelius stain was performed. Grimelius-positive cells were present in 63% of the adenomas containing a metaplastic cell type. All cases with Paneth cell differentiation were immunoreactive for lysozyme; all lesions containing areas of squamous differentiation were immunoreactive for keratin except 2. The histopathologic features of these cases are discussed, and it is concluded that rather than representing a true metaplastic process, Paneth cell, squamous cell, and melanocyte differentiation represent the full range of cellular differentiation that endodermally derived tissues can exhibit, particularly when they undergo neoplastic alterations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6202148

  8. Smooth muscle cell proliferation in the occluded rat carotid artery: lack of requirement for luminal platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in the permanently occluded rat carotid artery to the presence or absence of luminal platelets was examined. Blood was rinsed from the arterial lumen immediately after occlusion and was replaced by autologous, citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP, 6 to 20 X 10(5) platelets/microliter) or filtered platelet-poor plasma (PPP, less than 100 platelets/microliter). Occluded arteries were studied after 1 to 28 days by light and electron microscopy. Events occurring within the first 2 days included fibrin clot formation, endothelial degeneration and denudation, transmural migration of polymorphonucelar leukocytes and monocytes, and, in PRP-filled arteries, degranulation and disappearance of platelets. By 7 days a neointima was formed by macrophages and undifferentiated cells. The latter cells had some features of vascular smooth muscle cells and were apparently derived from medial cells which traversed the internal elastic lamina. After 14 days, identifiable smooth muscle cells emerged as the predominant cell type in a rapidly growing intimal plaque. No differences could be discerned between arteries originally filled with PRP or PPP. This experimental model is similar to atherosclerosis in dimensions of avascular area and in coexistence of degenerative, inflammatory, and proliferative processes. Cell proliferation deep within an atherosclerotic plaque could be initiated by factors other than platelets, perhaps by products of inflammatory cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 5 PMID:426040

  9. Early extracellular and cellular lipid deposits in aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    Subendothelial accumulation of extracellular liposomes rich in unesterified cholesterol has been described as an early feature of atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol feeding in rabbits. Beta-very-low-density lipoproteins, however, the presumed source of atherogenic lipid in this animal model, contain mostly esterified cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of extracellular neutral lipid deposits consistent with esterified cholesterol, by employing new electron microscopic techniques. Rabbits were fed 0.5% cholesterol, 5% butter for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The lipid-preserving ultrastructural techniques showed, in control and atherosclerotic rabbit arteries, neutral lipid droplets adherent to the endothelial luminal surface. After 1 to 2 weeks, subendothelial extracellular deposits of mostly membranous lipid appeared; these deposits contained variable amounts of neutral lipid. At the same time, cytoplasmic neutral lipid droplets appeared in smooth muscle cells and in a small number of subendothelial macrophagelike cells. After 4 weeks, monocytic infiltration and macrophage foam cell development were prominent, but abundant extracellular lipid deposits also were found. Therefore, in arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits, deposition of membranous and neutral lipid in the extracellular space and neutral lipid accumulation in resident arterial cells are early and probably independent events, both occurring before monocytic infiltration of the arterial intima. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1415485

  10. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aqueous centers accounted for more than 90% of the area occupied by lipid-rich structures in the core region. No foam cells were present. Cholesterol crystals, lipid droplets of a size similar to those in foam cells (0.4 to 6 mu), and larger neutral lipid deposits (greater than 6 mu) together occupied less than 10% of the total area of lipid structures. Abundant lipid vesicles were associated with the nearby presence of cholesterol crystals, whereas small lipid droplets were predominant in areas without crystals. Many droplets had surface defects in the form of pits and vesicular blebs. These morphologic findings are explained most concisely by postulating direct accumulation of extracellular lipid from interstitial lipoproteins as a major process in core region formation. Moreover, a dynamic state of ongoing physical/metabolic transformation of extracellular lipid deposits is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2646938

  11. Feedback inhibition of thymic secretory activity in mice treated by the thymic extract TP-1 (thymostimulin).

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, J; Ben-David, E; Sandbank, U

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes occurring in the medullary epithelium of the thymus of young mice, as a result of repeated injections of thymic extract, TP-1 (thymostimulin) was investigated. After daily injection of TP-1 for 3 weeks, no changes in thymus architecture could be observed by light microscopy. However, by electron microscopy, specific changes were noticed in the epithelial cells. The secretory granules became dilated and engorged; diameter of granules in normal control thymus was approximately 200-250 nm, but reached 1000 nm in treated mice. Degenerative changes appeared in some of these granules, including myelin bodies, distorted configuration and fat droplets. Signs of involution of whole cells and presence of cellular debri within macrophages were observed. Acid phosphatase staining disclosed many lysosomes containing ingested granules. No such findings were observed in control untreated mice, or in mice treated by a heart extract similarly prepared to TP-1. All these findings can be taken as ultrastructural evidence for feedback inhibition of thymic secretory activity, in analogy to the changes occurring other feedback inhibited, peptide hormone secreting glands. The data indicate that (i) the thymus respond to feedback inhibitory stimuli, as other endocrine glands do; (ii)TP-1, the thymic extract under study, contains a physiologically significant thymic hormone, which, when introduced in high doses can exert specific feedback inhibition. This can be taken as an additional, new criterion for the definition of thymic hormones. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7056566

  12. Restoration of junctional tetrads in dysgenic myotubes by dihydropyridine receptor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Takekura, H; Bennett, L; Tanabe, T; Beam, K G; Franzini-Armstrong, C

    1994-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling was restored in primary cultures of dysgenic myotubes by transfecting the cells with an expression plasmid encoding the rabbit skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor. Dishes containing normal, dysgenic, and transfected myotubes were fixed, freeze-fractured, and replicated for electron microscopy. Numerous small domains in the surface membrane of normal myotubes contain ordered arrays of intramembrane particles in groups of four (tetrads). The disposition of tetrads in the arrays is consistent with alternate positioning of tetrads relative to the underlying feet of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dysgenic myotubes have no arrays of tetrads. Some myotubes from successfully transfected cultures have arrays of tetrads with spacings equal to those found in normal myotubes. Thus the dihydropyridine receptor appears to be needed for the formation of tetrads and their association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum feet. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that each tetrad is composed of four dihydropyridine receptors. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7948692

  13. INSECTS AS ALLERGEN INJECTANTS—Severe Reactions to Bites and Stings of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Arthropods capable of penetrating human skin often cause severe local and systemic reactions. Local reactions suggest delayed hypersensitivity while systemic symptoms resemble more the anaphylactic shock in animals. The nature of the antigen remains obscure but predominant evidence suggests its presence throughout the entire organism. Positive history of hypersensitivity to insect injectants was obtained in approximately 20 per cent of persons in the course of routine interviews of 1,078 patients. Repeated bites and stings at long or irregular intervals often induce a state of hypersensitivity, while repeated regular injections of extracts of these insects at shorter intervals may greatly reduce the hypersensitivity. The clinical evidence of allergic sensitivity to insect bites and stings cannot be readily confirmed by skin testing or by other immunological procedures. The history and the character of the lesions as well as certain entomological knowledge of the habits of the insects offer a better basis for specific diagnosis. Treatment with extracts of the whole offending insect generally provides good results but the protection afforded by such treatment varies in degree and duration. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14485406

  14. Total lower lid reconstruction: technical details.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W L

    1976-01-01

    The main complications of this type of lower lid reconstruction are lash loss or malposition, entropion of the upper lid, upper lid retraction, undue laxity of the lower lid, and lid margin deformities. These can all be avioded by meticulous attention to surgical details and dressing techniques. I believe that this is the best and simplest method of providing a lid of acceptable function and appearance. The advantages of this type of operation are: (1) The new lower lid is constructed of lid tissue including the tarsus and conjunctiva from the upper lid. (2) The function and appearance of the new lower lid are acceptable with practically no tendency to late retraction. (3) The function and appearance of the upper lid need not be interfered with. (4) No external scars are produced except when a lash transplant is done. This transplant leaves a small, hardly noticeable scar in the lower part of the opposite brow. (5) The technique is relatively simple and well within the realm of any well-trained ophthalmic surgeon. The obvious disadvantages are the surgeon's inability to inspect the eye for two to four months and the inconvenience to the patient of having one eye closed for such a long period of time. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:867633

  15. Distribution of type XV collagen transcripts in human tissue and their production by muscle cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Kivirikko, S.; Saarela, J.; Myers, J. C.; Autio-Harmainen, H.; Pihlajaniemi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Type XV collagen is a recently identified member of the diverse family of collagens, its structure being characterized by extensive interruptions in the collagenous sequences. A combination of Northern blot hybridization of fetal and adult human tissues and in situ hybridization analyses of a fetus with Down's syndrome, several placentas, and adult skin were used to localize expression of its mRNAs. Northern blot analysis revealed marked expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and placenta tissues and moderate levels in the kidney and pancreas. Clear in situ hybridization signals were detected in fibroblasts and endothelial cells in all tissues studied. Examination of fetal heart, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle tissues showed that the high type XV collagen mRNA level in the muscle RNA was localized not only to fibroblasts residing in the endomysium but also to myoblasts. Interestingly, type XV collagen mRNAs were also synthesized by certain epithelial cells in kidney, lung, pancreas, and placenta. It was the morphologically immature glomeruli in the kidney and the lower parts of the nephron, especially the collecting ducts, that contained these mRNAs but not the mature glomeruli or proximal tubules, suggesting differences in expression during development. These findings indicate a wide distribution of type XV collagen transcripts, the main producers being mesenchymally derived cells, particularly muscle cells and fibroblasts. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7485412

  16. Basic fibroblast growth factor has a differential effect on MyoD conversion of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from newborn and adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    van Neck, J. W.; Medina, J. J.; Onnekink, C.; van der Ven, P. F.; Bloemers, H. P.; Schwartz, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    MyoD is a master regulatory gene for myogenesis that also converts many mesoderm-derived cells into the skeletal muscle phenotype. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells do not contain MyoD homologous mRNA. However, expression of an exogenously supplied MyoD gene in aortic smooth muscle cells cultured from newborn and adult animals converts these cells to elongated myoblasts and myotubes expressing the skeletal muscle genes for titin, nebulin, myosin, and skeletal alpha-actin. The presence of basic fibroblast growth factor during growth and serum starvation completely inhibits MyoD-mediated conversion in cultures of newborn smooth muscle cells. However, in smooth muscle cell cultures derived from adult rats the presence of fibroblast growth factor increases the conversion frequency. The differential response of exogenous MyoD suggests that the two morphological types of aortic smooth muscle cells, one typical for the newborn rat, the other for the adult rat, represent two distinctive states of differentiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8391216

  17. Cystic dystrophy of the gastric and duodenal wall developing in heterotopic pancreas: an unrecognised entity.

    PubMed Central

    Fléjou, J F; Potet, F; Molas, G; Bernades, P; Amouyal, P; Fékété, F

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients in whom cystic dystrophy developed in a heterotopic pancreas of the duodenal (nine patients) or gastric (one patient) wall are reported. All were young or middle aged white men, only two of whom were alcoholic. The symptoms were caused by intestinal or biliary stenosis, or both, secondary to the inflammation and fibrosis. Only endosonography provided strong evidence for the diagnosis in three patients. All patients underwent surgery: a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in eight patients. The surgical specimen showed cystic lesions of the gut wall, occurring in inflammatory and fibrous heterotopic pancreatic tissue. The pancreas proper was normal in all patients. It is suggested that cystic dystrophy is an uncommon and serious complication of heterotopic pancreas. Similar cases associated with chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas have been observed and it is suggested that this process could be responsible for some of the chronic pancreatitis encountered in young, non-alcoholic patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8097180

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  19. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  20. Myocardial changes in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Ultrastructural evidence of immune damage and the role of microangiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Andrade, S. G.; Correa, R.; Sadigursky, M.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1994-01-01

    Histological and ultrastructural studies of the hearts of dogs sacrificed 18 to 26 days after intraperitoneal inoculation with 4 x 10(5) blood forms of the 12 SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi/kg of body weight disclosed myocarditis characterized by parasitic invasion of some myocytes, damage and necrosis of nonparasitized myocytes, and interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells. Nonparasitized myocytes showed alterations ranging from mild edema to severe myocytolysis. These changes often were accompanied by contacts of myocytes with lymphocytes (both granular and agranular) and macrophages. These contacts were characterized by focal loss of the myocyte basement membrane and close approximation of the plasma membranes of the two cells. Contacts between lymphocytes and capillary endothelial cells were also frequent. Platelet aggregates and fibrin microthrombi were observed in some capillaries. Our findings suggest that immune effector cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the myocyte damage and the microangiopathy in acute Chagas' disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8203476

  1. Cellular immune response in multiple sclerosis plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, E. A.; McGeer, P. L.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis plaques were immunohistochemically stained to exhibit cells expressing immune-system antigens. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-positive cells formed dense rings around all plaque regions. The majority were reactive microglia/macrophages. Counterstaining with oil red O revealed heavy myelin debris within these cells. They were distinct from astrocytes, which were identified with an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and which did not contain oil red O myelin debris. Numerous leukocytes and microglia were stained with antibody to leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Lymphocytes in cuffs around vessels, along the margins of capillary walls, and, sparingly, in the tissue matrix of affected areas, were stained with antibodies to CD4 (T-helper/inducer) and CD8 (T-cytotoxic/suppressor). In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats, a similar proliferation of Ia-positive (OX6, OX17) cells displaying reactive microglia/macrophage morphology was observed. These Ia-positive cells also were easily distinguished from GFAP-positive astrocytes. The results suggest that macrophages/reactive microglia, and not astrocytes, express class II MHC antigens in multiple sclerosis and EAE plaques. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1698025

  2. Ultrastructural cytochemistry of the ischemic (endocrine) kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Araujo-Nascimento, M. d.; Désormeaux, Y.; Cantin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Partial ligation of the aorta between the renal arteries induces marked atrophy of the cortical tubules (including the macula densa) of the left (endocrine) kidney with a remarkable increase in the number and granularity of hypersecretory juxtaglomerular granulated cells (JGC) which are found not only at the glomerular pole of arterioles but also in the walls of arteries and arterioles far removed from the glomerulus. Staining of fine sections of Araldite-embedded endocrine kidneys according to the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate technique of Thiery reveals abundant glycogen in the JGC and less in the blood vessels and tubules. Juxtaglomerular granules are argentaphobic, but their rim is positively stained when ultrathin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed, glycol methacrylate-embedded kidneys are exposed to phosphotungstic acid at a low pH. A positive reaction is also shown by the cell coat and lysosomes of JGC as well as by the thickened basal lamina, cell coat, cytosomes, and cytosegresomes of the atrophic tubules. Atrophy is most pronounced in the proximal convoluted tubules, which lose their apical microvilli, their basal infoldings and the majority of their mitochondria and cytosomes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1258975

  3. Ultrastructural damage associated with the Ca2+ paradox. The protective effect of Mn2+.

    PubMed Central

    Elz, J. S.; Nayler, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    Hearts repleted with Ca2+-containing buffers after only a few minutes of Ca2+-free perfusioN display extensive ultrastructural damage and accumulate Ca2+. Ultrastructural damage includes separation of the intercalated disks, development of contracture bands, and splitting of the internal and external layers of the glycocalyx. In this study, the authors have used isolated spontaneously beating Langendorff perfused hearts to investigate whether Mn2+ alters the ultrastructural damage associated with Ca2+ repletion after Ca2+-free perfusion, previous studies having shown that it attenuates or abolishes the gain in Ca2+ which normally occurs under these conditions. Mn2+ added only at the time of Ca2+ repletion did not attenuate the ultrastructural damage. When Mn2+ (2 mM) was added during the Ca2+-free period or the Ca2+-free and Ca2+ repletion periods, however, the hearts were not as extensively damaged. The myofibrils were relaxed, and the intercalated disks were intact. However, splitting of the glycocalyx still occurred and was a prominent feature. These results indicate that splitting of the glycocalyx per se does not necessarily result in a massive gain in Ca2+ when Ca2+ is returned to Ca2+-depleted hearts. Possible mechanisms of action of Mn2+ are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6486241

  4. Chronic systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs causes pronounced urothelial growth with accumulation of glycoconjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Vinter-Jensen, L.; Juhl, C. O.; Djurhuus, J. C.; Poulsen, S. S.; Dajani, E. Z.; Brown, K. D.; Orntoft, T. F.; Teglbjaerg, P. S.; Nexø, E.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in large amounts in the urine, but the effects of systemically administered EGF on the urinary tract have not been described previously. In the present paper, we describe a potent growth induction of EGF on the urinary tract. Goettingen minipigs were treated with solvent (n = 5), EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day (n = 6) for 4 weeks, or EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day for 5 weeks followed by 3 weeks of recovery (n = 5). The ureters and bladders were examined by routine histology and electron microscopy and were immunostained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Four weeks of EGF treatment increased the median cross sectional area of the ureter fourfold with growth of all wall layers. The urothelium was widened from 5 cell layers in the controls to 10 in the EGF-treated animals. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining revealed an increased mitotic activity in the basal zone of the urothelium. In the luminal zone, glycoconjugates accumulated in goblet cells, in cells with intracytoplasmic lumina, and beneath the luminal cell membrane in the umbrella cells. Our studies present a new experimental approach to growth induction of the urinary tract. The findings implicate the EGF system in regulating urothelial growth and glycoconjugate biosynthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7485396

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Root-Specific Barley Lectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, David R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1989-01-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNA library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A+) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A+) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666982

  6. Remedial Investigation Report, Presidio Main Installation, Presidio of San Francisco. Volume 3: Figures Sections 1-5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    0.01 LITHOLOGY FILL 070, 70 Zinc 406.721 843SS05 , UITHOLOGY FILi Zinc 190 :’ s - p - • 6843SB01 DEPTH 2.0’ 5.0’LITHOLOGY FILL I FIL DET .1DEPTH 2.0’ 4.8...Final Remedial Investigation Report Presidio Main Installation Presidio of San Francisco Volume III Figures Sections 1-5 Contract No. DAAA 15-90-D-00...contract No. DAAA15-90-D-0018 with the USAEC. Volume II, this volume , of the Final Remedial Investigation Report contains the figures referenced by

  7. Physiology of bone: mineral compartment proteins as candidates for environmental perturbation by lead.

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, J J; Somerman, M J

    1991-01-01

    Termine et al. first demonstrated that sequential dissociative extraction and fractionation procedures with protease inhibitors could provide a convenient approach for the study of mineral compartment constituents. The primary extraction regimen used 4 M guanidine HCl to remove most of the protein from the nonmineralized phase of bone. Subsequently, EDTA-guanidine was used to remove the mineral-phase components. These methods discriminate on the basis of physical-chemical association with a mineral phase rather than on the specific gene products of a particular cell. In the present discussion emphasis is directed at a group of divalent cation binding proteins isolated from the mineral compartment of bone. The localization, synthesis, and chemical characteristics of osteonectin, bone sialoproteins I and II, and bone acidic glycoprotein-75 are discussed and offered as possible sites for perturbation by the environment with lead exposure. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3. PMID:2040255

  8. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  9. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  10. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  11. PubMed Central

    Frenette, Gilles

    1978-01-01

    The implantation of an upper limb is probably better than the best prostheses available today, provided the patient gains some sensitivity. This is quite separate from the psychological advantage. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 3 PMID:21304806

  12. Solar Power Optimization Tool for Onsite Needs (SPOT-ON) User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Launch SPOT-ON. 3 Figure 2. SITE view. Table 1. Surface type and fractional albedo. Desert, Light soil 0.30 Deciduous forest , Green...meadows 0.15 Coniferous forest , Dark soil 0.10 Fresh snow 0.85 Snow 0.55 Crops 0.20 4 Figure 3. Surface choices. Figure 4 displays a screen

  13. Durability of ceramic and novel man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I C; Brown, R C; Jubb, G A; Pickering, P; Hoskins, J A

    1994-01-01

    In vitro solubility testing is an important means of assessing the likely behavior of fibers that are respired and accumulate in the lung. The problem has been that such tests often do not mirror the dissolution and removal mechanisms seen in vivo. Comparison of iron and silica solubility values of various types of mineral fiber showed no obvious correlation. Treating a mineral fiber containing high levels of calcium with normal balanced salt solutions produces a precipitate of calcium phosphate on the fiber surface. This deposit was not seen in fibers isolated from the lung of exposed animals. New solutions have been developed and with variations in the methods of exposing fibers, results similar to those seen in vivo have been obtained. Suitable fluid phases have been examined in static and flow-through systems. The relationship of solubility to biological activity is discussed. Images Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. PMID:7882958

  14. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R.

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  15. A Database Approach to Computer Integrated Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    I Sgurce a ic spindle machine 2 boring machine 1 milling machine 5 assembly station 4 Figure 76. Average Processing Time time units required fc m to...1 spindle machine assembly station 2 boring machine milling machine 2 boring machine assembly station 1 milling machine assembly station 2 Figure 77

  16. A Brief Journey Through the History of Gun Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    1 Figure 2. The challenge for more performance: increasing the area under the pressure vs. travel...curve without exceeding system pressure limits..............................................................2 Figure 3. (a) Noble crusher gage (4); (b...5). ..............................4 Figure 5. Predicted pressure vs. time profiles for nominal telescoped ammunition (12). ..............5 Figure

  17. Robust Defense Against Small Boat Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Figure 1. Network Representation of Port Terrain (Abdul-Ghaffar, 2008) ......................4 Figure 2. Technical Specifications of Baja Outlaw and... of small vessels operating in proximity to important maritime infrastructure, such as bridges and petrochemical plants , and to passenger and...Figure 2). Figure 2. Technical Specifications of Baja Outlaw and SAFE Defender (Abdul- Ghaffar) D. RESULTS OF THE PRIOR ANALYSIS Abdul-Ghaffar

  18. Gene expression of GLUT3 glucose transporter regulated by glucose in vivo in mouse brain and in vitro in neuronal cell cultures from rat embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, S; Sawa, H; Inoue, N; Nakamichi, Y; Takeshima, H; Hoshino, T

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether glucose regulates the gene expression of glucose transporter GLUT3 in neurons. We examined the regulation of GLUT3 mRNA by glucose in vivo in mouse brain and in vitro by using neuronal cultures from rat embryos. Hypoglycaemia (< 30 mg/dl), produced by 72 h of starvation, increased GLUT3 mRNA in mouse brain by 2-fold. Hybridization studies in situ demonstrated that hypoglycaemia-induced increases in GLUT3 mRNA expression were observed selectively in brain regions including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex and piriform cortex, but not the cerebellum. Primary neuronal cultures from rat embryos deprived of glucose for 48 h also showed an increase (4-fold over control) in GLUT3 mRNA, indicating that glucose can directly regulate expression of GLUT3 mRNA. In contrast with hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia produced by streptozotocin did not alter the expression of GLUT3 mRNA. We also confirmed previous findings that hypoglycaemia increases GLUT1 mRNA expression in brain. The increase in GLUT1 expression was probably limited to the blood-brain barrier in vivo, since GLUT1 mRNA could not be detected in neurons of the mouse cerebrum. Thus we conclude that up-regulation of neuronal GLUT3 in response to glucose starvation represents a protective mechanism against energy depletion in neurons. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8198523

  19. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. METHODS: Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. RESULTS: The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9833800

  20. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: a new subtype of albinism classified as "OCA3".

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, R. E.; Zhao, H.; Oetting, W. S.; Austin, L. M.; Wildenberg, S. C.; Boissy, Y. L.; Zhao, Y.; Sturm, R. A.; Hearing, V. J.; King, R. A.; Nordlund, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase- related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as "OCA3." Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8651291

  1. A novel exocytoplasmic endonuclease from Streptomyces antibioticus.

    PubMed Central

    Cal, S; Aparicio, J F; de los Reyes-Gavilan, C G; Nicieza, R G; Sanchez, J

    1995-01-01

    A new exocytoplasmic, nutritionally controlled endodeoxyribonuclease (EC 3.1.21.-) was purified to homogeneity from Streptomyces antibioticus. The enzyme showed an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa (being active in the monomeric form) and a pI of approximately 7.8. The nuclease hydrolysed endonucleolytically double-stranded circular and linear DNA. The enzyme makes nicks in one strand of the DNA in G-rich regions, leaving either 5' or 3' short, single-stranded overhangs with 3'-hydroxy and 5'-phosphate termini. Breaks in the DNA occur when two nicks in opposite strands are close together. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 7.5 and an absolute requirement for bivalent cations and > or = 100 mM NaCl in the reaction buffer. Activity was greatly diminished in the presence of phosphate, Hg2+ or iodoacetate and was stimulated by dimethyl sulphoxide. Single-stranded DNA was a much poorer substrate than double-stranded DNA. The nuclease hydrolyses sequences of three or preferably more (dG).(dC) tracts in the DNA. The initial specificity shifts to other sequences (including sequences shorter than those initially hydrolysed) during the course of the reaction, giving the changing pattern of bands observed in agarose gels. 5-Methylcytosine-hemimethylated DNA is not hydrolysed by the nuclease. The properties of this novel enzyme suggest a relationship with class II restriction endonucleases and also with some eukaryotic nucleases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7864833

  2. Effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants on amphibian oogenesis: methoxychlor inhibits progesterone-induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pickford, D B; Morris, I D

    1999-01-01

    There is currently little evidence of pollution-induced endocrine dysfunction in amphibia, in spite of widespread concern over global declines in this ecologically diverse group. Data regarding the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) on reproductive function in amphibia are particularly lacking. We hypothesized that estrogenic EDCs may disrupt progesterone-induced oocyte maturation in the adult amphibian ovary, and tested this with an in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown assay using defolliculated oocytes from the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. While a variety of natural and synthetic estrogens and xenoestrogens were inactive in this system, the proestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor was a surprisingly potent inhibitor of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation (median inhibitive concentration, 72 nM). This inhibitory activity was specific to methoxychlor, rather than to its estrogenic contaminants or metabolites, and was not antagonized by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, suggesting that this activity is not estrogenic per se. The inhibitory activity of methoxychlor was dose dependent, reversible, and early acting. However, washout was unable to reverse the effect of short methoxychlor exposure, and methoxychlor did not competitively displace [3H]progesterone from a specific binding site in the oocyte plasma membrane. Therefore, methoxychlor may exert its action not directly at the site of progesterone action, but downstream on early events in maturational signaling, although the precise mechanism of action is unclear. The activity of methoxychlor in this system indicates that xenobiotics may exert endocrine-disrupting effects through interference with progestin-regulated processes and through mechanisms other than receptor antagonism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10090707

  3. Immunocytochemical patterns of islet cell tumors as defined by the monoclonal antibody HISL-19.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, C.; Krisch, K.; Horvat, G.; Srikanta, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 51 islet cell tumors removed from 28 patients was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HISL-19. The antibody was produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with human islet cells and was found to react with a wide range of neuroendocrine and neural cells. All tumors presented positive immunoreaction showing various combinations of 2 basic patterns. The first pattern reflected the immunostaining of the secretory granules of the tumor cells. This "granular" staining was predominantly associated with benign neoplasms and with the tumoral production of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), while it was absent or inconsistent in most insulin-secreting tumors. The second pattern consisted of focal immunoreactive aggregates located in a peri- (and, in polarized cells, supra-) nuclear position. This "cluster-type" staining showed a good morphologic and topographic correspondence with the Golgi apparatus of the cells of the same tumors, as shown by electron microscopy. The latter pattern was well represented in all types of islet cell tumors except those producing PP. Moreover, it was more apparent in less differentiated tumors in which the granular pattern was often absent or inconsistent. Cluster-type (but not granular) immunoreactivity was frequently found in some nonendocrine, nontumoral pancreatic structures, particularly in the epithelium of small ducts. However, the immunoreactive aggregates of nonendocrine cells were distinctly less prominent than those of endocrine cells. On the basis of a comparison with other immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine cells, it is concluded that the HISL-19 monoclonal antibody presents specific staining characteristics useful for the cytologic analysis of islet cell tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2840831

  4. Increased oxidative DNA damage and hepatocyte overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in hepatitis of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed Central

    Sipowicz, M. A.; Chomarat, P.; Diwan, B. A.; Anver, M. A.; Awasthi, Y. C.; Ward, J. M.; Rice, J. M.; Kasprzak, K. S.; Wild, C. P.; Anderson, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A recently discovered bacterium, Helicobacter hepaticus, infects the intrahepatic bile canaliculi of mice, causing a severe chronic hepatitis culminating in liver cancer. Thus, it affords an animal model for study of bacteria-associated tumorigenesis including H. pylori-related gastric cancer. Reactive oxygen species are often postulated to contribute to this process. We now report that hepatitis of male mice infected with H. hepaticus show significant increases in the oxidatively damaged DNA deoxynucleoside 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, with the degree of damage increasing with progression of the disease. Perfusion of infected livers with nitro blue tetrazolium revealed that superoxide was produced in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, especially in association with plasmacytic infiltrates near portal triads. Contrary to expectations, Kupffer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were rarely involved. However, levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 1A2 and 2A5 in hepatocytes appeared to be greatly increased, as indicated by the number of cells positive in immunohistochemistry and the intensity of staining in many cells, concomitant with severe hepatitis. The CYP2A5 immunohistochemical staining co-localized with formazan deposits resulting from nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and occurred in nuclei as well as cytoplasm. These findings suggest that CYP2A5 contributes to the superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation, although reactive oxygen species from an unknown source in the hepatocytes leading to CYP2A5 induction or coincidental occurrence of these events are also possibilities. Three glutathione S-transferase isoforms, mGSTP1-1 (pi), mGSTA1-1 (YaYa), and mGSTA4-4, also showed striking increases evidencing major oxidative stress in these livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327726

  5. Dose response for TCDD promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats initiated with DEN: histologic, biochemical, and cell proliferation endpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, R R; Foley, J F; Takahashi, K; Goldsworthy, T; Clark, G; Tritscher, A; Portier, C; Lucier, G

    1993-01-01

    The present study examines the dose-response relationship for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) promotion of histologic and biochemical parameters by using a two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats initiated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 175 mg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/kg body weight at 70 days of age. Starting 2 weeks after initiation, treatment groups of 8-10 rats were given TCDD by gavage in corn oil once every 2 weeks for 30 weeks. Doses were 3.5, 10.7, 35.7, and 125 ng TCDD/kg body weight/day. A significant body weight reduction was present in the noninitiated group that received 125 ng TCDD. Relative liver weight was statistically increased in initiated rats treated with > or = 10.7 ng TCDD and in noninitiated rats treated with > or = 35.7 ng TCDD. Histopathologic evidence of cytotoxicity was dose-related in all TCDD-treated groups. There was a statistically significant dose response in the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) S-phase labeling index (LI) in the DEN-initiated rats (p < 0.01) and a marginally significant trend in the saline-treated rats (p = 0.10), but proliferating cell nuclear antigen S-phase LI and growth fraction within altered hepatic foci showed no increase. Among the DEN-initiated groups there was a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase altered hepatic foci stereological parameters in the 125 ng TCDD group. This study demonstrates that dose-response relationships for TCDD's effects on cell proliferation growth of altered hepatic foci are different from previously reported effects on P450 gene expression, indicating that different biological or biochemical responses may exhibit different dose-response relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8143597

  6. The pathogenesis of hyaline arteriolosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, C. N.

    1986-01-01

    Although hyaline arteriolosclerosis is very common and has been of interest to pathologists for well over 100 years, its pathogenesis has never been determined. This study demonstrates that iC3b bound via an ester linkage to hydroxyl groups on the repeating disaccharide units of hyaluronic acid is a major component of arteriolar hyaline. The deposition of iC3b within the walls of arterioles appears to be due to slow spontaneous activation of the alternative complement pathway and random binding of metastable C3b to proximate hyaluronic acid within the arteriolar wall. Since hyaluronic acid does not activate the alternative complement pathway, bound C3b is rapidly inactivated by factors I and H to iC3b, which, along with factor H, remains bound to hyaluronic acid. The hyaline in some hyalinized arterioles also contains IgM and early and late classical complement pathway components. Indirect evidence suggests that the IgM represents immunoconglutinin, an autoantibody to neoantigens on iC3b and that their interaction results in activation of the classical complement pathway. The gradual accumulation of iC3b, factor H, and, at times, IgM and classical complement pathway components within the walls of arterioles is considered to be a physiologic consequence of aging and probably cannot be prevented, because interruption of the initial binding of metastable C3b to hyaluronic acid would require abrogation of the critically important functions of the alternative complement pathway. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2420184

  7. Human liver tumors in relation to steroidal usage.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, G H; Christopherson, W M

    1983-01-01

    Since 1973 a number of investigators have reported an association between liver neoplasia and steroid usage. Through referral material we have examined the histology of over 250 cases of hepatic neoplasia, most in patients receiving steroid medications. The majority have been benign, predominantly focal nodular hyperplasia (55%) and hepatocellular adenoma (39%). The average age was 31.4 years; 83% had significant steroid exposure with an average duration of 71 months for focal nodular hyperplasia and 79.6 months for hepatocellular adenoma. The type of estrogenic agent was predominantly mestranol; however, during the period mestranol was the most frequently used synthetic steroid. A distinct clinical entity of life threatening hemorrhage from the lesion occurred in 31% of patients with hepatocellular adenoma and 9% of patients with focal nodular hyperplasia. Recurrence of benign tumors has occurred in some patients who continued using steroids and regression has been observed in patients who had incomplete tumor removal but discontinued steroid medication. Medial and intimal vascular changes have been present in a large number of the benign tumors. The relationship of these vascular changes to oncogenesis is unclear, but similar lesions have been described in the peripheral vasculature associated with steroid administration. A number of hepatocellular carcinomas have also been seen. Of significance is the young age of these patients and lack of abnormal histology in adjacent nonneoplastic liver. A striking number of the malignant hepatocellular tumors have been of the uncommon type described as "eosinophilic hepatocellular carcinoma with lamellar fibrosis." The epidemiology of liver lesions within this series is difficult to assess, since the material has been referred from very diverse locations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:6307679

  8. Deletion of RB exons 24 and 25 causes low-penetrance retinoblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, R; Du, D C; Connolly-Wilson, M J; Bridge, P; Ahmad, K F; Mostachfi, H; Rushlow, D; Dunn, J M; Gallie, B L

    1997-01-01

    A deletion in the tumor-suppressor gene, RB, discovered by quantitative multiplex PCR, shows low penetrance (LP), since only 39% of eyes at risk in this family develop retinoblastoma. The 4-kb deletion spanning exons 24 and 25 (delta24-25) is the largest ever observed in an LP retinoblastoma family. Unlike the usual RB mutations, which cause retinoblastoma in 95% of at-risk eyes and yield no detectable protein, the delta24-25 allele transcribed a message splicing exon 23 to exon 26, resulting in a detectable protein (pRBdelta24-25) that lacks 58 amino acids from the C-terminal domain, proving that this domain is essential for suppression of retinoblastoma. Two functions were partially impaired by delta24-25-nuclear localization and repression of E2F-consistent with the idea that LP mutations generate "weak alleles" by reducing but not eliminating essential activities. However, delta24-25 ablated interaction of pRB with MDM2. Since a homozygous LP allele is considered nontumorigenic, the pRB/MDM2 interaction may be semi- or nonessential for suppressing retinoblastoma. Alternatively, some homozygous LP alleles may not cause tumorigenesis because an additional event is required (the "three-hit hypothesis"), or the resulting imbalance in pRB function may cause apoptosis (the "death allele hypothesis"). pRBdelta24-25 was also completely defective in suppressing growth of Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. Targeting pRBdelta24-25 to the nucleus did not improve Saos-2 growth suppression, suggesting that C-terminal domain functions other than nuclear localization are essential for blocking proliferation in these cells. Since delta24-25 behaves like a null allele in these cells but like an LP allele in the retina, pRB may use different mechanisms to control growth in different cell types. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9326321

  9. Cardiac disease induced by chronic adriamycin administration in dogs and an evaluation of vitamin E and selenium as cardioprotectants.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Weirich, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic adriamycin (ADR) intoxication was produced in three groups of beagle dogs by weekly intravenous injections (1 mg/kg body weight) for 20 weeks (cumulative dose 400 mg/sq m). Group A (6 dogs) received ADR only; Group B (6 dogs) were given ADR and weekly doses of vitamin E (17 mg/kg body weight) as alpha-tocopherol acetate; and Group C (6 dogs) received ADR and weekly doses of vitamin E as did Group B and selenium (0.06 mg/kg body weight as selenite). Each of the 18 dogs developed ADR-induced cardiomyopathy (CMY), and death occurred in 11 dogs during Weeks 17-20. Mortality was lowest in Group B (2 of 6), but no differences between groups were seen either in survival time of the dogs that died or in severity of CMY. Cardiomyopathy was more severe in dogs that died than in survivors. Congestive heart failure with transudation was present in 4 of 11 dogs that died. Cardiac histopathology was characterized by vacuolar degeneration of myocytes. Myocardial damage was most severe in the left ventricle and the ventricular septum, intermediate in the right ventricle and the left atrium, and least in the right atrium. Ultrastructural study showed that an early alteration in damaged myocytes was distention of sarcoplasmic reticulum to form sarcoplasmic vacuoles. Occasional damaged fibers had myofibrillar lysis and focal proliferation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study demonstrates that the dog offers a suitable model for studies of chronic ADR cardiotoxicity in man. The lack of cardioprotection from vitamin E and selenium supplementation fails to support the proposed role of lipoperoxidative damage in the development of chronic ADR-induced CMY. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 PMID:7361854

  10. Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J R; Grossman, C M; Morton, W E; Nussbaum, R H; Kordysh, E A; Quastel, M R; Sobel, R B; Nussbaum, F D

    1999-01-01

    We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10090710

  11. Retrospective on community dentistry and public health at the University of Southern California (1966-1976), Part 2.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    The authorization of departments of community dentistry and public health in the nation's dental schools is a relatively recent innovation in dental education. Such a department was established at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry in 1966, as part of the School of Medicine's effort to share responsibility in providing both access and availability of health services in inner-city Los Angeles, California. Dentistry was included in the protocol submitted to the US Office of Economic Opportunity to build a neighborhood health center in Watts, operated under the joint jurisdiction of the medical and dental schools. The dental division of the health center was designated a satellite of the community dentistry department. The department envisioned future changes during the revolutionary 1960s when all aspects of the nation were experiencing upheaval as traditional concepts were challenged by new attitudes. The nation's leaders in government and education as well as in the health professions were stimulated by scientific and technologic discoveries. Dentistry had come of age, having gained the respect of other health-care disciplines. It was a time of expanded exploration of means toward a healthier populace and a more sensitive ethical provider of health care. In one decade, the USC community dentistry department accomplished a major shift in attitude about the specialty from one of pervasive opposition and antipathy to that of acceptance and even enthusiasm. The department became competitive with similar units nationwide in educating dental students and practitioners to fulfill their responsibilities at the highest level of proficiency and to be true to the trust bestowed on them by the public. In pursuit of these goals, the department reflected credit on dentistry and the University of Southern California. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9617072

  12. Planned ventral hernia. Staged management for acute abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, T C; Croce, M A; Pritchard, F E; Minard, G; Hickerson, W L; Howell, R L; Schurr, M J; Kudsk, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analysis of a staged management scheme for initial and definitive management of acute abdominal wall defects is provided. METHODS: A four-staged scheme for managing acute abdominal wall defects consists of the following stages: stage I--prosthetic insertion; stage II--2 to 3 weeks after prosthetic insertion and wound granulation, the prosthesis is removed; stage III--2 to 3 days later, planned ventral hernia (split thickness skin graft [STSG] or full-thickness skin and subcutaneous fat); stage IV--6 to 12 months later, definitive reconstruction. Cases were evaluated retrospectively for benefits and risks of the techniques employed. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases (39 visceral edema, 27 abdominal sepsis, 22 abdominal wall resection) were managed during 8.5 years. Prostheses included polypropylene mesh in 45 cases, polyglactin 910 mesh in 27, polytetrafluorethylene in 10, and plastic in 6. Twenty-four patients died from their initial disease. The fistula rates associated with prosthetic management was 9%; no wound-related mortality occurred. Most wounds had split thickness skin graft applied after prosthetic removal. Definitive reconstruction was undertaken in 21 patients in the authors' institution (prosthetic mesh in 12 and modified components separation in 9). Recurrent hernias developed in 33% of mesh reconstructions and 11% of the components separation technique. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that 1) this staged approach was associated with low morbidity and no technique-related mortality; 2) prostheses placed for edema were removed with fascial approximation accomplished in half of those cases; 3) absorbable mesh provided the advantages of reasonable durability, ease of removal, and relatively low cost--it has become the prosthesis of choice; and 4) the modified components separation technique of reconstruction provided good results in patients with moderate sized defects. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8203973

  13. Heat shock protein 27 expression in human proximal tubule cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of CdCl2.

    PubMed Central

    Somji, S; Sens, D A; Garrett, S H; Sens, M A; Todd, J H

    1999-01-01

    The expression of hsp 27 mRNA and protein was determined in cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd2+ under both acute and extended conditions. Initial procedures demonstrated that HPT cells display the classic stress response following physical and chemical stress. Heat stress (42.5 degrees C for 1 hr) caused an increase in both hsp 27 mRNA and protein as well as a shift in the protein to a more phosphorylated state. Results were similar when the cells were subjected to chemical stress (exposure to 100 microM sodium arsenite for 4 hr). Acute exposure to 53 microM CdCl2 for 4 hr also resulted in an increase in hsp 27 mRNA and protein and a shift to the more phosphorylated protein isoform. Extended Cd2+ exposure involved continuous treatment with Cd2+ at both lethal and sublethal levels over a 16-day time course. The results of this treatment showed that chronic exposure to Cd2+ failed to increase either hsp 27 mRNA or protein expression in HPT cells, even at lethal Cd2+ concentrations. In fact, hsp 27 protein levels decreased as compared to controls at both lethal and sub-lethal exposure to Cd2+. These findings imply that hsp 27 expression in human proximal tubule cells may have two distinct modes depending on the nature (acute vs. chronic) of the stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10379001

  14. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  15. Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) on the Thyroid Gland of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William T.; Capen, Charles C.; Kasza, Louis; Carter, Celester; Dailey, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions in thyroid follicular cells and reductions in serum thyroxine levels in rats that were time- and dose-dependent. The acute effects (4 week) of PCB (50 and 500 ppm) consisted of an accumulation of lysosomal bodies and colloid droplets in follicular cells with abnormalities of microvilli on the luminal surface. The chronic administration (12 week) of PCB (50 and 500/250 ppm) resulted in a striking distention of many follicular cells with large lysosomal bodies with strong acid phosphatase activity and colloid droplets, blunt and abnormally branched microvilli, and mitochondrial vacuolation. These ultrastructural alterations in follicular cells were associated with a highly significant reduction in serum thyroxine with both the low and the high dose of PCB. Follicular cells remained responsive to the lowered thyroxine level after feeding PCB for 4 and 12 weeks and underwent moderate compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Thyroid follicles were smaller than in controls and were lined by more columnar cells that occasionally formed papillary projections into the colloid. Residual ultrastructural alterations persisted for 12 weeks following cessation of feeding the compound, and serum thyroxine levels were significantly lower than in control rats. However, 35 weeks after discontinuing PCB, thyroid follicular cells were similar to those in controls and serum thyroxine levels had returned to normal. The striking ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells produced by feeding PCB to rats appeared to contribute to the lowering of serum thyroxine levels, in combination with the known stimulation of peripheral thyroxine metabolism by these compounds. Certain metabolic alterations produced by PCB intoxication in experimental animals and human beings may be related to an alteration in thyroid function. ImagesFigure 7Figure 8Figure 11Figure 12Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 9Figure 10 PMID

  16. Neuronal injury after photoactivation of photofrin II.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Y.; Dereski, M. O.; Garcia, J. H.; Hetzel, F. W.; Chopp, M.

    1992-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been used in the management of patients with malignant brain tumors even though the effects of this form of treatment on the adjacent normal brain are incompletely characterized. The authors examined, in sequential experiments, morphologic alterations affecting the cerebral cortex in rats injected with Photophrin II and exposed to light. Initially, minimal cell alterations, including cisternal swelling of both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, involved only neurons located in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex exposed to light. These changes spread, over a period of several hours, from the surface to the bottom of the cortex and eventually involved the entire cortical segment exposed to light. The earliest structural signs of lethal injury to neurons developed over a period of 18 hours after porphyrins had been photoactivated and astrocytes had been severely damaged. Signs of lethal injury to neurons included an increase in the number of mitochondrial cristae and appearance of amorphous electron-dense deposits within swollen mitochondria. The appearance of these alterations was followed by segregation of intracytoplasmic organelles and fragmentation of nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes. The tissue changes, including those involving neurons, eventually progressed to coagulation necrosis at 48 hours. These observations suggest that prophyrins injected to rats (48 hours before photoactivation) cause swelling and necrosis of astrocytes. This is followed by neuronal necrosis, which appears at two time intervals; the initial neuronal necrosis occurs after the astrocytic disintegration. A second type of neuronal alteration appears after microvessels become thrombosed and ischemia is likely to develop. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1415489

  17. Ultrastructure of the attack of eosinophils stimulated by blood mononuclear cell products on schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, J. P.; Lenzi, H. L.; Elsas, P.; Dessein, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified human eosinophils were treated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants containing eosinophil cytotoxic enhancing activity (ECEA). Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni which had been coated either with antibody (Ab) from the sera of infected patients or with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were incubated with ECEA-treated and untreated cells for 2 minutes to 12 hours and examined ultrastructurally. Killing was assayed at 18 hours. ECEA caused an increase in the killing of Ab-coated worms, but Con-A-coated worms were not killed by either ECEA-treated or untreated cells. Eosinophils began to degranulate on Ab-coated worms within 2 minutes and continued to degranulate, so that by 12 hours about half of the parasites had greater than 50% of their surface covered by discharge material. The ECEA-treated cells degranulated more than the untreated cells. There was much less discharge material on Con-A-coated worms than on Ab-coated worms. Eosinophils adhered to discharge material on the surface of both Ab- and Con-A-coated parasites. At 3 and 12 hours, lysed cells and cell fragments were also seen adhering to discharge material. In the absence of discharge material the cells adhered to residual glycocalyx or to the tegumental outer membrane. These studies suggest that eosinophils kill schistosomula by progressively degranulating onto their surface over many hours and that the increased toxicity caused by ECEA is due to an increase in discharge. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:4037065

  18. Urinary nickel excretion in populations living in the proximity of two russian nickel refineries: a Norwegian-Russian population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Sivertsen, T; Tchachtchine, V; Lund, E; Bykov, V; Thomassen, Y; Norseth, T

    1998-01-01

    The Russian nickel refineries located in the cities of Nikel and Zapolyarny close to the Norwegian border are responsible for extensive sulfur dioxide and nickel pollution, as well as severe ecological damage in both countries. The aim of our study was to investigate human nickel exposure in the populations living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. The design was a cross-sectional population-based study of adults aged 18-69 years residing in Sor-Varanger municipality, Norway, and Nikel and Zapolyarny, Russia, during 1994 and 1995. Individual exposure to nickel was assessed by measurements of nickel in urine using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For controls, urine was collected from adults in the Russian cities of Apatity and Umba (Kola Peninsula) and the Norwegian city of Tromso, all of which are locations without nearby point sources of nickel. Altogether 2,233 urine specimens were analysed for nickel. People living in Nikel had the highest concentrations (median 3.4 microg/l), followed by Umba (median 2.7 microg/l), Zapolyarny (median 2.0 microg/l), Apatity (median 1.9 microg/l), Tromso (median 1.2 microg/l), and Sor-Varanger (median 0.6 microg/l). Regardless of geographical location, the Russian study groups all had a higher urinary-nickel average than those in Norway (p<0.001). With the exception of Nikel, neither the Russian nor the Norwegian urinary-nickel levels were associated with residence location near a Russian nickel refinery. We concluded that industrial nickel pollution alone could not explain the observed discrepancy between Norway and Russia; we also discuss other possible nickel exposure sources that may account for the high urinary levels found in Russia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9681979

  19. Reactive Neuromuscular Training for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Fields, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the response to a proprioceptive training model during a 1-week rehabilitation regime. The techniques were demonstrated on a college-aged female basketball player who had injured her anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) several weeks earlier. The athlete was tested, trained, and then retested during her semester break. Background: The ACL injury has become a fairly common occurrence in the world of athletics. Knowing this, the athletic trainer is constantly searching for ways to improve the rehabilitative process. New research demonstrates that rehabilitation should be based on proprioception. The ACL not only serves a mechanical role by limiting passive knee mobility but also serves a sensory role through the mechanoreceptors deep in its tissue, which communicate with the neuromuscular system to provide proprioceptive feedback during training and competition. Differential Diagnosis: Partial or complete tear of the ACL. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a rehabilitation protocol based on proprioception, which uses reactive neuromuscular training. Uniqueness: Our rehabilitation focused on the muscular imbalances about the hip, knee, and ankle. The athlete achieved dramatic decreases in muscular imbalances about the hip and knee in only 1 week of rehabilitation through reactive neuromuscular training. Conclusions: The athlete had significant gains in strength over her brief period of therapy. However, these gains can be viewed only as neuromuscular changes and not strictly as gains in strength. The athlete returned to postseason competition under the supervision of her surgeon, who later recommended surgical reconstruction at the completion of the basketball season with rehabilitation during the offseason. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:16558562

  20. Expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in normal mucosa and adenomas of the colon, and in colon carcinomas and their liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Koretz, K.; Schlag, P.; Boumsell, L.; Möller, P.

    1991-01-01

    'Very late antigen' (VLA) proteins are members of the integrin superfamily with cell-surface receptor function and are involved in the cell-cell matrix interaction. They are heterodimers with a common beta 1 chain and different alpha chains counted through VLA-1 to VLA-6. The VLA-2 complex (alpha 2/beta 1) was found to act as collagen receptor on platelets and the VLA-6 complex (alpha 6/beta 1) as laminin receptor. Using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunoperoxidase method, we investigated the expression of VLA-alpha 2, VLA-alpha 6, and VLA-beta 1 chains in 20 normal colonic mucosa samples, in 20 colonic adenomas, and in 96 carcinomas together with 10 accompanying liver metastases. All three proteins were expressed throughout the colonic epithelium, except for VLA-alpha 2, which was present in the cryptic gland but was absent on the mucosal surface in some cases. In general, adenomas were strongly positive for the VLA proteins but 3 of 20 cases showed focal VLA-alpha 2-negative areas. The carcinomas revealed considerable heterogeneity of VLA-alpha 2 expression; ie, 59 tumors were completely positive, 35 tumors revealed a focal loss of antigen, and 2 cases were negative. This reduced antigen expression was statistically associated with Dukes' stage C/D (P = 0.003). VLA-alpha 6 was expressed throughout in all tumors. VLA-beta 1 was found extensively expressed in 77 carcinomas, partially expressed in 17 carcinomas, and was absent in 2 carcinomas. As compared to their primary tumors, liver metastases showed roughly corresponding patterns of antigen expression. The down regulation/loss of VLA proteins in a subset of epithelial colon tumors might cause a disturbed cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction that might augment the invasive property of their cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2000944

  1. Molecular heterogeneity in deficiency of complement protein C2 type I.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Circolo, A; Lokki, M L; Shackelford, P G; Wetsel, R A; Colten, H R

    1998-01-01

    Deficiency of the complement protein C2 (C2D), one of the most common genetic deficiencies of the complement system, is associated with rheumatological disorders and increased susceptibility to infection. Two types of C2D have been recognized, each in the context of specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes; type I, a deletion, frameshift and premature stop codon resulting in absence of detectable C2 protein synthesis, and type II, missense mutations resulting in a block in secretion of C2 proteins. Analysis of C2 expression in a child with C2 deficiency, a MHC haplotype different from those associated with type I or II C2D, and recurrent infections revealed additional molecular heterogeneity among C2 deficient patients. No detectable C2 protein was synthesized in the child's fibroblasts under conditions supporting C2 synthesis and secretion in normals and the child's C2 mRNA was reduced to 42% of normal. Nucleotide sequencing of RT-PCR fibroblast mRNA and genomic DNA revealed a type I C2 deficiency (28 base-pair deletion) on one allele and a previously unrecognized two base-pair deletion in exon 2 on the other. Expression of the closely linked factor B gene was markedly decreased (Bf mRNA 25% of normal), though Bf was up-regulated appropriately by interferon-gamma and the flanking sequence containing the Bf promoter was normal in this C2-deficient patient. Moreover, the concentration of Bf protein was normal in the patient's plasma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9616367

  2. A time-series analysis of acidic particulate matter and daily mortality and morbidity in the Buffalo, New York, region.

    PubMed Central

    Gwynn, R C; Burnett, R T; Thurston, G D

    2000-01-01

    A component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution that may provide one biologically plausible pathway for the observed PM air pollution-health effect associations is aerosol acidity (H(+)). An increasing number of observational studies have demonstrated associations between H(+) and increased adverse health effects in the United States and abroad. Although studies have shown significant H(+) associations with increased morbidity in the United States, similar associations have yet to be shown with daily mortality. We considered a 2.5-year record of daily H(+) and sulfate measurements (May 1988-October 1990) collected in the Buffalo, New York, region in a time-series analysis of respiratory, circulatory, and total daily mortality and hospital admissions. Other copollutants considered included particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, coefficient of haze, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Various modeling techniques were applied to control for confounding of effect estimates due to seasonality, weather, and day-of-week effects. We found multiple significant pollutant-health effect associations--most strongly between SO(4)(2-) and respiratory hospital admissions (as indicated by its t-statistic). Additionally, H(+) and SO(4)(2-) demonstrated the most coherent associations with both respiratory hospital admissions [H(+): relative risk (RR) = 1. 31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.51; and SO(4)(2-): RR = 1. 18, CI, 1.09-1.28] and respiratory mortality (H(+): RR = 1.55, CI, 1. 09-2.20; and SO(4)(2-): RR = 1.24, CI, 1.01-1.52). Thus, acidic sulfate aerosols represent a component of PM air pollution that may contribute to the previously noted adverse effects of PM mass on human health, and the associations demonstrated in this study support the need for further investigations into the potential health effects of acidic aerosols. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10656852

  3. PM2.5 and mortality in long-term prospective cohort studies: cause-effect or statistical associations?

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, J F

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) were associated with increased mortality in two prospective cohort studies. In this paper, I assess whether the weight of the evidence supports a causal association. I assumed the study population in each city to have the same exposure; therefore, these are ecologic studies because exposure is at the group level. Health outcome and confounding data are at the individual level. Ambient PM concentrations are inadequate surrogates for personal exposure because they are at the group level and comprise only a small proportion of personal exposure, they change over time, and they constitute only a small proportion of a life span. The strength of association and exposure-response relationships cannot be determined because the ecologic group-level risks of PM2.5 are overestimated 150- to 300-fold based on an analogy with individual-level exposure to inhaled cigarette smoke. Risk estimates may also be high because of confounding from factors such as physical activity and lung function. The evidence is not coherent because the stronger associations are expected to be with morbidity, but instead are with mortality. For example, PM2.5 was associated with mortality but not with measurable reductions in lung function. Biological plausibility is lacking because lifetime exposure of rats to combustion products at concentrations two to three orders of magnitude higher than air pollution levels cause lung overloading but no consistent reduction in survival. Criteria for quantitative risk assessment are not met so the data are not useful for setting air quality standards. The weight of evidence suggests there is no substantive basis for concluding that a cause-effect relationship exists between long-term ambient PM2.5 and increased mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9721253

  4. The origins and early history of the National Chiropractic Association

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S

    1993-01-01

    Early organization in chiropractic was prompted by the profession’s need to promote itself and to defend against the onslaught of political medicine and organized osteopathy. The first priorities were legal defense against prosecution for unlicensed practice and malpractice insurance. The Universal Chiropractors’ Association (UCA), organized at the Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) in 1906, sought to meet these needs by insuring its members and by developing a legal department under the supervision of attorney Tom Morris, one time lieutenant governor of Wisconsin. The public relations and marketing needs of chiropractors were largely served by the PSC and its legendary leader. However, as chiropractors increasingly sought to avoid prosecution by passage of chiropractic laws, Palmer’s efforts to direct this legislation so as to limit chiropractors’ scope of practice increasingly alienated many in the profession. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) was founded in 1922 to provide a broadscope alternative to BJ’s UCA. With Palmer’s departure from the UCA following the neurocalometer debacle, ACA and UCA sought amalgamation. Simultaneously, organized medicine renewed its attack on the profession by introducing basic science legislation, which prompted chiropractors to try to upgrade and standardize chiropractic education. Early efforts to bring about the needed consensus were centered in the International Chiropractic Congress (ICC), particularly its division of state examining boards. In 1930 the ACA and UCA combined to form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA), and by 1934 the ICC had merged with the NCA to form part of its council structure. With this modicum of solidarity the NCA began the process of educational boot-strapping at its 1935 convention in Los Angeles, when its Committee on Education, a forerunner of today’s Council on Chiropractic Education, was proposed by C.O. Watkins of Montana. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  5. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  6. Heparin modulates the composition of the extracellular matrix domain surrounding arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A. D.; Bolender, R. P.; Wight, T. N.; Clowes, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    Heparin and related molecules influence vascular wall structure by their ability to inhibit smooth muscle cell (smc) proliferation and migration. However, little is known as to whether heparin has an effect on the extracellular matrix. In the present study, the effect of heparin on the content and regional distribution of elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans (PGs) in blood vessels following experimental injury was determined. Two groups of rats were subjected to left common carotid balloon injury and were infused with either 0.9% saline or heparin in a saline solution, for 2 weeks. Using a new morphometric method of analysis, the authors determined changes in volumes of elastin, collagen, and PGs contained within an 'extracellular matrix domain (ECM domain),' the average envelope of connective tissue surrounding each smc. Heparin treatment inhibited intimal thickening and decreased the elastin content in the ECM domain in the upper and lower arterial intima. Collagen also was found to be significantly decreased 5.0-fold and 7.6-fold in the ECM domains of upper and lower intima, respectively, of heparin-treated animals. The decrease in both elastin and collagen was balanced by a significant increase in amorphous and filamentous electron-dense material. Heparin also caused a significant 1.8-fold and 1.9-fold increase in the PG content in the ECM domain in the upper and lower intima, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis, using antibodies to elastin and PG subclasses, supported the morphometric observations. This study has shown that heparin administered in vivo can alter the accumulation and distribution of each of the major vascular ECM components in a specific and differential manner. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2386199

  7. Plasma protein insudation as an index of early coronary atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Cliff, W. J.; Schoefl, G. I.; Higgins, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine paraffin-embedded coronary artery blocks from 68 autopsy cases were serially sectioned. The blocks were selected to provide a range from normal through various stages of atherosclerosis, and sections were examined with the indirect immunofluorescence technique for intramural distribution of plasma albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin gamma (IgG). Cryostat-sections of 44 blocks from 22 of the same cases were examined with the same technique for distribution of apolipoprotein B. Alteration of protein insudation in the artery wall was a sensitive index of coronary atherogenesis. The sequence in which these proteins were involved in the initiation and development of early atherosclerotic lesions was analyzed by determining the average relative intimal thickness and relative lumen size that was associated with the first occurrence of altered insudation of each of these proteins. Results indicate that changed plasma albumin insudation is the earliest sign of a focal intimal lesion, and increasing albumin insudation shows the strongest association with intimal plaque growth. The other proteins tested showed altered insudation, in the order IgG, fibrinogen, apolipoprotein B. The results indicate that a progressive increase in permeability of the coronary artery endothelium occurs in the early stages of atherogenesis. Patterns of IgG localization provide evidence of both early systemic and subsequent local immune reactions being involved in atherogenesis. Altered albumin and apolipoprotein B insudation levels have stronger correlation coefficients with relative intimal thickness and relative lumen size than do those IgG and fibrinogen. The extremely high correlation coefficients shown by albumin emphasizes the importance of edema in determining plaque size and lumen stenosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8342598

  8. Isolation and characterization of fibronectin-alpha 1-microglobulin complex in rat plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, C; Enghild, J J; Thøgersen, I B; Salvesen, G; Akerström, B

    1994-01-01

    Molecules containing the 28 kDa immunoregulatory protein alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1-m), also known as protein HC, were isolated from rat plasma or serum by immunoaffinity chromatography. Three molecular species were distinguished on the basis of nondenaturing PAGE. Two of these have been described previously: uncomplexed alpha 1-m, and the complex of alpha 1-m with alpha 1-inhibitor-3. The third species was analysed by denaturing PAGE, immunoblotting, proteinase digestion and N-terminal-sequence analyses, and shown to consist of a complex between alpha 1-m and fibronectin. This complex, with a mass of about 560 kDa, was resistant to dissociation in the presence of denaturants, but not in the presence of reducing agents in combination with denaturants, and we conclude that the two components are linked by disulphide bonds. About 60% of the total detectable plasma alpha 1-m exists as high-molecular-mass complexes distributed approximately evenly between fibronectin and alpha 1-inhibitor-3. Immunochemical analyses were used to determine the proportion of the total plasma pools of fibronectin and alpha 1-inhibitor-3 that circulate in complex with alpha 1-m. About 3-7% of the total plasma fibronectin from three different rat strains contained alpha 1-m, whereas 0.3-0.8% of the total plasma alpha 1-inhibitor-3 contained alpha 1-m. Complexes were found at similar levels in plasma and serum, indicating that coagulation is not responsible for complex formation. Moreover, immunochemical analyses of human plasma revealed small amounts of alpha 1-m in complex with fibronectin and alpha 2-macroglobulin (an alpha 1-inhibitor-3 homologue). The existence of a complex between alpha 1-m and fibronectin in rats and humans suggests a mechanism for the incorporation of the immunoregulatory molecule alpha 1-m into the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7519849

  9. CNA.42, a new monoclonal antibody directed against a fixative-resistant antigen of follicular dendritic reticulum cells.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, I.; Al Saati, T.; Tkaczuk, J.; Chittal, S.; Delsol, G.

    1997-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody (MAb), CNA.42, was generated using the CEM T-cell line. It recognizes a 120-kd formalin-resistant glycosylated antigen that is mainly expressed by follicular dendritic reticulum cells (FDRCs). This antigen is also expressed by a few mononuclear cells in the paracortical area of reactive lymph nodes and by some cortical thymocytes. Two hundred and eighty-nine cases of hematopoietic tumors of various types were tested with this antibody. They showed either intact FDRC networks or FDRC networks dispersed among malignant cells. In follicular lymphomas, the follicular pattern was highlighted by CNA.42 MAb. Expanded FDRC networks were found in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas. Neoplastic cells were positive in 43.6% (24/55) of T-cell and 4.6% (6/129) of B-cell lymphomas. The highest percentage of cases with positive neoplastic cells was found in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (62.5%; 15/24). In Hodgkin's disease, FDRC networks, sometimes encasing Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, were found. HRS cells were also stained by this antibody in 23 (21.9%) of the 105 cases examined. A variety of normal nonlymphoid tissues and nonhematopoietic tumors, such as some neurogenic tumors, carcinoma, and occasional sarcomas, were found to be positive. Analysis of the reactivity of CNA.42 antibody with FDRCs of lymphoid tissue from different animal species showed similar reactivity to that observed in humans, suggesting widespread evolutionary conservation of the antigen recognized by this antibody. In daily diagnostic practice, CNA.42 MAb seems to be a suitable FDRC marker and possibly has an auxiliary role in recognizing T-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9403709

  10. Induction of Expression of Genes Coding for Sporamin and β-Amylase by Polygalacturonic Acid in Leaf-Petiole Cuttings of Sweet Potato 1

    PubMed Central

    Ohto, Masa-aki; Nakamura-Kito, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kenzo

    1992-01-01

    Sporamin and β-amylase are two major proteins of tuberous storage root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and their accumulation can be induced concomitantly with the accumulation of starch in leaves and petioles by sucrose (K Nakamura, M Ohto, N Yoshida, K Nakamura [1991] Plant Physiol 96: 902-909). Although mechanical wounding of leaves of sweet potato only occasionally induced the expression of sporamin and β-amylase genes, their expression could be reproducibly induced in leaf-petiole cuttings when these explants were dipped in a solution of polygalacturonic acid or chitosan at their cut edges. Polygalacturonic acid seemed to induce expression of the same genes coding for sporamin and β-amylase that are induced by sucrose. Because polygalacturonic acid and chitosan are known to mediate the induction of wound-inducible defense reactions, these results raise an interesting possibility that β-amylase, in addition to sporamin, may have some role in the defense reaction. Expression of sporamin and β-amylase genes could also be induced by abscisic acid, and this induction by abscisic acid, as well as induction by polygalacturonic acid or sucrose, was repressed by gibberellic acid. By contrast, methyl jasmonate did not cause the significant induction of either sporamin or β-amylase mRNAs. Induction of expression of sporamin and β-amylase genes by polygalacturonic acid or sucrose was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting that de novo synthesis of proteins is required for both of the induction processes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668901

  11. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  12. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-01-01

    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  13. Characterization of estrogenicity of phytoestrogens in an endometrial-derived experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Hopert, A C; Beyer, A; Frank, K; Strunck, E; Wünsche, W; Vollmer, G

    1998-01-01

    Severe developmental and reproductive disorders in wild animals have been linked to high exposure to persistent environmental chemicals with hormonal activity. These adverse effects of environmental estrogens have raised considerable concern and have received increasing attention. Although numerous chemicals with the capacity to interfere with the estrogen receptor (ER) have been identified, information on their molecular mechanism of action and their relative potency is rather limited. For the endometrium, the lack of information is due to the lack of a suitable experimental model. We investigated the functions of phytoestrogens in an endometrial-derived model, RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. The cells were cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane to preserve their functional differentiation and estrogen responsiveness. We assessed the relative binding affinity to the estrogen receptor of the selected phytoestrogens coumestrol, genistein, daidzein, and the putative phytoestrogen mangostin compared to estradiol by a competitive Scatchard analysis. The following affinity ranking was measured: 17beta-estradiol >>> coumestrol > genistein > daidzein >>> mangostin. In addition, we investigated the capacity of these compounds to promote the increased production of complement C3, a well-known estradiol-regulated protein of the rat endometrium. All substances tested increased the production of complement C3, although different concentrations were necessary to achieve equivalent levels of induction compared to estradiol. Mechanistically we were able to demonstrate that the increase of complement C3 production was mediated by primarily increasing its steady-state mRNA level. These findings indicate that RUCA-I cells represent a sensitive model system to elucidate relative potencies and functions of environmental estrogens in an endometrium-derived model. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721258

  14. Role of the Ito cell in liver parenchymal fibrosis in rats fed alcohol and a high fat-low protein diet.

    PubMed Central

    French, S. W.; Miyamoto, K.; Wong, K.; Jui, L.; Briere, L.

    1988-01-01

    Eight pairs of young adult rats were pair-fed a high fat-low protein diet and ethanol or isocaloric glucose by permanent intragastric cannula for up to 6 months. Biopsies of the liver were taken monthly and the fibrosis was quantitated morphometrically using the sirius red polarization method of collagen visualization by light microscopy. Morphometric analysis of the sinusoids and scars were performed on electron micrographs made from the liver biopsies. An increase in the collagen in both the central and portal areas was found when the livers of the alcohol-fed rats were compared with controls. The predominant cell in the scars was the Ito cell. An increase in the percentage of the total Ito cell square area made up of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was noted when the sinusoids of the liver of the ethanol-fed rats were compared with controls. No difference in the RER was found when the sinusoidal Ito cells were compared with the Ito cells located within the scars of the ethanol-fed rats. It was concluded that Ito cell "activation" by chronic ethanol feeding in the sinusoids of rats accurately predicts "activation" of the Ito cells within scars. The Ito cells are diffusely activated even though the scarring is localized. This implies that local factors as well as Ito cell activation are necessary for scar formation. In the case of alcoholic liver disease, scar formation may be initiated by centrilobular necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:3394803

  15. Immunopathology of B-cell lymphomas induced in C57BL/6 mice by dualtropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV).

    PubMed Central

    Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.

    1982-01-01

    Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:6282131

  16. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas of the intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Chott, A.; Dragosics, B.; Radaszkiewicz, T.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of primary peripheral T-cell lymphomas of the intestine (PTLI) were investigated. Seven patients had histories of malabsorption. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were weight loss, abdominal pain, and acute abdomen. The jejunum was the most common site of lymphoma and multifocal disease was found in 72% of the cases. Twenty-two patients (92%) presented with localized disease confined to the intestine and abdominal lymph nodes, only two patients had generalized disease. According to the pattern of lymphoma infiltration and the morphology of the uninvolved small intestinal mucosa, 21 cases were separated histologically into three categories; 1) enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATCL, n = 9) showing predominant intramucosal lymphoma spread and villous atrophy of uninvolved mucosa with high density of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), 2) EATCL-like lymphoma without enteropathy (EATCL-LLWE, n = 5) but with an infiltration pattern similar to EATCL, and 3) T-cell lymphoma without features of EATCL (Non-EATCL, n = 7). Distinctive features of EATCL were the high incidence of malabsorption states, multifocal intestinal disease in all cases, and the high frequency of intestinal recurrences. On frozen sections four of eight PTLI showed the phenotype CD3+ CD4- CD8- HML-1+, which is also expressed on a small subset of normal IEL. The morphologic and immunomorphologic findings suggest that the majority of PTLI is derived from mucosal T lymphocytes. This derivation may be responsible for certain biologic features, such as the preferential spread to and relapse of PTLI at small intestinal sites. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1466400

  17. Disparate temporal expression of the prothrombin and thrombin receptor genes during mouse development.

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, S. J.; Peters, K. G.; O'Keefe, J.; Coughlin, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8291612

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for estrogen binding to the estrogen receptor: predictions across species.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, W; Perkins, R; Strelitz, R; Collantes, E R; Keenan, S; Welsh, W J; Branham, W S; Sheehan, D M

    1997-01-01

    The recognition of adverse effects due to environmental endocrine disruptors in humans and wildlife has focused attention on the need for predictive tools to select the most likely estrogenic chemicals from a very large number of chemicals for subsequent screening and/or testing for potential environmental toxicity. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was constructed based on relative binding affinity (RBA) data from an estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay using calf uterine cytosol. The model demonstrated significant correlation of the calculated steric and electrostatic fields with RBA and yielded predictions that agreed well with experimental values over the entire range of RBA values. Analysis of the CoMFA three-dimensional contour plots revealed a consistent picture of the structural features that are largely responsible for the observed variations in RBA. Importantly, we established a correlation between the predicted RBA values for calf ER and their actual RBA values for human ER. These findings suggest a means to begin to construct a more comprehensive estrogen knowledge base by combining RBA assay data from multiple species in 3D-QSAR based predictive models, which could then be used to screen untested chemicals for their potential to bind to the ER. Another QSAR model was developed based on classical physicochemical descriptors generated using the CODESSA (Comprehensive Descriptors for Structural and Statistical Analysis) program. The predictive ability of the CoMFA model was superior to the corresponding CODESSA model. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9353176

  19. Increased expression of differentiation markers can accompany laminin-induced attachment of small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giaccone, G.; Broers, J.; Jensen, S.; Fridman, R. I.; Linnoila, R.; Gazdar, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between human lung cancer cells, laminin, and several differentiating agents. When grown on laminin coated substrate eight out of 11 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines exhibited attachment to laminin and three had extensive outgrowth of long neurite-like processes. Of seven non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, selected for their in vitro anchorage-independent growth, attachment was observed in only three cell lines, and process formation was far less extensive than in SCLC cell lines. Among several differentiating agents, only dcAMP, which alone induced attachment and some process formation, increased laminin-mediated attachment and process formation of two SCLC cell lines, NCI-N417 a variant cell line, and NCI-H345, a classic cell line. The expression of several neuroendocrine and neuronal markers was investigated in these two SCLC cell lines. The expression of the light subunit of neurofilaments increased in NCI-N417 within 3 to 4 days of seeding, while NCI-H345 exhibited approximately 5 fold increase in expression of the GRP gene and a 3 fold increase expression of the beta-actin gene. The expression of a number of other neuroendocrine and neuronal markers did not change following growth on laminin. The doubling times remained unchanged independent of the presence of and attachment to laminin while topoisomerase II gene expression levels in NCI-N417 cells decreased approximately 5 fold when cells were growing on laminin. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1325826

  20. Characterization of α-Amylase-Inhibitor, a Lectin-Like Protein in the Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Joaquin; Altabella, Teresa; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1990-01-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect α-amylases, but not of plant α-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, α-amylase inhibitor (αAl) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Purified αAl can be resolved by SDS-PAGE into five bands (Mr 15,000-19,000), four of which have covalently attached glycans. These bands represent glycoforms of two different polypeptides. All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it (LM Hoffman [1984] J Mol Appl Genet 2: 447-453; J Moreno, MJ Chrispeels [1989] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7885-7889). The primary translation product of αAl is a polypeptide of Mr 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of Mr 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (Mr 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that αAl is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmlc reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667338

  1. Synthesis of Lectin-Like Protein in Developing Cotyledons of Normal and Phytohemagglutinin-Deficient Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Alessandro; Zoppè, Monica; Fabbrini, M. Serena; Genga, Annamaria; Rivas, Liliana; Bollini, Roberto

    1989-01-01

    The genome of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris contains a small gene family that encodes lectin and lectin-like proteins (phytohemagglutinin, arcelin, and others). One of these phytohemagglutinin-like genes was cloned by L. M. Hoffman et al. ([1982] Nucleic Acids Res 10: 7819-7828), but its product in bean cells has never been identified. We identified the product of this gene, referred to as lectin-like protein (LLP), as an abundant polypeptide synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of developing bean cotyledons. The gene product was first identified in extracts of Xenopus oocytes injected with either cotyledonary bean RNA or LLP-mRNA obtained by hybrid-selection with an LLP cDNA clone. A tryptic map of this protein was identical with a tryptic map of a polypeptide with the same SDS-PAGE mobility detectable in the ER of bean cotyledons pulse-labeled with either [3H]glucosamine or [3H]amino acids, both in a normal and in a phytohemagglutinin-deficient cultivar (cultivars Greensleeves and Pinto UI 111). Greensleeves LLP has Mr 40,000 and most probably has four asparagine-linked glycans. Pinto UI 111 LLP has Mr 38,500. Unlike phytohemagglutinin which is a tetramer, LLP appears to be a monomer by gel filtration analysis. Incorporation of [3H]amino acids indicates that synthesis of LLP accounts for about 3% of the proteins synthesized on the ER, a level similar to that of phytohemagglutinin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666845

  2. Nonsedimentable Microvesicles from Senescing Bean Cotyledons Contain Gel Phase-Forming Phospholipid Degradation Products 1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kening; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Thompson, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A mixture of liquid-crystalline and gel-phase lipid domains is detectable by wide angle x-ray diffraction in smooth microsomal membranes isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons, whereas corresponding membranes from young 2-day-old cotyledons are exclusively liquid-crystalline. The gel-phase domains in the senescent membranes comprise phospholipid degradation products including diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, long-chain aldehydes, and long-chain hydrocarbons. The same complement of phospholipid degradation products is also present in nonsedimentable microvesicles isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons by filtration of a 250,000g, 12-hour supernatant through a 300,000 dalton cut-off filter. The phospholipid degradation products in the microvesicles form gel-phase lipid domains when reconstituted into phospholipid liposomes. Nonsedimentable microvesicles of a similar size, which are again enriched in the same gel-phase-forming phospholipid degradation products, are also generated in vitro from smooth microsomal membranes isolated from 2-day-old cotyledons when Ca2+ is added to activate membrane-associated lipolytic enzymes. The Ca2+-treated membranes do not contain detectable gel-phase domains, suggesting that the phospholipid degradation products are completely removed by microvesiculation. The observations collectively indicate that these nonsedimentable microvesicles serve as a vehicle for moving phospholipid degradation products out of membrane bilayers into the cytosol. As noted previously (Yao K, Paliyath G, Humphrey RW, Hallett FR, Thompson JE [1991] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2269-2273), the term “deteriosome” connotes this putative function and would serve to distinguish these microvesicles from other cytoplasmic microvesicles unrelated to deterioration. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668427

  3. Influence of genetics on the nephritogenic potential of proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Lelongt, B.; Kashihara, N.; Makino, H.; Kanwar, Y. S.

    1992-01-01

    Nephritogenic potential of antibodies directed against one of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) components, i.e., heparan sulfate-proteoglycan (HS-PG), was investigated in different strain of rats, i.e., Brown Norway, Lewis, Long Evans, and Sprague-Dawley. The rats were given two intravenous injections of anti-HS-PG antibody on days 1 and 3, and killed 2 to 8 weeks later. Before killing, blood and urine were collected for determination of anti-rabbit IgG levels and excretion of proteins, respectively. In addition, the right kidney was perfused with 125I-anti-rat IgG to quantitate the amount of immune-complexes present within the GBM. The tissues were processed for morphologic, autoradiographic, and immunofluorescent studies. The anti-HS-PG antibody was seen uniformly bound to GBM equally in all strains of rats. However, the protein-uric response was as follows: Brown Norway much much greater than Lewis much greater than Long Evans greater than Sprague Dawley. Also, the glomerular cells, monocytes in the glomerular capillaries, immunoreactivity of rat IgG and C3 frequency of subepithelial immune deposits, serum levels of anti-rabbit IgG, and the amount of 125I-anti-rat IgG bound to the GBM were proportionately increased among different strains of rats. The data suggest that the sustained presence of anti-HS-PG antibodies in the subepithelial aspect of the GBM with differential humoral response in the production of the antibody by the host most likely attributed to the variable glomerular damage in different strains of rats. Thus, it seems that the genetic makeup of a given strain of rat heavily influences the nephritogenic potential of an antibody and consequentially the outcome of the immune complex-mediated glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1519664

  4. Distribution of lymphocytes with interleukin-2 receptors (TAC antigens) in reactive lymphoproliferative processes, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. An immunohistologic study of 300 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani, K.; Winberg, C. D.; van de Velde, S.; Blayney, D. W.; Rappaport, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the distribution of interleukin-2 receptors (TAC antigen) in the lymph nodes of 300 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. They used fresh-frozen sections to evaluate a possible correlation between the immunophenotype of specific lymphoid disorders and the presence or absence of TAC expression and to determine whether the TAC positivity of lymphoid cells contributes to the characterization of lymphoproliferative processes. All of the cases had previously been studied with a large screening panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Among 85 patients with a variety of benign reactive processes, the lymph nodes from 47 contained TAC-bearing lymphocytes in various patterns of distribution. Of 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 37 had TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Of 26 B-cell, well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphomas (WDL), 14 were diffusely TAC-positive and one had TAC-bearing cells in random distribution. Six cases of intermediate lymphocytic lymphoma were also studied, and three showed randomly distributed TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Of 19 patients with follicular or follicular and diffuse, poorly differentiated lymphocytic (PDL) lymphoma, 14 were TAC-positive. All 3 diffuse PDL lymphomas studied were TAC-negative. Among 23 cases of B-cell and 5 cases of T-cell mixed cell lymphoma, 15 and three, respectively, had TAC-positive lymphocytes. Of 39 large cell lymphomas (B-cell, 33; T-cell, 6), 14 were TAC-positive. All 13 cases of hairy cell leukemia were diffusely positive. Of 23 T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, only 1 showed positive TAC reactivity, which was focal. Of 5 cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, 2 had TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Our study indicates that the TAC antigen is not lineage-specific, and that it may be expressed by lymphoid cells regardless of their phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3105322

  5. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  6. Comparative morphologic and immunohistochemical studies of estrogen plus alpha-naphthoflavone-induced liver tumors in Syrian hamsters and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Oberley, T. D.; Slattery, A. F.; Gonzalez, A.; Li, S. A.; Li, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were treated with ethinylestradiol and maintained on a diet containing alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha NF), a regimen that produces a high incidence of liver tumors. Morphologic analyses (light microscopy, immunoperoxidase studies, and electron microscopy) were performed on livers of these animals. After 4 months of hormone plus alpha NF treatment, marked hepatocyte cell changes were already present, as demonstrated by loss of eosinophilic staining of hepatocyte cytoplasm. Large multinucleated hepatocytes exhibiting frequent mitoses were observed around central veins. After 5 months of treatment, there was proliferation of bile ducts, and small cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling hepatocytes appeared surrounding these bile ducts. At 7 to 8 months, the first tumor nodules (foci) were seen. Tumor foci in the portal area consisted of small clusters of large cells resembling hepatocytes with irregular nuclei. At the same time, dysplastic glands were identified among proliferating bile ducts. By 8 to 10 months, large tumors were present. These were trabecular hepatocellular carcinomas with widely varying individual cell morphology. Compared with adjacent liver, dysplastic glands in the portal areas, microcarcinomas, and large tumors all showed intense immunostaining for cytokeratin. Rats treated with the same regimen also developed hepatic tumors, but the light and electron microscopy results and immunohistochemical profiles were very different. Altered hepatic foci composed of small hepatocytes were typically prominent; however, malignant tumors did not arise from the portal area. Neither altered foci nor tumors stained significantly for cytokeratin. These data suggest that the biochemical events giving rise to these liver tumors differ between the species studied, despite the animals being exposed to the same treatment regimens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1887866

  7. Complement regulatory proteins in early human fetal life: CD59, membrane co-factor protein (MCP) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) are differentially expressed in the developing liver.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, K L; Houlihan, J M; Holmes, C H

    1993-01-01

    The human fetus appears to be capable of protecting itself from maternal complement (C) from an early stage in development by expressing the C regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane co-factor protein (MCP) and CD59 on fetally derived trophoblast at the feto-maternal interface. In this study we have examined the ontogeny of these proteins within the fetus itself and have focused on the liver which represents a major site of haemopoiesis during development. Immunostaining revealed that DAF, MCP and CD59 are all expressed from at least 6 weeks of gestation in the liver but that these proteins display distinct distribution patterns. CD59 was broadly distributed both within the epithelial and haemopoietic compartments, but expression of C3 convertase regulators was more restricted. DAF expression was limited to isolated cells within haemopoietic nests and the epithelium was DAF-negative. Although MCP expression on haemopoietic cells was also limited, by contrast with DAF the developing hepatic epithelium was strongly MCP-positive. Typical CD59 and MCP components were observed in fetal liver extracts by immunoblotting, although liver MCP components consistently migrated 4000-5000 MW ahead of those observed on placental trophoblast. Differences in the distribution of these proteins were also observed between the fetal and adult liver. In particular, by comparison with fetal hepatic epithelium, there was an apparent loss of MCP expression from adult hepatocytes. Thus, MCP appears to be developmentally regulated in the human liver and is expressed in the absence of DAF on the early hepatic epithelium. Overall, this study suggests that C regulatory proteins, and in particular CD59 and MCP, are required from the very early stages of gestation within the fetus itself. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7505254

  8. Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P

    2000-01-01

    An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522

  9. Rat alveolar myofibroblasts acquire alpha-smooth muscle actin expression during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vyalov, S. L.; Gabbiani, G.; Kapanci, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of fibroblasts in alveolar septa are characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic bundles of microfilaments that contain cytoplasmic actin isoforms; these cells have been named contractile interstitial cells or V-type myofibroblasts. In the rat, they express desmin as intermediate filament protein. In this study, we explored the possibility that modulation and replication of such septal fibroblasts result in the appearance of alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-SM) actin-positive myofibroblasts, typical of lung fibrosis. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis was produced by a unique intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to 28 rats. Eight additional rats used as controls received the equivalent volume of saline. Paraffin and frozen sections of lungs were examined at days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after treatment. Microfilaments and intermediate filaments were stained using antibodies against total actin, alpha-SM actin, desmin, vimentin, keratin, and SM myosin. Electron microscopic labeling of desmin and alpha-SM actin using immunogold technique was done on Lowicryl K4M resin-embedded specimens. alpha-SM actin appeared in desmin-positive alveolar fibroblasts as early as 24 hours after intratracheal bleomycin instillation; the modulation of alpha-SM actin in these cells was preceded by a lymphomonocytic infiltration of alveolar septa. Twenty-four hours to 3 days after bleomycin administration, a proliferation of alveolar myofibroblasts occurred. Fibrosis with laying down of collagen fibers took place after the above mentioned cellular modifications. Our results support the view that septal fibroblastic cells can modulate into typical alpha-SM actin-containing myofibroblasts during experimental bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In such a modulation a possible role of cytokines, particularly of transforming growth factor-beta, is considered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14

  10. Phase behavior of stratum corneum lipids in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    ten Grotenhuis, E; Demel, R A; Ponec, M; Boer, D R; van Miltenburg, J C; Bouwstra, J A

    1996-01-01

    The lipids found in the bilayers of the stratum corneum fulfill the vital barrier role of mammalian bodies. The main classes of lipids found in stratum corneum are ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. For an investigation of their phase behavior, mixed Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of these lipids were prepared. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the structure of the monolayers as a function of the monolayer composition. Three different types of ceramide were used: ceramide extracted from pigskin, a commercially available ceramide with several fatty acid chain lengths, and two synthetic ceramides that have only one fatty acid chain length. In pigskin ceramide-cholesterol mixed monolayers phase separation was observed. This phase separation was also found for the commercially available type III Sigma ceramide-cholesterol mixed monolayers with molar ratios ranging from 1:0.1 to 1:1. These monolayers separated into two phases, one composed of the long fatty acid chain fraction of Sigma ceramide III and the other of the short fatty acid chain fraction of Sigma ceramide III mixed with cholesterol. Mixtures with a higher cholesterol content consisted of only one phase. These observations were confirmed by the results obtained with synthetic ceramides, which have only one fatty acid chain length. The synthetic ceramide with a palmitic acid (16:0) chain mixed with cholesterol, and the synthetic ceramide with a lignoceric acid (24:0) chain did not. Free fatty acids showed a preference to mix with one of these phases, depending on their fatty acid chain lengths. The results of this investigation suggest that the model system used in this study is in good agreement with those of other studies concerning the phase behavior of the stratum corneum lipids. By varying the composition of the monolayers one can study the role of each lipid class in detail. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8874014

  11. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human blood in relation to consumption of crabs from a contaminated Fjord area in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, H R; Alexander, J; Rossland, O J; Planting, S; Løvik, M; Gaarder, P I; Gdynia, W; Bjerve, K S; Becher, G

    1996-01-01

    Consumption of fish and shellfish from contaminated areas may be an important source of human exposure to persistent organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). We determined concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and 19 PCB congeners in whole blood samples from three groups of men, 40-54 years of age, with different consumption levels of crabs from a fjord area in southern Norway polluted with organochlorine compounds from a magnesium production plant. A significant increase of many PCDD/PCDF congeners was found in the blood when comparing the referents, moderate-, and high-intake groups. The greatest difference was observed for several of the PCDFs that are characteristic for the contamination of the marine biota of the fjord. PCBs, in general, play a minor role in the contamination of the fjord by the magnesium production process, except for the highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB-209. Nevertheless, almost all PCBs increased from the referents to the high-intake group. However, the relative concentrations of several highly chlorinated PCBs (particularly PCB-209) in blood are unexpectedly low compared to their abundance in crabs, indicating low uptake of these congeners. The exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs from crab consumption calculated from individual body burdens of these compounds were in good agreement with the intake estimated from previously measured concentrations in crabs, reported fishing sites, and consumption. Almost all subjects in the high-intake group exceeded the tolerable weekly intake of 35 pg TEQ/kg body weight/week proposed by a Nordic Expert Group. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8841762

  12. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.

    PubMed Central

    Helling, T S; Daon, E

    1998-01-01

    . To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

  13. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  14. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Human Orthotopic Liver Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. Jake; Jaffe, Ron; Tzakis, A.; Ramsey, Glenn; Todo, S.; Belle, Steven; Esquivel, Carlos; Shapiro, Ron; Markus, Bernd; Mroczek, Elizabeth; Van Thiel, D. H.; Sysyn, Greg; Gordon, Robert; Makowka, Leonard; Starzl, Tom

    1988-01-01

    A clinicopathologic analysis of liver transplantation across major ABO blood group barriers was carried out 1) to determine if antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the diagnosis, and 3) to describe the clinical and pathologic features of humoral rejection. A total of 51 (24 primary) ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) liver grafts were transplanted into 49 recipients. There was a 46% graft failure rate during the first 30 days for primary ABO-I grafts compared with an 11% graft failure rate for primary ABO compatible (ABO-C), crossmatch negative, age, sex and priority-matched control patients (P < 0.02). A similarly high early graft failure rate (60%) was seen for nonprimary ABO-I grafts during the first 30 days. Clinically, the patients experienced a relentless rise in serum transaminases, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy during the first weeks after transplant. Pathologic examination of ABO-I grafts that failed early demonstrated widespread areas of geographic hemorrhagic necrosis with diffuse intraorgan coagulation. Prominent arterial deposition of antibody and complement components was demonstrated by immunoflourescent staining. Elution studies confirmed the presence of tissue-bound, donor-specific isoagglutinins within the grafts. No such deposition was seen in control cases. These studies confirm that antibody mediated rejection of the liver occurs and allows for the development of criteria for establishing the diagnosis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:3046369

  15. Optic nerve axons and acquired alterations in the appearance of the optic disc.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtschafter, J D

    1983-01-01

    The pathophysiologic events in optic nerve axons have recently been recognized as crucial to an understanding of clinically significant acquired alterations in the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic disc. Stasis and related abnormalities of axonal transport appear to explain most aspects of optic nerve head swelling, including optic disc drusen and retinal cottonwool spots. Loss of axoplasm and axonal death can be invoked to interpret optic disc pallor, thinning and narrowing of rim tissue, changes in the size and outline of the optic cup, laminar dots, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and acquired demyelination and myelination of the retinal nerve fiber layer. It is speculated that the axons may also play a role in the mechanical support of the lamina cribrosa in resisting the pressure gradient across the pars scleralis of the optic nerve head. Axons and their associated glial cells may be involved in those cases where "reversibility" of cupping of the optic disc has been reported. The structure, physiology, and experimental pathologic findings of the optic nerve head have been reviewed. Many aspects concerning the final anatomic appearance of the optic nerve head have been explained. However, many questions remain concerning the intermediate mechanisms by which increased intracranial pressure retards the various components of axonal transport in papilledema and by which increased IOP causes axonal loss in glaucoma. Investigation of the molecular biology of axonal constituents and their responses to abnormalities in their physical and chemical milieu could extend our understanding of the events that result from mechanical compression and local ischemia. Moreover, we have identified a need to further explore the role of axons in the pathophysiology of optic disc cupping. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:6203209

  16. Photochemical injury to the foveomacula of the monkey eye following argon blue-green panretinal photocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Parver, L M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Visual loss following panretinal photocoagulation was found in the Diabetic Retinopathy and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Studies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that light scattered in the monkey eye during a procedure designed to mimic a clinical panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) can produce a photochemical injury to the foveomacula. METHODS: Ten eyes of 5 adult cynomologous monkeys underwent a PRP using an argon blue-green laser. Three eyes in 2 monkeys underwent a sham PRP, and an additional eye had a PRP with blue filtered slit-lamp illumination. The animals had baseline fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms that were repeated 24 hours after the experimental procedure. Forty-eight hours after the experimental procedure, the eyes were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: There were no observable changes in the macula on fundus photography or fluorescein angiography 24 hours following PRP. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer photoreceptors, which were confined to the foveola. The control eyes showed no apparent effect from the slit lamp illumination used during the PRP. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of histologic evidence of retinal injury in the foveomacula of the monkey eye after a procedure designed to mimic clinical PRP supports the hypothesis that photochemical retinal damage in the foveola may be associated with this procedure. Images FIGURE 1A FIGURE 1B FIGURE 1C FIGURE 1D FIGURE 1E FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:11190033

  17. Chaperonins GroEL and GroES: views from atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Mou, J; Sheng, S; Ho, R; Shao, Z

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chaperonins, GroEL and GroES, as well as their complexes in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable nucleotide AMP-PNP, have been imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate that both GroEL and GroES that have been adsorbed to a mica surface can be resolved directly by the AFM in aqueous solution at room temperature. However, with glutaraldehyde fixation of already adsorbed molecules, the resolution of both GroEL and GroES was further improved, as all seven subunits were well resolved without any image processing. We also found that chemical fixation was necessary for the contact mode AFM to image GroEL/ES complexes, and in the AFM images. GroEL with GroES bound can be clearly distinguished from those without. The GroEL/ES complex was about 5 nm higher than GroEL alone, indicating a 2 nm upward movement of the apical domains of GroEL. Using a slightly larger probe force, unfixed GroEL could be dissected: the upper heptamer was removed to expose the contact surface of the two heptamers. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of cross-linking agents for the determination of molecular structures with the AFM. They also pave the way for using the AFM to study the structural basis for the function of GroE system and other molecular chaperones. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8889197

  18. The role of inorganic metals and metalloporphyrins in the induction of haem oxygenase and heat-shock protein 70 in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, K; Fujita, H; Fukuda, Y; Kappas, A; Sassa, S

    1993-01-01

    The role of inorganic metals and metalloporphyrins in the induction of mRNAs for haem oxygenase and heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70), the two heat-shock proteins, was examined in human HepG2 and Hep3B hepatoma cells. SnCl2, but not Sn-protoporphyrin, was found to be a potent inducer of both haem oxygenase and hsp70 mRNAs. In contrast, CoCl2, ZnCl2 and FeCl2 caused little induction of haem oxygenase and hsp70 mRNAs, whereas the porphyrin complexes of these metals strongly induced haem oxygenase mRNA, without influencing the level of hsp70 mRNA. The induction process was largely transcriptional, as judged by the inhibition of induction by actinomycin D, but not by cycloheximide, and by increased transcription demonstrated by nuclear run-off analysis. Since CoCl2 is a potent inducer of haem oxygenase in vivo in animals, the possibility of the biosynthesis of Co-protoporphyrin was examined in human hepatoma cells by incubating them with CoCl2 and protoporphyrin, or delta-aminolaevulinate (ALA), the precursor of protoporphyrin. Both types of treatment led to a potent induction of haem oxygenase mRNA. Co-protoporphyrin formation was also spectrally demonstrated in cells incubated with the metal and ALA. The results of this study indicate that certain metals, e.g. SnCl2, may directly induce haem oxygenase mRNA, whereas with other elements, incorporation of the metal into the porphyrin macrocycle is necessary for induction. Therefore CoCl2, like haemin, may activate the haem oxygenase gene via a haem-responsive transcription factor, whereas SnCl2 may exert its effect via a metal-responsive transcription factor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8384446

  19. The thymus in myasthenia gravis. Changes typical for the human disease are absent in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis of the Lewis rat.

    PubMed Central

    Meinl, E.; Klinkert, W. E.; Wekerle, H.

    1991-01-01

    In human myasthenia gravis (MG) formation of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is commonly associated with thymic changes termed lymphofollicular hyperplasia (LFH). To learn whether the thymic lesions of human MG are primary changes in the autoimmune pathogenesis, or rather secondary events caused by peripheral autoimmunization, the authors compared the pathologic changes of MG thymuses with the thymuses of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). EAMG was induced either actively by immunization with AChR, or transferred passively with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) binding to AChR. The clinical diagnosis of EAMG was confirmed by electromyography. Germinal centers, which are typical for human MG thymuses, were not detectable in the thymus of EAMG rats. Scattered B cells were seen as normal components of the thymic medulla. In EAMG their number was not augmented, nor were they accumulated focally. The perivascular spaces (PVS) were not distended and the amount of reticulin was not increased. Thymic myoid cells were identified in EAMG as well as in control thymuses; their cellular microenvironment was inconspicuous. Both in normal and in EAMG thymuses, a subpopulation of myoid cells expressed the main immunogenic region of the AChR. Heavily affected rats showed a severe cortical involution, but no specific changes of the medulla. The fact that none of the thymic lesions characteristic for human MG was found in EAMG is compatible with the concept that the thymic changes in MG are primary events in the autoimmune pathogenesis of this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1951638

  20. Distribution and threshold expression of the tRNA(Lys) mutation in skeletal muscle of patients with myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF).

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L; Karpati, G; Shoubridge, E A

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and expression of mutant mtDNAs carrying the A-to-G mutation at position 8344 in the tRNA(Lys) gene in the skeletal muscle of four patients with myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF). The proportion of mutant genomes was greater than 80% of total mtDNAs in muscle samples of all patients and was associated with a decrease in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The vast majority of myoblasts, cloned from the satellite-cell population in the same muscles, were homoplasmic for the mutation. The overall proportion of mutant mtDNAs in this population was similar to that in differentiated muscle, suggesting that the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNAs in skeletal muscle is determined either in the ovum or during early development and changes little with age. Translation of all mtDNA-encoded genes was severely depressed in homoplasmic mutant myoblast clones but not in heteroplasmic or wild-type clones. The threshold for biochemical expression of the mutation was determined in heteroplasmic myotubes formed by fusion of different proportions of mutant and wild-type myoblasts. The magnitude of the decrease in translation in myotubes containing mutant mtDNAs was protein specific. Complex I and IV subunits were more affected than complex V subunits, and there was a rough correlation with both protein size and number of lysine residues. Approximately 15% wild-type mtDNAs restored translation and COX activity to near normal levels. These results show that the A-to-G substitution in tRNA(Lys) is a functionally recessive mutation that can be rescued by intraorganellar complementation with a small proportion of wild-type mtDNAs and explain the steep threshold for expression of the MERRF clinical phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1334369

  1. A 12-year ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome at a regional children's hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Kivlin, J D

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome (SBS) at one medical center, including clinical findings, autopsy findings, and the visual outcome of survivors. METHODS: One hundred sixteen patients admitted from 1987 to 1998 for subdural hematomas of the brain secondary to abuse were included. RESULTS: Retinal hemorrhages were detected in 84% of the children, but this important finding had been missed often by nonophthalmologists. Poor visual response, poor pupillary response, and retinal hemorrhage correlated strongly with demise of the child. One child who died had pigmented retinal scars from previous abuse, a condition not previously observed histopathologically. The clinical and autopsy findings varied somewhat, probably because of the differing conditions for examination. No correlation could be made between computerized tomography scans done during life and the subdural hemorrhage of the optic nerve found on autopsy. Half of the surviving patients were known to have good vision. One fourth of the patients had poor vision, largely due to cerebral visual impairment from bilateral injury posterior to the optic chiasm. Severe neurologic impairment correlated highly with loss of vision. CONCLUSION: This series provides information on the frequency of eye findings in SBS patients. No fundus finding is pathognomonic for SBS. When retinal hemorrhages are found in young children, the likelihood that abuse occurred is very high. The difficulty that nonophthalmologists have in detecting retinal hemorrhage may be an important limiting factor in finding these children so they may be protected from further abuse. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:10703141

  2. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  3. Progression from ischemic injury to infarct following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Yoshida, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lian, J.; Chen, S.; Chopp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural alterations involving the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to an arterial occlusion, at intervals ranging from 30 min to 7 days. Microscopic changes developed over time in separate areas of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere in a predictable pattern, appearing as small lesions in the preoptic area (30 minutes), enlarging to involve the striatum, and finally involving the cerebral cortex. Two types of neuronal responses were noted according to the time elapsed; acute changes (up to 6 hours) included scalloping, shrinkage, and swelling, whereas delayed changes (eosinophilia and karyolysis) appeared later (> or = 12 hours). Three types of astrocytic responses were noted. 1) Cytoplasmic disintegration occurred in the preoptic area at a time and in a place where neurons appeared minimally injured. 2) Nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling were prominent responses in the caudoputamen and cerebral cortex at a time when neurons showed minimal alterations. 3) Increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein reactivity was noted at the interface between the lesion and the surrounding brain tissue after 4 to 6 hours. The gross pattern of the brain lesion and the maturation of neuronal changes typical of a brain infarct have a predictable progression. Focal brain ischemia of up to 6-hour duration does not induce coagulation necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434652

  4. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  5. Immunochemical demonstration of tropomyosin in the neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, P. G.; Mulvihill, P.; Siedlak, S.; Mijares, M.; Kawai, M.; Padget, H.; Kim, R.; Perry, G.

    1990-01-01

    pathologic condition of Alzheimer's disease to generate novel, abnormal polymers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2386197

  6. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  7. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children.

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, S; Robson, M; Freeman, N; Buckley, B; Roy, A; Meyer, R; Bukowski, J; Lioy, P J

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative examination of major pathways and routes of exposure to pesticides is essential for determining human risk. The current study was conducted in two apartments and examines the accumulation of the pesticide chlorpyrifos in childrens' toys after the time suggested for reentry after application. It has been established for the first time that a semivolatile pesticide will accumulate on and in toys and other sorbant surfaces in a home via a two-phase physical process that continues for at least 2 weeks postapplication. A summation of the above for a 3-6-year-old child yielded an estimated nondietary total dose of 208 microg/kg/day. Potential exposure from the inhalation pathway was negligible, while dermal and nondietary oral doses from playing with toys contributed to 39 and 61% of the total dose, respectively. If children with high frequency mouthing behavior are considered as candidates for acute exposure to chlorpyrifos residues, the estimated acute dose could be as high as 356 microg/kg/day. Routine reapplication of pesticides could lead to continued accumulation in toys and other sorbant surfaces, e.g., pillows, with large sorbant reservoirs, which can become a long-term source of exposure to a child. Estimates of a child's nondietary exposure to chlorpyrifos associated with toys and other sorbant surfaces for a period of 1 week following application appear to be of public health concern, and studies of actual childhood exposure from this pathway are warranted in the home environment. The above information should be used to determine if current procedures for postapplication reentry are sufficient and to evaluate the need for procedures to store frequently used household toys, pillows, and other sorbant objects during insecticidal application. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9417768

  8. The Influence of Reserpine and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on Serotonin Storage Organelles of Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; White, James G.

    1977-01-01

    The present investigation has evaluated the influence of reserpine on the serotonin-rich organelles bodies) in platelets from dogs, rabbits, and humans. Reserpine markedly depresses the levels of stored serotonin in human and animal platelets, accompanied by a small decrease in platelet ATP but no change in platelet ADP content. Thin sections of human platelets showed no change in the number or morphology of serotonin storage organelles during reserpine therapy, whereas a profound decrease in the size and number of dense bodies occurred in platelets from rabbits treated with reserpine. Dog platelets also showed a decrease in the number and density of serotonin storage organelles after reserpine therapy. The basis for the difference between rabbit and human platelets was explored by fixing platelets in glutaraldehyde and osmium in the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Most of the dense bodies in fixed human platelets were removed by EDTA while rabbit platelet dense bodies remained essentially intact. The results suggested that the opacity of rabbit platelet dense bodies following fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium relate primarily to their serotonin content, while the electron density of human serotonin storage organelles in fixed cells is due primarily to their calcium content. Further confirmation of this concept came from studies of platelets using the whole mount technique. Rabbit platelet serotonin storage organelles were found to lack the inherent opacity of the human dense bodies, a finding consistent with the lower concentration of calcium in the rabbit organelles. ImagesFigures 1A-DFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5 and 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:405872

  9. Mechanisms of orbital floor fractures: a clinical, experimental, and theoretical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Ballal, D R; Ballal, R D

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the two accepted mechanisms of the orbital blow-out fracture (the hydraulic and the buckling theories) from a clinical, experimental, and theoretical standpoint. METHODS: Clinical cases in which blow-out fractures resulted from both a pure hydraulic mechanism and a pure buckling mechanism are presented. Twenty-one intact orbital floors were obtained from human cadavers. A metal rod was dropped, experimentally, onto each specimen until a fracture was produced, and the energy required in each instance was calculated. A biomathematical model of the human bony orbit, depicted as a thin-walled truncated conical shell, was devised. Two previously published (by the National Aeronautics Space Administration) theoretical structural engineering formulas for the fracture of thin-walled truncated conical shells were used to predict the energy required to fracture the bone of the orbital floor via the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. RESULTS: Experimentally, the mean energy required to fracture the bone of the human cadaver orbital floor directly was 78 millijoules (mj) (range, 29-127 mj). Using the engineering formula for the hydraulic theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 71 mj (range, 38-120 mj); for the buckling theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 68 mj (range, 40-106 mj). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we have experimentally determined the amount of energy required to fracture the bone of the human orbital floor directly and have provided support for each mechanism of the orbital blow-out fracture from a clinical and theoretical basis. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5E FIGURE 5F PMID:10703119

  10. Proteins with epitopes of the acetylcholine receptor in epithelial cell cultures of thymomas in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Marx, A.; Kirchner, T.; Hoppe, F.; O'Connor, R.; Schalke, B.; Tzartos, S.; Müller-Hermelink, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Thymomas from 12 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were investigated for the presence of epitopes of the alpha-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchR) using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) reacting against the AchR. In all but two of the tumors epitopes corresponding to antigenic determinants located on the cytoplasmic side of the AchR were identified. From eight thymomas cell lines were established that have been kept in culture for up to 6 months. The cultured cells expressed the same AchR-epitopes as did the primary tumors. During early passages the percentage of epithelial cells positive for the AchR epitopes approximately mirrored the percentage of positive cells in the original tumors. With passaging the relative number of positive cells usually declined but in some cultures an increase was observed. Three cell lines that showed extensive staining with an MAb against the AchR were radiolabeled to characterize the antigen. From protein extracts of these three cell lines proteins of 45 kd and 156 kd molecular weight (MW) were precipitated. These proteins are different from other proteins described in the context of both thymomas and MG. The negative reactivity with MAb against other epitopes of the alpha-subunit, especially against the main immunogenic region (MIR), speaks in favor of membrane-associated proteins of only limited crossreactivity to the AchR. A previous study found an almost exclusive occurrence of these AchR-epitopes in thymomas associated with MG, but not in other thymomas of similar histologic type. The expression of the proteins described here could therefore play a role in the triggering of the autoimmune process against the AchR of the motor, endplate in MG patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2468286

  11. Colocalization of elastase and myeloperoxidase in human blood and bone marrow neutrophils using a monoclonal antibody and immunogold.

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, E. M.; Beesley, J. E.; Pulford, K. A.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Mason, D. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have localized elastase in human blood and bone marrow neutrophils by immunoelectron microscopy using a monoclonal anti-human elastase antibody (NP 57) and compared its distribution with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LF), which mark primary and secondary neutrophil granule, respectively. Human bone marrow and blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), either unstimulated or after phagocytosis of latex microbeads, were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Ultrathin frozen sections were immunolabeled with NP 57, followed by an immunogold probe. In bone marrow granulocyte precursors elastase appeared simultaneously in the immature first granules of myeloblasts with MPO. As these granules became denser with maturation, labeling for both enzymes became weaker and sometimes negative (possibly due to masking of immunoreactivity). The ellipsoidal primary granules were strongly labeled by NP57. LF positive granules appeared later, at the myelocyte stage, and contained neither MPO nor elastase. In mature neutrophils, immunolabeling for elastase was found together with MPO in the large electron-dense primary granules and in a different granule population from the LF-positive secondary granules. Double labeling with two different-sized gold particles was used to compare the kinetics of degranulation of secondary and primary granules. The observation and the analysis of single phagosome content was made possible by this new technique. In conclusion, immunoelectron microscopy was used to show elastase in the primary granules of neutrophils, where it appears simultaneously with MPO. This technique has also allowed comparison of the kinetics of degranulation of both types of granules, and could be applied to different experimental and pathologic conditions. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2547320

  12. Pathogenesis of aphthoid ulcers in Crohn's disease: correlative findings by magnifying colonoscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Y; Kamoi, R; Iida, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanism of ulceration in Crohn's disease remains unknown. AIMS--To clarify the role of the follicle associated epithelium (FAE) of colonic lymphoid nodules in the formation of ulcers in Crohn's disease. METHODS--After identification of colonic lymphoid nodules and aphthoid lesions by magnifying colonoscopy, 76 biopsy specimens were obtained from 10 patients with Crohn's disease and three patients with colonic lymphoid hyperplasia. This study correlated magnifying colonoscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings of biopsy specimens. RESULTS--In Crohn's disease, scanning electron microscopy of lymphoid nodules surrounded by a red halo without visible erosions by magnifying colonoscopy, showed surface erosions 150-200 microns in size. These lymphoid nodules with red halos had small erosions either light microscopically or electron microscopically in 18 of 21 specimens (86%). Correlation of scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed residues of FAE including M cells at the edges of the erosions. In immunohistochemical studies, HLA-DR antigen was limited in M cells of FAE in the patients with lymphoid hyperplasia without inflammatory bowel disease. In Crohn's disease patients in remission, however, HLA-DR antigen was strongly expressed over the entire FAE of lymphoid nodules with a red halo endoscopically, while the expression was weak and irregular in the mucosa surrounding the lymphoid nodules. HLA-DR was strongly expressed in the entire inflamed colonic mucosa in the active stage. CONCLUSION--The red halo appearance surrounding lymphoid follicles seems to precede visible aphthoid ulcers and suggests that ulcerations in Crohn's disease originate from FAE, possibly related to its physiological role as a portal of entry for potentially pathogenic agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8707119

  13. Accumulation of Group 3 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins in Zea mays Embryos 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Estela B.; Sollinger, John; White, Constance; Rivin, Carol J.

    1992-01-01

    Several different types of proteins that are modulated by abscisic acid (ABA) accumulate in developing embryos of maize (Zea mays L.). Some of these proteins are specific to the developing seed, such as the storage globulin, GLB1, whereas others are involved in general responses to water deficit. Here we describe a maize protein family of this second type, a Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (MLG3). Like other proteins of this class, MLG3 polypeptides are ABA-responsive. They are found in maturing seeds and in dehydrating plant tissues. Antigenically related proteins are found in other cereals. To distinguish the regulation of developmentally programmed ABA responses from those that are environmentally induced, we compared the ontological pattern and accumulation requirements of MLG3 polypeptides with those we previously described for GLB1. GLB1 accumulation begins early in the maturation phase and specifically requires high levels of ABA and the participation of the Viviparous-1 (Vp1) gene product. Vp1 is required for other ABA-modulated events in maize seed development as well. In experiments using vp1 mutants and mutants deficient in ABA synthesis (vp5 mutation), we show that MLG3 accumulation also is dependent upon ABA, but it shows striking differences from GLB1. MLG3 accumulates much later in embryogenesis, coincident with the onset of dehydration. In contrast to GLB1, MLG3 proteins can be induced by de novo ABA synthesis in response to culturing in high osmoticum. Unlike GLB1, MLG3 has no specific requirement for the Vp1 gene product. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668930

  14. Pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine evaluated by EEG brain mapping, psychometry and psychophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Saletu, B; Grünberger, J; Anderer, P; Linzmayer, L; Semlitsch, H V; Magni, G

    1992-01-01

    1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effects of venlafaxine--a novel nontricyclic compound inhibiting neuronal uptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and to a lesser extent dopamine--were investigated utilizing EEG brain mapping, psychometric and psychophysiological measures. 2. Sixteen healthy volunteers (eight males, eight females) aged 21-36 years received randomized and at weekly intervals single oral doses of placebo, 12.5 mg, 25 mg and 50 mg venlafaxine. EEG recordings, psychometric and psychophysiological tests, and evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side-effects were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. 3. EEG brain mapping demonstrated that venlafaxine exerted a significant action on human brain function as compared with placebo at all three doses, characterized mostly by attenuation of absolute power, increase of relative delta/theta and beta, and decrease of alpha power, as well as by an acceleration of the total centroid fronto-temporally and by its slowing centrally and parietally. These findings are similar to antidepressants such as imipramine. Topographically, drug-induced alterations were most pronounced over both fronto-temporal and the right temporal to temporo-occipital regions. 4. Psychometric and psychophysiological investigations demonstrated significant dose-dependent psychotropic properties of the drug. Multivariate statistics exhibited an improvement of both the noopsyche (e.g. attention, concentration, attention variability, memory, fine motor activity, reaction time performance) and thymopsyche (e.g. drive, wakefulness)) but also significant psychophysiological activation (e.g. in c.f.f., pupillary and skin conductance measures). 5. Time-efficiency calculations showed significant central effects from the 2nd hour onwards, with increasing differences between placebo and treatment up to the 8th hour. Nausea was the most frequent complaint and appeared dose dependent. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure

  15. Immunophenotypic criteria for the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Picker, L. J.; Weiss, L. M.; Medeiros, L. J.; Wood, G. S.; Warnke, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the immunohistologic profiles of a large series of histologically proven benign and malignant lymphoproliferative processes in order to define immunophenotypic criteria useful in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Using a method of analysis relying solely on immunoarchitectural features of a given case, the authors were able to define immunologic criteria capable of differentiating benign from malignant lymphoid processes independent from conventional morphologic analysis. In general, these criteria involved identification of abnormal expression or loss of antigens in B- and T-lineage populations. Among B-lineage populations the following features were associated with malignant histology: 1) light-chain-restricted B lineage, 2) light chain -B lineage, 3) Leu-1+ B lineage, 4) L60+ B lineage, 5) 41H+, Ki-67+ B lineage, 6) loss of pan-B antigens, and 7) LFA-1-B lineage. Among T-cell populations outside the thymus, phenotypes associated with malignancy included 1) loss of pan-T antigens (including loss of the beta chain of the T-cell antigen receptor), 2) coexpression or loss of T-subset antigens, 3) Leu-6+ T-lineage, and 4) MB-1+ T lineage. Application of these criteria to a series of nearly 500 cases of lymphoma indicated that over 90% of B-lineage and about 80% of T-lineage neoplasms manifested immunophenotypic abnormalities that could distinguish them from benign, reactive lymphoid processes. It is concluded that immunophenotypic analysis of lymphoproliferative lesions is sufficiently sensitive and specific to confirm the histologic diagnosis of lymphoma in the vast majority of cases seen in clinical practice. Furthermore, in difficult cases or those with limited material or poor histology, immunophenotypic analysis may be the only means of making a definitive diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3111266

  16. Immediate breast reconstruction-impact on radiation management.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi A.; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ashton, Cori; Goldson, Alfred L.

    2003-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is an option for women undergoing modified radical mastectomy due to a diagnosis of breast cancer. In certain patients, breast reconstruction is performed by insertion of a temporary tissue expander prior to the placement of permanent breast implants. Some of these patients, following mastectomy, may require chest wall irradiation to prevent loco regional relapse. The compatibility of radiation and tissue expanders placed in the chest wall is of major concern to the radiation oncologist. Clinically undetectable changes can occur in the tissue expander during the course of radiation therapy. This can lead to radiation treatment set-up changes, variation in tissue expansion resulting in unwanted cosmesis, and deviation from the prescribed radiation dose leading to over and/or under dosing of tumor burden. At Howard University hospital, a CT scan was utilized to evaluate the status of the temporary tissue expander during radiation treatment to enable us to prevent radiation treatment related complications resulting from dosimetric discrepancies. CT images of the tissue expander were obtained through the course of treatment. To avoid a 'geographic miss' the amount of fluid injected into the tissue expander was kept constant following patient's satisfaction with the size of the breast mound. The CT scans allowed better visualization of the prosthesis and its relation to the surrounding tumor bed. This technique ensured that anatomical changes occurring during radiation treatment, if any, were minimized. Repeated dosimetry evaluations showed no changes to the prescribed dose distribution. A CT of the reconstructed breast provides an important quality control. Further studies with greater number of patients are required for confirming this impact on radiation treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:12749619

  17. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-01-01

    . Accordingly, the window of developmental vulnerability to chlorpyrifos is likely to extend from the embryonic period into postnatal life. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:10229709

  18. The final stages of spliceosome maturation require Spp2p that can interact with the DEAH box protein Prp2p and promote step 1 of splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, J; Kim, K; Maddock, J R; Anthony, J G; Woolford, J L

    1995-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing occurs by assembly of splicing factors on the substrate to form the spliceosome followed by two consecutive RNA cleavage-ligation reactions. The Prp2 protein hydrolyzes ATP and is required for the first reaction (Yean SL, Lin RJ, 1991, Mol Cell Biol 11:5571-5577; Kim SH, Smith J, Claude A, Lin RJ, 1992, EMBO J 11:2319-2326). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPP2 gene was previously identified as a high-copy suppressor of temperature-sensitive prp2 mutants (Last RL, Maddock JR, Woolford JL Jr, 1987, Genetics 117:619-631). We have characterized the function of Spp2p in vivo and in vitro. Spp2p is an essential protein required for the first RNA cleavage reaction in vivo. Depletion of Spp2p from yeast cells results in accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNAs. A temperature-sensitive spp2-1 mutant accumulates pre-mRNAs in vivo and is unable to undergo the first splicing reaction in vitro. However, spliceosomal complexes are assembled in extracts prepared from the mutant. We show that Spp2p function is required after spliceosome assembly but prior to the first reaction. Spp2p associates with the spliceosome before the first RNA cleavage reaction and is likely to be released from the spliceosome following ATP hydrolysis by Prp2p. The Prp2 and Spp2 proteins are capable of physically interacting with each other. These results suggest that Spp2p interacts with Prp2p in the spliceosome prior to the first cleavage-ligation reaction. Spp2p is the first protein that has been found to interact with a DEAD/H box splicing factor. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:7493316

  19. Slow cellular dynamics in MDCK and R5 cells monitored by time-lapse atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, C A; Hoh, J H

    1994-01-01

    We have examined dynamic events that occur on a time scale of minutes in an epithelial monolayer of Madine-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and in ras-transformed MDCK cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells were imaged under physiological conditions, and time-lapse movies representing approximately 60 s real time per frame were assembled. In normal MDCK cells, two types of protrusions in the apical plasma membrane exhibit dynamic behavior. First, smooth bulges formed transiently over the time scale of minutes to tens of minutes. Second, spike-like protrusions appear initially as bulges, extend well above the apical surface and, finally, seem to detach. R5, an oncogenic transformant derived from MDCK cells, grows very flat on glass. During AFM imaging, these cells sometimes round up and detach from the substrate. In light microscopic observations of parallel preparations, cells rarely detach, suggesting that this is an active response of these cells to irritation by the AFM tip. R5 cells often extend processes that are supported by actin stress fibers. During imaging with the AFM, these processes withdraw at a rate of 1-5 microns/min, similar to that observed by light microscopy. During the withdrawal, movement of the stress fibers can be clearly seen. In the flat periphery of these cells, the transport of intracellular particles along cytoskeletal elements was seen. In addition, we have observed two types of wave-like movements through the cell, which appear to be an organized rearrangement of cytoplasm. One type of wave moves radially out from center of the cell while the other moves circularly along the cell periphery. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7948707

  20. Regional differences in the distribution of the proteoglycans biglycan and decorin in the extracellular matrix of atherosclerotic and restenotic human coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Riessen, R.; Isner, J. M.; Blessing, E.; Loushin, C.; Nikol, S.; Wight, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    well to pathologically altered human coronary arteries. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8178945

  1. All histological types of primary human rhabdomyosarcoma express alpha-cardiac and not alpha-skeletal actin messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, W.; Bochaton-Piallat, M. L.; Geinoz, A.; d'Amore, E.; Laurini, R. N.; Cintorino, M.; Bégin, L. R.; Boivin, Y.; Gabbiani, G.

    1994-01-01

    Eleven human primary rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs), including all histological variants, were analyzed morphologically, immunohistochemically for intermediate filament proteins and actin isoforms, and by means of Northern blots with probes specific for total actin, alpha-skeletal (SK), alpha-cardiac (CARD), and alpha-smooth muscle actin messenger (m)RNAs. All tumors disclosed ultrastructural evidence of skeletal muscle features with terminal differentiation in three cases. The RMSs contained immunohistochemically the intermediate filament proteins vimentin and desmin and reacted positively with the alpha-sarcomeric actin antibody, which recognizes alpha-SK and alpha-CARD actin isoforms. All RMSs reacted with the total actin probe, recognizing at 2.1 kb cytoplasmic actin mRNAs and at 1.7 kb alpha-actin mRNAs. With the specific probes, all RMSs expressed alpha-CARD actin mRNA, four neoplasms expressed also alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, whereas the probe for alpha-SK actin mRNA never produced a signal except in one case, in which the tumor masses were intermingled with non-neoplastic preexistent striated muscle fibers. Because alpha-CARD and alpha-smooth muscle actins are transiently expressed during normal skeletal muscle development, RMSs seem to follow normal skeletal myogenesis without completing the final step, consisting of alpha-SK actin mRNA expression. The use of Northern blots for alpha-CARD actin as an adjunct to conventional techniques may be helpful for the precise identification of primary RMSs compared to other soft tissue neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8160781

  2. Heterogeneity of smooth muscle cells in atheromatous plaque of human aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Babaev, V. R.; Bobryshev, Y. V.; Stenina, O. V.; Tararak, E. M.; Gabbiani, G.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and the ultrastructure of cells in normal intima and atheromatous plaque of human aorta. It has been established, using double-labeling immunofluorescence, that smooth muscle cells (SMC) in normal aortic intima contain myosin, vimentin, and alpha-actin but do not react with antibodies against desmin. In contrast, 7 of 28 atherosclerotic plaques contained many cells expressing desmin in addition to the other cytoskeletal proteins characteristic of normal intima SMC. These cells were localized predominantly in the plaque cap and had the ultrastructural features of modulated SMC, ie, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Besides, some cells in the 13 atherosclerotic plaques proved to be myosin, alpha actin, and desmin negative but contained vimentin and actin as revealed by fluorescent phalloidin. These cells were found in the immediate proximity of atheromatous material and reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific to SMC surface protein (11G10) but not with monoclonal anti-muscle actin (HHF35) and anti-macrophage (HAM56) antibodies. Electron microscopy of this plaque zone revealed that the cytoplasm of these cells was filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum and a developed Golgi complex. At the same time, a certain proportion of cells in this region retained morphologic features of differentiated SMC such as the presence of a basal lamina and myofilament bundles. The revealed peculiarities of cytoskeletal protein expression and the ultrastructure of cells in human aortic atherosclerotic plaques may be explained by a phenotypic modulation of vascular SMC. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2190471

  3. Expression of sialyl-Lewis X, an E-selectin ligand, in inflammation, immune processes, and lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, J. M.; Lo, S. K.; Corless, C.; Robertson, M. J.; Lee, N. C.; Barnhill, R. L.; Weinberg, D. S.; Bevilacqua, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The carbohydrate structure sialyl-Lewis X (SLex) can function as a ligand for E-selectin, formerly known as endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). This study was performed to analyze the expression of SLex by leukocytes and other cell types in the context of inflammatory and immune processes. Human peripheral blood cells were examined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibody CSLEX1 directed against SLex. Cell surface SLex was found in abundance on nearly all isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and at low levels on a substantial portion (up to 40%) of natural killer cells. This moiety was expressed also on approximately 10% of peripheral blood T cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed on various human tissues involved in inflammatory or immune processes and on secondary lymphoid tissues. In acute appendicitis, endothelial cells of postcapillary venules expressed E-selectin, and most PMN, both within vessels and extravasated, expressed SLex. A substantial number of monocytes/macrophages in inflamed appendiceal, synovial, and dermal tissues also reacted with antibody CSLEX1; however, only rare tissue macrophages in uninflamed nonlymphoid sites showed expression of SLex. These observations are consistent with the concept that SLex on circulating PMN and monocytes functions as a ligand for endothelial E-selectin in the development of inflammatory reactions. SLex-positive lymphocytes also were seen, notably, T lymphocytes in inflamed skin. An unexpected finding was that the CSLEX1 antibody also reacted with venular endothelium in certain lymphoid tissues and in inflamed appendix, but not with endothelium in normal appendix. Whether the SLex antigen identified on endothelium represents de novo expression or passive adsorption remains to be determined. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1281620

  4. 92-kd type IV collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity in human amniochorion increases with labor.

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, F.; González-Avila, G.; Furth, E. E.; Lei, H.; Muschel, R. J.; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Strauss, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    physiological and pathological conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7856724

  5. Adhesion systems in normal breast and in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, M.; Koteliansky, V.; Sastre, X.; Thiery, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    To analyze the role of various elements of the adhesion system in the organization of the normal mammary gland and in breast carcinoma, we have studied simultaneously the expression of integrins, E- and P-cadherins, and cytoplasmic constituents of adherens junctions. In the normal gland, E-cadherin and alpha-catenin are present in luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells, whereas integrins are more abundant in acinar epithelial and in myoepithelial cells. We demonstrate here that, in addition, myoepithelial cells express much more vinculin and alpha-actinin than luminal epithelial cells, whereas talin and focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) are restricted to the basal cell layer. In invasive carcinoma, E-cadherin is usually present although often in reduced amount; different integrin subunits are expressed either by a fraction or by all of the cells or are absent. However, the cytoplasmic components of adherens junctions, such as alpha-catenin, vinculin, alpha-actinin, talin, and pp125FAK, are expressed at low levels or cannot be detected in the carcinoma cells. Our data suggest that 1), in the normal mammary gland, the myoepithelial cells, being particularly rich in integrins and cytoplasmic components of the adherens junctions, play an important role in the maintenance of tissue integrity; 2), in invasive carcinoma, cell aggregates may be maintained due to varying levels of expression of E-cadherin and/or integrins; and 3), interaction of the transmembrane adhesion molecules with the cytoskeleton in carcinoma may be impaired as revealed by reduced levels of expression of alpha-catenin, vinculin, alpha-actinin, talin, and pp125FAK. Importantly, carcinoma cells, when exposed to stroma during invasion, do not acquire the adhesion apparatus characteristic of normal cells in contact with the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7887451

  6. High glucose concentration induces the overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta through the activation of a platelet-derived growth factor loop in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, S.; Gesualdo, L.; Ranieri, E.; Grandaliano, G.; Schena, F. P.

    1996-01-01

    High glucose concentration has been shown to induce the overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and protein in different cell types, including murine mesangial cells, thus possibly accounting for the expansion of mesangial extracellular matrix observed in diabetic glomerulopathy. In the present study, we evaluated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and PDGF-beta receptor gene expression in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to different concentrations of glucose and then sought a possible relationship between a PDGF loop and the modulation of TGF-beta 1 expression. HMC [3H]thymidine incorporation was upregulated by 30 mmol/L glucose (HG) up to 24 hours, whereas it was significantly inhibited at later time points. Neutralizing antibodies to PDGF BB abolished the biphasic response to HG, whereas anti-TGF-beta antibodies reversed only the late inhibitory effect of hyperglycemic medium. HG induced an early and persistent increase of PDGF B-chain gene expression, as evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, whereas PDGF-beta receptor mRNA increased by twofold after 6 hours, thereafter declining at levels 70% lower than in controls after 24 hours. 125I-Labeled PDGF BB binding studies in HMCs exposed to HG for 24 hours confirmed the decrease of PDGF-beta receptor expression. TGF-beta 1-specific transcripts showed 43 and 78% increases after 24 and 48 hours of incubation in HG, respectively, which was markedly diminished by anti-PDGF BB neutralizing antibodies or suramin. We conclude that HG induces an early activation of a PDGF loop that, in turn, causes an increase of TGF-beta 1 gene expression, thus modulating both HMC proliferation and mesangial matrix production. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8952542

  7. Active macrophage-associated TGF-beta co-localizes with type I procollagen gene expression in atherosclerotic human pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, L.; Milder, J.; Gold, L.; Botney, M.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in adult atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries is characterized by discrete areas of neointimal smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix gene expression in close proximity to non-foamy macrophages, suggesting regulation by local macrophage-associated factors. The purpose of these studies was to begin addressing the role of putative macrophage-associated factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), by determining the spatial relationship between TGF-beta and neointimal matrix gene expression in human atherosclerotic pulmonary arteries. For example, the participation of TGF-beta in vascular remodeling could be inferred by its colocalization with non-foamy macrophages in areas of active matrix synthesis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated focal neointimal procollagen gene expression in close association with non-foamy but not foamy macrophages. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific anti-TGF-beta antibodies demonstrated all three isoforms of TGF-beta associated with non-foamy macrophages, but foamy macrophages were not immunoreactive. Neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells stained lightly. In contrast, intense TGF-beta immunoreactivity was also associated with medial smooth muscle cells in normal nonremodeling vessels. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific for latent TGF-beta was similar to immunohistochemistry for mature TGF-beta in both remodeling and nonremodeling vessels. Finally, using an antibody specific for active TGF-beta 1, immunoreactivity was only seen in non-foamy neointimal macrophages but not in foamy macrophages or medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive or normal vessels. These observations suggest non-foamy macrophages may participate in modulating matrix gene expression in atherosclerotic remodeling via a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7747808

  8. Expression and distribution of CD9 in myelin of the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Y.; Iwamoto, R.; Mekada, E.

    1996-01-01

    CD9 is a member of the newly identified tetra-membrane-spanning protein family. We show here that CD9 is a constituent of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Expression of CD9 was detected in human cerebral white matter and sciatic nerve by Northern and Western blotting. Myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems was strongly stained with a monoclonal antibody against human CD9 antigen in paraffin-embedded sections. CD9 was detected in adult nervous tissue but not in developing brain at less than 20 weeks of gestation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that expression of CD9 is correlated with myelination and is somewhat delayed compared with expression of myelin basic protein, a major component protein of myelin. In the central nervous system, CD9 was detected along the outermost membrane of compact myelin but not inside compact myelin or the periaxonal region. Although the membrane-anchored form of heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF), which is identical to the diphtheria toxin receptor, forms a complex with CD9 in some human and monkey cell lines, proHB-EGF was not detected in myelin immunocytochemically. The distribution of CD9 in the outer surface of myelin and its relatively late developmental appearance suggest that CD9 may interact with the extracellular matrix or cell adhesion molecules and participate in the maintenance of the entire myelin sheath. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8701996

  9. Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas Taylor

    1982-01-01

    The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

  10. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    PubMed Central

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequential extraction revealed the solubility of lead compounds at less than 7% in the exchangeable and mildly acidic steps for the bulk dusts collected from four smelter areas. The later steps of the extraction procedure were more effective in dissolving the lead compounds associated with the bulk dust samples, with 43%, 26%, and 8% of the total lead, in the ore storage, sinter, and blast/dross smelter areas, respectively, being extracted in the residual step. Sequential extraction of coarse airborne dust samples from the ore storage and sinter plant showed that 1.2% and 4.1% of the total lead, respectively, was exchangeable. The finer particle size fractions from these areas of the smelter showed higher percentages of exchangeable lead. Of the course airborne dust from the blast/dross furnace processes, 65% of the total lead was exchangeable. However, the largest percentage of lead from these areas was associated with the finer particle-size fractions. If lead bioavailability is related to its solubility as determined through sequential extraction, the health hazards associated with lead exposure may be appreciably enhanced in the blast and dross furnace processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721256

  11. Wavelet formation in excitable cardiac tissue: the role of wavefront-obstacle interactions in initiating high-frequency fibrillatory-like arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Starobin, J M; Zilberter, Y I; Rusnak, E M; Starmer, C F

    1996-01-01

    High-frequency arrhythmias leading to fibrillation are often associated with the presence of inhomogeneities (obstacles) in cardiac tissue and reduced excitability of cardiac cells. Studies of antiarrhythmic drugs in patients surviving myocardial infarction revealed an increased rate of sudden cardiac death compared with untreated patients. These drugs block the cardiac sodium channel, thereby reducing excitability, which may alter wavefront-obstacle interactions. In diseased atrial tissue, excitability is reduced by diminished sodium channel availability secondary to depolarized rest potentials and cellular decoupling secondary to intercellular fibrosis. Excitability can also be reduced by incomplete recovery between successive excitations. In all of these cases, wavefront-obstacle interactions in a poorly excitable medium may reflect an arrhythmogenic process that permits formation of reentrant wavelets leading to flutter, fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death. To probe the relationship between excitability and arrhythmogenesis, we explored conditions for new wavelet formation after collision of a plane wave with an obstacle in an otherwise homogeneous excitable medium. Formulating our approach in terms of the balance between charge available in the wavefront and the excitation charge requirements of adjacent medium, we found analytically the critical medium parameters that defined conditions for wavefront-obstacle separation. Under these conditions, when a parent wavefront collided with a primitive obstacle, the resultant fragments separated from the obstacle boundaries, subsequently curled, and spawned new "daughter" wavelets. We identified spatial arrangements of obstacles such that wavefront-obstacle collisions leading to spawning of new wavelets could produce high-frequency wavelet trains similar to fibrillation-like arrhythmias. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8789078

  12. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  13. The association of viruses with urveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, D M

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833

  14. Effects of Jasmonic Acid on Embryo-Specific Processes in Brassica and Linum Oilseeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilen, Ronald W.; van Rooijen, Gijs J. H.; Pearce, David W.; Pharis, Richard P.; Holbrook, Larry A.; Moloney, Maurice M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of effects on embryogenesis of the putative phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA), and its methyl ester (MeJA), were investigated in two oilseed plants, repeseed (Brassica napus) and flax (Linum usitatissimum). Results from treatments with JA and MeJA were compared with those of a known effector of several aspects of embryogenesis, abscisic acid (ABA). Jasmonic acid was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a naturally occurring substance in both plant species during embryo development. Both JA and MeJA can prevent precocious germination of B. napus microspore embryos and of cultured zygotic embryos of both species at an exogenous concentration of >1 micromolar. This dose-response was comparable with results obtained with ABA. Inhibitory effects were also observed on seed germination with all three growth regulators in rapeseed and flax. A number of molecular aspects of embryogenesis were also investigated. Expression of the B. napus storage protein genes (napin and cruciferin) was induced in both microspore embryos and zygotic embryos by the addition of 10 micromolar JA. The level of napin and cruciferin mRNA detected was similar to that observed when 10 micromolar ABA was applied to these embryos. For MeJA only slight increases in napin or cruciferin mRNA were observed at concentrations of 30 micromolar. Several oilbody-associated proteins were found to accumulate when the embryos were incubated with either JA or ABA in both species. The MeJA had little effect on oilbody protein synthesis. The implications of JA acting as a natural regulator of gene expression in zygotic embryogenesis are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667997

  15. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  16. Replicative Legionella pneumophila lung infection in intratracheally inoculated A/J mice. A murine model of human Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Brieland, J.; Freeman, P.; Kunkel, R.; Chrisp, C.; Hurley, M.; Fantone, J.; Engleberg, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of host immune responses in the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease is incompletely understood, due in part to the current lack of an animal model that is both susceptible to replicative Legionella pneumophila-induced lung infection and for which species-specific immunological reagents are available. We have developed a model of replicative L. pneumophila lung infection in intratracheally inoculated A/J mice. L. pneumophila was obtained in the exponential growth phase and inoculated into the trachea of 6- to 8-week-old female A/J mice. Microbiological and histopathological evidence of infection was demonstrated in mice inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units. Development of an acute pneumonia that resembled human Legionnaires' disease coincided with exponential growth of the bacteria in the lung 24 to 48 hours after intratracheal inoculation of L. pneumophila. This was associated with increased plasma levels of interferon-gamma at 24 hours after inoculation. After 48 hours, the bacteria were gradually eliminated from the lung over the next 5 days, corresponding with resolution of the inflammatory response in the lung, thereby mimicking the outcome frequently seen in the immunocompetent human host. Treatment of animals with anti-interferon-gamma antibody enhanced bacterial replication and disease progression, indicating an important role of host immune response in resolution of the infection. Because of the availability of murine-specific reagents, this model of replicative L. pneumophila lung infection in A/J mice after intrapulmonary inoculation of L. pneumophila potentially provides an important tool for future studies investigating the role of host immune responses in the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease in the immunocompetent host. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7992856

  17. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  18. Influence of transbilayer area asymmetry on the morphology of large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Mui, B L; Döbereiner, H G; Madden, T D; Cullis, P R

    1995-01-01

    The morphological consequences of differences in the monolayer surface areas of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) have been examined employing cryoelectron microscopy techniques. Surface area was varied by inducing net transbilayer transport of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC):DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It is shown that when DOPG is transported from the inner to the outer monolayer, initially invaginated LUVs are transformed to long narrow tubular structures, or spherical structures with one or more protrusions. Tubular structures are also seen in response to outward DOPG transport in DOPC:DOPG:Chol (6:1:3, mol:mol:mol) LUV systems, and when lyso-PC is allowed to partition into the exterior monolayer of DOPC:DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in the absence of DOPG transport. Conversely, when the inner monolayer area is expanded by the transport of DOPG from the outer monolayer to the inner monolayer of non-invaginated LUVs, a reversion to invaginated structures is observed. The morphological changes are well described by an elastic bending theory of the bilayer. Identification of the difference in relaxed monolayer areas and of the volume-to-area ratio of the LUVs as the shape-determining factors allows a quantitative classification of the observed morphologies. The morphology seen in LUVs supports the possibility that factors leading to differences in monolayer surface areas could play important roles in intracellular membrane transport processes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8519993

  19. Enhanced production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Kunkel, S. L.; Pearce, W. H.; Shah, M. R.; Parikh, D.; Evanoff, H. L.; Haines, G. K.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory leukocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerotic disease, from early atherogenesis to the late stages of atherosclerosis, such as aneurysm formation. We have shown previously that human abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by the presence of numerous chronic inflammatory cells throughout the vessel wall (Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1199-1213). The signals that attract lymphocytes and monocytes into the aortic wall in aneurysmal disease remain to be precisely defined. We have studied the production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by aortic tissues obtained from 47 subjects. We compared the antigenic production of these cytokines by explants of: 1) human abdominal aneurysmal tissue, 2) occlusive (atherosclerotic) aortas, and 3) normal aortas. IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells was liberated in greater quantities by abdominal aortic aneurysms than by occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, macrophages, and to a lesser degree endothelial cells, were found to be positive for the expression of antigenic IL-8. Similarly, MCP-1, a potent chemotactic cytokine for monocytes/macrophages, was released by explants from abdominal aortic aneurysms in greater quantities than by explants from occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, the predominant MCP-1 antigen-positive cells were macrophages and to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that human abdominal aortic aneurysms produce IL-8 and MCP-1, both of which may serve to recruit additional inflammatory cells into the abdominal aortic wall, hence perpetuating the inflammatory reaction that may result in the pathology of vessel wall destruction and aortic aneurysm formation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8494046

  20. Exposure estimates to disinfection by-products of chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, C P; Kim, H; Haltmeier, P; Klotz, J B

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) of drinking water is multiroute and occurs in households serviced by municipal water treatment facilities that disinfect the water as a necessary step to halt the spread of waterborne infectious diseases. Biomarkers of the two most abundant groups of DBPs of chlorination, exhaled breath levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary levels of two haloacetic acids, were compared to exposure estimates calculated from in-home tap water concentrations and responses to a questionnaire related to water usage. Background THM breath concentrations were uniformly low. Strong relationships were identified between the THM breath concentrations collected after a shower and both the THM water concentration and the THM exposure from a shower, after adjusting for the postshower delay time in collecting the breath sample. Urinary haloacetic acid excretion rates were not correlated to water concentrations. Urinary trichloroacetic acid excretion rates were correlated with ingestion exposure, and that correlation was stronger in a subset of individuals who consumed beverages primarily within their home where the concentration measurements were made. No correlation was observed between an average 48-hr exposure estimate and the urinary dichloroacetic acid excretion rate, presumably because of its short biological half-life. Valid biomarkers were identified for DBP exposures, but the time between the exposure and sample collection should be considered to account for different metabolic rates among the DBPs. Further, using water concentration as an exposure estimate can introduce misclassification of exposure for DBPs whose primary route is ingestion due to the great variability in the amount of water ingested across a population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9924004

  1. Modulation of mitochondrial gene expression in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to oxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Y M; Driscoll, K E; Timblin, C R; Hassenbein, D; Mossman, B T

    1998-01-01

    Oxidants are important in the regulation of signal transduction and gene expression. Multiple classes of genes are transcriptionally activated by oxidants and are implicated in different phenotypic responses. In the present study, we performed differential mRNA display to elucidate genes that are induced or repressed after exposure of rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells to H2O2 or crocidolite asbestos, a pathogenic mineral that generates oxidants. After 8 or 24 hr of exposure, RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers to visualize alterations in gene expression. The seven clones obtained were sequenced and encoded the mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunits ND5 and ND6, and 16S ribosomal RNA. Evaluation of their expression by Northern blot analysis revealed increased expression of 16S rRNA after 1 or 2 hr of exposure to H2O2. At later time periods (4 and 24 hr), mRNA levels of 16S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase were decreased in H2O2-treated RLE cells when compared to sham controls. Crocidolite asbestos caused increases in 16S rRNA levels after 8 hr of exposure, whereas after 24 hr of exposure to asbestos, 16S rRNA levels were decreased in comparison to sham controls. In addition to these oxidants, the nitric oxide generator spermine NONOate caused similar decreases in NADH dehydrogenase mRNA levels after 4 hr of exposure. The present data and previous studies demonstrated that all oxidants examined resulted in apoptosis in RLE cells during the time frame where alterations of mitochondrial gene expression were observed. As the mitochondrion is a major organelle that controls apoptosis, alterations in expression of mitochondrial genes may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9788897

  2. A novel monoclonal antibody, Mar 1, directed specifically against mononuclear phagocyte system cells in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, A; Hattori, Y; Kotani, M; Miyasaka, M; Fukumoto, T

    1990-01-01

    Three different monoclonal antibodies (mAb), designated Mar 1, Mar 2, and Mar 3, recognizing three distinct novel antigen molecules expressed preferentially in rat macrophages, were produced by the hybridoma technique. Binding of these mAb to isolated cells or fixed cells was detected by radioactive binding assay, immunohistochemical technique and flow cytometry. Mar 1 binds specifically to the cells constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), but not to granulocytes nor endocytosis-positive cells from non-lymphoid tissues. Mar 2 and Mar 3 recognize both the former and the latter. The isotypes of Mar 1, Mar 2 and Mar 3 were defined as IgG1, IgG1 and IgG2b, respectively. These mAb were species specific, allo-non-specific and not cytotoxic for rat peritoneal macrophages. Immunoelectron microscopic observation demonstrated that Mar 1-3 antigens are located on both surface membrane and cytoplasmic membrane structures of peritoneal macrophages, particularly on the limiting membrane of phagocytic small vesicles and large phagosomes. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the apparent molecular weights (MW) of the reactive antigens of Mar 1, Mar 2 and Mar 3 are 95,000, 100,000 and 55,000 and 27,000, respectively. These findings indicate that all of Mar 1-3 mAb have considerable value in the identification of rat phagocytes and that, of the three kinds of antigens detected with Mar 1-3, Mar 1 antigen is a specific marker for identification of the cells constituting the MPS and may offer the means to assess the functional capability and differentiation process of the macrophage populations. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2197217

  3. Carcinogenic and Cocarcinogenic Effects of Radon and Radon Daughters in Rats.

    PubMed Central

    Monchaux, G; Morlier, JP; Morin, M; Chameaud, J; Lafuma, J; Masse, R

    1994-01-01

    It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 3000 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of lung cancers was higher by a factor of 2-4 according to the cumulative radon exposure and the duration of tobacco smoke exposure. When mineral fibers were injected intrapleurally, an increased incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. Images p64-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9719670

  4. Altered biologic activities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures after microbial reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, M A; Ganey, P E; Quensen, J F; Madhukar, B V; Chou, K; Giesy, J P; Fischer, L J; Boyd, S A

    1998-01-01

    Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9860899

  5. A selective historical review of congener-specific human tissue measurements as sensitive and specific biomarkers of exposure to dioxins and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A

    1998-01-01

    Estimating internal exposure or dose of dioxins and related chemicals such as dibenzofurans and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls is relatively straightforward in laboratory animals because a known dose is given and the amount absorbed can be measured. In wildlife, direct tissue measurement and measurement of environmental samples have both recently been used to estimate exposure. Until recently, human studies used only indirect indicators such as skin lesions to qualitatively estimate exposure to these chlorinated organic compounds. Environmental measurements have also sometimes been used to estimate human exposure. Dioxins in human tissue were not measured until the 1970s, when 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was measured in mothers' milk; congener-specific measurement of dioxins and dibenzofurans in tissues (blood, milk, and adipose tissue) of the general population and exposed workers was first performed in the United States in the 1980s. Measurement in a sensitive and specific fashion of the 17 toxic dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners currently found in human tissue from industrial countries began in the 1980s. The use of known chemical standards, capillary columns, high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has now become relatively common. GC-MS analysis of blood is currently accepted as the gold standard for estimating human exposure to dioxins. However, analyses are still costly and time consuming, and worldwide there are few qualified laboratories. There is currently a lack of knowledge concerning kinetics at higher and lower exposure levels for most of the toxic dioxin congeners and of levels in target tissues of concern. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9599725

  6. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  7. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  8. Cellular retinol-binding protein-1 is transiently expressed in granulation tissue fibroblasts and differentially expressed in fibroblasts cultured from different organs.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G.; Redard, M.; Gabbiani, G.; Neuville, P.

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) is transiently expressed by arterial smooth muscle cells during experimental intimal repair (P. Neuville, A. Geinoz, G. Benzonana, M. Redard, F. Gabbiani, P. Ropraz, G. Gabbiani: Am J Pathol 1997, 150:509-521). We have examined here the expression of CRBP-1 during wound healing after a full-thickness rat skin wound. CRBP-1 was transiently expressed by a significant proportion of fibroblastic cells including myofibroblasts. Expression started 4 days after wounding, reached a maximum at 12 days, and persisted up to 30 days when a scar was formed. After wound closure, most CRBP-1-containing fibroblastic cells underwent apoptosis. We have further investigated CRBP-1 expression in rat fibroblasts cultured from different organs. CRBP-1 was abundant in lung and heart fibroblasts and was detected in decreasing amounts in muscle, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and granulation tissue fibroblasts. Dermis fibroblasts contained no detectable levels of CRBP-1. All-trans retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited cell proliferation and increased CRBP-1 expression in fibroblastic populations except dermis fibroblasts. We demonstrate that during granulation tissue formation a subpopulation of fibroblastic cells express CRBP-1 de novo. We also demonstrate that CRBP-1 expression by fibroblasts is regulated in vitro by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1. Our results suggest that CRBP-1 and possibly retinoic acid play a role in the evolution of granulation tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9403724

  9. Tumor cell and connective tissue cell interactions in human colorectal adenocarcinoma. Transfer of platelet-derived growth factor-AB/BB to stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, C.; Branting, M.; Gerdin, B.; Rubin, K.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta-receptors expressed on connective tissue cells in human colorectal adenocarcinoma were investigated in this study. PDGF-AB/BB, but not PDGF receptors, was expressed by tumor cells in situ, as well as in tumor cell isolates of low passage from human colorectal adenocarcinoma. In an experimental co-culture system, conditioned medium from tumor cells only marginally activated PDGF beta-receptors expressed on fibroblasts. In contrast, co-culturing of the two cell types led to a marked PDGF beta-receptor activation. Functional PDGF-AB/BB was found to be associated with heparinase-I-sensitive components on the tumor cell surface. PDGF-AB/BB, isolated from heparinase-I-sensitive cell surface components, induced a marked activation of PDGF beta-receptors. Furthermore, co-culturing tumor cells together with fibroblasts led to a sustained activation of PDGF beta-receptors expressed on fibroblasts. Double immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, combined with computer-aided image analysis, revealed that nonproliferating tumor cells were the predominant cellular source of PDGF-AB/BB in the tumor stroma. In addition, PDGF-AB/BB-expressing tumor cells were found juxtapositioned to microvascular cells expressing activated PDGF beta-receptors. Confocal microscopy revealed a cytoplasmic and cell-membrane-associated expression of PDGF-AB/BB in tumor cells situated in the stroma. In contrast, epithelial cells situated in normal or tumorous acinar structures revealed only a cell-membrane-associated PDGF-AB/BB expression. The is vitro and in situ results demonstrate that tumor cells not only facilitate but also have the ability to modulate connective tissue cell responsiveness to PDGF-AB/BB in a paracrine fashion, through direct cell-cell interactions in human colorectal adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9250160

  10. Role of interferon-gamma in interleukin 12-induced pathology in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Car, B. D.; Eng, V. M.; Schnyder, B.; LeHir, M.; Shakhov, A. N.; Woerly, G.; Huang, S.; Aguet, M.; Anderson, T. D.; Ryffel, B.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) activates natural killer (NK) and T cells with the secondary synthesis and release of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and other cytokines. IL-12-induced organ alterations are reported for mice and the pathogenetic role of IFN-gamma is investigated by the use of mice deficient in the IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R-/-). IL-12 caused a rapid infiltration of liver and splenic red pulp with activated macrophages; this and increased NK cells resulted in a fivefold increase of splenic weight in wild-type mice. Splenomegaly was associated with myelosuppression and decreasing peripheral leukocyte counts. IL-12-induced changes in wild-type mice were associated with markedly increased IFN-gamma serum levels and up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II expression in various epithelia. IL-12 induced a qualitatively similar macrophage infiltration in IFN-gamma R-/- mice, less marked splenomegaly (to 2 x normal), and no MHC upregulation. Strikingly increased vascular endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was apparent in both IFN-gamma R-/- and IFN-gamma R+/+ mice. Restricted to mutant mice was a severe, invariably lethal, interstitial, and perivascular pulmonary macrophage infiltration with diffuse pulmonary edema. Extensive quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed an increase of only IL-6 and IL-10 pulmonary gene transcripts in IFN-gamma R-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. IL-12-induced myelosuppression is due to IFN-gamma-release from NK cells and T cells, and is associated with macrophage activation and distinct MHC class I and II antigen upregulation. The pulmonary pathology in IFN-gamma R-/- mice, however, reveals a toxic potential for IL-12 and suggests that endogenous IFN-gamma plays a protective role in preventing fatal pulmonary disease in these mice. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7495294

  11. An immunohistochemical and prognostic analysis of cytokeratin expression in malignant uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, U.; Kivelä, T.; Summanen, P.; Immonen, I.; Tarkkanen, A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of 52 patients with malignant uveal melanoma treated by primary enucleation in 1977-1979 was studied to determine the frequency of immunoreactivity for cytokeratins (CK) in primary and metastatic melanoma, the CK types present, and the prognostic significance of CK expression. By immunohistochemistry, monoclonal antibody (MAb) V9 to vimentin reacted with all 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumors and all 31 metastases from 11 patients. MAb CAM 5.2 to CK 8 and 18 reacted with 20 and MAb CY-90 to CK 18 with 25 primary melanomas, whereas MAb KS-B17.2 and MAb CK5 to CK 18 labeled 8 and 6 tumors, respectively. Antibodies to