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  1. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the heel developing at site of previous frostbite1

    PubMed Central

    Rossis, C G; Yiacoumettis, A M; Elemenoglou, J

    1982-01-01

    Ten cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the heel previously affected by frostbite are reported. They had a similar natural history, location and histological appearance. All were treated by excision, and follow up over periods of 2–5 years has not revealed metastases. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7120256

  3. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  4. Intracranial imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, M.; Cook, G.; Al-Kutoubi, A.

    1996-01-01

    This article concentrates on the imaging of intracranial structures and outlines some basic imaging strategies for common clinical presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8935596

  5. Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R C; Robertson, D A; Dewbury, K C; Millward-Sadler, G H; Smith, C L

    1990-01-01

    A 63 year old white woman presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, and weight loss. Investigations showed hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The primary and secondary tumours resolved without specific treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2165992

  6. A century of pathology at Yale: personal reflections.

    PubMed Central

    Yesner, R.

    1998-01-01

    This history is largely about the players on the stage of the Yale Pathology Department acting out their roles as observed by the author in over a half century as a member of the department and as associate dean of the medical school. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10527367

  7. Computers in Radiation Oncology: The Third Decade

    PubMed Central

    Sternick, Edward S.

    1978-01-01

    Computers have been used for the past 25 years in radiation oncology for such diverse activities as treatment planning, treatment machine verification, image processing, and tumor registry analysis. This paper reviews each of these areas, with examples of working systems, and outlines a computer hardware configuration most suitable for their implementation. ImagesFig. 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  8. Evolutionary anticipation of the human heart.

    PubMed Central

    Victor, S.; Nayak, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the comparative anatomy of hearts from fish, frog, turtle, snake, crocodile, birds (duck, chicken, quail), mammals (elephant, dolphin, sheep, goat, ox, baboon, wallaby, mouse, rabbit, possum, echidna) and man. The findings were analysed with respect to the mechanism of evolution of the heart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:11041025

  9. Common Pediatric Urological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

  10. Ferritin is associated with the aberrant tau filaments present in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, M.; Valpuesta, J. M.; de Garcini, E. M.; Quintana, C.; Arrasate, M.; López Carrascosa, J. L.; Rábano, A.; García de Yébenes, J.; Avila, J.

    1998-01-01

    Tau-containing filaments purified from the brain of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients were isolated and characterized. These filaments co-purify with regular particles that biophysical and biochemical methods identified as ferritin shells. In vivo, brain tau accumulation in PSP co-localized with ferritin. These results suggest that ferritin/iron could modulate the formation of tau aggregates in PSP. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9626057

  11. Preliminary data suggest a role for bacterial superinfection of a viral keratitis after zosteriform spread of herpes simplex virus to the eye of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Claoué, C

    1988-01-01

    After inoculation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) on the snout of the mouse, spread to the eye occurs via neural pathways. The keratitis which ensued was clinically atypical for a pure herpetic keratitis, leading to a search for other causative agents. Preliminary data suggests that bacteriological super-infection of the viral keratitis occurs frequently, producing a unique experimental model. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:3418659

  12. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  13. Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Leukemoid Reaction, Marantic Endocarditis, and Consumptive Thrombocytopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Joseph C.; Ireland, Charles S.; Scott, Richard N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper details the simultaneous occurrence of a severe leukemoid reaction, non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) (marantic endocarditis), and a consumptive thrombocytopathy without signs of micro-angiopathic hemolysis on peripheral blood smear in a patient with terminal metastatic, undifferentiated, large cell bronchogenic carcinoma. The case is presented and the condition is discussed in detail. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:6889655

  14. Acute Postoperative Hydrocephalus Following Translabyrinthine Craniotomy for Acoustic Neuroma Resection

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Joseph B.; Brackmann, Derald E.; Hitselberger, William E.; House, John W.; Lanman, Todd H.

    1995-01-01

    Acute mental status changes following craniotomy for acoustic tumors demand prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid serious morbidity and mortality. Two cases of acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating the postoperative period following translabyrinthine craniotomy are presented. Diagnosis is made with noncontrast computed tomography scanning. Treatment is rendered at the bedside with placement of a ventriculostomy. Diagnosis and management implications for acoustic tumor patients are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17170940

  15. Meningioma of the Posterior Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Michael Thomas; Fagan, Paul A.; Sheehy, John P.R.; Bentivoglio, Peter J.; Doust, Bruce D.; Tonkin, John

    1991-01-01

    Combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas are rejatively rare. There are unsolved problems with the stability of the skull and spine and the lower cranial nerves and there is a marked tendency for the tumor to involve the spinal cord. This article reports on five cases of combined intratemporal and cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. ImagesFigure 1p44-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170820

  16. Selective arterial embolisation for hepatic trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Pain, J. A.; Heaton, N. D.; Karani, J. B.; Howard, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of selective arterial embolisation for patients presenting with major hepatic trauma is described. We have used this technique successfully in four patients, three of whom had continued bleeding after emergency laparotomy. It can abolish localised intrahepatic arterial haemorrhage and arteriovenous shunting. Selective embolisation may prove to be a useful technique in reducing the mortality of major hepatic trauma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2042900

  17. Familial Glomerulonephritis in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, B. P; Patterson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Progressive renal disease in 13 related Doberman pinscher dogs had the histological criteria of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss were the usual initial abnormalities and were observed at one year of age or less in seven of 11 dogs diagnosed antemortem as having renal disease. There was no sex predilection. All dogs were traced to a common male dog no more than four generations previously. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5. PMID:498006

  18. Structural alterations of the junctional region in extraocular muscle of dystrophic mice. I. Modifications of sole-plate nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Davidowitz, J.; Pachter, B. R.; Philips, G.; Breinin, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Sole-plate nuclei of the C57Bl/6Jdy2j dystrophic mouse showed apparent selective susceptibility to various forms of structural alteration. Pyknosis and chromatin fragmentation were seen in addition to vacuolar and membranous nuclear inclusions. These were often associated with neuromuscular junctions with markedly reduced or virtually absent junctional folding. Membranous proliferations also occurred nearby sole-plate nuclei of such flattened junctions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:174436

  19. PubMed Central

    Mitchell, A. Girard et D.

    1962-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the techniques and equipment used at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, Que. for the production of specific pathogen-free pigs. From 23 litters delivered by cesarian section, 190 piglets have been reared. Approximately fifty of these animals were used as foundation stock for a minimal disease herd. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17649409

  20. Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) in Brown Swiss Cattle in Canada: A Literature Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Baird, John D.; Sarmiento, Ulla M.; Basrur, Parvathi K.

    1988-01-01

    A 15-month-old purebred Brown Swiss heifer was presented because of posterior paresis and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain and spinal cord showed evidence of a mild diffuse degenerative myeloencephalopathy. The most severe degenerative lesions were located in the white matter of the thoracic spinal cord. We believe this to be the first documented case of bovine progressive degenerative myeloencephalopathy (“weaver syndrome”) in Canada. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423028

  1. Epizootic Infection of a Minimal Disease Swine Herd with a Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, James P.; Althouse, Elizabeth; Dulac, Gilles C.; Durham, Peter J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A totally confined, farrow-to-finish, closed, minimal disease herd of pigs experienced high death and reproductive losses during a disease outbreak lasting five weeks, and during the ensuing three months. The losses were caused by infection of pigs of all ages with a herpesvirus, with devastating effects on the lungs of immature pigs and on the reproductive performance of the sows. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422946

  2. SELF-HEALING PSEUDOCANCERS OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lawrence M.

    1959-01-01

    It is believed that a group of self-healing tumors which clinically and microscopically may be confused with squamous cell carcinomas are all variants of one entity, although there are certain differences between the members of the group. The clinical, as well as the histologic evaluation of these tumors is necessary to differentiate them from true squamous cell carcinomas. Some should be treated for cosmetic purposes since the scars following self-healing may be more unsightly than those caused by treatment. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13618746

  3. Angiographic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Angiographic imaging in 1986 employs not only conventional film arteriography and venography, but also digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Arteriography is still the best method of demonstrating pathology in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Transluminal angioplasty, its indications and results are discussed. Patients with suspected renovascular hypertension should be given intravenous DSA and, if pathology is demonstrated, renin sampling as well. Patients with severe, acute, life-threatening hemorrhage may have angiography not only to localize bleeding sites, but also to treat them by transcatheter embolization techniques. Various other angiographic techniques including venous sampling are discussed briefly. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267204

  4. Musculoskeletal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Douglas G.

    1986-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a significant portion of primary care medicine. Increase in the public awareness of physical fitness has led to an increase in both the incidence and appreciation of musculoskeletal disorders. This discussion considers the investigation of disorders involving the shoulder, wrist, foot, knee and pelvis. Emphasis is placed on new imaging techniques and their place in the investigation of these problems, as well as on their relationship to the more traditional modalities. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21267198

  5. Early diagnosis of conjoined twins using two-dimensional color Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Musoles, F.; Raga, F.; Bonilla, F.; Blanes, J.; Osborne, N. G.

    1998-01-01

    Transvaginal three-dimensional (3-D) and color Doppler ultrasound were used to establish a first-trimester definitive diagnosis and classification of thoracoomphalopagus conjoined twins following two-dimensional (2-D) transabdominal and transvaginal scans that indicated twin gestation of uncertain classification. Color Doppler in combination with 3-D ultrasound can be a useful complement to 2-D ultrasound to confirm early diagnosis and determine the extent of organ sharing and definitive classification of conjoined twins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9770956

  6. Glomerular microcapillary thrombosis demonstrated by the new technique of immunocathodoluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, E. H.; Bröcker, W.; Wagner, H.; Pfefferkorn, G.; Beller, F. K.

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescein-labeled antigen-antibody complexes could be made visible by scanning electron microscopy using an intensifying device. This new method of immunocathodoluminescence was demonstrated on cryostat sections of rat kidneys containing glomerular fibrin as the result of endotoxin infusion. The resulting photographs correspond with those obtained by immunofluorescent microscopy. The advantage of this technique is, however, the larger depth of focus. By using thinner cyostat sections it is expected that the higher resolution of scanning microscopy will provide even better details in three dimensions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1101704

  7. Advantages of using aquatic animals for biomedical research on reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mottet, N K; Landolt, M L

    1987-01-01

    Major advantages of the use of aquatic animals, such as trout, English sole, or sea urchins, for studying the mechanisms of reproductive toxicology are discussed. The remarkable synchrony of differentiation of gametes in large quantities for detailed morphologic and biochemical measurements enables research not readily done on mammalian nonseasonal breeders. Structural differences such as the absence of a fibrous sheath in the more simple structure of fish and sea urchin sperm flagella facilitates comparative study of the mechanism of action of microtubules in flagella movement and the coupling of mitochondrial energy production to microtubules movement. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:3297666

  8. Argon and YAG laser photocoagulation and excision of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the nose.

    PubMed Central

    Apfelberg, D B

    1995-01-01

    A total of 22 patients--19 children, 3 adults--with a variety of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the nose were treated over a 5-year period. Various laser modalities were used. Some lesions could be photocoagulated by the argon or the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser. Larger lesions were resected with the YAG laser and sapphire tips. Preliminary arteriography with superselective embolization was necessary in 1 patient. Total removal was possible in 13 patients, and no complications or side effects were noted. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:7571558

  9. GIANT INTRACANALICULAR FIBROADENOMA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Clyn; Parsons, Robert J.; Bogart, William M.

    1951-01-01

    Five cases of giant intracanalicular fibroadenoma (“cystosarcoma phylloides”) were observed at one hospital in a period of three years. In a search of the literature, additional reports of breast tumors of this kind, not included in previous reviews, were noted. As there is record of 229 cases, it would appear that this rapidly growing benign tumor should be kept in mind in the diagnosis of masses in the breast. If removal is incomplete, there may be recurrence. Simple mastectomy is the treatment of choice. Radical mastectomy should be avoided. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:14848732

  10. Effects of different enzymic treatments on the release of titin fragments from rabbit skeletal myofibrils. Purification of an 800 kDa titin polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Astier, C; Labbé, J P; Roustan, C; Benyamin, Y

    1993-01-01

    In myofibrils, titin (also called connectin) molecules span from Z line to M line and constitute a third filament system containing an elastic domain in the I band. This giant protein is particularly sensitive to proteolysis in situ. Treatment of rabbit skeletal myofibrils with exogenous proteinases induces a release of titin fragments, which are detected in the soluble myofibrillar fraction. The cleavage of titin occurs at specific points localized at the proximity of Z line and could lead to a concomitant release of alpha-actinin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8457201

  11. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Cerebello-Pontine Angle

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Nigel D.; Fagan, Paul A.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Doust, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A case is presented of solitary fibrous tumor occurring in the cerebello-pontine angle. There have been only two other reported cases of a solitary fibrous tumors in this region. Imaging studies showed the tumor to be characteristic in shape and position of an acoustic tumor. However, at surgery the tumor was found to have a “rock hard” consistency. Solitary fibrous tumor differs from acoustic schwannoma and meningioma in its histopathological features and in this case, regrowth, after incomplete excision, was extremely rapid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171119

  12. Sports medicine in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, C J

    1992-01-01

    Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medical education is a prominent part of the New Zealand scene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1600449

  13. Male Pattern Baldness and Its Management: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cotterill, Paul C.; Unger, Walter P.

    1987-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) sometimes referred to as `male pattern baldness' (MPB) may affect up to 50% of males between the ages of 30 and 50 years. The authors of this article review the medical and surgical approaches currently available to treat AGA. Medications, such as topical minoxidil, which are currently being marketed as a treatment for AGA, as well as other drugs currently under investigation are examined. Recent advances in punch hair transplantation, alopecia reductions, and flap surgery are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21264007

  14. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  15. From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1993-01-01

    Man's failure to extract deeply embedded thorns and arrowheads, with bare hands and teeth, stimulated 'instrument substitutes' mimicking these appendages. Evidence from primitive communities suggest animal, plant and mineral items were employed, both before and after metal became the standard material of today's armamentarium. Changing surgical instrument composition has mirrored concurrent technology and manufacturing methods both of which are reviewed. Particular significance is accorded flint, bronze, crucible steel, thermal sterilisation, nickel-plate, stainless steel and disposable plastics. The paper is based on an exhibition From Flint to Stainless Steel on display at the College. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8215156

  16. Tuberculous Spondylitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Haymo; Gotlib, Allan

    1986-01-01

    A 21 year old oriental male presented with a one month history of neck pain associated with neck stiffness and dysphagia. A five week course of chiropractic treatment relieved most of his symptoms. Due to persistent tenderness in the suboccipital region and substantial weight loss, he was subsequently hospitalized. Further investigations revealed tuberculous osteomyelitis affecting the left lateral mass of C1 and likely the C2 vertebra. Tuberculous spondylitis accounts for more than 50% of all cases of skeletal tuberculosis and is the most common cause of vertebral infection, particularly in young people. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  17. Velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, A. C.; Super, M.

    1997-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is a syndrome of multiple anomalies that include cleft palate, cardiac defects, learning difficulties, speech disorder and characteristic facial features. It has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000. The majority of cases have a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. The phenotype of this condition shows considerable variation, not all the principal features are present in each case. Identification of the syndrome can be difficult as many of the anomalies are minor and present in the general population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9497944

  18. PubMed Central

    Breton, L.; Bonneau, N. H.; Beauregard, M.

    1984-01-01

    An osteosarcoma of the femoral diaphysis associated with the presence of a bone plate in a dog A bone tumor which developed in the middle third of the left femur of an Irish Setter, seven years after a metallic plate had been used to reduce a fracture, is described. Through radiographs, the tumor was found to involve the diaphysis of the bone. The histopathology revealed that it was an osteosarcoma. Spontaneous and induced osteosarcomas are compared, and the possible correlation between the development of a tumor of this nature and the use of orthopedic implants is discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422477

  19. The Haemophilus somnus disease complex (Hemophilosis): A review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Frederick W.; Janzen, Eugene D.

    1989-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus has long been associated with thrombotic meningoencephalomyelitis but has also been identified as the agent responsible for other clinical diseases including respiratory disease, reproductive problems, myocarditis, otitis, conjunctivitis, mastitis, and polyarthritis. Exposure to the bacteria is widespread and infection may occur via the respiratory tract from urogenital excretions and secretions. Diagnosis and treatment of hemophilosis may be easy or difficult depending on the manifestation presented, and special procedures must be taken to facilitate isolation of the organism. Satisfactory control measures are not available; vaccination is the only preventive measure demonstrating a beneficial effect. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423440

  20. The Role of the Radiologist on the Child Abuse Team

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Theodore Q.

    1982-01-01

    Physicians in most jurisdictions are mandated to report all suspected cases of child abuse to the appropriate authorities. Often in a position to initially suspect child abuse, the radiologist must be aware of the roentgenographic manifestations of the various forms of child abuse. In recognition of the difficulty for an individual to maintain expertise in all aspects of child abuse, multidisciplinary teams have evolved to share responsibility in the diagnosis and treatment of child abuse as well as aid in prosecution of the perpetrator and in family therapy when applicable. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7120495

  1. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  2. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  3. The electrostatic basis for the interfacial binding of secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D L; Mandel, A M; Sigler, P B; Honig, B

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical and structural data suggest that electrostatic forces play a critical role in the binding of secretory phospholipases A2 to substrate aggregates (micelles, vesicles, monolayers, and membranes). This initial binding (adsorption) of the enzyme to the interface is kinetically distinct from the subsequent binding of substrate to the buried active site. Thus, in the absence of specific active-site interactions, electrostatic forces operating at the molecular surface may orient and hold the enzyme at the interface. We have calculated the electrostatic potentials for 10 species of secretory phospholipases A2 whose atomic coordinates have been determined by x-ray crystallography. Most of these enzymes show a marked electrostatic sidedness that is accentuated to a variable degree by the presence of the essential cofactor calcium ion. This asymmetry suggests a discrete interfacial binding region on the protein's surface, the location of which is in general agreement with proposals derived from the results of chemical modification, mutational, and crystallographic experiments. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 PMID:7948668

  4. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  5. The Medical Check-Up for Potentially Serious Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Iain S.

    1986-01-01

    In developed countries diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment and the leading cause of blindness in the population aged 20-65 years. Serious retinopathy has a presymptomatic phase which underscores the importance of ophthalmoscopy in screening patients to detect microvascular abnormalities that are early and late predictors of increasing severity. The diagnosis of “high risk characteristics” for visual loss and “clinically significant macular edema” is essential, as photocoagulation treatment has been shown conclusively to reduce the rate of blindness and slow the rate of progression of retinopathy. The complete medical check-up and early referral for diagnostic work-up should lead to less disability. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21267098

  6. Variability in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Small Subunits and Carboxylation Activity in Fern Gametophytes Grown under Different Light Spectra 1

    PubMed Central

    Eilenberg, Haviva; Beer, Sven; Gepstein, Shimon; Geva, Nurit; Tadmor, Orly; Zilberstein, Aviah

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit (SSU) populations were observed in Pteris vittata gametophytes grown under different illumination conditions. Exposure of the fern gametophytes to continuous red light (R) resulted in Rubisco SSUs that were not recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against SSUs from spinach. Unlike the R-induced SSUs, blue light (B) induced SSUs were well recognized. This difference in SSU composition also reflected in Rubisco activity. In vitro, B-induced Rubisco exhibits a significantly higher carboxylation activity as compared to the R-induced Rubisco. Approximately a two- to threefold increase in the Vmax value of the B-induced carboxylase as compared to the R-induced one was measured. It thus seems very likely that certain domains in the SSU molecule affect enzyme activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667969

  7. Fatigue Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James M.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue (or stress) fracture of bone in military recruits has been recognized for many years. Most often it is a metatarsal bone that is involved but the tarsal bones, calcaneus, tibia, fibula, femur, and pelvis are occasionally affected. Reports of such fractures in the ribs, ulna and vertebral bodies may be found in the literature. In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the occurrence of fatigue fractures in the civilian population. Weekend sportsmen, athletes in an early phase of training, and persons engaged in unaccustomed, repetitive, vigorous activity are potential victims of such a fracture. The signs and symptoms, roentgenographic findings, treatment and etiology of fatigue fractures are dealt with in this presentation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:5652745

  8. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  9. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other facial reconstructive options were considered. These three cases illustrate some of the major controversies in facial nerve neuroma management. We discuss our decision-making plan and report our results. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171043

  10. Trauma on the Isle of Man.

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, R G; Varley, G; Stevens, D; Green, A

    1993-01-01

    The Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races remain one of the most popular venues for motorcycle races. This is despite the reduced status of the event. The reason for the loss of world championship and formula one status is the nature of the road racing circuit itself. The twisting narrow roads are only closed to the public at certain times during the practice and race weeks. Motorcycling visitors to the event attempt to emulate their heroes on machines capable of high speeds. Casualties from both visitors and racers are dealt with efficiently by an expanded medical service. This includes the use of an aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Casualties from the visitors exceeded those from the racers themselves during the period reported. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8457818

  11. Chemical and histochemical studies of human alveolar collagen fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies have established that the normal human alveolar argyrophilic (reticulum) fiber is collagen fiber. The silver impregnation method is highly sensitive and specific for histologic demonstration of the elaborate collagen fiber network of alveolar septa. The argyrophilic alveolar collagen fiber does not stain with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) or periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium tetroxide (PTO) reaction. The materials positive for the PAS and PTO reactions in alveolar septa are epithelial and endothelial basal laminas, which are nonargyrophilic. Chemically, lung collagen fibers are composed of Type I and Type III collagens, which differ in amino acid composition, chain composition, and carbohydrate content. The chemical heterogeneity of lung collagen may have important biologic implications in the maintenance of normal structure and in the repair of lung injury. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:64120

  12. Reactivity of monoclonal anti-human pancreatic carcinoma antibodies AR2-20 and AR1-28 with tumors of nonpancreatic origin.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J.; Zuna, R.; Miller, F.

    1987-01-01

    The reactivity of two IgG1 murine monoclonal antibodies, AR2-20 and AR1-28 directed against the RWP-1 and RWP-2 human pancreatic cell lines was evaluated with paraffin sections of nonpancreatic human carcinomas. These monoclonal antibodies, which are directed against a 200-kd glycoprotein, and which did not stain normal tissues, were both reactive with 6 of 116 neoplasms (6 of 103 carcinomas) by indirect immunofluorescent histochemistry. This contrasts with the positive incidence of staining obtained with 29 of 34 human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The two antibodies have specificities different from those previously described that reacted with pancreatic neoplasms. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to the use of these antibodies in a diagnostic panel. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:2433945

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles. 2. Demonstration of a common antigenic determinant between ANT and neurofibrillary degeneration in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Kress, Y.; Crowe, A.; Yen, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Neurofibrillary degeneration is an argyrophilic intraneuronal lesion found in several unrelated neurologic conditions. The relationship between different types of neurofibrillary tangles is investigated with two monoclonal antibodies raised against Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles (anti-ANT). Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, the authors demonstrate that neurofibrillary tangles of progressive supranuclear palsy, containing 15-nm straight filaments, share an antigenic determinant with ANTs. Ultrastructural studies localize the antigenic determinant to filamentous elements in the parakarya. The determinant is not present in normal brain, aluminum-induced experimental tangles in the rabbit, Lewy bodies, Hirano bodies, or axonal filamentous inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and giant axonal neuropathy. It is, however, present in ANTs regardless of the pathologic condition in which they are found, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, and postencephalitic Parkinson's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:2411143

  14. Isolation of a major protein component of Rosenthal fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J. E.; Corbin, E.

    1988-01-01

    Rosenthal fibers (RFs) are inclusions within astrocytes, characteristic of Alexander's disease, but also seen in astrocytic tumors and occasionally in glial scar tissue. They are granular deposits, intimately associated with intermediate filaments. Their composition has been unknown. The authors have isolated a protein of about 19 kd from partially purified RFs from Alexander's disease central nervous system tissue. Antibodies were raised to this protein and shown to react with it on nitrocellulose blots and to bind to RFs in tissue sections. Small amounts of this protein were detected in normal brain and in cultured rat astrocytes. Charge heterogeneity was inferred because several species were separated by isoelectric focusing. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3348359

  15. Lipoproteins accumulate in immune deposits and are modified by lipid peroxidation in passive Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Exner, M.; Susani, M.; Witztum, J. L.; Hovorka, A.; Curtiss, L. K.; Spitzauer, S.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1996-01-01

    Proteinuria in passive Heymann nephritis is primarily caused by reactive oxygen species that are produced by glomerular cells. Reactive oxygen species apparently exert their damaging effects on the glomerular filter by lipid peroxidation and subsequent adduct formation on matrix proteins of glomerular basement membranes. This raised the question as to the source of polyunsaturated fatty acids required as substrates for lipid peroxidation. Here we have localized by immunocytochemistry rat apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein B within subepithelial immune deposits. Moreover, apolipoprotein B extracted from isolated glomeruli of proteinuric passive Heymann nephritis rats shows degradation and lipid peroxidation adduct formation, similar to apoproteins of oxidized lipoproteins in atherosclerotic lesions. These data provide evidence that lipoproteins accumulate within immune deposits and suggest that their lipids generate lipid-peroxidation-derived reactive compounds. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8863678

  16. S-100 protein in soft-tissue tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, K.; Wollmann, R.; Jerkovic, M.

    1982-01-01

    In soft tissues outside the central nervous system, S-100 protein is found normally only in Schwann cells. Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical method S-100 was also found in tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes, including neurofibromas, neurilemomas, granular cell myoblastomas, cutaneous nevi, and malignant melanomas. S-100 was not detected in malignant Schwannomas, neuroblastomas, oat cell carcinomas, medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, paragangliomas, or meningiomas. S-100 was also absent from neoplasms of soft tissues not usually considered to arise from cells of neural crest origin. S-100 appears to be a useful marker for identifying neoplasms derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6278936

  17. The epidemiology of prescribing in an urban general practice

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The total prescribing in an urban general practice was recorded over a six-month period and classified according to the length of time that drugs were continued. The number of patients receiving any prescription rose with age, as did the total number of items per patient prescribed for; while the continued items rose with age, the number of items prescribed once only per patient remained constant in all age groups. The bulk of the total prescribing was for the elderly and this was mainly for continued items. The classification also shows that certain drug groups are liable to be continued whereas others are virtually always prescribed once only. The implications of these findings for self-audit of prescribing and the care of the elderly in general practice are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7452600

  18. Maggots, mutilations and myth: Patterns of postmortem scavenging of the bovine carcass

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nick; Williams, Elisabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Based upon what is known about the habits of common carrion eaters in Alberta, we review the patterns of postmortem scavenging of carcasses of cattle. We then compare with these patterns those reported in the lay press and by veterinarians investigating cattle mutilations in Alberta. We conclude that the so-called “mutilation” of cattle in Alberta was due to scavenging of carcasses and further conclude that claims of human involvement in such incidents require, as a first condition, that postmortem scavenging of the carcass be excluded. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17423422

  19. p53 tumour suppressor gene expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, C; Ziske, C; Wiedenmann, B; Moelling, K

    1996-01-01

    Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8675094

  20. Physiological responses to psychological challenge under hypnosis in patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome: implications for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L J; Conway, A; Nixon, P G

    1986-01-01

    Thirty patients who were considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome on clinical grounds (history and observation) were referred for testing: 29 patients completed a forced hyperventilation provocation test, and 28 underwent hypnosis during which time a psychological challenge was introduced which was meaningful to each individual patient. In 19/27 of these patients the PetCO2 fell by an average of 18.2 mmHg and persisted spontaneously for more than three minutes. In 10 normal controls studied in a similar fashion there was an average fall of 5 mmHg. The difference in response between responders and controls/non-responders was highly significant (P less than 0.001). A review of the literature is presented for comparison. It is considered that a psychological challenge under hypnosis may have important implications for diagnosis and therapy in some patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:3081708

  1. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  2. The hairy family of Burma: a four generation pedigree of congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J; Miles, A E

    1996-01-01

    A Burmese family with congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa had an eventful history in the nineteenth century. The earlier members of this family were employed at the court of Ava, but the later ones spent their lives in show business, being widely exhibited for money in the 1880s. Their extraordinary hairiness attracted much curiosity, and they were photographed several times. The hairy Burmese are the only example of a four-generation pedigree of congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa, which is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. There is good evidence that, when the members of this family were hairy, their dentition was also deficient. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 (a) Figure 5 (b) PMID:8774541

  3. Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide additional support in establishing the diagnosis. The anticysticercal drugs albendazole and praziquantel have been extensively used, and found to be effective for all types of neurocysticercosis. However, recently controversy has been raised about their safety, and long-term clinical usefulness. Preventive health measures, such as provision of safe drinking water and excretion disposal, still offer the best ways to manage this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799883

  4. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  5. Pathogenesis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Cellular localization of viral transcripts in tissues of infected goats.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, M. C.; Yager, J. A.; Myers, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Pathologic specimens of 18 goats with classical lesions of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection were examined morphologically and by in situ hybridization using molecularly cloned CAEV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to determine which tissues and cells of naturally infected goats supported virus replication. Large numbers of cells with viral transcripts were detected in inflamed brain, spinal cord, lung, joints, and mammary gland. These cells were morphologically compatible with macrophages. Fewer cells with viral transcripts were seen in noninflamed tissues. Viral RNA was identified in macrophagelike cells in lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, in cells lining the vessels of brain and synovium, and in epithelial cells of intestinal crypts, renal tubules, and thyroid follicles. These data suggest that the cell tropism of lentiviruses may extend beyond the narrow boundaries of lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2327471

  6. Lyme arthritis. Spirochetes found in synovial microangiopathic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Y. E.; Duray, P. H.; Steere, A. C.; Kashgarian, M.; Buza, J.; Malawista, S. E.; Askenase, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    In 17 patients with Lyme disease, synovial specimens, obtained by synovectomy or needle biopsy, showed nonspecific villous hypertrophy, synovial cell hyperplasia, prominent microvasculature, lymphoplasmacellular infiltration, and sometimes lymphoid follicles. The larger surgically obtained specimens also showed striking deposition of fibrin in synovial stroma and a form of endarteritis obliterans. In 2 patients, spirochetes were seen in and around blood vessels by the Dieterle silver stain. Compared with 55 cases of other synovial disease, obliterative microvascular lesions were seen only in Lyme synovia, but marked stromal deposition of fibrin seemed nonspecific. These findings imply that the Lyme spirochete may survive for years in affected synovium and may be directly responsible for the microvascular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3966535

  7. Pathologic findings and laboratory data in a new strain of obese hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Koletsky, S.

    1975-01-01

    A new strain of rat characterized by genetic obesity, endogenous hyperlipidemia, and hypertension was obtained in this laboratory. The abnormal phenotype is inherited as a homozygous recessive trait. The animals exhibit marked hypertriglyceridemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and an electrophoretic pattern resembling that of human Type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. The average life-span is less than 1 year, due largely to the development of premature renal and vascular disease. The kidney lesion has both glomerulonephritic and nephrosclerotic components and is accompanied by marked proteinuria. About 12% of animals develop urinary tract calculi. The vascular disease consists of fibrous and fatty-fibrous intimal plaques, and polyarteritis. The obese animal offers a useful model for investigating abnormal lipid metabolism and the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1171627

  8. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678

  9. Is a histological section representative of whole tumour vascularity in breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L.; Holcombe, C.; Green, B.; Leinster, S. J.; Winstanley, J.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of a tumour's angiogenic potential, by measuring the microvessel density in histological sections, assumes that a 4-microm section is representative of whole tumour vascularity. This study has examined this assumption by comparing the vessel density found radiologically, after injecting specimens with contrast, with that found immunohistochemically. Twenty-one breast angiograms were performed following mastectomy for carcinoma and graded 1-3 for vessel density. Sections (4 microm) from these carcinomas were labelled for endothelial cells using anti-CD34, and the vessel counts were compared with the radiological grades. A significant correlation was found between the densities (P < 0.003, Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA). We therefore conclude that the microvessel density measured in histological sections is representative of whole tumour vascularity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9218730

  10. Thoracic intrathymic thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, R J; Moore, K L; Gottfried, M R; Lowe, J E; Sabiston, D C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors introduce thoracic intrathymic thyroid as a clinical entity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although accessory aberrant thyroid has not been found in other tissues in the mediastinum, a thoracic intrathymic location has not been described previously. It is believed that mediastinal thyroid tissue represents accessory ectopic tissue from the median thyroid anlage. Moreover, the close association of the thymus and thyroid supports the theory that mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue develops from abnormal descent of these structures during embryogenesis. METHODS: Benign thoracic intrathymic thyroid lesions are described in patients with mediastinal masses. CONCLUSION: Thoracic intrathymic thyroid is a distinct entity. Its occurrence is supported both clinically and embryologically. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8024364

  11. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Review of the Literature and Management of the Axillary Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Eid B.; Ali, Subhi D.; Kurtz, Lewis H.

    1980-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a suppurative inflammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands. It affects the apocrine gland bearing regions, the axillae being the most common site. It causes considerable morbidity and has several complications. The etiology is unknown and there is no standard method of treatment. A comprehensive review of the literature is presented demonstrating a paucity of information about this disease. The authors' experience and the management of the axillary lesion is outlined. Radical excision of the apocrine gland bearing area with split thickness skin graft (STSG) after one week is the method of choice. A reinforced sling is used for arm immobilization after grafting. The predictability of this technique makes it the preferred method of treatment. Also, more effort is urged towards better understanding of this neglected but serious health problem. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:6993691

  12. Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue: a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, J P; Lin, S F; Abbas, R A

    1995-01-01

    Traditional cable analyses cannot explain complex patterns of excitation in cardiac tissue with unipolar, extracellular anodal, or cathodal stimuli. Epifluorescence imaging of the transmembrane potential during and after stimulation of both refractory and excitable tissue shows distinctive regions of simultaneous depolarization and hyperpolarization during stimulation that act as virtual cathodes and anodes. The results confirm bidomain model predictions that the onset (make) of a stimulus induces propagation from the virtual cathode, whereas stimulus termination (break) induces it from the virtual anode. In make stimulation, the virtual anode can delay activation of the underlying tissue, whereas in break stimulation this occurs under the virtual cathode. Thus make and break stimulations in cardiac tissue have a common mechanism that is the result of differences in the electrical anisotropy of the intracellular and extracellular spaces and provides clear proof of the validity of the bidomain model. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8599628

  13. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  14. The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VI. The surgical blade: from finger nail to ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1995-01-01

    Elective surgery requires planned incisions and incisions require appropriate blades. In the prehistoric era, division of the umbilical cord and other minor procedures were probably undertaken with human teeth and nails, and later with plant, animal and mineral substitutes, as witnessed by studies of primitive societies still surviving or recently extinct. More efficient metallic blades appeared in historic times and ultimately generated five specific shapes which are analysed in detail. Today, as minimally invasive techniques, endoscopes, laser and ultrasound sources evolve, many hallowed incisions of surgical access diminish in length or disappear entirely. In historical terms, elective surgery of the twentieth century will be recalled as an interlude characterised by maximally invasive incisions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7486768

  15. Paralaryngeal Abscess with Laryngeal Hemiplegia and Fistulation in a Horse

    PubMed Central

    Barber, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A three year old Thoroughbred filly was examined because of bilateral nasal discharge and external swelling of the left laryngeal area. Endoscopy revealed an enlarged left arytenoid cartilage, left laryngeal hemiplegia and drainage of purulent material into the lumen of the larynx. Radiographs showed a large fluid and gas filled cavity overlying the caudal larynx and cranial trachea. Surgical drainage and debridement of the abscess led to complete healing by secondary intention. Laryngeal ventriculectomy was performed as a treatment for left laryngeal hemiplegia, but a grave prognosis for respiratory soundness was given due to the extensive laryngeal fibrosis. The etiology of the Staphylococcus aureus abscess is unknown but may have originated from oral trauma to the larynx. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:7337917

  16. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis following a single intravenous dose of puromycin aminonucleoside.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, J. R.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents a final pathologic pattern of a number of human renal disorders. Among laboratory models, repeated intraperitoneal injections of the aminonucleoside of puromycin (PA) produces a histologic pattern not unlike the human process. A single intravenous dose of this drug usually results in glomerular morphologic changes in rats resembling those in human nephrotic syndrome with minimal changes. This report describes acute and chronic glomerular injury that begins as early as 8 days after a single central administration of PA and progresses to FSGS within an 18-week period. It seems likely that minimal change disease and FSGS are two pathologic processes in the same continuum of disease. In this model, the severity and persistence of the glomerular lesion may represent irreversible glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) injury secondary to the toxic effects of PA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3953770

  17. Multiple tumor types appear in a transgenic mouse with the ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Cardiff, R. D.; Leder, A.; Kuo, A.; Pattengale, P. K.; Leder, P.

    1993-01-01

    A transgenic mouse strain with the zeta-globin promoter and the vHa-ras oncogene develops an array of mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms described here. The predominate mesenchymal tumors were dermal spindle cell tumors, which resembled malignant fibrous histiocytomas found in humans. They were associated with hepatosplenomegaly and developed beneath squamous papillomas. The hepatosplenomegaly was associated with infiltrates of cells that tended toward myelocytic or monocytic differentiation. Other epithelial tumors included keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Squamous cysts, some with squamous cell carcinomas, of the salivary glands and mammary carcinomas were also found. Odontogenic tumors, which sometimes differentiated into ameloblastomas, were one of the more unusual tumor types observed. Other, less frequent tumors were also noted. The tumors described here are a potentially valuable experimental resource that may lead to an understanding of malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like lesions, odontogenic tumors, and tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8475993

  18. Aneurysms of the visceral and renal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotopoulos, Y. P.; Assadourian, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Visceral aneurysms represent a rare clinical entity; however, 10-20% will rupture and this is accompanied by a significant mortality rate of 20-70%, depending on the location of the aneurysm. The incidence, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of splanchnic and renal artery aneurysms are reviewed from the available literature and the problems of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Their incidence is increasing and controversy still exists regarding their treatment. The decision for intervention has to take into account the size and the natural history of the lesion, the risk of rupture, which is high during pregnancy, and the relative risk of surgical or radiological intervention. For most asymptomatic aneurysms, expectant treatment is acceptable. For large, symptomatic or aneurysms with a high risk of rupture, surgery is advisable. An alternative treatment is the use of endovascular techniques, ie embolisation, or graft stent insertion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8881722

  19. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  20. Molecular resolution imaging of macromolecular crystals by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov YuG; Malkin, A J; Land, T A; DeYoreo, J J; Barba, A P; Konnert, J; McPherson, A

    1997-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images at the molecular level have been obtained for a number of different protein and virus crystals. They can be utilized in some special cases to obtain information useful to crystal structure analyses by x-ray diffraction. In particular, questions of space group enantiomer, the packing of molecules within a unit cell, the number of molecules per asymmetric unit, and the dispositions of multiple molecules within the asymmetric unit may be resolved. In addition, because of the increasing sensitivity and resolution of the AFM technique, some molecular features of very large asymmetric units may be within reach. We describe here high-resolution studies, using AFM, to visualize individual molecules and viruses in their crystal lattices. These investigations included fungal lipase, lysozyme, thaumatin, canavalin, and satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9129839

  1. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  2. Proteolytic transformation of SC5b-9 into an amphiphilic macromolecule resembling the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Bhakdi, S; Bhakdi-Lehnen, B; Tranum-Jensen, J

    1979-01-01

    Proteolysis of fluid-phase SC5b-9 left a major part of the macromolecule intact and caused transition of the molecule from a hydrophilic to an amphiphilic state. The transformed complex exhibited neoantigens characteristic of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of the complement. It yielded an SDS gel electrophoresis pattern that was similar, but not identical to that of the proteolysed, membrane attack complex. The proteolytically altered SC5b-9 complex bound lipid and incorporated into artificial lipid vesicles to yield a membrane-bound structure resembling the C5b-9 complement lesion. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:115783

  3. Overexposed: The Skin and the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Arlette, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Sunlight produces many changes on our skin. Some of these we appreciate as cosmetically important, and some we see as medically destructive. Changes such as the appearance of wrinkling and skin cancer can come from the long-term direct effects of solar radiation. The sun has indirect effects on the skin which are mediated by disease processes, medications, immune reactants, and biochemical abnormalities. Understanding the nature of sun, how it produces its changes, and the wide variety of these manifestations is an important part of medical practice. By understanding the nature of sunlight, we are able to protect ourselves from its effects and to treat our patients. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263953

  4. Angiosarcoma of the of scalp with calvarium involvement in a 50-year-old African-American man.

    PubMed Central

    Obeng, Michael K.; Hernandez, Ambrosia; Dastgir, Amer; Adegboyega, Patrick A.; Salinas, Paul; Gore, Dennis C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma of the scalp is a rare, aggressive, and deadly cancer that affects mainly elderly Caucasian men. OBJECTIVES: The insidious and masquerading presentation of angiosarcoma poses enormous diagnostic challenges for primary care providers. PATIENTS/METHODS: We present a case of a 50-year-old black man referred for evaluation of a 3.7-cm-x-5.4-cm ulcerated, fluctuant scalp lesion that had failed to respond to different antibiotics and proper wound care. RESULTS: Surgical excision and subsequent histopathology revealed angiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the importance of high index of suspicion for early diagnosis of cancerous lesions in wounds and stresses the need to include angiosarcoma in the differential diagnosis for all face and scalp lesions, as early detection may save lives. A comprehensive literature review is also presented. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:15586656

  5. The morphology of the Legionnaires' disease organism.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Health, Bureau of Laboratories, has isolated the Legionnaires disease organism from two patients with Legionnaires' disease proved by serologic techniques. We have studied the morphology which the isolate assumes in yolk sac tissue and on bacteriologic media. The organism was Giménez-positive and gram-variable. Using an indirect immunofluorescent procedure, it was shown to react with convalescent serum samples taken from patients who had Legionnaires' disease. The organism multiplies by binary fission extracellularly and intracellulary; is both coccoid and bacillary in form; and contains characteristic cytoplasm, nucleoids, a cytoplasmic membrane, and a small cell wall of variable size. It may produce spores of unusual appearance. Intracellular replication characteristically occurs within vacuoles. The Legionnaires' disease organism conforms to the morphologic criteria for a prokaryocyte. Images Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:629329

  6. Observation of living cells using the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, S; Gotzos, V; Celio, M R

    1993-01-01

    We used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to image samples immersed in a fluid in order to study the dynamic behavior of the membranes of living cells. AFM images of cultured cells immersed in a buffer were obtained without any preliminary preparation. We observed surface changes and displacements which suggest that the cells were still alive during the measurements. Some membrane details imaged with the AFM have also been observed using a scanning electron microscope and their dynamic behavior has been confirmed by microcinematography. We believe that the AFM will offer new insights into the exploration of dynamic changes affecting cell membranes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURES 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURES 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8457678

  7. Operant psychology goes to the fair: Marian and Keller Breland in the popular press, 1947-1966

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Robert E.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Marian and Keller Breland pioneered the application of operant psychology to commercial animal training during the 1940s and 1950s. The Brelands' story is relatively unknown in the history of behavior analysis. Using information from the Breland-Bailey papers, this paper describes the development and activities of Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), the Brelands' animal training business. We also review popular press coverage of the Brelands between 1947 and 1966 to investigate the level of public exposure to ABE-trained animals and to the principles and methods of operant psychology. An examination of 308 popular print articles featuring the Brelands indicates that there was public exposure of behavior analysis through the popular press coverage of ABE-trained animals. Furthermore, the expansion of operant methods to the marine mammal and bird training industries can be linked to the Brelands' mass media exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22478446

  8. PubMed Central

    Teuscher, E.; Lamothe, P.; Tellier, P.; Lavallée, J. -C.

    1982-01-01

    A toxic nephrosis in calves treated with a drug containing tetracycline degradation products Tetracyclines may prove to be toxic, especially when they are administered in excessive quantity. Toxicity and high mortality were experienced in calves that had been given the recommended dose of a drug which accidentally contained tetracycline degradation products, namely: 4-epianhydrotetracycline, epitetracycline and anhydrotetracycline. Lesions of acute and subacute nephrosis were observed. In calves dying rapidly, an abnormal coloration of skeletal muscles, myocardium and brain was also noted on postmortem examination, and a degeneration of the liver was evident. As the calves were already sick when they received the drug, dehydration and other pathogenic factors might have worsened their condition. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422199

  9. Characterization of the murine model of schistosomal hepatic periportal fibrosis ('pipestem' fibrosis).

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Cheever, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    During mild (one to two pairs of worms) and prolonged (23 weeks or more) mouse infections with Schistosoma mansoni, but not with S. japonicum, periovular granulomas and fibrosis were seen to be preferentially located along periportal tissues. This caused fibrotic expansion of the portal spaces on a background of normal-looking hepatic parenchyma, a picture mimicking 'clay pipestem fibrosis' seen in human patients with advanced schistosomiasis. The model was reproduced in outbred and in several strains of inbred mice, and their main characteristics were studied and compared to the human counterpart. A balanced consideration of the similarities and differences between the murine model and human pipestem fibrosis is needed for the adequate utilization of this simple, reproducible and inexpensive experimental model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8499320

  10. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene in Indo-Pakistani patients with type I (tyrosinase-deficient) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA).

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, R K; Bundey, S; Musarella, M A; Droetto, S; Strunk, K M; Holmes, S A; Spritz, R A

    1993-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by deficient synthesis of melanin pigment. Type I (tyrosinase-deficient) OCA results from mutations of the tyrosinase gene (TYR gene) encoding tyrosinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps of melanin biosynthesis. Mutations of the TYR gene have been identified in a large number of patients, most of Caucasian ethnic origin, with various forms of type I OCA. Here, we present an analysis of the TYR gene in eight Indo-Pakistani patients with type I OCA. We describe four novel TYR gene mutations and a fifth mutation previously observed in a Caucasian patient. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7902671

  11. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  12. New Techniques in the Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Stanley N.; Blaisdell, F. William

    1979-01-01

    Numerous reports in the literature indicate that various noninvasive vascular techniques can now be used to evaluate atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation. This article reviews noninvasive screening techniques currently available and being developed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the practicality of these techniques as well as their limitations. Our conclusions are that noninvasive techniques cannot be used as definitive screening tests for cerebrovascular disease. Although these tests are frequently useful when positive, the false negative rate of these tests would appear to be significant and variable in different hands. Nonstenotic ulcers are usually not detected and total occlusion often not differentiated from stenosis. These tests should be viewed as the beginning rather than the end result of a developing field. At present, contrast arteriography remains the definitive test to evaluate the presence and significance of extracranial cerebrovascular disease. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:532141

  13. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  14. A Malaysian Experience with Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153

  15. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N. J.; King, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10197194

  16. Lipid content in the liver of fatty metamorphosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, J. W.; Barker, E. A.; Smuckler, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lipid analyses were performed on the liver of a patient who died during an episode of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and on livers from normal subjects and from subjects suffering from nutritional fatty livers. Comparison of these data indicates that in fatty liver of pregnancy the increased hepatic lipids consist primarily of free fatty acids. The recognized toxicity of fatty acids suggests a pathogenic mechanism for the disease. Nutritional fatty liver is associated predominantly with an increase in triglyceride. These changes are not the result of postmortem change, and they confirm and extend the previous data concerning the fat accumulation in human hepatic illness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 PMID:1239955

  17. Hodgkin's Disease and Other Malignant Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Saul A.; Kaplan, Henry S.

    1970-01-01

    Systematic studies of the patterns of anatomic distribution, pathways of probable spread, and prognosis of the malignant lymphomas have been greatly aided by the development of new histopathologic classifications and the introduction of more sophisticated and precise diagnostic techniques, such as lymphangiography and laparotomy with splenectomy and retroperitoneal node biopsy. Concomitantly, megavoltage radiotherapy apparatus has made total-lymphoid radiotherapy feasible and practical, and the availability of a widening spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents has ushered in a new era of combination chemotherapy. Collectively, these diagnostic and therapeutic advances have already begun to yield a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of Hodgkin's disease and the other malignant lymphomas. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:4991356

  18. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

  19. Management of Frostbite Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Gustavo A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management and diagnosis of frostbite injury in 18 patients at the West Side VA Medical Center is presented. Conservative treatment and the use of intra-arterial long acting vasodilators, such as reserpine, are emphasized, even in patients referred 48 to 72 hours after the initial injury. This modality of treatment should be attempted before surgical decision or amputation is necessary. Satisfactory responses were obtained in most of the treated subjects and in some cases, results were dramatic with significant recovery and a minimum of sequelae. Generally clinical principles and physiopathology in frostbite injuries are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7328687

  20. Role of glycosaminoglycans in determining the helicity of paired helical filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Arrasate, M.; Pérez, M.; Valpuesta, J. M.; Avila, J.

    1997-01-01

    It is known from previous work that tau is the main component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and that it can assemble in vitro into polymers resembling PHFs when high concentrations of protein are used. In the search for molecules that can facilitate tau polymerization, a component of neurofibrillary tangles, heparan sulfate (or its more sulfated form, heparin), and other glycosaminoglycans have been tested. Glycosaminoglycans, in the sulfated but not in the unsulfated form, facilitate not only tau assembly but also the formation of polymers resembling PHFs. Conversely, PHFs were found to contain heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Heparinase or chondroitinase treatment of PHFs results in the formation of straight structures. All of these results suggest a role for sulfated glycosaminoglycans in determining the helicity of PHFs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9327745

  1. 3-D reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mummy using X-ray computer tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; Hughes, S W; Whittaker, D K; Taylor, J; Davis, R; Spencer, A J; Tonge, K; Sofat, A

    1994-01-01

    Computer tomography has been used to image and reconstruct in 3-D an Egyptian mummy from the collection of the British Museum. This study of Tjentmutengebtiu, a priestess from the 22nd dynasty (945-715 BC) revealed invaluable information of a scientific, Egyptological and palaeopathological nature without mutilation and destruction of the painted cartonnage case or linen wrappings. Precise details on the removal of the brain through the nasal cavity and the viscera from the abdominal cavity were obtained. The nature and composition of the false eyes were investigated. The detailed analysis of the teeth provided a much closer approximation of age at death. The identification of materials used for the various amulets including that of the figures placed in the viscera was graphically demonstrated using this technique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7853321

  2. A functional marker centromere with no detectable alpha-satellite, satellite III, or CENP-B protein: activation of a latent centromere?

    PubMed Central

    Voullaire, L E; Slater, H R; Petrovic, V; Choo, K H

    1993-01-01

    We report the investigation of an unusual human supernumerary marker chromosome 10 designated "mar del(10)." This marker is present together with two other marker chromosomes in the karyotype of a boy with mild developmental delay. It has a functional centromere at a primary constriction and is mitotically stable. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using alpha-satellite and satellite III DNA as probes failed to detect any signal at the primary constriction site. CENP-B protein could not be demonstrated, although the presence of at least some centromeric proteins was confirmed using a CREST antiserum. Consideration of these and other cytogenetic and FISH results supports a mechanism of formation of the mar del(10) chromosome involving the activation of a latent intercalary centromere at 10q25. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7684888

  3. Studies on the structure and permeability of the microvasculature in normal rat lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, A. O.; Anderson, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    The structure and permeability of the microvasculature in normal rat lymph nodes was studied by regional perfusion techniques. The results indicated that characteristic vascular units supplied each cortical lobule of lymphatic tissue. Numerous arteriovenous communications and venous sphincters innervated by unmyelinated nerve fibers were found in this vascular bed. These specialized vascular structures permitted regional control of blood flow through high endothelial venules. Lymphocytes migrated across these venular walls by moving through intercellular spaces in the endothelium and between gaps in the laminated, reticular sheath. No direct anastomoses between blood vessels and lymphatics were seen, but tracer studies with horseradish peroxidase suggested that functional lymph node-venous communications were present in the walls of high endothelial venules. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1163637

  4. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  5. Microtubule-associated protein tau epitopes are present in fiber lesions in diverse muscle disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Lübke, U.; Six, J.; Villanova, M.; Boons, J.; Vandermeeren, M.; Ceuterick, C.; Cras, P.; Martin, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau is a major cytoskeletal protein involved in the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Although tau is predominantly a neuronal protein, it has been demonstrated in glia and other nonneuronal cells. We describe the presence of microtubule-associated protein tau epitopes in various muscle fiber lesions in oculopharyngeal and Becker muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, central core disease, neurogenic atrophy, and in the recovery phase of an attack of malignant hyperthermia. Western blot demonstrated a 100- to 110-kd tau-immunoreactive protein probably corresponding to 'big tau' as described in peripheral nerves. Tau immunoreactivity in muscle fiber lesions usually co-localized with tubulin, although electron microscopy failed to show an increase in microtubules. Tau and tubulin reactivity also correlated with the presence of desmin and vimentin epitopes. Possible explanations for the presence of tau are briefly discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7518193

  6. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  7. From socialist principles to motorcycle maintenance: the origin and development of the salaried physician model in the Israeli Public Health Services, 1918 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Shvarts, S; de Leeuw, D L; Granit, S; Benbassat, J

    1999-01-01

    For more than 70 years, physicians in the Israeli health care system have been employed on a fixed salary rather than on a fee-for-service basis. The present report is a brief review of the origin and development of this unique salaried physician model and its effect on the terms of physicians' employment. Archival documents were reviewed. The salaried physician model was introduced to ensure egalitarian health care for patients rather than equal payment for physicians. It was accepted by physicians because it guaranteed their employment and income. However, over the years, the salaried physician model has evolved into a complex wage scale, with multiple fringe benefits that bypass formal agreements in order to reward individual physicians. In addition, the salaried physician model has encouraged illegal private practice, which is viewed today as one of the major problems of the Israeli Public Health Services. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9949759

  8. Secretory component: a glandular epithelial cell marker.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. P.; South, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Secretory component (SC) has been demonstrated to be produced by both normal and malignantly transformed glandular epithelial cells. By an indirect immunofluorescent technique, this study surveys tumors of varied cellular origin in order to determine the reliability of SC as a marker for tumor cells derived from glandular epithelium. Both primary and metastatic tumors of glandular epithelial origin demonstrated SC fluorescence, while nonglandular epithelial tumors did not. This observation was extended to live single-cell preparations, which demonstrated intense cell-surface fluorescence only when glandular epithelial tumors cells were examined. Additionally, fixed, cytocentrifuged, single-cell preparations of glandular epithelial tumors demonstrated cytoplasmic SC fluorescence. When breast carcinoma was examined, all cases demonstrated SC, regardless of the degree of differentiation. This assay appears to have useful clinical application in that the finding of SC provides indication of the glandular epithelial origin of a malignantly transformed cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6271014

  9. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  10. Skin and liver diseases induced in flounder (Platichthys flesus) after long-term exposure to contaminated sediments in large-scale mesocosms.

    PubMed Central

    Vethaak, A D; Jol, J G; Meijboom, A; Eggens, M L; Rheinallt, T; Wester, P W; van de Zande, T; Bergman, A; Dankers, N; Ariese, F; Baan, R A; Everts, J M; Opperhuizen, A; Marquenie, J M

    1996-01-01

    indicate that long-term exposure to chemically contaminated dredged spoil can induce liver neoplasia and other liver lesions in flounder at contaminant levels comparable to those found in the natural environment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8959412

  11. Effects of in utero exposure to nonsteroidal estrogens on mouse testis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, C; Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Bravo-Moral, A M; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Escudero-Diez, A

    1997-01-01

    Male mice exposed in utero to alpha-zearalanol (zeranol) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) were analyzed postnatally to evaluate the possible changes on their testicular morphology as part of an examination of the effects of transplacental exposure to non-steroidal estrogens on sensitive tissues. Pregnant NMRI mice were injected subcutaneously with ethyl oleate (0.1 mL) alone (negative control) or with 150 micrograms/kg of body weight of zeranol or DES (positive control) on days 9 and 10 of gestation. Experimental and control male offspring were euthanized at days 45 (n = 47), 90 (n = 44), 180 (n = 40) and 365 (n = 26) after birth and their gonads were examined by light and electron microscopy. The results suggested that prenatal zeranol or DES exposure induced more severe and earlier (at 45 d) testicular abnormalities than in negative control (at 6 mo). These age-related alterations were characterized by regressive changes in the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells as well as foci of Leydig's cells around atrophied seminiferous tubules and dysplasia of the rete testis epithelium. On the contrary, the presence of Leydig's cells with immature morphology and their arrangement in sheet could be attributable exclusively to estrogen treatment. The presence of no neoplasm was confirmed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9114959

  12. Integrated defense system overlaps as a disease model: with examples for multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Rowat, S C

    1998-01-01

    The central nervous, immune, and endocrine systems communicate through multiple common messengers. Over evolutionary time, what may be termed integrated defense system(s) (IDS) have developed to coordinate these communications for specific contexts; these include the stress response, acute-phase response, nonspecific immune response, immune response to antigen, kindling, tolerance, time-dependent sensitization, neurogenic switching, and traumatic dissociation (TD). These IDSs are described and their overlap is examined. Three models of disease production are generated: damage, in which IDSs function incorrectly; inadequate/inappropriate, in which IDS response is outstripped by a changing context; and evolving/learning, in which the IDS learned response to a context is deemed pathologic. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are developed from several IDS disease models. Model 1A is pesticide damage to the central nervous system, overlapping with body chemical burdens, TD, and chronic zinc deficiency; model 1B is benzene disruption of interleukin-1, overlapping with childhood developmental windows and hapten-antigenic spreading; and model 1C is autoimmunity to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), overlapping with spreading to other IgG-inducers, sudden spreading of inciters, and food-contaminating chemicals. Model 2A is chemical and stress overload, including comparison with the susceptibility/sensitization/triggering/spreading model; model 2B is genetic mercury allergy, overlapping with: heavy metals/zinc displacement and childhood/gestational mercury exposures; and model 3 is MCS as evolution and learning. Remarks are offered on current MCS research. Problems with clinical measurement are suggested on the basis of IDS models. Large-sample patient self-report epidemiology is described as an alternative or addition to clinical biomarker and animal testing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9539008

  13. Seasonal and spatial variation of the bacterial mutagenicity of fine organic aerosol in southern california.

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, M P; Cass, G R; Lafleur, A L; Busby, W F; Thilly, W G

    1996-01-01

    reactions occur, they likely occur in the winter and spring seasons as well as the photochemically more active summer and early fall periods. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8732954

  14. PBPK modeling/Monte Carlo simulation of methylene chloride kinetic changes in mice in relation to age and acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R S; Yang, R S; Morgan, D G; Moorman, M P; Kermani, H R; Sloane, R A; O'Connor, R W; Adkins, B; Gargas, M L; Andersen, M E

    1996-01-01

    During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap resampling for data analyses, a significant induction in the mixed function oxidase (MFO) rate constant (Vmaxc) was observed at the 1-day and 1-month exposure points when compared to concurrent control mice while decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) rate constant (Kfc) were observed in the 1-day and 1-month exposed mice. Within exposure groups, the apparent Vmaxc maintained significant increases in the 1-month and 2-year control groups. Although the same initial increase exists in the exposed group, the 2-year Vmaxc is significantly smaller than the 1-month group (p < 0.001). Within group differences in median Kfc values show a significant decrease in both 1-month and 2-year groups among control and exposed mice (p < 0.001). Although no changes in methylene chloride solubility as a result of prior exposure were observed in blood, muscle, liver, or lung, a marginal decrease in the fat:air partition coefficient was found in the exposed mice at p = 0.053. Age related solubility differences were found in muscle:air, liver:air, lung:air, and fat:air partition coefficients at p < 0.001, while the solubility of methylene chloride in blood was not affected by age (p = 0.461). As a result of this study, we conclude that age and prior exposure to methylene chloride can produce notable changes in disposition and metabolism and may represent important factors in the interpretation for toxicologic data and its application to risk assessment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8875160

  15. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  16. Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, L M; Rummel, A M; Masten, S J; Trosko, J E; Upham, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9417772

  17. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression in human monocytes stimulated with Salmonella typhimurium porins.

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, M; Cipollaro de L'ero, G; Donnarumma, G; Marcatili, A; Galdiero, F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether Salmonella typhimurium porins can affect the expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) genes. Human monocytes were treated with porins, and total RNAs were analysed by Northern blotting to evaluate the expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 in both treated and untreated cell cultures. Porins induced a significant increase in IL-1 and IL-6 transcripts. This increase was related to the dose of porins, and it peaked 5 hr after treatment. The same results were obtained when polymyxin B was added to the porin preparation to eliminate eventual traces of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with porins. The porins-mediated increase in interleukin transcripts did not require de novo protein synthesis, and it was because of the enhanced half-life of IL-1 and IL-6 mRNAs, rather an increased rate of gene transcription. These data suggest that porins may affect inflammatory and immunological responses by enhancing the expression of cytokine genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8567029

  18. Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in colonic polyps and carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J.; Evan, G.; Watson, J.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the processes of normal cell proliferation and differentiation. Elevated levels of c-myc mRNA and its gene product (p62c-myc), have been detected in a variety of solid tumours and cultured cel lines. Its precise role in normal cell function and in neoplastic transformation and progression has yet to be elucidated. We have used a monoclonal antibody, raised by peptide immunisation, to determine the distribution by immunoperoxidase staining of the c-myc oncogene product in archival specimens of colonic polyps and carcinomas. Samples from 42 patients with colon carcinoma, 24 with benign polyps and 15 normal colon biopsies were examined. Normal colon revealed maximum staining in the mid-zone of the crypts, corresponding to the zone of differentiation and maturation. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic. Adenomatous polyps revealed the most intense pattern of staining in areas of dysplastic change. Colonic tumours showed a wide range of staining. Well differentiated tumours contained more cytoplasmic p62c-myc than poorly differentiated tumours. These findings suggest that the c-myc oncogene product may play an important role in the evolution of colonic neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3511934

  19. Three-dimensional models of non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, M J; Wo, Z G; Oswald, R E

    1996-01-01

    Structural models have been produced for three types of non-NMDA inotropic glutamate receptors: an AMPA receptor, GluR1, a kainate receptor, GluR6; and a low-molecular-weight kainate receptor from goldfish, GFKAR alpha. Modeling was restricted to the domains of the proteins that bind the neurotransmitter glutamate and that form the ion channel. Model building combined homology modeling, distance geometry, molecular mechanics, interactive modeling, and known constraints. The models indicate new potential interactions in the extracellular domain between protein and agonists, and suggest that the transition from the "closed" to the "open" state involves the movement of a conserved positive residue away from, and two conserved negative residues into, the extracellular entrance to the pore upon binding. As a first approximation, the ion channel domain was modeled with a structure comprising a central antiparallel beta-barrel that partially crosses the membrane, and against which alpha-helices from each subunit are packed; a third alpha-helix packs against these two helices in each subunit. Much, but not all, of the available data were consistent with this structure. Modifying the beta-barrel to a loop-like topology produced a model consistent with available data. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8785317

  20. Transformation of Soybean (Glycine max) by Infecting Germinating Seeds with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Paula P.; Fober, Krystal A.; Slightom, Jerry L.

    1989-01-01

    The transfer of genetic material into soybean tissue was accomplished by using an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which contained the binary vector pGA482. The method used for transformation requires no tissue culture steps as it involves the inoculation of the plumule, cotyledonary node, and adjacent cotyledon tissues of germinating seeds. The identification of neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT) II enzyme activity in the tissues of 16 (R0) soybean plants indicated that the plant expressible Nos-NPT II gene, contained within the T-DNA region from pGA482, had been transferred at least into somatic tissues. Putative transformed R0 soybean plants were advanced to produce R1 plants which were also assayed for the presence of the transferred Nos-NPT II gene. The combined results of these assays indicated that about 0.7% of the surviving inoculated seeds yielded transformed tissues in the R0 plant, and that about 1/10 of these plants yielded transformed R1 plants. The presence of the Nos-NPT II gene in DNAs isolated from both R0 and R1 plant was demonstrated by using genomic blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction methods. Integration of this gene into the soybean genome was demonstrated for three R1 soybean plants. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667134

  1. Oval cell proliferation associated with the murine insertional mutation TgN737Rpw.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, W. G.; Yoder, B. K.; Isfort, R. J.; Detilleux, P. G.; Foster, C.; Neilsen, N.; Woychik, R. P.; Wilkinson, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Tg737 gene was identified by its direct association with a transgene-induced insertion mutation in the mouse. This mutation causes pleiotropic phenotypes including a syndrome similar to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease in humans. This syndrome, in addition to renal cyst formation, includes the presence of an invariably associated liver abnormality. The liver pathology in TgN737Rpw mice is characterized by a biliary hyperplasia that includes the proliferation of cells that morphologically and immunologically resemble oval cells, a liver progenitor cell. This abnormality is first observed at approximately 5 days of age in the portal region and then progresses into the periportal regions. Additionally, the formation and proliferation of dysplastic ductular structures are observed from the onset of the phenotype. Serum chemistry indicated that the primary defect is likely to be of biliary origin, and hepatic function appears normal in the mutant mice. Therefore, this mutation is unlike other causes of oval cell proliferation in that the hepatic parenchyma is relatively unaffected. The identification of the Tg737 gene associated with this mutation suggests that it functions in regulating the proliferation/differentiation of oval cells within the liver, which further indicates that this gene may function in pathological conditions that include oval cell proliferation, such as hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8952527

  2. Oval cell proliferation and the origin of small hepatocytes in liver injury induced by D-galactosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, J. M.; Shiojiri, N.; Fausto, N.

    1991-01-01

    Oval cells may function as facultative liver stem cells and tumor progenitors in liver carcinogenesis. The authors determined whether oval cells proliferate and if small hepatocytes might be generated from epithelial cell progenitors in noncarcinogenic liver injury. The authors found that oval cells similar to those detected in early carcinogenesis proliferate in response to D-galactosamine (GaIN). Oval cells expressed gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, bile duct-type cytokeratins and peanut agglutinin binding. Two unusual types of hepatocytes also appeared after injury: small hepatocytes (less than or equal to 16 microns in diameter) and hepatocytes lining atypical ductlike structures. In situ hybridization studies showed that the fetal form of alphafetoprotein mRNA was expressed by many oval cells, some bile duct cells, and occasional hepatocytes. By following the fate of epithelial cells labeled early after GaIN administration, the authors conclude that duct cells can generate both oval cells and small hepatocytes in response to GaIN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1716045

  3. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of rat liver serosal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faris, R. A.; McBride, A.; Yang, L.; Affigne, S.; Walker, C.; Cha, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Although rat liver epithelial cell (RLEC) lines have been developed by a number of laboratories, the identity of the clonogenic nonparenchymal progenitors is unknown. To provide insight into the derivation of RLEC, we immunoisolated serosal liver mesothelial cells (LMC) and bile duct epithelial cells and attempted to propagate each epithelial cell population using culture conditions routinely employed to establish RLEC lines. Briefly, the selective reactivity of LMC with two bile duct cell surface markers, OC.2 and BD.2, was exploited to develop an immunocytochemical technique to isolate LMC. Livers were collagenase dissociated, the mesothelial capsule was "peeled" and digested with pronase to destroy contaminating hepatocytes, and rare biliary ductal epithelial cells were immunodepleted using OC.2. LMC were subsequently isolated by selective binding to magnetic beads adsorbed with BD.2 and cultured in supplemented Waymouths 752/1 media containing 10% fetal calf serum. Proliferating BD.2+ LMC rapidly formed epithelial-like monolayers that could be continuously subcultured after trypsinization. In contrast, attempts to establish cell lines from purified OC.2+ bile duct epithelial cells were unsuccessful. Results from reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that LMC expressed Wilms' tumor transcripts, a lineage marker for mesodermally-derived cells. In summary, our findings clearly demonstrate that LMC can be continuously propagated using culture conditions routinely employed to establish RLEC lines, an observation that supports the contention that some RLEC lines may be derived from LMC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7992846

  4. The Shibata Shift and the Transformation of Etioplasts to Chloroplasts in Wheat with Clomazone (FMC 57020) and Amiprophos-Methyl (Tokunol M) 1

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Nancy N.; Ryberg, Margareta; Lindsten, Agneta; Ryberg, Hans; Sundqvist, Christer

    1992-01-01

    The Shibata shift is a change in the absorption maximum of chlorophyllide from 684 to 672 nanometers that occurs within approximately 0.5 hour of phototransformation of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. Two compounds, clomazone and amiprophos-methyl, which previously have been shown to inhibit the Shibata shift in vivo, were used to look for correlations between the Shibata shift and other processes that occur during etioplast to chloroplast transformation. Leaf sections from 6-day-old etiolated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv Walde) were treated with 0.5 millimolar clomazone or 0.1 millimolar amiprophos-methyl in darkness. In addition to the Shibata shift, the esterification of chlorophyllide to chlorophyll and the relocation of protochlorophyllide reductase from the prolamellar bodies to the developing thylakoids were inhibited by these treatments. Prolamellar body transformation did not appear to be affected by amiprophos-methyl and was only slightly affected by clomazone. The results indicate that: (a) there is a strong correlation between the occurrence of the Shibata shift and esterification activity; (b) transformation of the prolamellar bodies does not depend on the Shibata shift; and (c) the occurrence of the Shibata shift may be a prerequisite to the relocation of protochlorophyllide reductase from prolamellar bodies to thylakoids. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668622

  5. Physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of polymeric materials.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, I N

    1975-01-01

    Normally one expects that flame contact is the major cause of injury and death during fires. Analysis of the factors involved in numerous fires has revealed that most deaths were not due to flame contact, but were a consequence of the production of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other combustion products, such as aldehydes, low molecular weight alcohols, hydrogen cyanide, and other noxious species. The major emphasis within the scope of this paper relates to the physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of materials. Special emphasis is directed toward laboratory procedures which have been developed to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of smoke, factors pertaining to smoke development, and to measure the response of laboratory animals exposed to smoke. The effects that fire retardants, incorporated into polymeric materials as a means of improving flammability characteristics, may have on smoke development, the mechanism of polymer degradation, and on the survival response of laboratory animals are also considered. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:170077

  6. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: a clinical study of 12 episodes in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Sandoval, L; Wainstein, A; Ribalta, J; Donoso, S; Smok, G; Rosenberg, H; Meneses, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve episodes of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) were diagnosed in 11 patients during the past 18 years in a general hospital in Santiago, Chile, with a prevalence of 1 per 15,900 deliveries. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy started between the 31st and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with malaise, vomiting, jaundice, and lethargy as the main clinical manifestations. Polydipsia (in nine episodes) and skin pruritus (in seven episodes) were unusual clinical findings. In two patients, pruritus started two and four weeks before AFLP, suggesting that an intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy preceded AFLP in those patients. Considering the current prevalence of both diseases in Chile, their association should be considered fortuitous. In another patient, two consecutive pregnancies were affected by AFLP, raising to three the number of reported patients with recurrent AFLP. In 11 episodes, liver biopsies supported the diagnosis of AFLP by showing small and midsized vacuolar cytoplasmic transformation as the most prominent histopathological feature. Positive intracellular fat staining was found in the four samples analysed. Studies by electron microscopy showed megamitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions in four samples. All the mothers survived, but fetal mortality was 58.3%. Several extrahepatic complications delayed maternal recovery for up to four weeks after delivery. This study confirms an improvement in maternal prognosis in AFLP, discusses the possibility of an epidemiological association with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and increases the number of patients reported with recurrent AFLP. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8307428

  7. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  8. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  9. Cellular bases of experimental amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, V.; Mena-Lopez, R.; Anaya-Velazquez, F.; Martinez-Palomo, A.

    1984-01-01

    The complete sequence of morphologic events during amebic liver abscess formation in the hamster has been studied, from the lodgement of amebas in the hepatic sinusoids to the development of extensive liver necrosis. Following intraportal inoculation of live amebas, the early stages of the lesion (from 1 to 12 hours) were characterized by acute cellular infiltration composed of an increasingly large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which surrounded centrally located trophozoites. Histiocytes and lysed leukocytes were situated on the periphery of the lesions. Hepatocytes close to the early lesions showed degenerative changes which led to necrosis; however, direct contact of liver cells with amebas was very rarely observed. At later stages, the extent of necrosis increased, macrophages and epithelioid cells replaced most leukocytes, and well-organized granulomas developed. Extensive necrosis associated with fused granulomas was present by Day 7. The results suggest that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites do not produce amebic liver abscesses in hamsters through direct lysis of hepatocytes. Rather, tissue destruction is the result of the accumulation and subsequent lysis of leukocytes and macrophages surrounding the amebas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6385728

  10. Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B P; Miller, S L; Drummond, E J

    1976-01-01

    Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:1017423

  11. Immunopathology of glomerulonephritis associated with chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection in woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. N.; Steinberg, H.; Anderson, W. I.; Hornbuckle, W. E.; Cote, P. J.; Gerin, J. L.; Lewis, R. M.; Tennant, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of necropsy findings of 705 woodchucks was performed to determine the prevalence and morphology of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, its relationship to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection, and the presence of major WHV antigens. Twenty-six woodchucks had glomerular lesions. Renal tissue of the 26 animals was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically for immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Of these 26 animals, immune-mediated glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in six, all of which were chronic WHV carriers. Membranous glomerulonephritis was identified in three animals, two of which also had mesangial proliferation. Host immunoglobulin was present within the mesangium and along capillary loops in all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg) was present along capillary loops of two of these animals, one membranous and one mixed, and in the mesangium of all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg) deposition was similar to WHcAg deposition but was only present along capillaries in those animals with mixed nephritis. The remaining three animals had mesangial proliferation. WHsAg and host immunoglobulin deposition were predominately mesangial; WHcAg was not detected. Transmission electron microscopy showed thickening of the capillary loop basement membranes and subepithelial electron-dense deposits in animal one, and deposits in the mesangium in animal six. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1632459

  12. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  13. Cellular localization of type I III and IV procollagen gene transcripts in normal and fibrotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; Schuppan, D.; Surrenti, C.; Riecken, E. O.; Stein, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have determined the cell types producing alpha 1 (I), alpha 2 (I), alpha 1 (III), and alpha 1 (IV) procollagen gene transcripts in adult human liver by in situ hybridization with [35S]-labeled RNA probes. The liver specimens comprised a total of 20 biopsies with normal histology and biopsies with fibrosis or cirrhosis at different clinical stages and of heterogeneous origins. In normal liver, procollagen type I, III, and IV transcripts were detected in stromal and vascular mesenchymal cells of portal tracts and central veins, as well as in some perisinusoidal cells of the lobule. In fibrotic liver, increased levels of these procollagen mRNAs were observed in the same locations, and particularly enhanced in stromal cells of fibrotic septa and portal tracts, as well as in perisinusoidal cells. Expression of alpha 1 (IV) procollagen RNA was additionally found in some vascular endothelial and bile duct epithelial cells. Although previously suggested as the major source of liver collagens, hepatocytes showed no significant procollagen transcript levels in any of our samples. Thus, procollagen synthesis does not appear to be a function of hepatocytes, but rather of mesenchymal, endothelial, and bile duct epithelial cells in adult human liver. These findings may have implications for the development of specifically targeted antifibrotic therapies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2372043

  14. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, H.; Wege, T.; Milani, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Bechstein, W. O.; Neuhaus, P.; Gressner, A. M.; Schuppan, D.

    1997-01-01

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix during chronic liver disease may partially be attributed to altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Expression of TIMP-1 and -2 was studied by in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry in rat (acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication and secondary biliary fibrosis) and human livers and on isolated rat hepatic stellate cells. TIMP-1 and -2 transcripts appeared in rat livers within 1 to 3 hours after intoxication, pointing to a role in the protection against accidental activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and were present at high levels in all fibrotic rat and human livers predominantly in stellate cells. TIMP-2 RNA distribution largely matched with previously reported patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (72-kd gelatinase) expression, suggesting generation of a TIMP-2/matrix metalloproteinase-2 complex (large inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Isolated stellate cells expressed TIMP-1 and -2 RNA. Addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 enhanced TIMP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 RNA levels in vitro, whereas TIMP-2-specific signals were reduced, likely to result in a stoichiometric excess of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 over TIMP-2. In the context of previous demonstrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vivo, these patterns suggest an intrahepatic environment permitting only limited matrix degradation, ultimately resulting in redistribution of extracellular matrix with relative accumulation of collagen type 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9137090

  15. Immunopathologic aspects of woodchuck hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Frommel, D.; Crevat, D.; Vitvitsky, L.; Pichoud, C.; Hantz, O.; Chevalier, M.; Grimaud, J. A.; Lindberg, J.; Trépo, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    The natural history of infection with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) has been studied in a colony of 38 Marmota monax. Besides serologic assessment for WHV markers, light-microscopic findings of 61 liver biopsies were correlated with the results of immunofluorescence analysis for nucleocapsid (WHcAg) and surface (WHsAg) antigens. Twenty-four chronic WHsAg carriers all featured signs of continuous viral replication. Two major immunomorphologic patterns were observed in their livers: 1) portal hepatitis in which WHcAg accumulated in the cytoplasm and WHsAg was associated with the hepatocyte membrane and 2) periportal hepatitis in which WHcAg shifted toward nuclear localization and WHsAg became mostly intracytoplasmic. Progression from portal to periportal hepatitis, observed in 7 woodchucks, appeared to be induced by a partial recovery of specific immune reactivity to WHV, insufficient, however, to interrupt WHV replication. Deposits of WHsAg and immunoglobulins were present in the kidney and spleen of animals with severe hepatitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6324594

  16. A Combined Intradural Presigmoid-Transtransversarium-Transcondylar Approach to the Whole Clivus and Anterior Craniospinal Region

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Mario; Ma, Jianya; Canalis, Rinaldo; Martin, Neil; Black, Keith; Cheatham, Mel; Bloch, Joseph; Becker, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Surgical exposure of the clivus is difficult because of its proximity to vital neurovascular structures. The anatomic bases of a new surgical approach to this area are discussed. A supra-auricular skin incision is extended toward the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The vertebral artery is exposed from C2 to the occiput unroofing the foramen transversarium of C1. The bone removal consists of a posterior temporal craniotomy, a suboccipital craniectomy, including mastoidectomy with sigmoid sinus unroofing, removal of the lateral margin of the foramen magnum, of the medial third of the occipital condyle, and retrolabyrinthine petrous drilling. Posterior retraction of the vertebral artery facilitates occipital condyle drilling. Intradural exposure of the petroclival region is achieved by L-shaped cutting of the dura with the long branch placed infratentorially anterior to the sigmoid sinus. Intradural exposure of the craniospinal/upper cervical areas is achieved by cutting of the dura medial to the distal sigmoid sinus and by longitudinal cutting of the dura anterior to the vertebral artery. This approach allows multiple ports of entry to the clivus with full control of the vertebrobasilar system, and of the dural sinuses, and is anatomically suited for controlled removal of tumors located in these areas. This approach, or segments of it, has been used successfully in the treatment of large neoplasms of the craniovertebral junction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17170911

  17. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: detection of mutations Thr181----Pro and Leu223----Pro in the proteolipid protein gene, and prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Strautnieks, S; Rutland, P; Winter, R M; Baraitser, M; Malcolm, S

    1992-01-01

    A family with an apparent history of X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease presented for genetic counseling, requesting carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. RFLP analysis using the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene probe was uninformative in this family. A prenatal diagnosis on a chorionic villus sample (CVS) was carried out using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of a variant in exon 4 of the PLP gene. The fetus was predicted to be unaffected. Sequencing of the exon from the CVS, the predicted-carrier mother, and the obligate-carrier grandmother revealed an A-to-C change at nucleotide 541 in the two women but not in the fetus. As this change results in a Thr-to-Pro change at amino acid 181 in a region of the gene predicted to be part of a transmembrane segment, it was concluded that this was the mutation causing the disease in this family. In addition, in a second family, an exon 5 variant band pattern on SSCP analysis was shown by sequencing to be due to a T-to-C change at nucleotide 668. This results in a Leu-to-Pro change in a carrier mother and in her two affected sons. These results provide further examples of mutations in PLP that cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and illustrate the value of SSCP in genetic analysis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1384324

  18. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Eicke, M; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days or months. Characteristic pathological findings include loss of neurons, astrogliosis, and 'incrusted' neurons particularly in the thalamus. In two thirds of cases the basal ganglia and brain stem are involved as well. A hypoxic-ischaemic event occurring two to four weeks before birth is most likely responsible for STL. Bilateral thalamic calcification can often, but not always, be demonstrated in the newborn period by computed tomography and/or cranial ultrasound. The presence of these calcifications and the observation of spasticity at birth imply that the responsible insult occurred at least two to four weeks earlier. The small number of published cases with STL suggest that it may be easily missed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1536580

  19. A duplicated PLP gene causing Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease detected by comparative multiplex PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, K.; Osaka, H.; Sugiyama, N.; Kawanishi, C.; Onishi, H.; Nezu, A.; Kimura, K.; Yamada, Y.; Kosaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked dysmyelinating disorder caused by abnormalities in the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, which is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelin formation. Although linkage analysis has shown the homogeneity at the PLP locus in patients with PMD, exonic mutations in the PLP gene have been identified in only 10%-25% of all cases, which suggests the presence of other genetic aberrations, including gene duplication. In this study, we examined five families with PMD not carrying exonic mutations in PLP gene, using comparative multiplex PCR (CM-PCR) as a semiquantitative assay of gene dosage. PLP gene duplications were identified in four families by CM-PCR and confirmed in three families by densitometric RFLP analysis. Because a homologous myelin protein gene, PMP22, is duplicated in the majority of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A, PLP gene overdosage may be a important genetic abnormality in PMD and affect myelin formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8659540

  20. Induction of aneurysms in the rat by a stenosing cotton ligature around the inter-renal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne-Pellegrin, M. J.; Coutard, M.; Poitevin, P.; Michel, J. B.; Levy, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms have been induced in the rat by combining the chemotactic property of cotton for inflammatory cells and the resulting granuloma formation with the mechanical and haemodynamic stress of aortic coarctation. A stenosing cotton ligature was placed around the aorta, between the renal arteries, in male Wistar rats under standardized conditions. Three months later, 7 out of 12 rats (58%) had developed saccular aneurysms of the inter-renal aorta. The aneurysmal wall consisted of a collagenous shell with a few newly formed elastic fibrils on its luminal side. Detailed histological studies of the inter-renal aorta at different times after placing stenosing or non-stenosing cotton or nylon ligatures between the renal arteries, together with studies using anti-hypertensive therapy (cilazapril) and immunohistochemical studies using an anti-macrophage antibody (ED1) were performed to try to establish cellular events involved in this aneurysmal remodelling. We conclude that in this model aneurysm formation requires (i) deep mechanical injury to the aortic wall, (ii) the presence of hypertension upstream to the stenosis and (iii) an inflammatory response to the cotton ligature. The early inflammatory reaction was less in the case of nylon and although macrophages were present in both cases the most striking difference was the greater incidence of PMNs in the case of cotton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8086315

  1. The relationship between viral RNA, myelin-specific mRNAs, and demyelination in central nervous system disease during Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, M.; Zurbriggen, A.; Fujinami, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    The DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DAV) causes a chronic demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains. To elucidate the pathogenesis of DAV-induced demyelination, the authors investigated the spatial and chronologic relationship between virus (antigen and RNA), myelin-specific mRNAs, and demyelination in DAV-infected mice using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and slot blot hybridization analyses. In spinal cord white matter, viral RNA was detected easily in ventral root entry zones 1 to 2 weeks after infection. Viral RNA increased to maximum levels by 4 weeks after infection, which was associated with inflammation and mild demyelination. At 8 to 12 weeks after infection, when demyelination became most extensive, viral RNA was significantly decreased. Demyelination did not chronologically or spatially parallel the presence of viral RNA within the spinal cord. Decrease of myelin-specific mRNAs, including myelin-basic protein and proteolipid protein mRNAs, was observed within the demyelinating lesions with or without detectable viral RNA. These results indicate that a viral infection of white matter in the early phase of the infection initiates spinal cord disease leading to demyelination, but later an ongoing immunopathologic process contributes to the presence of extensive demyelination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2260633

  2. Misrepresentations of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    White, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) is the subject of medical research, healthcare, ethics, race relations and fictitious media portrayals (e.g., movie, play). Unraveling misrepresentations about the TSUS is important because prevailing views continue to contribute to alleged mistrust of the medical system by the black community and compromised doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships. A comparative analysis of standard TSUS information was conducted and included evidenced-based alternative information in an effort to: (a) contextualize the TSUS with accurate medical, public health and historical information and (b) balance claims of racism, nontreatment and denial of treatment. An article in the Winter 2003 Radcliffe Quarterly misrepresented the images of two historical African-American health institutions, the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital and the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital. A critical analysis challenges these pictorial misrepresentations and documents, in part, a continuing and prevailing pattern of biased misrepresentations in discussions about the TSUS. The National Medical Association (NMA) and the Journal of the National Medical Association have a history of advocacy for African-American health, a record of combating racial discrimination and a quest for truth about the status of the black community. As past NMA historical notables have performed through their advancement, service and leadership, health professionals now have the opportunity, obligation and information to educate the American community about the TSUS with evidenced-based information. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p581-a PMID:15868777

  3. Multiple Peroxisomal Enzymatic Deficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Van Hoof, François; Misson, Jean-Paul; Evrard, Philippe; Verellen, Gaston; Eyssen, Hendrik J.; Van Eldere, Johan; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Roels, Frank; Goldfischer, Sidney L.

    1986-01-01

    Biologic, morphologic, and biochemical investigations performed in 2 patients demonstrate multiple peroxisomal deficiencies in the cerebrohepatorenal syndrome of Zellweger (CHRS) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD). Very long chain fatty acids, abnormal bile acids, including bile acid precursors (di- and trihydroxycoprostanoic acids), and C29-dicarboxylic acid accumulated in plasma in both patients. Generalized hyperaminoaciduria was also present. Peroxisomes could not be detected in CHRS liver and kidney; however, in the NALD patient, small and sparse cytoplasmic bodies resembling altered peroxisomes were found in hepatocytes. Hepatocellular and Kupffer cell lysosomes were engorged with ferritin and contained clefts and trilaminar structures believed to represent very long chain fatty acids. Enzymatic deficiencies reflected the peroxisomal defects. Hepatic glycolate oxidase and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activities were deficient. No particle-bound catalase was found in cultured fibroblasts, and ether glycerolipid (plasmalogen) biosynthesis was markedly reduced. Administration of phenobarbital and clofibrate, an agent that induces peroxisomal proliferation and enzymatic activities, to the NALD patient did not bring about any changes in plasma metabolites, liver peroxisome population, or oxidizing activities. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:2879480

  4. A new peroxisomal disorder with enlarged peroxisomes and a specific deficiency of Acyl-CoA oxidase (pseudo–Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy)

    PubMed Central

    Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Roels, Frank; Ogier, Hélène; Scotto, Jacques; Vamecq, Joseph; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; van Wijland, Michil J. A.; Schram, Adre W.; Tager, Joseph M.; Saudubray, Jean-Marie

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper two siblings are presented with clinical manifestations very similar to those of patients affected by neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy patients, hepatic peroxisomes in these siblings were enlarged in size and not decreased in number. Accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) was associated with an isolated deficiency of the fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the peroxisomal β-oxidation. Plasma levels of di- and trihydroxy-coprostanoic acid, phytanic acid, and pipecolic acid were normal; furthermore, acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in cultured fibroblasts was also found to be normal. The clinical, biochemical, and cytochemical features found in these two siblings are compared with those seen in two other disorders characterized by the absence of a decreased number of hepatic peroxisomes and the presence of VLCFA: (1) pseudo–Zellweger syndrome (deficiency of peroxisomal thiolase activity) and (2) X-linked childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (deficiency of activation of lignoceric acid). Review of the different biochemical defects possible in very-long-chain fatty-acid oxidation reveals different clinical pictures of varying severity, depending on the level at which the biochemical defect occurs. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:2894756

  5. Neuronal and glial properties of a murine transgenic retinoblastoma model.

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, T.; Virtanen, I.; Marcus, D. M.; O'Brien, J. M.; Carpenter, J. L.; Brauner, E.; Tarkkanen, A.; Albert, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Antigenic properties of a murine transgenic model for hereditary retinoblastoma, induced by a chimeric gene coding for Simian virus 40 large T antigen, an oncogene that inactivates the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product, were studied by immunohistochemistry. All transgenic mice develop bilateral intraocular retinal tumors in the inner nuclear layer with Homer Wright-like rosettes, and one quarter develop midbrain tumors resembling trilateral retinoblastoma. Cell lines TE-1 and TM-1 were established from intraocular and metastatic tumors, respectively. Intraocular tumors reacted with antibodies to neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, while vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic, and S-100 proteins were detected only in reactive glia derived from adjacent retina. The midbrain tumors showed weak reactivity to synaptophysin, and they blended with reactive astrocytes positive for glial markers. The tumors were negative for cytokeratins. Finally both derived cell lines expressed synaptophysin and individual neurofilament triplet proteins in immunofluorescence and Western blotting, supporting their essentially neuronal nature. The antigenic profile resembles human retinoblastoma, but differences in morphology and antigen distribution suggest a more close relationship to neurons of the inner nuclear layer than to photoreceptor cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1708946

  6. Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between age and atrophy. The testicular atrophy observed in the diabetic rats was morphologically similar to the senile testicular atrophy in the nondiabetic rats. Histologic findings that were associated with increasing severity of atrophy were multinucleated giant cells in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial connective tissue, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and thickening of the tunica albuginea. Testicular atrophy has also been reported in human diabetics. Therefore, the BB Wistar rat may be a useful model for investigating this aspect of diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7091303

  7. P3 beta-amyloid peptide has a unique and potentially pathogenic immunohistochemical profile in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, L. S.; Murphy, G. M.; Forno, L. S.; Catalano, R.; Cordell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of beta-amyloid in brain tissue is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A naturally occurring derivative of the beta-amyloid peptide, p3, possesses all of the structural determinants required for fibril assembly and neurotoxicity. p3-specific antibodies were used to examine the distribution of this peptide in brain. p3 reactivity was absent or sparse in aged non-AD brains but was prevalent in selected areas of AD brain in diffuse deposits and in a subset of dystrophic neurites. p3-reactive dystrophic neurites were found both independent in the neuropil and associated with plaques. Little or no reactivity was observed to amyloid cores in classical plaques or to amyloid in the cerebral vasculature. The exclusive appearance of p3 reactivity in AD brain plus the selective localization of p3 reactivity to abnormal structures in the temporal lobe limbic system suggests that p3 may be a contributing factor to AD pathology. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8701997

  8. Structural characterization of the mesangial cell type IV collagenase and enhanced expression in a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565

  9. Statistical mechanics of simple models of protein folding and design.

    PubMed Central

    Pande, V S; Grosberg, A Y; Tanaka, T

    1997-01-01

    It is now believed that the primary equilibrium aspects of simple models of protein folding are understood theoretically. However, current theories often resort to rather heavy mathematics to overcome some technical difficulties inherent in the problem or start from a phenomenological model. To this end, we take a new approach in this pedagogical review of the statistical mechanics of protein folding. The benefit of our approach is a drastic mathematical simplification of the theory, without resort to any new approximations or phenomenological prescriptions. Indeed, the results we obtain agree precisely with previous calculations. Because of this simplification, we are able to present here a thorough and self contained treatment of the problem. Topics discussed include the statistical mechanics of the random energy model (REM), tests of the validity of REM as a model for heteropolymer freezing, freezing transition of random sequences, phase diagram of designed ("minimally frustrated") sequences, and the degree to which errors in the interactions employed in simulations of either folding and design can still lead to correct folding behavior. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 PMID:9414231

  10. Some properties of dendritic macrophages from peripheral lymph.

    PubMed Central

    Barfoot, R; Denham, S; Gyure, L A; Hall, J G; Hobbs, S M; Jackson, L E; Robertson, D

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral lymph was collected from the skin and liver of sheep, and from the intestine of rats. The dendritic macrophages contained in it were isolated by centrifuging the lymph over a layer of 'Nycodenz'. Similar cells were produced by culturing mononuclear cells from venous blood, but the yields were very small. The numbers of dendritic cells in the lymph from the legs of sheep increased five-fold after xylene had been applied to the skin. Dendritic macrophages displayed abundant class II histocompatibility antigens on their surfaces, as well as immunoglobulins. Although the latter were probably acquired passively, they remained present for several days on cells cultured in vitro. When in vitro, dendritic cells could be shown to phagocytose marker particles, such as latex beads, but their performance was unimpressive compared to macrophages from the peritoneal cavities of rats. In contrast, their ability to phagocytose rapidly T4 phage or influenza viruses unequivocal and striking. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2807381

  11. Human Xq24-Xq28: approaches to mapping with yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, M; Little, R D; Abidi, F; Porta, G; Labella, T; Cooper, T; Della Valle, G; D'Urso, M; Schlessinger, D

    1990-01-01

    One hundred twenty-seven yeast strains with artificial chromosomes containing Xq24-Xqter human DNA were obtained starting from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid. The clones were characterized with respect to their insert size, stability, and representation of a set of Xq24-Xqter DNA probes. The inserts of the clones add up to 19.3 megabase (Mb) content, or about 0.4 genomic equivalents of that portion of the X chromosome, with a range of 40-650 kb in individual YACs. Eleven clones contained more than one YAC, the additional ones usually having hamster DNA inserts; the individual YACs could be separated by extracting the total DNA from such strains and using it to retransform yeast cells. One of the YACs, containing the probe for the DXS49 locus, was grossly unstable, throwing off smaller versions of an initial 300-kb YAC during subculture; the other YACs appeared to breed true on subculture. Of 52 probes tested, 12 found cognate YACs; the YACs included one with the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogense gene and another containing four anonymous probe sequences (DX13, St14, cpx67, and cpx6). Xq location of YACs is being verified by in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and fingerprinting and hybridization methods are being used to detect YACs that overlap. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2294758

  12. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  13. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  14. The leadership principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and their relevance to surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brunicardi, F. Charles; Cotton, Ronald T.; Cole, George W.; Martinez, George

    2007-01-01

    In order to face the challenges in healthcare this century, it is essential that surgeons understand modern leadership principles. One of the greatest leaders in history was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who provides a shining example of level-5 leadership for us to study. The study of leadership principles of great leaders can provide us with practical methods of conflict resolution as well as inspiration to keep us engaged and focused. As leaders of the medical community, we face numerous challenges, including discovering and implementing new treatments for disease, providing care for the indigent, overcoming educational challenges such as incorporating the ACGME Core Competencies into our surgical training and promoting diversity in education. Achieving these goals is often hindered by the environment in which we labor-nearly 50 million are uninsured, the rising cost of medical care is currently at 16% of the GNP, and reimbursement rates are falling-which makes the practice of surgery a significant challenge. Effective leadership will be paramount in achieving these goals. In this editorial, which summarizes a presentation given to the Surgical Section of the annual National Medical Association meeting, five important leadership principles that are important for surgeons have been selected and related to the outstanding leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:17304963

  15. The ultrastructure of spontaneous coronary arterial lesions in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154

  16. Transferrin and transferrin receptor in human hypophysis and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Tampanaru-Sarmesiu, A.; Stefaneanu, L.; Thapar, K.; Kontogeorgos, G.; Sumi, T.; Kovacs, K.

    1998-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), a major transport protein for iron in the blood and an essential growth factor in some tissues, acts via specific transferrin receptor (TfR). We studied the cellular distribution of Tf and TfR gene expression in 50 human nontumorous autopsy pituitaries and 42 surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Tf and TfR mRNA accumulation was correlated with Ki-67 proliferation marker. In nontumorous pituitaries without iron deposits Tf immunoreactivity was localized in some growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, and luteinizing hormone cells. Most adenohypophysial cells were immunopositive for TfR. In pituitaries with iron deposits, Tf and TfR were localized only in iron-free cells. Tf mRNA and protein were present in 27 and 32 adenomas, respectively; Ki-67 labeling index of tumors positive for Tf mRNA was significantly higher than in those without transcript (0.94% versus 0.51%; P < 0.025). A positive linear correlation between tumor growth fraction and Tf mRNA signal intensity was evident (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). TfR mRNA and encoded protein were demonstrated in 26 and 31 adenomas, respectively; Ki-67 immunoreactivities were not correlated with the presence of TfR transcripts and signal intensities. These data suggest that Tf may act as a growth-promoting factor for pituitary tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9466567

  17. Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, G; Clegg, R M; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    1991-01-01

    An optical microscope capable of measuring time resolved luminescence (phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence) images has been developed. The technique employs two phase-locked mechanical choppers and a slow-scan scientific CCD camera attached to a normal fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated by a periodic train of light pulses and the image is recorded within a defined time interval after the end of each excitation period. The time resolution discriminates completely against light scattering, reflection, autofluorescence, and extraneous prompt fluorescence, which ordinarily decrease contrast in normal fluorescence microscopy measurements. Time resolved image microscopy produces a high contrast image and particular structures can be emphasized by displaying a new parameter, the ratio of the phosphorescence to fluorescence. Objects differing in luminescence decay rates are easily resolved. The lifetime of the long lived luminescence can be measured at each pixel of the microscope image by analyzing a series of images that differ by a variable time delay. The distribution of luminescence decay rates is displayed directly as an image. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the instrument and the complementarity it offers to conventional fluorescence microscopy. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1723311

  18. The Organization of the Venous Spaces of the Cavernous Sinus

    PubMed Central

    de Alencastro, Luiz Carlos

    1992-01-01

    The study of the venous channels in the cavernous sinus in 48 sphenoid bones was performed. Thirty-eight bones were electrolyticly decalcified, subsequently embedded in gelatin, and cut in 1 mm thick slices. Microdissection of the other ten specimens complemented the analysis. Every specimen had the venous structure arranged as a plexus, however, although the channels were variable in number, form, and diameter, the two sides were quite symmetrical. Channels of smaller diameter predominated anteriorly. There was no demonstrable muscular layer in these vessels; the endothelial lining was easily visualized. Fatty tissue separated the venous channels from each other and from arteries and nerves. The distance from the carotid artery and the lateral wall increased anteriorly, but there were significant veins between these two structures in only 35% of the cases. In about one third of specimens the oculomotor nerve was placed over the carotid artery. The abducens nerve was found to be intimately related to the lateral wall without any venous channels between them in 92% of the specimens. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17170875

  19. Postmortem findings in four litters of dogs with familial canine dermatomyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301

  20. Tay-Sachs disease in Moroccan Jews: deletion of a phenylalanine in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase.

    PubMed Central

    Navon, R; Proia, R L

    1991-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by defects in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit gene. The carrier frequency for Tay-Sachs disease is significantly elevated in both the Ashkenazi Jewish and Moroccan Jewish populations but not in other Jewish groups. We have found that the mutations underlying Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews are different. Analysis of a Moroccan Jewish Tay-Sachs patient had revealed an in-frame deletion (delta F) of one of the two adjacent phenylalanine codons that are present at positions 304 and 305 in the alpha-subunit sequence. The mutation impairs the subunit assembly of beta-hexosaminidase A, resulting in an absence of enzyme activity. The Moroccan patient was found also to carry, in the other alpha-subunit allele, a different, and as yet unidentified, mutation which causes a deficit of mRNA. Analysis of obligate carriers from six unrelated Moroccan Jewish families showed that three harbor the delta F mutation, raising the possibility that this defect may be a prevalent mutation in this ethnic group. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1825014

  1. Senile cerebral amyloid. Prealbumin as a common constituent in the neuritic plaque, in the neurofibrillary tangle, and in the microangiopathic lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Shirahama, T.; Skinner, M.; Westermark, P.; Rubinow, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Brun, A.; Kemper, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Three lesions that characterize the nosologic findings in the brain of Alzheimer's presenile dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type, ie, neuritic plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and microangiopathy, all are frequently associated with amyloid deposition. There has been some question, however, as to whether these lesions share the same etiology. Moreover, the specific chemical nature of amyloid associated with these lesions has not yet been determined. In the present study, formalin-fixed paraffin sections of the affected brains were tested immunocytochemically for their reactivity against antiserum to prealbumin (recently disclosed as the major constituent of amyloid associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy as well as senile cardiac amyloid) and known components of other types of amyloid (AA, AP, etc.). The results demonstrated that amyloid deposits in all three lesions reacted with anti-prealbumin, suggesting that it is a common constituent of these lesions. Indeed, it is likely that prealbumin is the major constituent of amyloid associated with neuritic plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and microangiopathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6950666

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles. 1. Identification of polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S. H.; Crowe, A.; Dickson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles (ANTs) were produced by immunizing mice with a brain homogenate from senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). In methanol-fixed isolated neuronal perikarya, six of these antibodies reacted with nearly every ANT, three recognized 70-88% of ANTs, and one bound to less than 30% of ANT. In paraffin sections, three of the antibodies did not bind to tangles that had been fixed in formalin, three stained weekly, and four reacted with tangles in tissues that had been in formalin for more than a decade. Immunoblotting of brain homogenates showed that all but one antibody reacted with proteins from SDAT samples insoluble in SDS and too large to enter even the 3% polyacrylamide stacking gel. Polypeptides extractable by Tris buffer of molecular weight 58, 66, and 70 kd were detected in both normal and SDAT brains by two antibodies and only in SDAT brain by two other antibodies. One antibody did not show any reaction on the immunoblot. The results demonstrate that the epitopes recognized by these antibodies are not identical and that ANTs contain unique antigenic determinants as well as determinants in common with normal brain. Whether the unique determinants are acquired during tangle development or are essential in tangle formation remains to be investigated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:2411142

  3. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  4. Imaging of terminal myelocystoceles.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, S. E.; Harvey, C.; McLone, D. G.; Darling, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective analysis of the presentation, imaging studies, and associated findings in 20 children with surgically and histologically proven terminal myelocystoceles. All 20 children presented at birth with a black mass; 13 had cloacal extrophy. The patient population was comprised of 15 girls and 5 with ambiguous genitalia: Of the imaging studies, 8 had plain radiographs, 6 myelography-computed tomography, 11 ultrasound, and 14 magnetic resonance. The associated findings included Chiari I (eight patients), Chiari II (one patient), hydromyelia (three patients), hydrocephalus (three patients), and vertebral segmentation anomalies (six patients). Magnetic resonance imaging was the best imaging modality to diagnose and evaluate children with a myelocystocele. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the classic findings: a terminal cyst of the central canal of the spinal cord that is tethered and herniated with arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid through an area of spinal dysphria onto the back as a mass. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8803433

  5. Histologic evolution of the reactions to hemorrhage in the premature human infant's brain. A combined ultrasound and autopsy study and a comparison with the reaction in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, V. C.; Alvord, E. C.; Mack, L. A.; Hodson, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    With the development and routine use of real-time ultrasound scanning, it has been possible to collect 20 autopsy cases of infants in whom the ultrasound scan was first normal and then showed evidence of subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhage (SEH/IVH). Analysis of these cases with known postnatal origin of the hemorrhage permitted the development for the first time of a time scale to characterize the temporal evolution of the histopathologic reactions to hemorrhage in the premature human brain. This time scale was then used to define the histologic stage of the lesions in 27 other cases of infants who had a scan demonstrating SEH/IVH prior to death but who had not a previously normal scan. Only 2 cases were found to lie off the original scale, indicating a prenatal onset of the hemorrhage in about 5% of the total cases. Thus, postnatal events immediately preceding the onset of the hemorrhage are more likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of SEH/IVH than prenatal or obstetric events. Comparison with similar reactions in the adult indicate that the early reactions by macrophages occur at about the same rate but the routine transfer of iron from macrophages to astrocytes and the much slower rate of absorption to form a cyst in the adult combine to form a complicated pattern that requires a different set of criteria for the intermediate and late stages in the adult. Images Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 9 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:3276212

  6. Ectomycorrhizin Synthesis and Polypeptide Changes during the Early Stage of Eucalypt Mycorrhiza Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Costa, Guy; Martin, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In functioning eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, biochemical alterations are accompanied by a differential accumulation of polypeptides including the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins (JL Hilbert, Martin FM [1988] New Phytol 110: 339-346). In the present study, protein biosynthesis in the early stages of ectomycorrhiza formation on Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata Kirkp. was examined using compatible and incompatible isolates of the basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker & Couch). Changes in polypeptide composition were observed within hours following contact of the compatible mycelium with the roots, well before the differentiation of typical symbiotic tissues. At this stage, at least seven symbiosis-related proteins (ectomycorrhizins) accumulated in root tissues. In vivo incorporation of [35S]methionine by ectomycorrhizas followed by electrophoresis of the labeled proteins revealed that most of these differences in polypeptide concentrations, including the ectomycorrhizin accumulation, are the result of differential protein biosynthesis rather than posttranslational modifications of the polypeptides. The initial development of eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, therefore, coincides with the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins and the data presented here provide essential evidence to ascribe a functional developmental role to these proteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668539

  7. RNA structural patterns and splicing: molecular basis for an RNA-based enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Libri, D; Stutz, F; McCarthy, T; Rosbash, M

    1995-01-01

    Efficient splicing of the 325-nt yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) rp51b intron requires the presence of two short interacting sequences located 200 nt apart. We used the powerful technique of randomization-selection to probe the overall structure of the intron and to investigate its role in pre-mRNA splicing. We identified a number of alternative RNA-RNA interactions in the intron that promote efficient splicing, and we showed that similar base pairings can also improve splicing efficiency in artificially designed introns. Only a very limited amount of structural information is necessary to create or maintain such a mechanism. Our results suggest that the base pairing contributes transiently to the spliceosome assembly process, most likely by complementing interactions between splicing factors. We propose that splicing enhancement by structure represents a general mechanism operating in large yeast introns that evolutionarily preceded the protein-based splicing enhancers of higher eukaryotes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7493320

  8. Enhancement of B-cell translocation gene-1 expression by prostaglandin E2 in macrophages and the relationship to proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, K; Sipes, D G; Erickson, K L

    1997-01-01

    Although prostaglandin (PG) E2 is known to suppress various macrophage functions, the molecular mechanisms by which that occurs are largely unknown. To understand better those mechanisms, differential screening of a cDNA library from PGE2-treated macrophages was performed. Subsequently, the DNA sequence of a differentially expressed cDNA clone was determined and the cDNA was identified as B-cell translocation gene-1 (BTG1), a recently cloned antiproliferative gene. A two-to threefold increase in macrophage BTG1 expression was observed after PGE2 treatment. PGE1 and platelet-activating factor, but not leukotrienes B4, and C4, or lipopolysaccharide, also enhanced BTG1 expression. Furthermore, this effect ws mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP which indicated the involvement of elevated cAMP in the PGE2-mediated enhancement of BTG1. Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between BTG1 mRNA expression and macrophage proliferation; however, BTG1 alteration was not associated with macrophage tumoricidal activation. Thus, BTG1 may play a role in PGE2-mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation and not activation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9203975

  9. Ultrastructural alterations in the atrial myocardium of pigs with acute monensin toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monensin, A Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produces left atrial damage in pigs given toxic doses. Eight weanling pigs were given mycelial monensin orally (40 mg/kg body weight) and were killed on days 1, 2, 4, and 16 (two animals at each time interval) for ultrastructural study of the left atrial lesions. On days 1-4, extensive necrosis with contraction bands was present. Rapid macrophagic invasion and phagocytosis of sarcoplasmic debris was seen on days 2 and 4. Missing necrotic myocytes were outlined by persistent "tubes" of external laminas. In some surviving myocytes, sublethal injury was evident on day 1 by mitochondria with condensed conformation and on days 2, 4, and 16 by moderate to marked myofibrillar lysis and sarcoplasmic vacuolation. Monensin cardiotoxicity in pigs constitutes a unique example of selective injury to atrial myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6696048

  10. Sequential changes of extracellular matrix and proliferation of Ito cells with enhanced expression of desmin and actin in focal hepatic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Mukai, H.; Mori, M.

    1986-01-01

    Immunohistochemical investigations were carried out on the properties of the cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in focal hepatic injuries. A liquid nitrogen-cooled syringe needle was thrust into the rat liver. Necrotic areas became permeated with plasma within 24-hour period. Areas became strongly positive for fibronectin and were infiltrated with inflammatory cells positive for lysozyme. By the third day, Ito cells were proliferated in the peripheral portions of the damaged areas. These Ito cells showed enhanced immunostaining for desmin and actin but were negative for lysozyme. Interstitial fibers which were immunochemically positive for Types I and IV collagens, laminin, and fibronectin, began to increase from Day 3. They appeared on the rim of the hepatocytes adjacent to the damaged areas and extended into the injured regions with the Ito cells. An increase in basal laminas associated with capillaries and bile ducts also increased with a 1-day delay. The damaged areas were replaced by granulation tissue by Day 5. A rapid diminution then occurred in the granulation tissue, and normal hepatic tissue was restored in 7-10 days. These observations demonstrate that ECM changed in a sequential manner and then finally disappeared from the damaged site within 10 days. Although various cells, including parenchymal cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and cholangiolar cells contributed to the healing of the damaged area, Ito cells, which exhibit unique phenotypic changes, presumably had a major role in the process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3799820

  11. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  12. In vitro astrocytic differentiation from embryoid bodies of an experimental mouse testicular teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    VandenBerg, S. R.; Ludwin, S. K.; Herman, M. M.; Bignami, A.

    1976-01-01

    Astrocytic differentiation in monolayer cultures of ascitic embryoid bodies from the experimental teratoma OTT-6050 was studied by conventional light microscopy and by indirect immunofluorescence with antisera to glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, a protein specific for astorcytes. Primitive neuroepithelial cells were identified in 24-hour cultures. Within 72 hours, two cell types diverged. One cell type, with a flattened epithelial morphology in early cultures, demonstrated delicate GFA protein-positive fibrils within 48 hours. In later cultures, this type progressively displayed more typical stellate astrocytic features, with denser, more compact GFA protein-positive fluorescence in the perinuclear cytoplasm and cell processes. As indicated by GFA protein expression, the appearance of astrocytes of typical morphology therefore was preceded by biochemical differentiation. The second cell type, interpreted as neuroblastic, failed to demonstrate GFA protein and had a small perikaryon with slender bipolar processes that were argyrophilic with Bodian's protargol in late cultures. Divergent neuroepithelial differentiation occurred within mitotically active cell populations and proceeded without apparent tissue relationships to other germ layer derivatives. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:776002

  13. Analytical Debye-Huckel model for electrostatic potentials around dissolved DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, K; Keyes, E; Kephart, T W; Edwards, G

    1997-01-01

    We present an analytical, Green-function-based model for the electric potential of DNA in solution, treating the surrounding solvent with the Debye-Huckel approximation. The partial charge of each atom is accounted for by modeling DNA as linear distributions of atoms on concentric cylindrical surfaces. The condensed ions of the solvent are treated with the Debye-Huckel approximation. The resultant leading term of the potential is that of a continuous shielded line charge, and the higher order terms account for the helical structure. Within several angstroms of the surface there is sufficient information in the electric potential to distinguish features and symmetries of DNA. Plots of the potential and equipotential surfaces, dominated by the phosphate charges, reflect the structural differences between the A, B, and Z conformations and, to a smaller extent, the difference between base sequences. As the distances from the helices increase, the magnitudes of the potentials decrease. However, the bases and sugars account for a larger fraction of the double helix potential with increasing distance. We have found that when the solvent is treated with the Debye-Huckel approximation, the potential decays more rapidly in every direction from the surface than it did in the concentric dielectric cylinder approximation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:9199767

  14. Comparative analysis of tissue reactions to anesthetic solutions: histological analysis in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2003-01-01

    Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetic technique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905

  15. Clinicopathologic responses in cats with feline leukemia virus-associated leukemia-lymphoma treated with staphylococcal protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, R. W.; Tyler, R. D.; Trang, L. Q.; Liu, W. T.; Good, R. A.; Day, N. K.

    1985-01-01

    Purified protein A from Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was injected intraperitoneally or was incorporated in filters ex vivo through which plasma from cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated leukemia-lymphoma was passed. Before treatment, 65% of the FeLV-infected cats were anemic, and 70% were thrombocytopenic. Concomitant infections, or immune-mediated disease, was common. During treatment 50% of the cats with FeLV-associated disease improved objectively with normal posttreatment hematocrits, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, disappearance of dysplastic hematologic elements, and correction of marrow dyscrasias. A 33% response to treatment occurred in cats with unequivocal manifestations of malignant disease and was characterized by reductions in tumor size and marrow and peripheral blood neoplastic cell populations. Clearance of FeLV viremia was documented in 28% of the treated cats. The several possible mechanisms by which treatment with staphylococcal protein A causes reduction in the extent of malignant disease are considered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2983560

  16. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  17. THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wyland F.

    1958-01-01

    From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394

  18. Cytokeratin 20 in human carcinomas. A new histodiagnostic marker detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, R.; Löwe, A.; Laufer, J.; Franke, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have recently identified a new cytokeratin (CK) polypeptide, CK 20, whose expression is almost entirely confined to the gastric and intestinal epithelium, urothelium, and Merkel cells. Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for CK 20 were raised and characterized by applying immunoblotting and immunocytochemical screening. All of them reacted on frozen tissue sections. A further MAb, IT-Ks20.8, recognized CK 20 in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. A total of 711 cases of primary and metastatic cancer, mostly carcinomas, were analyzed immunohistochemically for CK-20 expression, using CK-20 specific guinea-pig antibodies and MAbs. The expression spectrum of CK 20 in carcinomas resembled that seen in the corresponding normal epithelia of origin. CK-20 positivity was seen in the vast majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon (89/93 cases), mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional-cell and Merkel-cell carcinomas and frequently also in adenocarcinomas of the stomach, bile system, and pancreas. Most squamous cell carcinomas in general and most adenocarcinomas from other sites (breast, lung, endometrium), nonmucinous tumors of the ovary, and small-cell lung carcinomas were essentially or completely negative. The authors propose to use CK 20 as a diagnostic marker valuable in distinguishing different types of carcinomas, notably when presenting as metastases. Images Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1371204

  19. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  20. The environment and asthma in U.S. inner cities.

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, P A; Buckley, T J; Breysse, P N; Wills-Karp, M; Kleeberger, S R; Jaakkola, J J

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of asthma has increased in the last 20 years, and the greatest increase has been seen among children and young adults living in U.S. inner cities. The reasons for this increase are obviously complex, but include environmental exposures to allergens and pollutants, changing patterns of medication, and the psychosocial stresses of living in poor inner-city neighborhoods. This paper presents an overview of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. This overview can be used to provide a framework for designing an interdisciplinary research program to address the complexities of asthma etiology and exacerbation. The strongest epidemiologic association has been found between asthma morbidity and the exposure of immunologically sensitive asthmatic patients to airborne allergens. Our current understanding of the process of sensitization suggests that there is a strong genetic predisposition to form IgE to allergenic proteins on airborne particles. Much of this work has been conducted with animal models, but in a number of instances, specific confirmation has been reported in humans. Sensitized individuals respond to inhaled exposure with immediate mast-cell dependent inflammation that may be augmented by pollutant particles, especially diesel exhaust particles. Relatively little is known about the methods of assessing exposure to airborne pollutants, especially biologically active particulates. However, to examine the relationship of morbidity in genetically predisposed individuals, it will be important to determine the most relevant method of making this assessment. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10346992

  1. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  2. Capillary remodeling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufnagel, D. E.; Mehta, D.; Harshbarger, R.; Treviranus, K.; Wang, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is a process in which collagen is laid down and the delicate capillary-alveolar relationship is disturbed. The architectural changes which occur in the capillaries, a main element of the oxygen transferring unit, are difficult to illustrate without a three-dimensional tool, such as scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, a scanning electron microscopic study was undertaken to show the capillary changes of lung fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. After 30 days the rats were sacrificed, and the vascular tree of the lung was cast with methacrylate. The fibrosis was patchy. The intercapillary space became wider; and some capillaries had large, irregular dilatations. Occasionally giant capillaries (up to 19 mu in diameter) were noted. The pleural and alveolar capillary diameters increased (P less than 0.01), and the branching frequency decreased (P = 0.02). The center of the capillary rings, which has been suggested to be the site of contractile interstitial cells, increased in size (P = 0.03). The appearance of irregularly shaped capillaries and an increase in diameter without a change in density of alveolar capillaries, resulting in a loss of surface area and a decrease in branching, are the main scanning electron microscopic findings of the remodeling which occurs in pulmonary capillaries in lung fibrosis. These changes may partially explain the functional derangement of this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:2430459

  3. An Abundant, Highly Conserved Tonoplast Protein in Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Herman, Eliot M.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated the membranes of the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies) from Phaseolus vulgaris cotyledons and purified an integral membrane protein with Mr 25,000 (TP 25). Antiserum to TP 25 recognizes an abundant polypeptide in the total cell extracts of many different seeds (monocots, dicots, and a gymnosperm), and specifically labels the vacuolar membranes of thin-sectioned soybean embryonic axes and cotyledons. TP 25 was not found in the starchy endosperm of barley and wheat or the seed coats of bean but was present in all seed parts examined that consist of living cells at seed maturity. The abundance of TP 25 was not correlated with the amount of storage protein in seed tissue, and the protein was not found in leaves that accumulate leaf storage protein. On the basis of its abundance, evolutionary conservation, and distribution in the plant, we propose that TP 25 may play a role in maintaining the integrity of the tonoplast during the dehydration/rehydration sequence of seeds. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:16667102

  4. Antibodies of patients with Lyme disease to components of the Ixodes dammini spirochete.

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, A G; Burgdorfer, W; Grunwaldt, E; Steere, A C

    1983-01-01

    Lyme disease is an inflammatory disorder of skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. The disease is associated with a preceding tick bite and is ameliorated by penicillin treatment. A spirochete (IDS) isolated from Ixodes dammini ticks has been implicated as the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. We examined the antibody responses of Lyme disease patients to IDS lysate components in order to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease. The components were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose, reacted with patients' sera, and the bound IgG was detected with 125I-labeled protein A (western blot). We found that (a) Lyme disease patients had antibodies to IDS components (b) most patients studied had antibodies to two components with apparent subunit molecular weights of 41,000 and 60,000, and (c) the patients' antibody responses during illness and remission were specific, for the most part, for the IDS. In contrast to the findings with Lyme disease sera, sera from controls showed little reactivity with IDS components in either the western blots or a derivative solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:6348092

  5. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  6. Serine protease inhibitor antithrombin III and its messenger RNA in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, R. N.; Golde, T.; Kroon, S. N.; Perry, G.

    1993-01-01

    The classical plasma protein antithrombin III (ATIII), an inhibitor of the blood coagulation cascade, is a member of the serpins that are gaining import in the nervous system. In this study, we examined the presence of ATIII in the pathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies to ATIII consistently detected approximately 58-kd protein(s) on immunoblots of cerebral cortex and brain microvessels. Immunocytochemical studies showed ATIII reactivity within amyloid deposits, neurites associated with plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles in neocortex and hippocampus of virtually all the AD cases examined. In some cases, astrocytes were also stained, suggesting ATIII in these cells. ATIII immunoreactivity in neurofibrillary tangles was further defined by electron microscopy, which showed it to be associated with paired helical filaments. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify ATIII complementary DNA, we found low levels of messenger RNA expression, relative to liver, in control human brain samples, and these were increased in AD samples, particularly in the white matter. Our results suggest the increased presence of ATIII commensurate with astrogliosis and association with the neurofibrillary pathology of AD. We conclude that in concert with other amyloid-associated serine protease inhibitors, ATIII may play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8362984

  7. Asbestos and colon cancer: a weight-of-the-evidence review.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, J F

    1994-01-01

    What is the evidence that exposure to asbestos causes colon cancer? This weight-of-evidence review considers epidemiologic evidence from cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, case-control studies of colon cancer, animal bioassays, and other corroborative evidence. The major evidence for a causal association at high exposure is a combined colorectal standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.5 for asbestos cohorts where the lung cancer SMR was greater than twofold. However, misdiagnosis may spuriously elevate the SMR. The strongest evidence against a causal association between colon cancer and asbestos exposure is the lack of an exposure-response gradient in asbestos cohorts where trends for lung cancer are observed. Population-based case-control studies of colon cancer do not show any consistent risk associated with asbestos exposure. Long-term ingestion studies show no evidence of an increased incidence of colon cancer in animals by this route of exposure and do not provide biological plausibility for a causal association between asbestos exposure and colon cancer. Images p1038-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713017

  8. Alveolar response to experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lanken, P. N.; Minda, M.; Pietra, G. G.; Fishman, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to characterize the alveolar response to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, light and electron miscropy were used to trace the development of experimental infections with P carinii in rats treated with cortisone acetate and a low-protein diet. The first changes were found by the eighth day of treatment and consisted of the selective attachment of Pneumocystis organisms, mostly trophozoites, to alveolar Type 1 pneumocytes; the host cells were undamaged, and no inflammatory response was seen. After approximately one month of treatment, the seemingly innocuous host-parasite interaction was succeeded by focal necrosis of the Type 1 pneumocytes adjacent to organisms; hyperplasia of nearby Type 2 pneumocytes also occurred, to replace the dead Type 1 pneumocytes. Even at this stage, inflammatory reaction was conspicuously absent except for occasional alveolar macrophages in the diseased alveoli; in addition, all cells of the alveolar-capillary membrane other than Type 1 pneumocytes appeared entirely normal. Not only does the present study clarify the nature of alveolar injury caused by Pneumocystis carinii, but it also provides an experimental animal model in which selective injury of the alveolar lining cells occurs. Images Figure 5 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 4 Figure 8 PMID:6966893

  9. MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF AMPUTEES

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Verne T.; Barnes, Gilbert H.; Levy, S. William; Loon, Henry E.; Ralston, H. J.

    1961-01-01

    The initial trauma of a major amputation and the medical disorders secondary to it are being studied at the Biomechanics Laboratory. Problems that arise from amputation and from the replacement of the limb by a prosthetic device are complex but interrelated, and approaches to study on basic, applied and clinical levels must be integrated. Three studies carried on at the Biomechanics Laboratory are described in this paper. In the field of amputation operations, it is believed that certain osteoplastic and myoplastic techniques, along with protection for nerve stumps and measures to provide optimum circulatory conditions, may restore biological and mechanical function to a greater degree than is possible with present procedures. From studies of the expenditure of energy during locomotion with and without assistive devices and during therapeutic exercise, it was found that crutch-walking is metabolically much more costly in energy for the amputee than walking with the suction-socket prosthesis; through these studies, it will be possible to define criteria for maximum work loads for disabled persons. In dermatological studies, although there are still unsolved problems, successful methods of treatment have been developed for certain bacterial and fungus infections, contact dermatitides and disorders resulting from edema. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:13717754

  10. Evidence that specific mtDNA point mutations may not accumulate in skeletal muscle during normal human aging.

    PubMed Central

    Pallotti, F.; Chen, X.; Bonilla, E.; Schon, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is unclear at present whether specific mtDNA point mutations accumulate during normal human aging. In order to address this question, we used quantitative PCR of total DNA isolated from skeletal muscle from normal individuals of various ages to search for the presence and amount of spontaneous mtDNA point mutations in two small regions of the human mitochondrial genome. We observed low levels of somatic mutations above background in both regions, but there was no correlation between the amount of mutation detected and the age of the subject. These results contrasted with our finding of an age-related increase in the amount of the mtDNA "common deletion" in these very samples. Thus, it appears that both somatic mtDNA point mutations and mtDNA deletions can arise at low frequency in normal individuals but that, unlike deletions, there is no preferential amplification or accumulation of specific point mutations in skeletal muscle over the course of the normal human life span. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8751860

  11. Epstein-Barr virus in a CD8-positive T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Richel, D. J.; Lepoutre, J. M.; Kapsenberg, J. G.; Ooms, E. C.; Boom, W. R.; Boucher, C. A.; Kluin, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to its role in B-lymphomagenesis, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) only incidentally has been associated with T-cell lymphomas. In the present report we describe a fourth patient with EBV-related T-cell lymphoma. The patient presented with an angio-immunoblastic lymphadenopathy (AILD)-like T-cell lymphoma. Serology was compatible with chronic Epstein-Barr (EBV) infection. After a 1-year period of waxing and waning lymphadenopathy, this lymphoma evolved to an aggressive CD8+ Immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. A relationship with the chronic EBV infection was indicated by the finding of EBV genome in the tumor tissue by Southern blot analysis. Moreover, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) was detected in situ within individually defined CD8+ tumor cells by two-color immunofluorescence. Two alternative possibilities, namely that EBV primarily played a role in lymphomagenesis of the AILD-like T-cell lymphoma or that the virus was an additional oncogenic event in the final process of tumor progression to the immunoblastic lymphoma, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:2161617

  12. A serial histologic study of the development and progression of acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, S. S.; Watt, I. A.; Donaldson, L. A.; Crocket, A.; Joffe, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of a serial investigation of the development and progression of the light-microscopic changes of acute pancreatitis and histologic criteria for evaluating pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, similar to that found in man, was induced in rats with the use of a closed duodenal loop technique (n = 36). Control rats underwent a laparotomy with mobilization of the duodenum (n = 12). Animals were killed every 2 hours for 24 hours, and a detailed and independent histologic evaluation was made of each. Focal acinar necrosis proceeding to a vasculitis appeared within 2--4 hours before the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Thereafter, the extent of acinar necrosis closely reflected the vasculitis with the later development of the acute inflammation. By the sixteenth hour, these changes were graded as moderate pancreatitis, and by 24 hours the process represented severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Vascular changes and acinar necrosis preceded the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The pancreatitis has been quantitated into minimal, moderate, or severe by assessing the severity of edema, acute inflammatory infiltrate, and changes in the vessels, ducts, and acini. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7223862

  13. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy of in vivo human skin.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, B R; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1997-01-01

    Multiphoton excitation microscopy at 730 nm and 960 nm was used to image in vivo human skin autofluorescence from the surface to a depth of approximately 200 microm. The emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime images were obtained at selected locations near the surface (0-50 microm) and at deeper depths (100-150 microm) for both excitation wavelengths. Cell borders and cell nuclei were the prominent structures observed. The spectroscopic data suggest that reduced pyridine nucleotides, NAD(P)H, are the primary source of the skin autofluorescence at 730 nm excitation. With 960 nm excitation, a two-photon fluorescence emission at 520 nm indicates the presence of a variable, position-dependent intensity component of flavoprotein. A second fluorescence emission component, which starts at 425 nm, is observed with 960-nm excitation. Such fluorescence emission at wavelengths less than half the excitation wavelength suggests an excitation process involving three or more photons. This conjecture is further confirmed by the observation of the super-quadratic dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the excitation power. Further work is required to spectroscopically identify these emitting species. This study demonstrates the use of multiphoton excitation microscopy for functional imaging of the metabolic states of in vivo human skin cells. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9168018

  14. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vallbracht, A.; Löhler, J.; Gossmann, J.; Glück, T.; Petersen, D.; Gerth, H. J.; Gencic, M.; Dörries, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 27-year-old man with hemophilia type A and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a subacute meningoencephalitis, associated with a normotensive internal hydrocephalus, 14 weeks before his death. From cerebrospinal fluid and brain autopsy material, a virus could be isolated and was classified by Southern blot analysis and restriction endonuclease reactions as the human polyomavirus BK. The postmortem findings of polyomavirus antigen and BK virus DNA in various cell types of the kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system strongly suggest that BK virus was the causative agent of a tubulointerstitial nephropathy, an interstitial desquamative pneumonitis, and a subacute meningoencephalitis with accentuation of the ventricular and meningeal surfaces of the brain. Besides distinctive cytopathic effects, the presence of intranuclear inclusions was a prominent histopathological feature. Therefore, the human polyomavirus BK should be regarded as a new candidate on the still growing list of opportunistic pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8391217

  15. Aging-associated changes in renal extracellular matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Abrass, C. K.; Adcox, M. J.; Raugi, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of renal extracellular matrices was examined in 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats by immunofluorescence microscopy. No change in composition of tubular basement membrane was detected. Increased immunostaining for laminin chains B1 and s-laminin and thrombospondin characterized the thickened glomerular basement membrane. Interstitial collagens I and III were not detected in globally sclerotic glomeruli. The major change noted in the aged rat kidney at 24 months was generalized expansion of the interstitium by thrombospondin and fibronectin. In areas of tubular atrophy there was new expression of extra domain A (EDA)+ fibronectin. Collagens I and III were detected focally in the interstitium adjacent to areas of tubular atrophy, but otherwise collagens I, III, and IV and laminin did not contribute to the interstitial fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was detectable at 18 months of age and preceded the development of sclerotic glomeruli, tubular atrophy, or accumulations of interstitial collagen. These changes in extracellular matrix composition distinguish the aging kidney from other sclerotic forms of renal disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7887455

  16. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  17. Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

  18. In Vitro and in Vivo Phosphorylation of Polypeptides in Plasma Membrane and Tonoplast-Enriched Fractions from Barley Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Joan E.; Hurkman, William J.; Tanaka, Charlene K.; DuPont, Frances M.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with γ-[32P]ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg2+ was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46, and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg2+ concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca2+. When roots of intact plants were labeled with [32P]orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 116, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mm NaCl had no effect. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:16668115

  19. Analytical approach to the recovery of short fluorescence lifetimes from fluorescence decay curves.

    PubMed Central

    Bajzer, Z; Zelić, A; Prendergast, F G

    1995-01-01

    Considerable effort in instrument development has made possible detection of picosecond fluorescence lifetimes by time-correlated single-photon counting. In particular, efforts have been made to narrow markedly the instrument response function (IRF). Less attention has been paid to analytical methods, especially to problem of discretization of the convolution integral, on which the detection and quantification of short lifetimes critically depends. We show that better discretization methods can yield acceptable results for short lifetimes even with an IRF several times wider than necessary for the standard discretization based on linear approximation (LA). A general approach to discretization, also suitable for nonexponential models, is developed. The zero-time shift is explicitly included. Using simulations, we compared LA, quadratic, and cubic approximations. The latter two proved much better for detection of short lifetimes and, in that respect, they do not differ except when the zero-time shift exceeds two channels, when one can benefit from using the cubic approximation. We showed that for LA in some cases narrowing the IRF beyond FWHM = 150 ps is actually counterproductive. This is not so for quadratic and cubic approximations, which we recommend for general use. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8519969

  20. Heterogeneity in intratumor distribution of p53 mutations in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mirchandani, D.; Zheng, J.; Miller, G. J.; Ghosh, A. K.; Shibata, D. K.; Cote, R. J.; Roy-Burman, P.

    1995-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma from 65 patients have been examined for the occurrence of point mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene locus within the region of exons 5 to 8. Overall, only a small fraction of tumors (12.3%) was found to contain p53 mutations. No significant correlation was detected between the presence of the mutant gene and either tumor volume or histopathological grade. However, metastatic prostatic tumors are found to display a higher percentage (21.4%) of p53 mutations compared with primary adenocarcinomas (9.8%). Analysis of the topographical distribution of the p53 mutant genotype revealed two remarkable findings. First, multifocal tumors within a prostate appear to differ in harboring the mutant gene, and second, evidence is obtained for intratumor heterogeneity in the distribution of the mutant p53 allele. Together these findings appear to explain, at least in part, why there has been a wide discrepancy in the reported detection frequency of p53 mutations in prostate cancer specimens. It appears that the outcome of mutation analysis would depend not only on which tumors but also which regions of the tumors are included in the study. Furthermore, the observed heterogeneous topographical distribution of the mutation, if confirmed to be unique to prostate cancer, may have important implications in the understanding of the biology of prostate carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7604888

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  2. The presence and possible role of monocyte infiltration in human chronic proliferative glomerulonephritides. Light microscopic, immunofluorescence, and histochemical correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Monga, G.; Mazzucco, G.; di Belgiojoso, G. B.; Busnach, G.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of chronic glomerulonephritis with proliferative pattern (11 cases of primary mixed IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia, 8 cases of SLE, and 8 cases of primary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) were studied with particular attention to the glomerular monocyte infiltration. The latter, detected by means of nonspecific esterase technique, was compared with the presence of hyaline thrombi and intraluminal immunoglobulin lumps. Monocyte infiltration was heavy and almost constant in cryoglobulinemia, less important in SLE, and practically absent in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. By means of immunofluorescence technique on paraffin embedded material, monocytes are shown to contain IgG and IgM, suggesting a phagocytic activity on some types of immune complexes. Since monocytes are migrant cells, and therefore easily removable from the glomeruli by the bloodstream, it seems that they could be responsible for regression of glomerular hypercellularity as reported in some patients with cryoglobulinemia showing clinical improvement. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:371410

  3. The effect of phorbol myristate acetate on the metabolism and ultrastructure of human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hoidal, J. R.; Repine, J. E.; Beall, G. D.; Rasp, F. L.; White, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we examined the influence of the surface-active agent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized heat-killed bacteria (HKB) on oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and glucose oxidation of human alveolar macrophages (AM). Both PMA and HKB produced a surge in oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and oxidation of 1-14C-glucose and 6-14C-glucose by human AM. Examination of AM by electron microscopy following stimulation by these two agents demonstrated membrane ruffling, loss of microvilli, and increased vacuolization in PMA-treated cells and phagocytic vacuoles containing bacteria in HKB-treated cells. The vacuolization produced by PMA-treated AM was much less striking than the vacuolization produced in PMA-treated leukocytes. The similarity in the metabolic and some of the physical responses of AM stimulated by PMA and HKB suggest that PMA may be a useful agent for evaluating cell-membrane-related events of phagocytosis in AM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figures 9 and 10 Figures 11 and 12 PMID:207188

  4. Photoelectron imaging of viruses and DNA: evaluation of substrates by unidirectional low angle shadowing and photoemission current measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, G B; Habliston, D L; Griffith, O H

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron imaging (photoelectron emission microscopy, PEM or PEEM) is a promising high resolution surface-sensitive technique for biophysical studies. At present, image quality is often limited by the underlying substrate. For photoelectron imaging, the substrate must be electrically conductive, low in electron emission, and relatively flat. A number of conductive substrate materials with relatively low electron emission were examined for surface roughness. Low angle, unidirectional shadowing of the specimens followed by photoelectron microscopy was found to be an effective way to test the quality of substrate surfaces. Optimal results were obtained by depositing approximately 0.1 nm of platinum-palladium (80:20) at an angle of 3 degrees. Among potential substrates for photoelectron imaging, silicon and evaporated chromium surfaces were found to be much smoother than evaporated magnesium fluoride, which initially appeared promising because of its very low electron emission. The best images were obtained with a chromium substrate coated with a thin layer of dextran derivatized with spermidine, which facilitated the spreading and adhesion of biomolecules to the surfaces. Making use of this substrate, improved photoelectron images are reported for tobacco mosaic virus particles and DNA-recA complexes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7858141

  5. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  6. Sinus-lining cells of the lymph nodes recognized as a dendritic cell type by the new monoclonal antibody Ki-M9.

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, H. H.; Frahm, S. O.; Heidebrecht, H. J.; Parwaresch, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the immunobiological characterization of lymph node cells, sinus-lining cells (SLCs) have been given little attention mainly due to the difficulties in their recognition. Ki-M9 is a new monoclonal antibody (MAb) selected for its unique capability to visualize SLCs in human lymph nodes. The details were established by light and electron microscopy and immunoprecipitation of the corresponding biosynthetically labeled antigen. Ki-M9 recognizes a 70-kd protein localized on the surface membrane of SLCs. In the lymphoid tissue, a mild reactivity was exclusively encountered on follicular dendritic reticulum cells in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles. In other organs, some squamous epithelial and myoepithelial cells were recognized by this antibody. Immunomonitoring of SLCs on light and electron microscopic levels revealed their dendritic morphology, lack of phagosomes, and their close association with type IV collagen fibers. Considering the occurrence of typical dendritic SLCs on the front line of antigen flood, we propose that SLCs be investigated for a possible antigen-binding property. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9250155

  7. Astrocytes containing amyloid beta-protein (Abeta)-positive granules are associated with Abeta40-positive diffuse plaques in the aged human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Funato, H.; Yoshimura, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Saido, T. C.; Ito, Y.; Yokofujita, J.; Okeda, R.; Ihara, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the major component of senile plaques that emerge in the cortex during aging and appear most abundantly in Alzheimer's disease. In the course of our immunocytochemical study on a large number of autopsy cases, we noticed, in many aged nondemented cases, the presence of unique diffuse plaques in the cortex distinct from ordinary diffuse plaques by immunocytochemistry. The former were amorphous, very faintly Abeta-immunoreactive plaques resembling diffuse plaques, but they stained for Abeta40 and were associated with small cells containing Abeta-positive granules. A panel of amino- and carboxyl-terminal-specific Abeta antibodies showed that such Abeta40-positive diffuse plaques and cell-associated granules were composed exclusively of amino-terminally deleted Abeta terminating at Abeta40, -42, and -43. Double immunostaining also showed that those Abeta-immunoreactive granules are located in astrocytes and not in microglia or neurons. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that nonfibrillar Abeta immunoreactivity was located within lipofuscin-like granules in somewhat swollen astrocytes. These findings raise the possibility that astrocytes take up Abeta and attempt to degrade it in lysosomes in the aged brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9546359

  8. Congenital Dislocation of the Hip

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elmer E.

    1976-01-01

    Congenital dislocation or subluxation of the hip (congenital acetabular dysplasia) is a complete or partial displacement of the femoral head out of the acetabulum. The physical signs essential for diagnosis are age related. In newborns the tests for instability are the most sensitive. After the neonatal period, and until the age of walking, tightness of the adductor muscles is the most reliable sign. Early diagnosis is vital for successful treatment of this partially genetically determined condition. Various therapeutic measures, ranging from abduction splinting to open reduction and osteotomy, may be required. Following diagnosis in the first month of life, the average treatment time in one recent series was only 2.3 months from initiation of therapy to attainment of a normal hip. When the diagnosis was not made until 3 to 6 months of age, ten months of treatment was required to achieve the same outcome. When the diagnosis is not made, or the treatment is not begun until after the age of 6, a normal hip will probably not develop in any patient. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:1251603

  9. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  10. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, K. H.; Guerra, W. F.; Tomiyasu, U.; Verity, M. A.; Vinters, H. V.

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has been examined at autopsy in 89 patients who died of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including 14 patients who died primarily of neurologic complications of the disease. A total of 66 brains (74%) showed significant pathologic abnormalities, with opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (14) and cryptococcal (11) infections, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (6), toxoplasmosis (6), and histoplasma microabscesses (1). Incidental Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection was found in 4 cases. Simultaneous CNS infection by more than one microorganism was encountered in 5 patients. Subacute (microglial nodule) encephalitis-related to cytomegalovirus infection or possibly brain infection by the causative agent of AIDS was present in 56 cases. Primary CNS lymphoma was noted in 3 patients. Secondary CNS deposits of lymphoma were found in 1 patient, and another patient had lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Vascular complications were not infrequently seen, and included infarcts secondary to vessel occlusion and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 patients and intracranial hemorrhage of variable severity in 13. White matter changes included vacuolar myelopathy (3 cases), central pontine myelinolysis (1 case), and foci of calcified, necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in pontocerebellar fibers of the basis pontis (2 cases). These findings highlight the variety of CNS complications in AIDS, some of which are not associated with clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, characterization of all lesions may be important in understanding the neurologic sequelae of AIDS. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p540-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2876640

  11. Myocardial changes in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Ultrastructural evidence of immune damage and the role of microangiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Andrade, S. G.; Correa, R.; Sadigursky, M.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1994-01-01

    Histological and ultrastructural studies of the hearts of dogs sacrificed 18 to 26 days after intraperitoneal inoculation with 4 x 10(5) blood forms of the 12 SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi/kg of body weight disclosed myocarditis characterized by parasitic invasion of some myocytes, damage and necrosis of nonparasitized myocytes, and interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells. Nonparasitized myocytes showed alterations ranging from mild edema to severe myocytolysis. These changes often were accompanied by contacts of myocytes with lymphocytes (both granular and agranular) and macrophages. These contacts were characterized by focal loss of the myocyte basement membrane and close approximation of the plasma membranes of the two cells. Contacts between lymphocytes and capillary endothelial cells were also frequent. Platelet aggregates and fibrin microthrombi were observed in some capillaries. Our findings suggest that immune effector cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the myocyte damage and the microangiopathy in acute Chagas' disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8203476

  12. An Evaluation of Nonsuppurative Joint Disease in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kathleen M.; Doige, Cecil E.; Osborne, A. Dudley

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two joints from pigs with nonsuppurative joint disease from a local abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and microbiologically in order to establish macroscopic differences between degenerative arthropathy and arthritis due to an infectious organism. The joints were grouped grossly according to the type and severity of lesions of the synovial membrane and cartilage, and microscopically according to the severity of synovial membrane lesions. Osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were the most common causes of nonsuppurative joint disease in the joints examined. The major macroscopic differences between these two arthropathies were in the nature and severity of the synovial and cartilaginous lesions and involvement of the lymph node draining the diseased joint. Typically, in osteochondrosis, the changes are feathery hypertrophy of villi, focal full-thickness cartilage buckles, ulcers or flaps, and no change in the draining lymph node, whereas in Erysipelothrix- caused arthritis, the villous hypertrophy is severe and polypoid in nature, there is diffuse erosion of articular cartilage, and the draining lymph node is consistently hypertrophic and often cystic. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17422755

  13. Characterization of phorbol ester-stimulated serine phosphorylation of the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Feener, E P; Shiba, T; Hu, K Q; Wilden, P A; White, M F; King, G L

    1994-01-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated phosphorylation of the human insulin receptor (IR) was characterized and compared in two cell types of different lineage: normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK) cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts. PMA stimulation increased IR beta-subunit phosphorylation to 252 +/- 43 and 25- +/- 47% (+/- S.D.) of the unstimulated control in NRK and CHO cells respectively. Tryptic phosphopeptide analysis by Tricine/SDS/PAGE revealed significant differences in the PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the IR in these two cell types. This phosphorylation of the IR was predominantly located in two tryptic phosphopeptides, and these phosphopeptides were absent in an IR mutant truncated by 43 C-terminal amino acids. The major PMA-stimulated tryptic phosphopeptide from in vivo-labelled CHO/IR was immunoprecipitated with an antibody against residues Ser1315 to Lys1329, and this precipitation was blocked with excess unlabelled peptide containing this sequence. Radiosequencing by manual Edman degradation revealed that this tryptic phosphopeptide was phosphorylated at Ser1315. This PMA-stimulated phosphorylation did not inhibit autophosphorylation of the IR in vivo. These results demonstrate that PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of the IR can exhibit significant differences when expressed in different cell types, and that Ser1315 is a major PMA-stimulated phosphorylation site on the human IR. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7945263

  14. Hereditary desmoid disease due to a frameshift mutation at codon 1924 of the APC gene.

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, D. M.; van der Luijt, R.; Breukel, C.; Bullman, H.; Bunyan, D.; Fisher, A.; Barber, J.; du Boulay, C.; Primrose, J.; Burn, J.; Fodde, R.

    1996-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are slowly growing fibrous tumors highly resistant to therapy and often fatal. Here, we report hereditary desmoid disease (HDD), a novel autosomal dominant trait with 100% penetrance affecting a three-generation kindred. Desmoid tumors are usually a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis, a predisposition to the early development of premalignant adenomatous polyps in the colorectum due to chain-terminating mutations of the APC gene. In general, one or more members in approximately 10% of the FAP families manifest desmoid tumors. Affected individuals from the HDD kindred are characterized by multifocal fibromatosis of the paraspinal muscles, breast, occiput, arms, lower ribs, abdominal wall, and mesentery. Osteomas, epidermal cysts, and other congenital features were also observed. We show that HDD segregates with an unusual germ-line chain-terminating mutation at the 3' end of the APC gene (codon 1924) with somatic loss of the wild-type allele leading to tumor development. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8940264

  15. Proliferation of the surface-connected intracytoplasmic membranous network in skeletal muscle disease.

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, N. N.; Wilson, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    A surface-connected intracytoplasmic membranous (SCIM) network proliferates in skeletal muscle diseases and in myotubes grown in vitro. The authors observed frequent occurrence of "coated" microdomains in the form of budding vesicles in the proliferated components of this network and suspected a potential role the proliferated membranes might have in the endocytosis of molecules into myotubes undergoing repair or regeneration. Five-day-old myotubes in culture were incubated at 37 C and between 2 and 4 C with two tracers, Lucifer yellow and ferritin, both known to enter other types of cells via a fluid-phase endocytotic pathway. The differential penetration of Lucifer yellow at 37 C and below 2-4 C was examined by fluorescence microscopy and by electron microscopy. Lucifer yellow was rendered electron-opaque by photoreacting it with an intense light in the presence of DAB. Ferritin penetration at 37 C and between 2 and 4 C was compared and quantitated ultrastructurally. The authors found that endocytosis of the tracers into myotubes and eventually into lysosomes took place after the tracers had diffused into the lumen of the proliferated SCIM network. These processes were inhibited below 4 C. This finding, coupled with the presence of "coated" microdomains in the proliferated membranes, led us to suspect that the SCIM network may have a role in membrane turnover of metabolically active diseased muscle cells undergoing regeneration. Images Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 p367-a PMID:3789091

  16. National Museum of Dentistry exhibition: the future is now! African Americans in dentistry.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, Clifton O.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:14527058

  17. Assessing confounding, effect modification, and thresholds in the association between ambient particles and daily deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J

    2000-01-01

    I examined the relationship between daily deaths and airborne particles in 10 U.S. cities with varying climatic conditions and seasons in which particle concentrations were high. Airborne particles were associated with significant increases in daily deaths [0.67% increase for a 10 microg/m(3) increase in particles; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.81%]. This association was the same in summer and winter. To examine potential confounding by other pollutants, I regressed city- and season-specific effect sizes against the relationship between airborne particles and other pollutants. Controlling for other pollutants did not substantially (or significantly) change the estimated effect of airborne particles. Socioeconomic differences between cities likewise did not modify the effect. The increase in daily deaths that occurred out of hospitals (0.89% per 10 microg/m(3); CI, 0.67-1.10%) was substantially greater than the increase in deaths in hospitals (0. 49%; CI, 0.31-0.68%). This is consistent with results previously reported in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and suggests that the particle-associated deaths are not just being brought forward by a few days. It is also consistent with recent animal and human studies of the mechanisms of particle toxicity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10856032

  18. Microcystic cyanobacteria causes mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and reactive oxygen species formation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, W X; Shen, H M; Shen, Y; Zhu, H G; Ong, C N

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria contamination of water has become a growing public health problem worldwide. Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common toxic cyanobacteria. It is capable of producing microcystins, a group of cyclic heptapeptide compounds with potent hepatotoxicity and tumor promotion activity. The present study investigated the effect of microcystic cyanobacteria on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by examining mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cells treated with lyophilized freshwater microcystic cyanobacteria extract (MCE). Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) was used as a fluorescent probe for changes in mitochondrial fluorescence intensity. The mitochondrial Rh-123 fluorescence intensity in MCE-treated hepatocytes, examined using a laser confocal microscope, responded in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results thus indicate that the alteration of MMP might be an important event in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. Moreover, the parallel increase of ROS formation detected using another fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate also suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in the hepatotoxicity caused by cyanobacteria. The fact that MMP changes precede other cytotoxic parameters such as nuclear staining by propidium iodide and cell morphological changes suggests that mitochondrial damage is closely associated with MCE-induced cell injury in cultured rat hepatocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9637798

  19. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking glial fibrillary acidic protein is characterized by a more severe clinical course and an infiltrative central nervous system lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, W.; Edelmann, W.; Chiu, F. C.; Kucherlapati, R.; Raine, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    Insights into the role of the astrocyte intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), have only recently emerged with reports on subtle abnormalities in GFAP-deficient mice, including the documentation of defective long-term maintenance of central nervous system myelination. Here, we extend these observations by examining the astroglial response in GFAP-/- mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. Clinically, the monophasic disease was more severe in GFAP-/- mice than in wild-type littermates despite increased remyelination in the former. More in keeping with the clinical course was the observation of an infiltrative EAE lesion in GFAP-/- mice. GFAP-/- astrocytes had a reduced cytoarchitectural stability as evidenced by less abundant and irregularly spaced hemidesmosomes. The blunt GFAP-/- astrocyte processes possessed intermediate filaments consisting mainly of vimentin, though to a lesser degree than in the wild-type. In contrast, in wild-type littermates, GFAP was most abundant and nestin occurred at lower levels. Taken together, the present study introduces the novel concepts that GFAP plays an important role in the control of clinical disease associated with formation of a clearly defined edge to the EAE lesion and that GFAP is operative in the regulation of the intermediate filament components in reactive fibrillary astrogliosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422542

  20. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  1. Differential Expression of Potato Tuber Protein Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Hannapel, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Patatin and the 22-kilodalton protein complex make up more than 50% of the soluble protein present in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and these two proteins are coordinately regulated during tuber development. Although genomic sequences related to these tuber genes exist in the genome of potato species that do not bear tubers, they cannot be induced into expression under the tested conditions. These genes are not expressed during substantial starch accumulation in petioles from a model petiole-leaf cutting system in nontuber-bearing plants, indicating that starch accumulation and synthesis of the major tuber proteins occur independently. Tuber protein gene expression also has been examined in hybrid potato plants that contain genomes from both tuberizing and nontuberizing species. One such triploid hybrid produced only stolons, whereas a pentaploid hybrid with an increased number of tuber genomes produced tubers. It was shown, using immunoblotting and Northern blot hybridization, that these two hybrids actively expressed both patatin and the 22-kilodalton tuber protein in induced petioles from the leaf-cutting system. The induced accumulation of patatin transcripts was consistent in all genotypes containing some tuberizing genome. The induced accumulation of the 22-kilodalton protein transcripts, however, was lower in genotypes containing some nontuberizing genome. Sucrose induction of these genes in leaves corroborates the induction patterns in petioles. A correlation exists between 22-kilodalton protein gene expression and a potato plant's ability to produce stolons or tubers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16667872

  2. Hot-spot mutations in the p53 gene of liver nodules induced in rats fed DL-ethionine with a methyl-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujiuchi, T.; Yeleswarapu, L.; Konishi, Y.; Lombardi, B.

    1997-01-01

    Male F-344 rats were fed for 15 weeks a methyl-deficient L-amino acid defined diet containing 0.05% DL-ethionine. Nodules protruding from the surface of the liver were dissected free of surrounding tissue, and polyadenylated RNA isolated from the nodules was reverse transcribed. The region of the p53 gene comprising codons 120-290 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and cDNAs were sequenced. Mutations were detected in nodules obtained from 7 of 12 rats. In all seven cases, the same two point mutations were present. The first was at the first base of codon 246 and consisted of a C-->T transition (C:G-->T:A, Arg-->Cys), while the second was at the second base of codon 247 and consisted of a G-->T transversion (G:C-->T:A, Arg-->Leu). It is concluded that the hepatocarcinogen ethionine induces specific hot-spot p53 gene mutations; this is in contrast to the mutations at various sites previously observed to occur in rats fed a hepatocarcinogenic methyl-deficient diet alone. The results also provide the first evidence that ethionine is mutagenic in the rat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9218726

  3. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  4. A ribonuclease inhibitor expresses anti-angiogenic properties and leads to reduced tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Polakowski, I. J.; Lewis, M. K.; Muthukkaruppan, V. R.; Erdman, B.; Kubai, L.; Auerbach, R.

    1993-01-01

    Our experiments were designed to determine whether recombinant ribonuclease inhibitor (RNasin) could inhibit angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth in adult mice. We used the Fajardo disc angiogenesis assay as the primary means of measuring new blood vessel growth. This assay measures the penetration of cells into a polyvinyl alcohol sponge with a central core of ELVAX-coated sponge containing test substances. Cell penetration was reduced to 29.3% of control (phosphate-buffered saline; heat-inactivated RNasin) values. Endothelial cell influx was measured by lectin staining and confirmed by culturing cells isolated from sponges by collagenase treatment. RNasin also reduced the augmented reaction evoked by either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or sodium orthovanadate. To confirm the anti-angiogenic activity of RNasin, Hydron-coated polyvinyl sponges containing bFGF or bFGF plus RNasin were implanted into adult mouse corneas. bFGF induced a strong angiogenic response that was almost completely inhibited by RNasin. RNasin-containing ELVAX-coated sponges implanted subcutaneously underneath an intradermal inoculum of C755 mammary tumor cells caused significant reduction in tumor growth (P < 0.005). The antitumor effect of RNasin correlated with its effect on tumor-induced neovascularization, suggesting that the ability of RNasin to affect tumor growth was due to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7688185

  5. Photoelectron imaging of cells: photoconductivity extends the range of applicability.

    PubMed Central

    Habliston, D L; Hedberg, K K; Birrell, G B; Rempfer, G F; Griffith, O H

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron imaging is a sensitive surface technique in which photons are used to excite electron emission. This novel method has been applied successfully in studies of relatively flat cultured cells, viruses, and protein-DNA complexes. However, rounded-up cell types such as tumor cells frequently are more difficult to image. By comparing photoelectron images of uncoated and metal-coated MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells, it is shown that the problem is specimen charging rather than a fundamental limitation of the electron imaging process. This is confirmed by emission current measurements on uncoated monolayers of MCF-7 carcinoma cells and flatter, normal Wi-38 fibroblasts. We report here that sample charging in photoelectron microscopy can be eliminated in most specimens by simultaneous use of two light sources--the standard UV excitation source (e.g., 254 nm) and a longer wavelength light source (e.g., 325 nm). The reduction in sample charging results largely from enhanced photoconduction in the bulk sample and greatly extends the range of cells that can be examined by photoelectron imaging. The contributions of photoconductivity, the electric field of the imaging system, and the short escape depths of the photoelectrons combine to make photoelectron imaging a uniquely sensitive technique for the study of biological surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8534832

  6. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-01-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3057886

  7. Cellular localization of retinoic acid receptor-gamma expression in normal and neoplastic skin.

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, E.; Blake, M. J.; Celano, P.; Skouge, J.; Diwan, R.

    1992-01-01

    Retinoids profoundly affect the normal growth and differentiation of epithelial tissues. Retinoic acid receptor-gamma (RAR-gamma) is a member of a family of retinoid receptors, and has been shown to be expressed almost exclusively in skin. However, little is known about the cellular localization of this receptor in human skin. The authors studied the expression of RAR-gamma in normal skin and human skin tumors by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. RAR-gamma mRNA was detected in normal skin as well as in cultures of neonatal keratinocytes. Using an oligonucleotide specific for the RAR-gamma cDNA isoform 1 (RAR-gamma 1), RAR-gamma 1 mRNA was localized to all layers of the epidermis, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, follicular hair bulbs, eccrine and sebaceous glands. Basal cell carcinoma constitutively expressed gamma-1 mRNA and one of seven squamous cell carcinomas showed loss of gamma-1 mRNA expression, relative to adjacent epithelium. By contrast, normal melanocytic nevi and tumor-associated lymphocytes expressed little or no RAR-gamma mRNA. These results suggest that RAR-gamma 1 may play an important role in the maintenance and differentiation of normal epidermis and skin appendages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1318641

  8. A defect in the metabolic activation of sulfate in a patient with achondrogenesis type IB.

    PubMed Central

    Superti-Furga, A.

    1994-01-01

    Achondrogenesis type I is a perinatally lethal, short-limb chondrodysplasia. Two types, IA and IB, have been distinguished by radiographic and histological criteria; both types appear to be inherited as autosomal recessive traits. The underlying molecular defects are not known, but histochemical studies have suggested that in achondrogenesis type IB, cartilage matrix is deficient in sulfated proteoglycans. We have studied cartilage extracts of one newborn with achondrogenesis type IB and found that proteoglycans were quantitatively reduced, and, unlike in control cartilage, they did not stain with toluidine blue and did not bind to DEAE. Impaired synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans was observed also in fibroblast cultures of the achondrogenesis IB patient. Radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that core protein and side chains of proteoglycans were synthesized normally but were not sulfated. Analysis of sulfate metabolism in fibroblast cultures showed, in the patient's cells, normal intracellular levels of free sulfate but markedly reduced levels of the two intermediate compounds in the sulfate activation pathway, adenosine-phosphosulfate and phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate. The results can be explained by deficient activity of one of the enzymes responsible for the biologic activation of sulfate, possibly similar to that observed in cartilage (but not in skin) of the recessive, nonlethal mouse mutant brachymorphic and leading to defective sulfation of macromolecules. Expression of the sulfation defect in cultured fibroblasts may offer a diagnostic tool for the disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7977372

  9. Hyperganglionosis mimicking Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Athow, A C; Filipe, M I; Drake, D P

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with hyperganglionosis are reported in whom an initial diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was suspected. In one patient there was a classic presentation with constipation, in another Hirschsprung's disease coexisted, and in the third the initial inadequate suction rectal biopsy specimen was suggestive of Hirschsprung's disease on acetylcholinesterase staining. Evidence of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the intermuscular and submucosal plexuses on a full thickness bowel biopsy specimen was used to confirm the diagnosis of hyperganglionosis, suggested by the characteristic demonstration of moderate increase in the number of acetylcholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the lamina propria mucosae on rectal biopsy. Surgical management was guided by clinical signs. Two patients had colonic resections; the third had temporary stomal diversion. Hyperganglionosis is rarer than Hirschsprung's disease but is known to mimic it. We suggest full thickness bowel specimens are needed to confirm the diagnosis and that inadequate rectal suction biopsies must be interpreted with caution. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1755642

  10. Genetic studies on the Senegal population. I. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Scozzari, R; Torroni, A; Semino, O; Sirugo, G; Brega, A; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S

    1988-01-01

    The mtDNA of 186 Senegalese, mainly Wolof and Peuls, were analyzed by means of six restriction enzymes: HpaI, BamHI, HaeII, MspI, AvaII, and HincII. Two of the HpaI, one of the HaeII, two of the MspI, and one of the AvaII morphs had not been described before. The only enzymes which enabled Wolof and Peuls to be differentiated were HincII and, to a lesser extent, HaeII. Important differences emerge in the comparison of Senegalese with Bantu of South Africa and with Bushmen, the only other Africans who, as far as we know, were studied for the same genetic markers. Though Senegalese mtDNAs display typical African features (presence and frequency of HpaI morph 3 and high incidence of AvaII morph 3), the distribution of MspI and AvaII patterns markedly differentiates Senegalese from the others. The phylogeny of mtDNA types in Africa well portrays how the three African groups are clearly distinguishable genetic entities. Bushmen lie at one end of the range of variability, Senegalese being at the other end but still fairly closely related to Bantu. The information provided by individual restriction enzymes to the distinction among the three major ethnic groups is reviewed and discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2902791

  11. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  12. A rivalry of foulness: official and unofficial investigations of the London cholera epidemic of 1854.

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, N; Vinten-Johansen, P; Brody, H; Rip, M

    1998-01-01

    Contemporaneous with John Snow's famous study of the 1854 London cholera epidemic were 2 other investigations: a local study of the Broad Street outbreak and an investigation of the entire epidemic, undertaken by England's General Board of Health. More than a quarter-century prior to Koch's description of Vibrio comma, a Board of Health investigator saw microscopic "vibriones" in the rice-water stools of cholera patients that, in his later life, he concluded had been cholera bacilli. Although this finding was potential evidence for Snow's view that cholera was due to a contagious and probably live agent transmitted in the water supply, the Board of Health rejected Snow's conclusions. The Board of Health amassed a huge amount of information which it interpreted as supportive of its conclusion that the epidemic was attributable not so much to water as to air. Snow, by contrast, systematically tested his hypothesis that cholera was water-borne by exploring evidence that at first glance ran contrary to his expectations. Snow's success provides support for using a hypothetico-deductive approach in epidemiology, based on tightly focused hypotheses strongly grounded in pathophysiology. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9772861

  13. INSECTS AS ALLERGEN INJECTANTS—Severe Reactions to Bites and Stings of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Arthropods capable of penetrating human skin often cause severe local and systemic reactions. Local reactions suggest delayed hypersensitivity while systemic symptoms resemble more the anaphylactic shock in animals. The nature of the antigen remains obscure but predominant evidence suggests its presence throughout the entire organism. Positive history of hypersensitivity to insect injectants was obtained in approximately 20 per cent of persons in the course of routine interviews of 1,078 patients. Repeated bites and stings at long or irregular intervals often induce a state of hypersensitivity, while repeated regular injections of extracts of these insects at shorter intervals may greatly reduce the hypersensitivity. The clinical evidence of allergic sensitivity to insect bites and stings cannot be readily confirmed by skin testing or by other immunological procedures. The history and the character of the lesions as well as certain entomological knowledge of the habits of the insects offer a better basis for specific diagnosis. Treatment with extracts of the whole offending insect generally provides good results but the protection afforded by such treatment varies in degree and duration. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14485406

  14. A hundred years of importation: The first animal quarantine station in North America; Lévis, Québec, 1876-1982

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Thomas W.; Labonté, Bertrand

    1991-01-01

    Quarantine, as a means of preventing disease importation, has been used for people and animals since the mid-19th century in Canada. The first animal quarantine facility in North America was established at Lévis, Québec in 1876. This quarantine station existed at Lévis until 1982 when it was closed and the function moved to Mirabel, Québec, near the International Airport. Veterinarians were in charge during the life of the Lévis Quarantine Station and some were also in charge of the Port of Quebec or a nearby District Office prior to the 1950's. In 1884 and 1886 the value of such a facility was illustrated in preventing the entry into Canada of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and a vesicular disease. It was described in 1933 as “undoubtedly our most important quarantine station” and a year's operating costs as “trifling in comparison to losses which could occur if a foreign plague invaded this country”. This facility's history also illustrated the close veterinary and human medical cooperation during the early days of organized veterinary medicine in Canada. The station was an example for the establishment of other such facilities in North America. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17423811

  15. Acute hyperuricemic nephropathy in rats. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Waisman, J.; Mwasi, L. M.; Bluestone, R.; Klinenberg, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and uricosuria were induced in rats fed uric acid and oxonic acid. Kidneys then were studied by light and electron microscopy. After 1 day of hyperuricemia, animals had deposits of uric acid and urate crystals within collecting tubules of the renal papillae, and tubular cells were altered. By 10 days, there was an exudative response with further injury to epithelium. Clear spaces within lumens, epithelium, and neutrophils suggested the presence of crystals; however, there was no direct ultrastructural evidence that neutrophils or epithelial cells ingested crystals and suffered injury. Presumably, crystals readily seen in frozen, unfixed tissue were lost during preparation for electron microscopy. Nonetheless, the ultrastructural findings indicated that hyperuricemic nephropathy was initiated in a fashion analogous to urate arthropathy. Urate crystals formed within collecting tubules, epithelial cells were altered, and most likely there was chemotaxis of neutrophils which underwent degranulation and vacuolation followed by lysis freeing any ingested urate. Release of ingested crystals plus precipitation of new crystals both might serve to sustain the nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1190294

  16. Characterization of a primary bile ductular cell culture from the livers of rats during extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, A. E.; Sattler, C. A.; Cihla, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    The establishment of novel bile ductular cell cultures was accomplished with the use of explants of a hyperplastic bile ductular tissue preparation obtained from rat livers at 10 to 15 weeks after bile duct ligation or a bile ductular cell fraction isolated from this tissue preparation by a procedure involving Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Observations made on these primary explant and monolayer bile ductular cell cultures were limited to the first 3 days of culture where the morphologic features of the bile ductular epithelium remained fairly well preserved, while fibroblast contamination was found to be very low. These cultured cells also retained over this period a high specific activity for the bile ductular cell marker enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, as well as possessed measurable but decreasing specific activities for leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase. Karyotypic analysis of the cultured monolayer cells further showed them to be diploid. In addition, preliminary transplantation studies demonstrated the presence of well-differentiated bile ductular-like structures following inoculation of the freshly isolated bile ductular cell fraction into the interscapular fat pads of recipient rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2861743

  17. Organization of the 5' region of the rat ATP citrate lyase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Park, S W; Moon, Y A; Kim, Y S

    1994-01-01

    A genomic clone, encompassing the 5' flanking region and the first seven exons of rat ATP citrate lyase gene, was isolated from a rat genomic library and sequenced. Primer-extension analysis showed that mRNA is transcribed at 4407 nucleotides upstream from the translation start site. Primer-extension analysis and sequencing of ATP citrate lyase cDNA amplified by PCR showed that the promoter used for transcription is identical in mammary gland, lung, liver, brain and kidney. Southern-blot analysis showed that the ATP citrate lyase gene exists as a single copy. The 5' flanking region contains several consensus sequences defined as promoter elements. These include a CAAT box and Sp1-binding sites. However, a TATA box lacks this promoter. The expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was induced by the 5' flanking region (-2370 to -1) in the CHO cell line. The 5' flanking region also contains several sequence elements that may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the gene. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7945200

  18. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  19. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  20. Effect of passive stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness and range of motion of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Peter J; Stanley, Stephen N

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of stretching and jogging on the series elastic muscle stiffness of the plantar flexors and on the range of dorsiflexion at the ankle joint. Methods 24 healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject undertook all of the following protocols, in random order: (1) stretching protocol: five 30 s static stretches with 30 s rest between stretches; (2) aerobic jogging protocol: subjects ran on a treadmill for 10 min at 60% of their maximum age predicted heart rate; (3) combined protocol: subjects ran first and then stretched. A damped oscillation technique was used to measure the series elastic stiffness of the plantar flexors. Dorsiflexion of the ankle was assessed with a weights and pulley system that moved the ankle joint from a neutral position into dorsiflexion passively. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the plantar and dorsiflexors during these procedures. The statistical analysis of these data involved an analysis of covariance Results For decreasing series elastic muscle stiffness running was more effective than stretching (P<0.05). In contrast, the results for range of motion showed that the combination protocol and the stretching only protocol were more effective than the running only protocol (P < 0.05) for increasing dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle. Conclusions Both jogging and static stretching exercises appear to be beneficial to individuals participating in sporting activities. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:9015593

  1. Different molecular basis for fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency in the two clinical forms of hereditary tyrosinemia (type I).

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, R M; Valet, J P; Lescault, A; Duband, J L; Laberge, C; Lettre, F; Plante, M

    1990-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2), the last enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. FAH was purified from rat and human liver and was used to immunize rabbits. Specific antibodies were used to probe protein extracts of livers and other tissues of normal and tyrosinemic patients. No immunoreactive FAH band was observed on immunoblots of liver, kidneys, and lymphocytes from patients presenting with the acute form of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients with the chronic form had immunoreactive FAH at a level approximately 20% of normal liver values, which was correlated with the measured enzymatic activity. Immunoblot analysis of aborted fetal tissues revealed normal FAH immunoreactivity in normal liver and kidneys. No FAH immunoreactivity was found in liver and kidneys of tyrosinemic fetuses. The presence of FAH immunoreactivity in normal fetal tissues suggests that deficient FAH activity in tyrosinemia is not simply related to a developmentally regulated expression of the enzyme. By this immunoblot assay, FAH was detected in most human tissues, with maximal immunoreactivity in liver and kidneys and with only trace amounts in chorionic villi and cultured amniocytes. These data confirm that the primary defect in the acute form of hereditary tyrosinemia is an absence of FAH. Moreover, these data suggest that both clinical forms of the disease have a different molecular basis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2378356

  2. Pathology of the thymus after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in man. A histologic immunohistochemical study of 36 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hermelink, H. K.; Sale, G. E.; Borisch, B.; Storb, R.

    1987-01-01

    A major hypothesis to explain the immunodeficiency associated with bone marrow transplantation states that thymic epithelial damage due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) abrogates or delays the recovery of normal immunologic function. This study evaluated the thymus glands of 36 human bone marrow transplant recipients dying between 4 and 1742 days after transplant using histology, histochemistry, and immunohistology. The observations lead to a model of thymic damage by irradiation, chemotherapy, and GVHD in which early injury by all three of these agents results in profound thymic atrophy followed by long-delayed restitution. Patients undergoing total body irradiation showed more severe damage to thymic cortical and medullary epithelium than did patients undergoing chemotherapy alone as preparation for transplantation. Patients with GVHD showed additional damage in the form of individual thymic epithelial cell death and showed HLA-DR surface protein expression on thymic epithelium during GVHD. Longer-term survivors showed a profoundly delayed restitution of normal thymic epithelium and delayed evidence of restored lymphopoiesis. A few patients dying late after transplant showed evidence of reconstitution of normal thymic structure or nodules of lymphopoiesis in focal areas of epithelial-cell reconstitution. Evidence of such lymphopoiesis was seen at times ranging between 90 and 1742 days after grafting. The data are consistent with a model of long-standing thymic damage caused by GVHD which is reversible after the development of tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3314529

  3. Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy in Swine: An Outbreak and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W. D. G.; Clark, E. G.; Osborne, A. D.; Enweani, C. C.; Radostits, O. M.; Theede, A.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an acute outbreak of hemorrhagic enteric disease in 34 young adult boars of primarily Yorkshire breeding at a performance testing station in Western Canada. Two of the boars died. A diagnosis of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy was made on the basis of clinical signs, gross necropsy and histopathological lesions. Campylobacter-like bacteria were seen in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the ileal mucosa by Warthin-Faulkner stain on histological sections, but were not isolated on culture. Treatment with several drugs simultaneously was associated with termination of the outbreak, but the therapeutic effect was not controlled by leaving some animals untreated. Reported sequelae, such as porcine intestinal adenomatosis, were not present at necropsy or slaughter of pigs surviving the outbreak, but all were killed no longer than two months after the first case was observed. This outbreak is discussed in the context of previously reported hemorrhagic enteric conditions of pigs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:396978

  4. Three-dimensional computerised analysis of epithelial cell proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, P. W.; Williamson, K. E.; Grimes, J.; Arthur, K.; Wilson, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes a new technique for the visualisation and quantitation of glandular epithelial cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa using computerised three-dimensional reconstruction. The tissue used in this study was colorectal biopsy tissue infiltrated in vitro with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), although the method could be applied to any gastrointestinal site labelled with any specific marker for cell proliferation. The method is as follows. Five-micron-thick serial sections (> 100) were cut from colorectal biopsies infiltrated in vitro with BrdU. After labelling all the sections for BrdU-positive cells using standard immunohistochemistry, colorectal glands were identified which were completely sectioned within the series. Each microscopic image of the sectioned gland was orientated, digitised and stored using a Kontron image analyser. On each of the stored images, the crypt profile, the positive cells and the negative cells were interactively marked and digitally stored. Using three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction software, the outer surface of the crypt, the total positive and the total negative fractions could be viewed in three dimensions. The total BrdU-positive cell number could be automatically calculated for the complete crypt or, alternatively, compartmental analysis of the labelling pattern within the crypt could be obtained. This represents a powerful technique: it does not require orientation, it can be carried out on complex glandular structures and is not affected by the biases involved in measuring labelling indices from single tissue sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8198965

  5. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  6. Vascular growth factors and receptors in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Böhling, T.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Persico, M. G.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas are highly vascular central nervous system tumors of controversial origin. Of interest in their pathogenesis are mechanisms regulating endothelial cell growth. The endothelial cell mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis, and together with its two receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1(FLT1) and VEGFR-2(KDR), is up-regulated during the malignant progression of gliomas. We have analyzed the expression of VEGF and its receptors, the related placental growth factor (PlGF) and the endothelial receptors FLT4 and Tie by in situ hybridization in capillary hemangioblastomas and hemangiopericytomas. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in all of the hemangiopericytomas studied and highly expressed in the stromal cells of hemangioblastomas. In addition, some hemangioblastoma tumor cells expressed high levels of PlGF. Significantly elevated levels of Tie mRNA, Tie protein, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 but not FLT4 mRNAs were observed in the endothelia of both tumor types. In hemangioblastomas, however, the receptors were also highly expressed by a subpopulation of stromal cells. Consistent results were obtained for a human hemangioblastoma cell line in culture. Up-regulation of the endothelial growth factors and receptors may result in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of endothelial cells and their precursors involved in the genesis of these two vascular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774132

  7. Glycosaminoglycans in the rat aorta. Ultrastructural localization with toluidine blue O and osmium--ferrocyanide procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Coltoff-Schiller, B.; Goldfischer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sclerotic vascular disease. The localization of GAGs in the rat aorta was examined by two different ultrastructural cytochemical approaches. These procedures are believed to demonstrate 1) anionic sites, with fixatives that contain either toluidine blue or ruthenium red, both cationic dyes, and 2) polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, with an osmium--ferrocyanide mixture that binds to vicinal diols. Both procedures stain a network of insoluble, 2--8-nm filaments that bridge collagen fibers, elastin, basement membranes, and plasma membranes. These structures resist digestion with chondroitinase ABC and appear to be identical to the filaments that have previously been demonstrated with ruthenium red. Focal 6--12-nm densities are present where filaments intersect. However, the large granules that are made visible with ruthenium red are not seen in toluidine blue or osmium--ferrocyanide preparations. A soluble and relatively amorphous component surrounds the tightly packed bundles of collagen in the media and is preserved and stained by toluidine blue and osmium--ferrocyanide mixtures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6172040

  8. Elemental analysis of renal slices by proton-induced X-ray emission.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, T; Chen, Q; Fernando, Q; Keith, R; Gandolfi, A J

    1993-01-01

    We optimized proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for tissue analysis in a toxicity-disposition study. We used cultured rabbit renal slices as the biological system to demonstrate the use of PIXE analysis. The renal slices were exposed to HgCl2, CdCl2, K2Cr2O7, or NaAsO2 alone or in a mixture. The PIXE analysis provides information on concentrations of elements above atomic number 11, and it is the only analytical technique that can determine 20-30 elements nondestructively in a single, small sample (approximately 5 mg) with detection limits of 1-5 ppm (dry weight). The renal slices are thin targets that yield X-ray emission spectra with low backgrounds and high elemental sensitivities. The nondestructive nature of PIXE and the ability to simultaneously measure uptake of multiple metals and endogenous elements are unique to this methodology. Images p302-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 6. C Figure 6. D Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. C Figure 7. D p307-a PMID:8275986

  9. Aquatic-Based Rehabilitation and Training for the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Jill M.; Brody, Lori Thein

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the application of aquatic rehabilitative exercise to injuries of the upper extremity. Background: Water has been used for centuries as a medium for rehabilitation, relaxation, and training. Athletes use the pool to rehabilitate specific injuries, as a training medium during injury recovery, and as an alternative training site. The pool can be used to rehabilitate a number of upper extremity impairments, as well as to restore functional movement patterns in a resistive medium. Description: Exercises can be modified to be performed in pools of varying size and depth. Well-chosen equipment will enhance the rehabilitative opportunities for the clinician and patient. Clinical Advantages: All aspects of the rehabilitation program, including passive stretching, resistive exercise, functional movement patterns, and cardiovascular training, can take place in the same location. The water's warmth and buoyancy enhance stretching, while the buoyancy allows initiation of resistive exercise at a low level. The water's viscosity provides resistance throughout a movement pattern in any plane. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:16558651

  10. Demonstration of early ischemic injury in porcine right ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, F. G.; Schulte, B. A.; Crawford, F. A.

    1989-01-01

    Past studies of acute canine right ventricular (RV) ischemia have failed to demonstrate early irreversible injury or decreased function; however, the dog has extensive collateral circulation that may attenuate RV myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to measure RV function using contrast ventriculography and assess myocardial injury by immunohistochemical evaluation of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and tropomyosin (TROP) as well as by electron microscopy after right coronary occlusion in 14 closed-chest pigs. Significant depression in RV ejection fraction and stroke volume index after 10 minutes and was observed (P less than 0.05). CK, LDH, and TROP were positive in control tissue with a diminution of CK and LDH staining along the subendocardium after 15 minutes of ischemia. Irreversible ultrastructural injury in conjunction with large losses of CK and LDH became evident after 30 minutes. Thus, in the pig, which has a coronary anatomy similar to humans, significant RV dysfunction and irreversible myocardial injury can be demonstrated after 15 to 30 minutes of ischemia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2923187

  11. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  12. Detection of HLA-DR on microglia in the human brain is a function of both clinical and technical factors.

    PubMed Central

    Mattiace, L. A.; Davies, P.; Dickson, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Detection of HLA-DR, a class II major histocompatibility antigen, on glial cells is dependent not only on duration and type of tissue fixation and processing, but also on clinical factors. Glial cells labeled by anti-HLA-DR were consistent with microglia by light microscopic and ultrastructural criteria, and were colabeled with other microglial markers, including LN-1, Leu-M5, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). In young and elderly subjects who died suddenly, anti-HLA-DR labeled microglia in the white matter, but far fewer cells in the gray matter. In subjects who died of chronic debilitating illness, such as Alzheimer's disease and carcinomatosis, anti-HLA-DR labeled numerous microglia throughout both the gray and white matter. In Alzheimer's disease, microglia were aggregated in compact senile plaques, but loosely associated with diffuse amyloid deposits. These results suggest that HLA-DR may be constitutively expressed in white matter, but induced in gray matter microglia in chronic disease states or in association with amyloid deposits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1693471

  13. The mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH): a military and surgical legacy.

    PubMed Central

    King, Booker; Jatoi, Ismalil

    2005-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom was perhaps the last military campaign that will ever utilize the services of a mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH). The Army has now essentially replaced the MASH with combat surgical hospitals (CSH) and forward surgical teams (FST). MASH units were designed as mobile, flexible, forward-deployed military hospitals, providing care for the wounded near the frontlines of the battlefield. These hospitals not only saved thousands of lives during war but also greatly influenced the delivery of trauma and critical care in civilian hospitals. The MASH was made popular by the television series of the 1970s, depicting the 4077th during the Korean War. Although a comical series, these television episodes provided viewers with a glimpse of life in a MASH during time of war. This article chronicles the history of the MASH from its inception during World War II to recent experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 p656-a PMID:15926641

  14. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, T W

    2000-01-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854

  15. Growth factor expression during rat development: a comparison of TGF-beta 3, TGF-alpha, bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, P. B.; Quirke, P.; Sorensen, C. M.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L.; Bailey, L. L.; Knight, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    At least part of the mechanism underlying fetal development appears to be the production of a number of growth factors considered important in the process of tumour formation. Using immunocytochemistry, we have investigated the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of some of the important growth factors, by the fetus. We describe here the cellular localization of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta 3), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (PDGF-R), TGF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the fetal rat from day 13 to 21 of gestation. Using antisera raised against an N-terminal portion of TGF-beta 3, immunoreactivity peaked around day 16 and was seen predominantly within epithelial cells. However, using antisera raised against the C-terminal of this molecule immunoreactivity was seen exclusively within the extracellular matrix underlying adjacent epithelia, and was maintained up until day 21 of gestation. Strong expression of TGF-alpha was seen in cells of most organs throughout the gestation period studied. Immunoreactivity for bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R peaked around day 18 in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells of all major organ systems and then declined by day 21. These data suggest distinct roles for each factor during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471538

  16. A new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-3C, secretes parathyroid hormone-related protein and produces tumours associated with microcalcifications in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kurebayashi, J.; Kurosumi, M.; Sonoo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the main cause of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy (HHM). We recently established a new human breast cancer cell line, designated KPL-3C, from the malignant effusion of a breast cancer patient with HHM. Morphological, cytogenetic and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the cell line is derived from human breast cancer. The KPL-3C cells stably secrete immunoreactive PTHrP measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay, possess both oestrogen and progesterone receptors and are tumorigenic in female nude mice. The addition of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate to the medium significantly increased PTHrP secretion from the cells. In contrast, hydrocortisone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and 22-oxacalcitriol decreased PTHrP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, a number of microcalcifications were observed in the transplanted tumours. Radiographical examination indicated that the microcalcifications in the tumours are very similar to those commonly observed in human breast cancer. These findings suggest that this KPL-3C cell line may be useful for studying the regulatory mechanisms of PTHrP secretion and the mechanisms that lead to the deposition of microcalcifications in breast cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8688322

  17. Interstitial accumulation of inhaled chrysotile asbestos fibers and consequent formation of microcalcifications.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, A. R.; Hill, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that inhaled chrysotile asbestos impacts initially at the bifurcations of alveolar ducts in the lungs of rats. Asbestos fibers are transported through alveolar epithelial cells at these bifurcation regions to the interstitium during the 24-hour period after a 1-hour exposure. To further these studies, white rats were exposed to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos for 1 hour. Animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion immediately after and 1 month after exposure. Blocks of tissue were prepared for light and electron microscopy. We report here, at 1 month after exposure, that numerous asbestos fibers had accumulated within the lung interstitium at alveolar duct bifurcations. Many of these interstitial fibers were found in te center of intracellular microcalcifications. The presence of calcifications was proven by X-ray energy spectrometric analysis of the inclusions in situ. Clear X-ray peaks for calcium and phosphorus were demonstrated. The authors propose that 1 month after a 1-hour exposure to chrysotile asbestos, fiber-induced membrane injury in cells of the lung interstitium leads to formation of microcalcifications. This may represent the presence of early cell injury in the initial pathogenetic sequence of asbestosis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7124904

  18. Endoluminal stenting of obstructed colorectal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, P.; Soonawalla, Z.; Sathananthan, N.; MacFarlane, P.; Parker, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    A series of patients were selected to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a new self expanding metallic endoprosthesis in the management of left-sided colonic obstruction. The aim was to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the surgical management of patients with distal colonic obstruction. Six patients with complete sigmoid colon obstruction were managed with the Wallstent Enteral Endoprosthesis [Schneider (USA) Inc.]. Four underwent subsequent elective colonic resection, while two were placed for palliation. Stent placement was successful in all cases with resulting bowel decompression and there were no procedural complications. All four patients with resectable tumours avoided emergency surgery. Stenting allowed time for medical improvement and staging investigations in this group. Two patients with advanced metastatic colonic carcinoma were successfully palliated. We found the Wallstent Enteral Endoprosthesis to be safe and effective in relieving obstruction in patients with resectable colonic tumours, permitting elective surgery and avoiding a temporary stoma. It can also be used to palliate those patients with advanced disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10615192

  19. Detection of disease at the carotid bifurcation using ultrasound including an imaging system1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R R; Beasley, M G; Gosling, R G

    1980-01-01

    A two-stage approach is described for the detection of occlusive arterial disease at the carotid bifurcation using continuous wave Doppler-shift ultrasound with spectral analysis of backscattered signals from erythrocytes. The first stage involves analysis of Doppler-shift signals from the supraorbital and common carotid arteries. Abnormal signals from these arteries are frequently caused by the presence of atheroma at the carotid bifurcation and are used to indicate the necessity for imaging the bifurcation. This latter technique produces a physiological image of the arteries, as it depends on detecting erythrocyte velocities beneath a transducer which is guided over the surface of the neck. The investigation has advantages over arteriography in that it is noninvasive, has no attendant risk and may be repeated as often as required. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the results have been compared with x-ray findings in patients undergoing carotid arteriography. In 20 comparisons there were no false positives and one false negative in which the arteriogram showed a small lesion. These results indicate that the two noninvasive methods may be used in sequence to demonstrate operable disease around the carotid junction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7230199

  20. Management of Rotator Cuff and Impingement Injuries in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644

  1. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Medori, R; Tritschler, H J

    1993-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp)-->AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. We confirmed the 178Asn mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178Asn reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129Met/Val. Moreover, of five 178Asn individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129Met and three have 129Met/Val, suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178Asn mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8105681

  2. Induction of humoral immunity and pulmonary mast cells in mice and rats after immunization with aerosolized antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, S; Björkstén, B; Nygren, H; Smedegård, G

    1983-01-01

    Rats (BN X Wistar) and mice (CBA/Ca) were immunized by exposure in 10-day periods to an aerosol of ovalbumin (OA). In rats this immunization resulted in IgE antibodies detectable at very low levels in bronchial washings, whereas IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were recorded both in serum and in bronchial washings. In mice, exposure to aerosolized antigen resulted in specific IgE and IgG antibodies in serum. The levels of IgM antibodies were low and no IgA antibodies could be recorded with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histological examination of lung tissue from immunized rats and mice revealed increased numbers of cells with characteristics of both immature and mature mast cells. In addition, in the rats these cells were more closely located to the bronchi in immunized than in control animals. In the latter animals the mast cells were located around the blood vessels. Immature mast cells were located in the bronchiole-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT) which showed a marked proliferation in immunized animals. The findings indicate that sensitization via the airways provides possibilities to develop a model in rodents for studies of IgE-mediated allergy in the lung. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6822403

  3. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  4. Kinetic characteristics of Escherichia coli RNase H1: cleavage of various antisense oligonucleotide-RNA duplexes.

    PubMed Central

    Crooke, S T; Lemonidis, K M; Neilson, L; Griffey, R; Lesnik, E A; Monia, B P

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of variations in substrates on the kinetic properties of Escherichia coli RNase H were studied using antisense oligonucleotides of various types hybridized to complementary oligoribonucleotides. The enzyme displayed minimal sequence preference, initiated cleavage through an endonucleolytic mechanism near the 3' terminus of the RNA in a DNA-RNA chimera and then was processively exonucleolytic. Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides hybridized to RNA supported cleavage more effectively than phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides. Oligonucleotides comprised of 2'-methoxy-, 2'-fluoro- or 2'-propoxy-nucleosides did not support RNase H1 activity. 2. The Km and Vmax. of cleavage of RNA duplexes with full phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides were compared with methoxy-deoxy 'gapmers', i.e.; oligonucleotides with 2'-methoxy wings surrounding a deoxynucleotide centre. Such structural modifications resulted in substantial increases in affinity, but significant reductions in cleavage efficiency. The initial rates of cleavage increased as the deoxynucleotide gap size was increased. Multiple deoxynucleotide gaps increased the Vmax. but had little effect on Km. 3. The effects of several base modifications on the site of initial cleavage, processivity and initial rate of cleavage were also studied. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8526876

  5. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  6. Perturbation of podocyte plasma membrane domains in experimental nephrosis. A lectin-binding and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed Central

    Orci, L.; Kunz, A.; Amherdt, M.; Brown, D.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in the ultrastructural organization of podocyte plasma membrane domains were quantitatively assessed in puromycin aminonucleoside-treated rats by the use of 1) Helix pomatia lectin-gold complexes for detection of a specific glycocalyx component(s) normally associated with foot process bases and 2) freeze-fracture for detection of intramembrane particles and endocytotic invaginations on the plasma membrane. Lectin-binding sites were significantly reduced on podocyte foot process bases during the 7-day treatment period; and in freeze-fracture, the plasma membrane of the foot process base showed an increase in intramembrane particle number and size and an increased number of endocytotic invaginations, compared with the numbers in control animals. The cell body of nephrotic animals also had a significantly increased intramembrane particle density, compared with the control animals. These results provide direct evidence that the normal structure of specific plasma membrane regions is perturbed in podocytes that have lost their characteristic array of foot processes and support a role for these domains in the maintenance of normal podocyte architecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p293-a Figure 7 PMID:6496656

  7. Fibroblast-dependent induction of a murine skin lesion with similarity to human common blue nevus.

    PubMed Central

    Prouty, S. M.; Lawrence, L.; Stenn, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to define epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in skin appendage formation, we have been studying a nude mouse grafting model that permits the combination of heterotypic and heterochronic epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this study using neonatal hair bud cells combined with various mesenchymal cell preparations, we show that one can regenerate near-complete skin with intact epidermal and dermal layers plus mature hair follicles. It was determined that the character of the resulting regenerated skin could be manipulated as a function of the specific mesenchymal component. Lack of dermal cells resulted in a scar, whereas inclusion of a suspension of dissociated total dermal cells resulted in near-complete skin regeneration, and in the presence of follicular papilla fibroblasts (both hair-inductive and non-hair-inductive) or NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the reconstitution had similarity to the common blue nevus. The results indicate that 1) a stimulant of human common blue nevus can be produced in an animal model, 2) the underlying disorder of the lesion in mice appears to be entirely dermal in origin, arising independent of the epidermal component, and 3) complex dermal cell interactions involving lesion-initiative and lesion-suppressive activities underlie the pathogenesis. This experimental system will serve as a valuable tool in elucidating cutaneous dermal-epidermal signals in normal skin as well as the alteration of these signals in malformations such as the hamartoma described here. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8669473

  8. The embryonic RNA helicase gene (ERH): a new member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Putt, W; Morrison, K; Beddington, R; Edwards, Y

    1995-01-01

    DEAD box proteins share several highly conserved motifs including the characteristic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (D-E-A-D in the amino acid single-letter code) motif and have established or putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. These proteins are implicated in a range of cellular processes that involve regulation of RNA function, including translation initiation, RNA splicing and ribosome assembly. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of an embryonic RNA helicase gene, ERH, which maps to mouse chromosome 1 and encodes a new member of the DEAD box family of proteins. The predicted ERH protein shows high sequence similarity to the testes-specific mouse PL10 and to the maternally acting Xenopus An3 helicase proteins. The ERH expression profile is similar, to that of An3, which localizes to the animal hemisphere of oocytes and is abundantly expressed in the embryo. ERH is expressed in oocytes and is a ubiquitous mRNA in the 9 days-post-conception embryo, and at later stages of development shows a more restricted pattern of expression in brain and kidney. The similarities in sequence and in expression profile suggest that ERH is the murine equivalent of the Xenopus An3 gene, and we propose that ERH plays a role in translational activation of mRNA in the oocyte and early embryo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8948440

  9. Dysregulation of carcinoembryonic antigen group members CGM2, CD66a (biliary glycoprotein), and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen in colorectal carcinomas. Comparative analysis by northern blot and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Nollau, P.; Prall, F.; Helmchen, U.; Wagener, C.; Neumaier, M.

    1997-01-01

    Genes coding for CD66a (biliary glycoprotein), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) group member 2 (CGM2), and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) are members of the human CEA gene subgroup. We investigated a series of 11 colorectal carcinomas by Northern blot and isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH), demonstrating underexpression of CD66a and CGM2 in the majority of the carcinomas as compared with the normal mucosa, whereas NCA was overexpressed. ISH for CD66a and CGM2 mRNA revealed that large areas of the carcinomas remained without or with only faint hybridization signals. However, in every carcinoma, at least some positive foci were observed, indicating remaining cell populations that actively transcribe CD66a and CGM2. In contrast, ISH for NCA displayed strong and extensive autoradiographic signals. By analysis of step sections, foci of CD66a and CGM2 expression were shown to co-localize. Furthermore, these foci contained relatively few nuclei immunohistochemically positive for the proliferation-associated nuclear antigen Ki-67. Our data indicate a dysregulation of the three genes possibly with a common transcriptional control for CD66a and CGM2 and a different control for NCA. The focal expression of CD66a and CGM2 could be interpreted as due to a focal, incomplete, and abortive differentiation or, alternatively, as a consequence of genetic heterogeneity with foci of slow-proliferating subclones. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9250164

  10. Equine glaucoma: a retrospective study of 13 cases presented at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1992 to 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, C L; Grahn, B H

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of equine glaucoma seen by the ophthalmology service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) was 6.5%. The majority of cases (11/13) were associated with clinical manifestations of uveitis. Congenital glaucoma was documented in 1 case, and primary glaucoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old quarter horse. There were no breed or sex predilections evident. Affected horses were middle-aged to old (average age = 9.5 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 23 years). The clinical manifestations of equine glaucoma included blindness, diffuse corneal edema, corneal vascularization, buphthalmia, corneal striae, recurrent secondary ulcerative keratitis, and less commonly, iris bombé, tapetal hyper-reflectivity, complete pupillary occlusion from posterior synechiae, and optic disc cupping. Elevated intraocular pressure confirmed the diagnosis (n = 10), while 3 cases were normotensive with signs of glaucoma including corneal striae and buphthalmia. Affected eyes were treated medically and/or surgically. Regardless of the therapy instituted, the visual outcome was poor. Most affected eyes were blind at presentation or became blind within a few weeks. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5a. PMID:10857031

  11. Characterisation of inorganic microparticles in pigment cells of human gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Ainley, C C; Harvey, R S; Mason, I M; Kendall, M D; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Thompson, R P

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages at the base of human gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), become loaded early in life with dark granular pigment that is rich in aluminium, silicon, and titanium. The molecular characteristics, intracellular distribution, and source of this pigment is described. Laser scanning and electron microscopy showed that pigmented macrophages were often closely related to collagen fibres and plasma cells in GALT of both small and large intestine and contained numerous phagolysosomes, previously described as granules, that are rich in electron dense submicron sized particles. Morphological assessment, x ray microanalysis, and image electron energy loss spectroscopy showed three distinct types of microparticle: type I - spheres of titanium dioxide, 100-200 nm diameter, characterised as the synthetic food-additive polymorph anatase; type II - aluminosilicates, < 100-400 nm in length, generally of flaky appearance, often with adsorbed surface iron, and mostly characteristic of the natural clay mineral kaolinite; and type III - mixed environmental silicates without aluminium, 100-700 nm in length and of variable morphology. Thus, this cellular pigment that is partly derived from food additives and partly from the environment is composed of inert inorganic microparticles and loaded into phagolysosomes of macrophages within the GALT of all human subjects. These observations suggest that the pathogenicity of this pigment should be further investigated since, in susceptible individuals, the same intracellular distribution of these three types of submicron particle causes chronic latent granulomatous inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8675092

  12. Modulation of the expression of integrins on glial cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A central role for TNF-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Previtali, S. C.; Archelos, J. J.; Hartung, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins comprise a group of adhesion receptors involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Evidence is accumulating that integrins expressed on mononuclear cells play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. The effects of integrins on glial cell behavior, myelination, and angiogenesis suggest that they may also have a role in resolving inflammation in the nervous system and in promoting tissue repair. We investigated the temporospatial expression of integrins in the rat central nervous system during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. A higher expression of alpha v- and beta 4-integrin subunits in astrocytes and alpha 2 integrin in oligodendrocytes was observed in active lesions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, in comparison with controls. Proinflammatory cytokines, primarily TNF-alpha, also enhanced alpha v, beta 4, and alpha 2 expression in purified glial cells ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of some integrin subunits was modulated in the cerebral vasculature during inflammation. Our results suggest an active role for glial and vascular integrins in the regulation of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, opening an avenue for new potential immunotherapies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 9 PMID:9358769

  13. Ultrastructural observations on experimentally produced melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, J. S.; Klintworth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    Melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium was induced in pigmented guinea pigs by the topical application of colchicine to their eyes or by corneal cauterization with silver nitrate. With colchicine the pigmentation was preceded by the development of an abnormal corneal epithelium in which numerous cells became arrested in cell division. The corneal melanosis resulted largely from the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium from the normally pigmented contiguous conjunctiva and to a lesser extent from the presence of melanin granules within corneal epithelial cells. In both models a leukocytic and vascular invasion of the cornea proceded and accompanied the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium. Electron microscopy disclosed cells with the same morphology as conjunctival melanocytes between the epithelial cells of the cornea. Mature melanin granules were also present within some squamous epithelial cells as individual granules or as clusters. The ultrastructural findings are viewed in relation to how melanin granules are transferred from melanocytes to epithelial cells. Evidence is presented which suggests that malanin granule transfer may follow the fusion of the membranes of the melanocytes and epithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:970438

  14. Pulsed laser imaging of rapid Ca2+ gradients in excitable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Monck, J R; Robinson, I M; Escobar, A L; Vergara, J L; Fernandez, J M

    1994-01-01

    Excitable cells are thought to respond to action potentials by forming short lived and highly localized Ca2+ gradients near sites of Ca2+ entry or near the site of Ca2+ release by intracellular stores. However, conventional imaging techniques lack the spatial and temporal resolution to capture these gradients. Here we demonstrate the use of pulsed-laser microscopy to measure Ca2+ gradients with submicron spatial resolution and millisecond time resolution in two preparations where the Ca2+ signal is thought to be fast and highly localized: adrenal chromaffin cells, where the entry of Ca2+ through voltage dependent Ca2+ channels triggers exocytotic fusion; and skeletal muscle fibers, where intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiates contraction. In chromaffin cells, Ca2+ gradients developed over 10-100 ms and were initially restricted to discrete submembrane domains, or hot spots, before developing into complete rings of elevated Ca2+ concentration. In frog skeletal muscle large, short-lived (approximately 6 ms) Ca2+ gradients were observed within individual sarcomeres following induction of action potentials. The pulsed laser imaging approach permits, for the first time, the capture and critical examination of rapid Ca2+ signaling events such as those underlying excitation-secretion and excitation-contraction coupling. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7948669

  15. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  16. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  17. ARF-B2: A Protein Complex that Specifically Binds to Part of the Anaerobic Response Element of Maize Adh 11

    PubMed Central

    Ferl, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Crude whole cell extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) suspension cells were examined for DNA binding proteins that specifically interact with a portion of the maize Adh 1 promoter that was previously shown to be in contact with a trans-acting factor in vivo. A 17 base pair, double-stranded oligonucleotide probe was constructed that centered around a strong in vivo dimethylsulfate footprint (B2) that coincides with part of the anaerobic response element (ARE). Gel retardation assays were used to characterize a major, specific DNA binding protein activity found in the crude extracts. The activity is present in both aerobic and hypoxically treated cultures and has been designated ARF-B2 (ARE binding factor). ARF-B2 appears to be a multicomponent complex, with a 54 kilodalton subunit termed ARF-B2α in primary contact with the target DNA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667563

  18. Characterization of quail intestinal mucin as a ligand for endogenous quail lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, R; Mantle, M; Ceri, H

    1993-01-01

    The S-type lectins have been shown to be components of mucosal scrapings, and in avian systems these lectins have been localized immunohistochemically to the mucosal surface and goblet cells of the intestine. The interaction of lectin specifically with purified mucin has not, however, been established. Quail intestinal mucin was purified by two subsequent isopycnic density-gradient centrifugations in CsCl and chromatography on Sepharose Cl-2B. Purified mucin, obtained from the void volume of the Sepharose column, was characterized by SDS/PAGE, amino acid and carbohydrate analyses, sensitivity to thiol reduction, and cross-reactivity with antibody preparations to rat and human intestinal mucins on Western blots. Antibody raised against purified quail mucin partially cross-reacts with purified rat, rabbit and human intestinal mucins, and specifically labels the mucosal surface and goblet cells of quail intestine by the immunoperoxidase technique. Protein eluted by lactose from an affinity matrix composed of quail intestinal mucin possessed the same molecular mass on SDS/PAGE as intestinal lectin and reacted on Western blots with a lectin-specific antibody. The data clearly demonstrate the co-localization of lectin and mucin in the quail intestine and also the ability of the lectin to specifically interact with the purified mucin, raising the question of the role of endogenous lectins in secretions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8352754

  19. Monoclonal antibodies (MT1, MT2, MB1, MB2, MB3) reactive with leukocyte subsets in paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Poppema, S.; Hollema, H.; Visser, L.; Vos, H.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of reactivity on routinely prepared tissue sections has hampered the use of monoclonal antileukocyte antibodies in diagnostic histopathology. Here we describe five new antibodies reactive with leukocyte subsets in formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Antibody MT1 is reactive with mature and immature T cells and not with mature B cells. MT2 is reactive with mature T cells and B cells, but not with immature T cells, activated T cells, and germinal center B cells. Antibody MB1 is reactive with all B cells, with about 50% of mature T cells, and not with immature T cells. MB2 is reactive with all B cells and not with T cells. However, MB2 also stains endothelial cells and several types of epithelial cells. MB3 is reactive with B cells and histiocytes, but not with T cells. The antibodies were tested on a series of lymphomas that were also immunophenotyped with a panel of well-established reagents on frozen tissue sections. The results indicate that the MB and MT antibodies are useful tools in the study of reactive and neoplastic disorders of the lymphoid system. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3296769

  20. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, C. J.; Simon, M. A.; Bergsagel, D. J.; Pauley, D. R.; King, N. W.; Garcea, R. L.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) disease was diagnosed in four rhesus monkeys that died with SIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One juvenile monkey seroconverted for SV40 6 months after inoculation with SIV and developed severe bilateral tubulointerstitial nephritis. In contrast, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in two adult monkeys that were seropositive for SV40 before SIV inoculation, as well as a third adult that was naturally infected with SIV and seropositive for SV40 5 years before death. Large intranuclear inclusions containing abundant polyomavirus particles were limited to either renal tubular epithelial cells or oligodendrocytes. In situ DNA hybridization for SV40 large T antigen further demonstrated that SV40 nucleic acid was localized to either kidney or brain tissue. By immunohistochemical analysis, areas of central nervous system inflammation and demyelination were shown to contain CD68+ macrophages (gitter cells), aggregates of CD8+ T lymphocytes, and numerous gemistocytic astrocytes that labeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These observations indicate that rhesus monkeys with SIV-induced AIDS are predisposed to polyomaviral disease, in which SV40 nucleic acid is observed in renal tissue in primary infections and brain tissue after viral reactivation. Furthermore, this organ-specific replication suggests that tissue-tropic strains of SV40 may develop in immunodeficient monkeys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1376560

  1. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the kinetic chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed kinetic chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: Kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the kinetic link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed kinetic chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed kinetic chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent kinetic link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646

  2. The isolation and culture of DHBV-infected embryo and duckling hepatocytes and the effect of aflatoxin B1 or irradiation on these cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olubuyide, I. O.; Judah, D. J.; Riley, J.; Neal, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of primary cultures of control and DHBV-infected duck hepatocytes from embryos and young ducklings is described. Cultures of both embryo and duckling hepatocytes secreted duck serum proteins. Cultures of hepatocytes established from ducklings maintained initial morphology for up to 3 weeks in culture and also exhibited high levels of metabolism of aflatoxin B1. Embryonic cell cultures rapidly lost ability to metabolise AFB1 and became overgrown by spindle-shaped cells. Both embryo and duckling cell cultures secreted infective DHBV, and had intracellular replicative forms of the virus. No integration of the virus into the duck genome was observed, and attempts to induce viral integration in the duckling hepatocytes using irradiation and aflatoxin B1 toxicity were unsuccessful. The results of the study lend further support to the suggestion that the rarity of liver cancer in DHBV-infected experimental ducks is related to an innate resistance of the hepatocytes to develop DHBV-DNA integration. Another possibility may be related to the lower oncogenic potential of the DHBV strain used for the study. However DHBV infected duckling hepatocytes would appear to offer a suitable material for studying viral replication and mechanisms of aflatoxin B1 toxicity during prolonged cell culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1900699

  3. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  4. Glomerular lesions in HIV-infected patients: a Yale University Department of Medicine Residency Peer-Teaching Conference.

    PubMed Central

    Wrone, E. M.; Carey, H.; Reilly, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by heavy proteinuria, absence of edema and an irreversible decline in renal function. Findings on renal biopsy include: collapsed glomerular capillaries; visceral glomerular epitheliosis; microcystic tubules; mesangial prominence; and endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions. Early in the AIDS epidemic, HIVAN was the predominant glomerular lesion observed in HIV-infected patients. It is being increasingly recognized, especially in Caucasian populations, that a variety of immune complex-mediated lesions such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, proliferative glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy are associated with HIV infection. In this review we present two cases: one patient whose first presentation of AIDS was end-stage renal disease, who on biopsy was found to have HIVAN, and the second, who was infected with HIV, and on biopsy was found to have hepatitis C-related hepatitis C related membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. We also review the current literature on HIVAN and HIV-associated immune complex diseases (HIVICDs). Each case illustrates an important clinical point. The first that renal disease can be the first manifestation of HIV infection and the second that HIV-infected patients may develop immune complex related renal diseases, some of which may be potentially treatable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9493848

  5. Comparison between interstitial laser thermotherapy and excision of an adenocarcinoma transplanted into rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, P. H.; Ivarsson, K.; Stenram, U.; Radnell, M.; Tranberg, K. G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare interstitial laser thermotherapy with excision of a liver tumour. A dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma was transplanted (implanted if not stated otherwise) into the left lateral lobe of the rat liver, and treatment was performed 8 days later. In the main experiment, rats were treated with resection of the tumour-bearing lobe or underwent interstitial laser thermotherapy, which was performed at a steady-state temperature of 46 degrees C for 30 min, 3 mm from the tumour margin. The incidence and extent of intraperitoneal spread was smaller after laser thermotherapy than after resection of the tumour-bearing lobe, with no difference in local control. Metastatic spread after resection of the median liver lobe was similar to that observed after sham procedures for thermotherapy or resection, suggesting that the advantage of thermotherapy was not due to a difference in surgical trauma. Additional studies showed that laser thermotherapy reduced intraperitoneal spread when treatment was suboptimal or in a tumour inoculation model and suggested that immunological mechanisms might be involved. It is concluded that interstitial laser thermotherapy reduces spread of liver tumour compared with resection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9667664

  6. Assesssment of the effect of pretreatment with neoadjuvant therapy on primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gazet, J. C.; Coombes, R. C.; Ford, H. T.; Griffin, M.; Corbishley, C.; Makinde, V.; Lowndes, S.; Quilliam, J.; Sutcliffe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with invasive cancer of the breast (T1-4, N0-2, M0) were assigned to pretreatment based on oestrogen receptor (ER) status; patients with ER-negative tumours received chemotherapy [mitozantrone, methotrexate and mitomycin C (MMM)] for 3 months, patients with ER-positive tumours underwent endocrine therapy [luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist goserelin (leuprolide-premenopausal) or 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (formestane-post-menopausal)] for 3 months. Of the first 100 patients assessed at 3 months, 47 with ER-positive tumours had a 40.4% response (premenopausal 53.8%; post-menopausal 35%) and 53 with ER-negative tumours had a 60% response (premenopausal 57%; post-menopausal 63%). Patients with early breast cancer (T1/T2) had a complete clinical resolution in 41% (16/39) of cases after MMM and in 20% (7/35) of cases following endocrine therapy compared with 14% (2/14) advanced tumours (T3/T4) following MMM and (0/12) following endocrine therapy. However, in those patients achieving a complete clinical response, subsequent appropriate surgery showed that 16 of 19 patients (84%) had evidence of residual viable tumour on histological examination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8611376

  7. The role of astrocytes in the formation of cartilage in gliomas. An immunohistochemical study of four cases.

    PubMed Central

    Kepes, J. J.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Chiang, H.

    1984-01-01

    The occasional presence of focal cartilage in gliomas is generally attributed to metaplasia of the mesenchymal supportive elements. While this mechanism undoubtedly exists, the present report describes a different mode of development of cartilage in four gliomas occurring in young individuals. Two of the tumors were pontine astrocytomas, one was a mixed ependymoma and astrocytoma involving the fourth ventricle and the brainstem, and one was an extraspinal malignant astrocytoma in the lumbar region of a young boy who earlier had been diagnosed as having a pontine glioma for which he received radiation treatment. In all four tumors, transitions from astrocytic to cartilaginous elements were seen, characterized by an increasing deposition of chondroid ground substance between the astrocytes and a gradual morphologic changes of the glial cells to more rounded forms with a vacuolated cytoplasm, indistinguishable from chondrocytes of mesenchymal origin. Many of these cells retained positive staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein by the immunoperoxidase method, attesting to their astrocytic nature. The production of cartilage by neoplastic astrocytes may be related to their ability to secrete, in certain circumstances and occasionally in large amounts, basement membrane material and other forms of mucopolysaccharides, which may become condensed to form a chondroid ground substance. The process appears analogous to that of cartilage formation by epithelial cells in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. Images Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6391192

  8. Neonatal Cardiac Distress—A Practical Approach to Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Cayler, Glen G.

    1968-01-01

    The death rate among neonates with cardiovascular disease is 50 percent during the first six months, with the majority dying during the first month. With early diagnosis most of these babies could be saved. In approaching the diagnosis of cardiac distress in the newborn, it is important to remember that the types of cardiovascular disease which cause symptoms and death early in life are quite different from those in older children. Lesions such as hypoplasia of the left heart, transposition of the great arteries, endocardial fibroelastosis, pulmonary atresia, mitral atresia, tricuspid atresia and truncus arteriosus are common, not rare, causes of cardiac distress in the newborn. A classification of neonatal cardiovascular diseases into seven pathophysiological groups is presented as a basis for an effective, practical approach to the differential diagnosis of the potentially lethal lesions. This approach is simplified further since over 90 percent of babies with cardiac distress have one of three lesions: (1) Large left-to-right shunt (characterized by the presence of massive plethora on the chest roentgenogram), (2) Large right-to-left shunt (association with intense cyanosis) or (3) Severe obstruction (including hypoplasia of the left heart, which is the most common cause of death due to cardiac distress during the first week of life). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4867629

  9. Role of computed tomography in the evaluation of suspected sacroiliac joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fewins, H E; Whitehouse, G H; Bucknall, R C

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was compared with plain radiography in 41 examinations of selected patients with a clinical history suggestive of sacroiliac joint disease. The obliquity of the sacroiliac joints renders radiographic interpretation difficult. In the 41 cases who were examined with standard anteroposterior and posteroanterior radiographs of the sacroiliac joints, four were normal, eight abnormal and 29 were equivocal. Equivocal findings included indistinct and possibly irregular articular margins to the joints and subarticular sclerosis. Of the 29 equivocal studies, nine were normal on CT and 20 were abnormal. CT demonstrated definite changes of sacroiliac joint disease in 29 of the 41 examinations, 16 of which were sacroiliitis and 13 osteoarthritis. With plain radiography four of the eight abnormal studies were consistent with sacroiliitis, and four with osteoarthritis. It is concluded that CT is more sensitive than plain radiography in the evaluation of sacroiliac joint disease, and is especially valuable when there are equivocal plain radiographs. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:2395146

  10. Squamous carcinomas of the head and neck: some patterns of spread1

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R L; Pittam, M R

    1980-01-01

    Patterns of tumour spread are examined in 160 patients with squamous carcinomas of the head and neck with reference to perineural infiltration, direct invasion of bone and ossified cartilage, and lymph node metastases in the previously irradiated neck. Perineural spread is comparatively common in large (T3, T4) tumours; it may be apparent early in the disease; it is often detectable clinically; and it is an adverse prognostic feature which may modify clinical management. Direct bone invasion is described with particular reference to tumours of the oral cavity. Most bone destruction is mediated by osteoclasts which appear to be stimulated by materials such as prostaglandins released in the vicinity of the tumour. The numbers of involved lymph nodes in surgical dissections from the irradiated neck are usually few and restricted to the submandibular and jugular groups; nodes in the posterior triangle are infrequently involved by metastatic carcinoma. Transcapsular spread and keratin granulomas are common. The scope of modified neck dissections in this group of patients is discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:7230216

  11. Expression of perforin in nasal lymphoma. Additional evidence of its natural killer cell derivation.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, N.; Yatabe, Y.; Oka, K.; Kinoshita, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, T.; Asai, J.

    1996-01-01

    Eight patients with nasal lymphoma in whom fresh-frozen tissues were available were studied to elucidate the nature of the lymphoma cells. Two cases were diagnosed as diffuse, large cell lymphoma, and the remaining six cases as diffuse, mixed cell types. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that all of the cases were positive for perforin, which is a specific marker for cytotoxic T or natural killer (NK) cells. As all of the cases were CD8 negative, the perforin-positive finding further confirmed the concept that nasal lymphoma is a distinct neoplastic entity derived from NK or NK-related cells. Light microscopic immunohistochemical studies revealed that these nasal lymphoma cases could be classified into Leu19(CD56)+Leu4(CD3)+ (two cases) and Leu19(CD56)+Leu4(CD3)- (six cases) types according to the phenotypes of the proliferating cells. However, simultaneous staining for perforin and Leu4 (CD3) using immunoelectron microscopy on the Leu19+Leu4+ cases showed that the perforin-positive cells were different from the Leu4-positive cells. This finding suggests that the Leu4-positive cells are not neoplastic NK cells but reactive T cells. Six cases were positive for EBER-1 by in situ hybridization analysis. This finding reconfirms the previous studies that Epstein-Barr virus plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of nasal lymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8702007

  12. c-myc protooncogene expression in mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells are erythroid progenitors whose programs of erythroid differentiation has been interrupted by transformation with the Friend virus complex. As a result of the ability of certain chemicals such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to induce terminal erythroid differentiation, the cells have been used as a model for understanding the molecular basis of cellular differentiation. Recent work on MEL cells as well as other differentiating systems indicates that expression of cellular protooncogenes is implicated in chemically mediated differentiation. In MEL cells the expression of the c-myc protooncogene undergoes unusual biphasic changes following inducer treatment. Levels of c-myc mRNA decrease 10- to 20-fold between 1 and 2 hr and are then reexpressed between 12 and 24 hr. These changes occur as a result of complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory events. Recent DNA transfection experiments, in which MEL cells were transfected with myc expression vectors, indicate that both the early decrease in c-myc expression and its subsequent reexpression are important events in the differentiation pathway. The work on MEL cells, as well as on other models of differentiation, is directed at understanding the molecular basis of leukemogenic transformation and cellular differentiation. The ability of c-myc, as well as other protooncogenes, to influence both of these events indicates that cellular protooncogenes play a central role in their regulation. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:2647476

  13. Vascular smooth muscle cells from injured rat aortas display elevated matrix production associated with transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Wolf, Y. G.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1995-01-01

    The arterial response to injury is characterized by a short period of increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, followed by an extended period of extracellular matrix accumulation in the intima. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated as a causative factor in the formation of extracellular matrix in this process, which leads to progressive thickening of the intima, known as intimal hyperplasia. In vitro analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells harvested from normal rat aortas and from aortas injured 14 days earlier showed that both types of cells attached equally well to culture dishes but that the initial spreading of the cells was increased in cells derived from injured vessels. Cells from the injured arteries produced more fibronectin and proteoglycans into the culture medium than the cells from normal arteries and contained more TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 increased proteoglycan synthesis by normal smooth muscle cells, and the presence of a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody reduced proteoglycan synthesis by the cells from injured arteries in culture. Fibronectin synthesis was not altered by these treatments. These results indicate that the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in neointimal lesions is at least partially caused by autocrine TGF-beta activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7573349

  14. The image and advocacy of public health in American caricature and cartoons from 1860 to 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637

  15. Pathology of chronic Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Mcleod, C. G.; Stookey, J. L.; Eddy, G. A.; Scott, K.

    1976-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF) are described in 10 rhesus monkeys that survived from 30 to 78 days after subcutaneous inoculation with a dose of 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of Machupo virus, a dose which produces a severe and generally fatal disease. Six of the monkeys had been given low doses of homologous immune globulin when initial signs of infection appeared. Monkeys exhibited clinical signs in two phases. The initial signs of acute infection which began to appear about 1 week following inoculation included: diarrhea, depression, anorexia, dehydration, and skin rash. The survivors of this early phase of the illness usually showed improvement before relapsing into the second (or chronic) phase, which was characterized clinically by central nervous system disturbances including incoordination, tremors, convulsions, paresis, and muscle atrophy. Microscopic lesions were similar in both immune globulin-treated and untreated animals. These included widespread lymphoreticular infiltrates in the walls and adventitia of blood vessels of the brain, spinal cord, pancreas, intestine, liver kidney, adrenal, parathyroid, heart, and skeletal muscle. Diffuse lymphocytic infiltrates not confined to the vascular or perivascular tissues were present to a variable degree in many of these and other organs. Several monkeys exhibited lymphocytic inflammation of the choroid, meninges, peripheral nerves, and ganglia. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:181994

  16. Time and the general practitioner: the patient's view

    PubMed Central

    Hull, F. M.; Hull, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with the amount of time general practitioners allow them has been questioned. This paper reports the analysis of a questionnaire answered by 1,112 patients in 25 practices in Britain. The questionnaire explored the patients' assessment of the appropriateness of the length of the consultation and their ability to communicate their problem to the doctor. While most patients (91 per cent) felt that the consultation was long enough, there were a number of patients who were dissatisfied with the length of the consultation and their ability to communicate their problem to the doctor; dissatisfaction increased with shorter booked appointment times, with younger patients, when fewer previous visits to the doctor had been made and when the psychological component of the case was greater. It is particularly disturbing that more than 50 per cent of women between the ages of 15 and 44 years experienced difficulty in telling the doctor about their problem. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:6471020

  17. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Analysis of mRNAs Having Altered Expression in Tips of Harvested Asparagus Spears 1

    PubMed Central

    King, Graeme A.; Davies, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in mRNA activity in tips of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) held in light or dark for up to 48 h at 20°C were investigated as an initial step in elucidating the genetic response of asparagus spears to harvest. Total RNA was isolated from 30-mm tips of spears 180 mm in length at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after spear harvest and translated in vitro, and translation products were separated using both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We detected 25 consistent changes in translatable mRNAs, involving both increase and decrease in mRNA abundance. The majority of the changes occurred within 12 h of harvest. Most of the changes were not light regulated. cDNA libraries were constructed from polyadenylated mRNA extracted from tips of spears at harvest (0 h) and after 12 h in the dark at 20°C. Differential hybridization screening of the cDNA libraries isolated nine cDNA clones whose corresponding transcripts had altered expression after harvest. Investigations of mRNA activity during spear development demonstrated that the changes detected were harvest related. Possible roles for the mRNAs corresponding to the isolated clones in tips of harvested spears are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16653182

  18. Smooth-muscle mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase: purification and characterization, and the phosphorylation of caldesmon.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, T J; Mak, A S

    1993-01-01

    A single 42 kDa isoform of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is expressed in both embryonic and adult chicken gizzard. The gizzard MAP kinase, which cross-reacts with anti-p44mpk antibody, has been purified from adult chicken gizzard and partially characterized. The purification protocol employs phenyl-Sepharose, polylysine-agarose, hydroxyapatite, Mono-Q and phenyl-Superose column chromatography. The purified enzyme phosphorylates myelin basic protein and gizzard high-molecular-mass (h-)caldesmon. Sea-star p44mpk and gizzard MAP kinase phosphorylate h-caldesmon at identical sites at the C-terminal domain, as revealed by tryptic-peptide mapping of the phosphorylated protein. Phosphorylation of h-caldesmon by gizzard MAP kinase abolishes its interaction with polymerized tubulin. The specific activity of the purified gizzard kinase toward myelin basic protein is similar to that of brain tau kinase, but is only a fraction of that of activated sea-star p44mpk. This suggests that, although a large amount of MAP kinase is present in the gizzard, only a small percentage of the enzyme is activated normally. Autophosphorylation of the gizzard kinase, at least in part on tyrosine residues, activates its kinase activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8280072

  19. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  20. Endotoxin, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor cause neutrophil-dependent microvascular leakage in postcapillary venules.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Ulich, T. R.

    1992-01-01

    Acute inflammation is characterized mainly by the egress of neutrophils from postcapillary venules and by increased vascular permeability leading to the formation of edema. The microvascular site of increased vascular permeability in local acute inflammatory lesions was investigated after the injection of endotoxin (LPS), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into the dermis overlying the cremasteric and rectus abdominis muscles of rats. LPS caused leakage of colloidal carbon peaking at 3 to 4 hours at the level of the postcapillary venules and capillary leak was variably observed at later time points. IL-1 and TNF also caused postcapillary venular leakage. IL-1 was as potent as LPS and more so than TNF. The microvascular leak caused by LPS, IL-1, and TNF was accompanied by the tissue accumulation of neutrophils, and was neutrophil-dependent because LPS, IL-1, and TNF did not cause vascular labelling in neutropenic rats. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1546745

  1. Biosynthesis and polarized distribution of neutral endopeptidase in primary cultures of kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, F; Dehbi, M; Berteloot, A; Crine, P

    1994-01-01

    When cultured in defined medium, kidney proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells form a homogeneous population and retain a number of differentiated functions. To characterize this cell system further as a functional model of epithelial polarity, we investigated the biogenic pathway of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), one of the most abundant microvillar membrane proteins in intestinal and kidney cells. We showed that, in contrast with some tumoral cell lines, RNA extracted from PCT cells shows the presence of a single mRNA species encoding NEP. Pulse-chase studies followed by selective immunoprecipitation of NEP molecules present either at the cell surface or in intracellular cell compartments showed that newly synthesized NEP molecules reached the cell surface as early as 30 min after the beginning of the chase with maximum cell surface expression at 60 min. When grown on semipermeable supports, PCT cells were found to target NEP exclusively to the apical plasma membrane. Similar results have been described using MDCK cells to study targeting of recombinant NEP. Thus primary cultures of PCT cells represent a new model with which to investigate the biogenic pathway of endogenous proteins in native epithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7945190

  2. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  3. Lung injury mediated by antibodies to endothelium. II. Study of the effect of repeated antigen-antibody interactions in rabbits tolerant to heterologous antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G.; Caldwell, P. R.; Andres, G.; Brentjens, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated interactions of antibodies with cell surface antigens have been examined in in vitro, but not in in vivo systems. In this study are described the results of multiple antibody-cell surface antigen interactions in vivo. Rabbits were given repeated intravenous injections of goat antibodies to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an antigen expressed on the surface of lung endothelial cells. For prevention of anaphylactic reactions, which would have been induced by multiple injections of heterologous immune or nonimmune IgG, the rabbits were made neonatally tolerant to goat IgG. Divalent immune IgG given daily for 21 days induced chronic antigenic modulation (antigen disappearance) with resistance to antibody-mediated inflammatory lesions. The rabbits, however, developed degenerative changes of alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. Administration of immune IgG every other day for 43 days allowed partial reexpression of ACE and was associated with intravascular, but not interstitial, inflammatory changes. In contrast, repeated administration of monovalent immune Fab did not induce antigenic modulation but caused severe, lethal, interstitial pneumonitis. Thus, in this experimental model the development of acute interstitial inflammatory changes correlates with persistence of antigen and is abrogated by disappearance of antigen induced by divalent antibodies. Further, repeated endothelial antigen antibody interactions fail to induce chronic inflammatory or sclerosing lung lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3034065

  4. Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Z

    1984-01-01

    Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

  5. Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant interferes with epidermal growth factor-activated signal transduction in human gastric KATO III cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pai, R.; Wyle, F. A.; Cover, T. L.; Itani, R. M.; Domek, M. J.; Tarnawski, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection leads to gastroduodenal ulceration remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) inhibits proliferation of gastric epithelial cells, which suggests that H pylori may interfere with gastric mucosal repair mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori broth culture supernatants on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated signal transduction pathways in a gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO III). Exposure of these cells to EGF resulted in increased expression and phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGF-R), increased ERK2 activity and phosphorylation, and increased c-fos protein levels. Preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from VacA (+) H. pylori strain 60190 inhibited the capacity of EGF to induce each of these effects. In contrast, preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from an isogenic VacA-mutant strain (H. pylori 60190-v1) failed to inhibit the effects of EGF. These results suggest that the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin interferes with EGF-activated signal transduction pathways, which are known to be essential for cell proliferation and ulcer healing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9626065

  6. Atelosteogenesis type II is caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST): evidence for a phenotypic series involving three chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Hästbacka, J.; Superti-Furga, A.; Wilcox, W. R.; Rimoin, D. L.; Cohn, D. H.; Lander, E. S.

    1996-01-01

    Atelosteogenesis type II (AO II) is a neonatally lethal chondrodysplasia whose clinical and histological characteristics resemble those of another chondrodysplasia, the much less severe diastrophic dysplasia (DTD). The similarity suggests a shared pathogenesis involving lesions in the same biochemical pathway and perhaps the same gene. DTD is caused by mutations in the recently identified diastrophic dysplasia sulfate-transporter gene (DTDST). Here, we report that AOII patients also have DTDST mutations, which lead to defective uptake of inorganic sulfate and insufficient sulfation of macromolecules by patient mesenchymal cells in vitro. Together with our recent observation that a third even more severe chondrodysplasia, achondrogenesis type IB, is also caused by mutations in DTDST, these results demonstrate a phenotypic series of three chondrodysplasias of increasing severity caused by lesions in a single sulfate-transporter gene. The severity of the phenotype appears to be correlated with the predicted effect of the mutations on the residual activity of the DTDST protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:8571951

  7. Laminitis-like changes in the claws of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Paul R.; Vermunt, Jos J.; McKinnon, John J.; Fathy, Fowzy A.; Berg, Philip A.; Cohen, Roger D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and quantitate changes in the claws of two groups of feedlot cattle (calves and backgrounded yearlings) fed diets that varied in energy (73.5 or 78.5% TDN) and crude protein (11, 13, 15, 16, 17, or 19%) content. At slaughter, the thickness of sole horn and the prevalence of toe and heel hemorrhages were greater in calves than in yearlings (p<0.02). Feeding the high-energy ration increased the prevalence of toe and heel hemorrhages in calves (p<0.02) and heel hemorrhages in yearlings (p<0.02). In yearlings, rotation of the distal phalanx and ridging of the dorsal wall of the claw were the most prominent pathological features. Osteopathy of the apex of the distal phalanx occurred more frequently in calves than in yearlings (p<0.01). This study suggests that intensive feeding of beef cattle before they reach 14 months of age has a deleterious effect on digital health. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423536

  8. Subcellular localization and translocation of the receptor for N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Sengeløv, H; Boulay, F; Kjeldsen, L; Borregaard, N

    1994-01-01

    The subcellular localization of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) receptors in human neutrophils was investigated. The fMLP receptor was detected with a high-affinity, photoactivatable, radioiodinated derivative of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanyl-lysine (fMLFK). Neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and fractionated on Percoll density gradients. fMLP receptors were located in the beta-band containing gelatinase and specific granules, and in the gamma-band containing plasma membrane and secretory vesicles. Plasma membranes and secretory vesicles were separated by high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, and secretory vesicles were demonstrated to be highly enriched in fMLP receptors. The receptors found in secretory vesicles translocated fully to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with inflammatory mediators. The receptor translocation from the beta-band indicated that the receptor present there was mainly located in gelatinase granules. A 25 kDa fMLP-binding protein was found in the beta-band. Immunoprecipitation revealed that this protein was identical with NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), a novel protein found in specific granules. In summary, we demonstrate that the compartment in human neutrophils that is mobilized most easily and fastest, the secretory vesicle, is a major reservoir of fMLP receptors. This explains the prompt and extensive upregulation of fMLP receptors on the neutrophil surface in response to inflammatory stimuli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8172608

  9. Adrenal medullary tumors and iris proliferation in a transgenic mouse model of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J. E.; Baird, A. M.; Hinrichs, S. H.; Klintworth, G. K.; Jay, G.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tax gene in transgenic mice has been shown to result in the development of neurofibromas. Further characterization of these transgenic mice has revealed other significant pathologic similarities between this transgenic mouse model and human neurofibromatosis (NF). Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla and hamartomas of the iris are well-recognized manifestations of human NF. Adrenal medullary tumors have been found in 68% of transgenic animals that were studied. They appear, however, not to be pheochromocytomas, but rather composed of undifferentiated spindle cells. Proliferation of fibroblastlike cells in the iris also occurs in one-half of the transgenic animals surviving more than 6 months. Melanocytes, however, have not been found in the transgenic iris lesion, although they are characteristically found in the Lisch nodules of human NF. The similarities between human neurofibromatosis and this transgenic mouse model (in which the overexpression of a single gene results in neoplasia) are discussed. This transgenic system may provide further insights into molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of neurofibromatosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1605307

  10. Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease. An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Pich, A.

    1975-01-01

    The localization and distribution of human casein has been investigated in 20 patients with Paget's disease (16 with the mammary and 4 with the extramammary form) by means of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. This milk protein has been detected in neoplastic cells in intraductal carcinomas of the nipple and in intraepidermal cells identifiable as Paget cells. The degree of the staining varied in different cells of the same case and in different cases. Some casein-containing intraepidermal cells, as revealed by immunofluorescence, could not be recognized after retaining of the sections as Paget cells: they could not morphologically be distinguished from other basally located epidermal cells. This finding raises the question of the existence of "pre-Paget" cells. The results obtained are discussed in relation to theories on the origin and nature of Paget cells. The immunocytochemical methods for casein detection might also be find possible application in the diagnosis of Paget's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:168778

  11. Cystic dystrophy of the gastric and duodenal wall developing in heterotopic pancreas: an unrecognised entity.

    PubMed Central

    Fléjou, J F; Potet, F; Molas, G; Bernades, P; Amouyal, P; Fékété, F

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients in whom cystic dystrophy developed in a heterotopic pancreas of the duodenal (nine patients) or gastric (one patient) wall are reported. All were young or middle aged white men, only two of whom were alcoholic. The symptoms were caused by intestinal or biliary stenosis, or both, secondary to the inflammation and fibrosis. Only endosonography provided strong evidence for the diagnosis in three patients. All patients underwent surgery: a pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in eight patients. The surgical specimen showed cystic lesions of the gut wall, occurring in inflammatory and fibrous heterotopic pancreatic tissue. The pancreas proper was normal in all patients. It is suggested that cystic dystrophy is an uncommon and serious complication of heterotopic pancreas. Similar cases associated with chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas have been observed and it is suggested that this process could be responsible for some of the chronic pancreatitis encountered in young, non-alcoholic patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8097180

  12. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in relation to hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kameya, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Adachi, I.; Abe, K.; Kasai, N.; Kimura, K.; Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were analyzed immunohistochemically for calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells, and tumor cells in 8 cases were examined by an electron microscope and analyzed by manual and computer procedures with particular attention paid to the size and quality of secretory granules. Calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells were found singly or in clusters in 14 and 11 tumors, respectively. In 4 cases, calcitonin-positive cell clusters and an increase in number of singly scattered C cells were seen apart from the main tumor, suggesting a multicentric nature of certain medullary carcinomas. Some ACTH-containing cells were apparently also positive for calcitonin. In a case of familial Sipple disease, follicular lining cells were replaced in areas with ACTH-containing cells. Three to five frequency distribution curves of the size of secretory granules were obtained in all of 6 cases analyzed, and at least two different types of granule matrix were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 PMID:202164

  13. Expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) in normal mammary gland and in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, K. H.; Thompson, L. F.; Kaufmann, M.; Möller, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a phosphatidylinositol anchored membrane structure recently defined as the lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD73. Using CD73 (1E9.28.1) monoclonal antibody, normal mammary gland and breast carcinoma were immunohistochemically investigated for ecto-5'-NT expression. In normal breast epithelium, CD73 was differentially expressed in lobular, ductal and myoepithelial cells and was most frequently detected in the myoepithelial compartment. The glandular stroma contained fibrocytes, a subset of which was also CD73-positive. Among 102 unselected breast carcinoma primary lesions, only 9 contained CD73-positive tumour cells, whereas in 95 cases, stromal fibroblasts and fibrocytes showed variable degrees of CD73 expression. The extent of stromal CD73 expression correlated positively with the estrogen receptor (ER) status of the tumour (P less than 0.038). We conclude that ecto-5'-NT-expression reflects a still unknown state of activity of normal breast epithelium which is lost in the majority of carcinomas derived therefrom. It may also be indicative of some functional activity of stromal fibroblasts which is significantly enhanced in ER-positive carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1989648

  14. Automated method for modeling seven-helix transmembrane receptors from experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Herzyk, P; Hubbard, R E

    1995-01-01

    A rule-based automated method is presented for modeling the structures of the seven transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors. The structures are generated by using a simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure that positions and orients rigid helices to satisfy structural restraints. The restraints are derived from analysis of experimental information from biophysical studies on native and mutant proteins, from analysis of the sequences of related proteins, and from theoretical considerations of protein structure. Calculations are presented for two systems. The method was validated through calculations using appropriate experimental information for bacteriorhodopsin, which produced a model structure with a root mean square (rms) deviation of 1.87 A from the structure determined by electron microscopy. Calculations are also presented using experimental and theoretical information available for bovine rhodopsin to assign the helices to a projection density map and to produce a model of bovine rhodopsin that can be used as a template for modeling other G-protein-coupled receptors. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:8599649

  15. Video light microscopy of 670-kb DNA in a hanging drop: shape of the envelope of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, P; Estrada, A; Harris, R A

    1995-01-01

    Although its conformation has not been observed directly, double-stranded DNA in solution is usually assumed to be randomly coiled at the level of the DNA double helix. By video light microscopy of ethidium-stained DNA at equilibrium in a nonturbulent hanging drop, in the present study, the 670 kb linear bacteriophage G DNA is found to form a flexible filament that has on average 17 double helical segments across its width. This flexible filament 1) has both asymmetry and dimensions expected of a random coil and 2) has ends that move according to the statistics expected of a random walk. After unraveling the flexible filament-associated DNA double helix near the surface of a hanging drop, recompaction occurs without perceptible rotation of the DNA. Both conformational change and intermolecular tangling of the DNA are observed when G DNA undergoes nondiffusive motion in a hanging drop. The characteristics of the G DNA flexible filament are explained by the assumption that the flexible filament is a random coil of double helical segments that are unperturbed by motion of the suspending medium. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8599671

  16. CUSHING'S SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Allan B.

    1961-01-01

    Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature. The diagnosis hinges upon a high index of suspicion, and one or several of the major criteria may be lacking. Ultimate establishment of correct diagnosis should be based largely on the clinical features, although stimulation and suppression tests may help to confirm a clinical diagnosis. In well-established clinical cases, with borderline laboratory confirmation, exploration may be justified, especially if tests fail to identify a specific cause. In cases of adrenal cortical tumor, all pathological tissue should be removed if possible, with great care to support and stimulate the remaining atrophic adrenal gland during and following operation. In cases of bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, the problem is one of how much to remove. At present most investigators advocate radical subtotal resection, leaving less than 10 per cent of one side. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:13785315

  17. Transcriptional activation of the H-ferritin gene in differentiated Caco-2 cells parallels a change in the activity of the nuclear factor Bbf.

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, M A; Faniello, M C; D'Agostino, P; Quaresima, B; Tiano, M T; Pignata, S; Russo, T; Cimino, F; Costanzo, F

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the mechanisms that regulate the expression of the heavy (H) ferritin subunit in the colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line allowed to differentiate spontaneously in vitro. The differentiation process of these cells in continuous culture is accompanied by an accumulation of the mRNA coding for the apoferritin H chain. The analysis of Caco-2 subclones stably transfected with an H-chain promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) construct revealed that the mRNA increase is paralleled by an enhanced transcription of the H gene, driven by the -100 to +4 region of the H promoter. The H gene transcriptional activation seems to be a specific feature of differentiated Caco-2 cells, since the activity of other promoters did not change upon differentiation. The -100 to +4 region of the H promoter binds a transcription factor called Bbf (B-box binding factor); electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assay analyses showed that the retarded complex due to Bbf-H promoter interaction is significantly increased in the differentiated cells. We propose that the activation of H-ferritin gene expression may be associated with the establishment of a differentiated phenotype in Caco-2 cells, and that the H-ferritin gene transcriptional up-regulation is accompanied by a modification in the activity of the transcription factor Bbf. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7487931

  18. The aesthetics of behavioral arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    With their origins in scientific validation, behavior-analytic applications have understandably been developed with an engineering rather than a crafting orientation. Nevertheless, traditions of craftsmanship can be instructive for devising aesthetically pleasing arrangements—arrangements that people will try, and having tried, will choose to continue living with. Pye (1968) provides suggestions for this, particularly through his distinctions between workmanship of risk versus workmanship of certainty, and the mating of functional precision with effective or otherwise pleasing variability. Close examination of woodworking tools as well as antique machines offers instructive analogues that show, for instance, that misplaced precision can be dysfunctional when precision is not essential to a design. Variability should be allowed or even encouraged. Thus, in the design of behavioral contingencies as well as of practical or purely aesthetic objects, “precise versus variable” is not necessarily a distinction between good and bad. More generally, behavior analysts would do well to look beyond their technical experience for ways to improve the aesthetics of contingency design while continuing to understand the resulting innovations in relation to behavior-analytic principles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:22478437

  19. Induction of a Putative Ca2+-ATPase mRNA in NaCl-Adapted Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Prat, Eva; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Binzel, Marla L.; Botella, Miguel A.; Chen, Zutang; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone was isolated that encodes the partial sequence of a putative endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase of tobacco. The 1.497-kb insert had an open reading frame of 1.149 kb. The deduced peptide had the greatest homology to the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases of Drosophila and Artemia, followed by the mammalian and avian enzymes (SERCA2 and 3). The cDNA insert hybridized to a single mRNA of 4.4 kb from tobacco cultured cells or plant tissues. The level of this transcript was induced about 2-fold by NaCl shock in 428 mm NaCl-deadapted tobacco cells that were maintained in medium without salt, but not in unadapted cells. The level of this transcript was 3- to 4-fold higher in 428 mm NaCl-adapted cells growing in salt than in unadapted cells growing without salt. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16653146

  20. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  1. Reduced expression of kan-1 (encoding putative bile acid-CoA-amino acid N-acyltransferase) mRNA in livers of rats after partial hepatectomy and during sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, M; Arii, S; Higashitsuji, H; Mise, M; Fukumoto, M; Takano, S; Nakayama, H; Imamura, M; Fujita, J

    1995-01-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone, kan-1, from a rat liver cDNA library using a reverse transcriptase PCR cloning method. The kan-1 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, and was 70 and 69% identical in nucleotide and amino acid sequences respectively with human liver bile acid-CoA-amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT). Thus Kan-1 is probably a rat homologue of human BAT (rBAT). Kan-1/rBAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the livers of adult rats and rats immediately after, but not before, birth. It was expressed in the hepatocytes, the sinusoidal endothelial cells and the Kupffer cells of the liver. An anti-Kan-1/rBAT polyclonal antibody detected a protein of molecular mass 46 kDa in the liver. After partial hepatectomy, the levels of Kan-1/rBAT mRNA decreased at 6 and 12 h in the regenerating liver. In a sepsis model, hepatic expression of Kan-1/rBAT mRNA decreased at 6 and 12 h after caecal ligation and puncture. The kinetics of Kan-1/rBAT mRNA expression suggests that it may play a role in acute-phase reactions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7575455

  2. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  3. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  4. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  5. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  6. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 - High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna System Test Setup 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... ANTENNAS Pt. 1204, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Part 1204—High Voltage Test Facility and Antenna...

  7. Repair of Bovine and Equine Mandibular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Murch, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    Clinical findings, surgical repair and postsurgical care of a unilateral fracture of the mandible of a bull and of a bilateral mandibular fracture in a horse are described. Compression plating limited the pain suffered by the animals and resulted in a quick return to function of the mandibles. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7363268

  8. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R.

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  9. Use of outpatient clinics as a health indicator for communities around a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellmann, S; Glaser, E D

    1995-01-01

    The permit to operate the first coal fired power plant in Israel was issued with the condition that a comprehensive network to monitor its effects on the environment, health, and agriculture must be installed and operated around the plant. The health monitoring system consists of four studies, which started 1 year prior to the operation of the plant and were carried out for 10 years. In the framework of the health monitoring system, a study of requests for health services was carried out. In this survey, 8 clinics of the Sick Fund, served by 16 physicians, were followed up. The clinics were located as near as possible to air pollution monitoring stations and represent expected different levels of pollution. A health recorder summarized each day's visits to each physician and tabulated the total visits for each day and the visits due to respiratory tract complaints. Multivariate stepwise regressions on total as well as on respiratory complaints were carried out. The independent variables in the regressions were sulfur dioxide, meteorological parameters (such as temperature and humidity), and flu epidemics. Temperature was almost always significantly correlated with respiratory complaints, but less correlated with total visits among, adults and children. Sulfur dioxide, most meterological parameters and flu epidemics were not meaningful explanatory factor in the regressions. Ambient air pollution levels did not exceed the Israeli air quality or the more stringent local air quality standards, the monthly and annual average sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides values were very low. Images p1110-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8747016

  10. Prelesional events in atherogenesis. Accumulation of extracellular cholesterol-rich liposomes in the arterial intima and cardiac valves of the hyperlipidemic rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Simionescu, N.; Vasile, E.; Lupu, F.; Popescu, G.; Simionescu, M.

    1986-01-01

    Biochemical, physiologic, and ultrastructural modifications which appear in the aortic intima and atrioventricular valves before monocyte diapedesis and foam cell formation were investigated in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In the first 2 weeks of the diet, while plasma beta-VLDL cholesterol was increased up to 15-fold, the intima showed an enhanced uptake and deposition of dietary 3H-cholesterol, 125I-beta-VLDL, and the fluorescent beta-VLDL-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine conjugate. beta-VLDL-gold complex perfused in situ was transcytosed across endothelium by plasmalemmal vesicles. Concomitantly, within the intima, a progressive accumulation of extracellular densely packed uni- or multilamellar vesicles took place. These commonly occurred in cell-free subendothelial spaces and were not associated with any sign of cytolysis. In freeze-fracture preparations, these vesicles appeared as smooth surfaces, suggesting the absence of translamellar proteins. Upon incubation with filipin, these extracellular liposomes (EL) displayed characteristic approximately 20 nm filipin-sterol complexes, revealing the presence of preparations unesterified cholesterol in the phospholipid lamellas. EL deposition was paralleled by proliferation of basal lamina-like material, microfibrils, and proteoglycans, and continued to increase during foam cell formation. For the entire period of our experiments, the endothelium was morphologically intact, and no platelet involvement was detected. The results show that an early prelesional ultrastructural change in lesion-prone aortic and valvular areas is the accumulation of extracellular phospholipid liposomes rich in unesterified cholesterol. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3963146

  11. Oval cell proliferation in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in simian virus 40 large T transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bennoun, M.; Rissel, M.; Engelhardt, N.; Guillouzo, A.; Briand, P.; Weber-Benarous, A.

    1993-01-01

    In transgenic mice bearing the Simian Virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the human antithrombin III regulatory sequences, a stepwise progression toward hepatocellular carcinoma is observed. We have used two monoclonal antibodies (A6 and G7) developed against a surface antigen expressed in oval cells from dipin-treated mice, to analyze the emergence of such preneoplastic populations in the livers of antithrombin III Simian Virus 40 T transgenic mice. We show that a unique population of small heterogeneous epithelial cells, which probably corresponds to oval and/or transitional cells according to their morphological features, consistently appears at approximately the 10th week after birth and proliferates thereafter. This oval cell-like population stained positively for A6 and G7 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, different subpopulations usually recognized as possible precursors of carcinoma cells including hyperplastic foci and neoplastic nodules as well as carcinoma cells, were also positive for A6 but not G7 monoclonal antibodies. Stimulation of cell proliferation by partial hepatectomy performed at the time of emergence of the oval-like cells resulted in a rapid increase in the number of oval/transitional A6-positive cells. Our findings support the view that a common mechanism may be involved in the development of carcinomas that are induced by chemical carcinogens and in transgenic mice expressing a potent oncogene under the control of a hepatic specific promoter. In addition, our findings demonstrate a specific precursor-product relationship between the appearance of the oval/transitional cells and the development of neoplastic hepatocytes in this transgenic model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7694468

  12. Role of Periductal and Ductular Epithelial Cells of the Adult Rat Pancreas in Pancreatic Hepatocyte Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. Sambasiva; Dwivedi, Rama S.; Yeldandi, Anjana V.; Subbarao, V.; Tan, Xiaodi; Usman, Mohammed I.; Thangada, Shobha; Nemali, Mohan R.; Kumar, Sujata; Scarpelli, Dante G.; Reddy, Janardan K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of pancreatic hepatocytes in adult rats maintained on copper dificient diet containing 0.6% trien (CuDT) has been reported recently. To elucidate the histogenesis of hepatocytes a sequential study was undertaken using morphologic, histochemical, immunochemical, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analysis. Male F-344 rats weighing 80 to 90 g were fed CuDT for 8 weeks and returned to normal rat chow. Beginning from 4 weeks of copper depletion, there was a progressive loss of acinar cells and by 8 weeks more than 90% of the acinar tissue was lost. During this period, there was an increase in the number of adipocytes in the interstitium, and in the number of interstitial and ductular cells. Morphologic observations were confirmed by immunoblot and Northern blot analysis, in which the amount of pancreatic proteins and their mRNAs decreased between 5 and 8 weeks. During this period, a progressive increase in the level of albumin mRNA was observed. In situ hybridization, performed at 7 weeks of copper deficiency, showed localization of albumin mRNA over interstitial and ductular cells. Pancreatic hepatocytes were identified immediately after the rats were returned to a normal diet and gradually increased in number. The hepatocytes occupied almost 60% of the pancreatic volume by 8 weeks. During the early recovery phase, hepatocytes were identified in ductules as well as in the interstitium. Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver, are capable of transforming into pancreatic hepatocytes and these cells may be considered stem-cell equivalent. ImagesFigure 9Figure 10Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:2470253

  13. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: a new subtype of albinism classified as "OCA3".

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, R. E.; Zhao, H.; Oetting, W. S.; Austin, L. M.; Wildenberg, S. C.; Boissy, Y. L.; Zhao, Y.; Sturm, R. A.; Hearing, V. J.; King, R. A.; Nordlund, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase- related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as "OCA3." Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8651291

  14. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  15. Modulation of mitochondrial gene expression in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to oxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Y M; Driscoll, K E; Timblin, C R; Hassenbein, D; Mossman, B T

    1998-01-01

    Oxidants are important in the regulation of signal transduction and gene expression. Multiple classes of genes are transcriptionally activated by oxidants and are implicated in different phenotypic responses. In the present study, we performed differential mRNA display to elucidate genes that are induced or repressed after exposure of rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells to H2O2 or crocidolite asbestos, a pathogenic mineral that generates oxidants. After 8 or 24 hr of exposure, RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers to visualize alterations in gene expression. The seven clones obtained were sequenced and encoded the mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunits ND5 and ND6, and 16S ribosomal RNA. Evaluation of their expression by Northern blot analysis revealed increased expression of 16S rRNA after 1 or 2 hr of exposure to H2O2. At later time periods (4 and 24 hr), mRNA levels of 16S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase were decreased in H2O2-treated RLE cells when compared to sham controls. Crocidolite asbestos caused increases in 16S rRNA levels after 8 hr of exposure, whereas after 24 hr of exposure to asbestos, 16S rRNA levels were decreased in comparison to sham controls. In addition to these oxidants, the nitric oxide generator spermine NONOate caused similar decreases in NADH dehydrogenase mRNA levels after 4 hr of exposure. The present data and previous studies demonstrated that all oxidants examined resulted in apoptosis in RLE cells during the time frame where alterations of mitochondrial gene expression were observed. As the mitochondrion is a major organelle that controls apoptosis, alterations in expression of mitochondrial genes may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9788897

  16. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  17. Viscoelastic response of fibroblasts to tension transmitted through adherens junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, G K; Phelps, J; Luby-Phelps, K

    1997-01-01

    Cytoplasmic deformation was monitored by observing the displacements of 200-nm green fluorescent beads microinjected into the cytoplasm of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. We noted a novel protrusion of nonruffling cell margins that was accompanied by axial flow of beads and cytoplasmic vesicles as far as 50 microm behind the protruding plasma membrane. Fluorescent analog cytochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of F-actin, alpha-actinin, N-cadherin, and beta-catenin showed that the protruding margins of deforming cells were mechanically coupled to neighboring cells by adherens junctions. Observations suggested that protrusion resulted from passive linear deformation in response to tensile stress exerted by centripetal contraction of the neighboring cell. The time dependence of cytoplasmic strain calculated from the displacements of beads and vesicles was fit quantitatively by a Kelvin-Voight model for a viscoelastic solid with a mean limiting strain of 0.58 and a mean strain rate of 4.3 x 10(-3) s(-1). In rare instances, the deforming cell and its neighbor spontaneously became uncoupled, and recoil of the protruding margin was observed. The time dependence of strain during recoil also fit a Kelvin-Voight model with similar parameters, suggesting that the kinetics of deformation primarily reflect the mechanical properties of the deformed cell rather than the contractile properties of its neighbor. The existence of mechanical coupling between adjacent fibroblasts through adherens junctions and the viscoelastic responses of cells to tension transmitted directly from cell to cell are factors that must be taken into account to fully understand the role of fibroblasts in such biological processes as wound closure and extracellular matrix remodeling during tissue development. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9370474

  18. Morphologic examination of mesenchymal cells in healing wounds of normal and tight skin mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hembry, R. M.; Bernanke, D. H.; Hayashi, K.; Trelstad, R. L.; Ehrlich, H. P.

    1986-01-01

    The healing process of an open wound as effected by wound contraction is complete by 3 weeks in the normal mouse. In contrast, its onset is delayed by 3 weeks and complete healing requires 6 weeks in the tight skin mouse (TSM), a mutant mouse strain with the autosomal dominant gene for tight skin. Possible mechanisms for this delay were evaluated. The frequency and distribution of myofibroblasts were studied during the 3-week delay in wound contraction by actin staining and electron microscopy. It was determined, by electron microscopy and phalloidin staining, that myofibroblasts were found in high density in noncontracting TSM wounds. Electron microscopy showed, however, that these myofibroblasts were surrounded by a pericellular matrix that separated their surface from adjacent collagen fibers. No pericellular matrix was found around cells in granulation tissue of normal mice. At 3 weeks, as TSM wounds began to contract, the number and intensity of cells stained by phalloidin in this tissue was less than that seen earlier. The pericellular matrix was fragmented at this time, and cell surface and collagen fiber associations were apparent. Finally, at 5 weeks, when wound contraction was well developed in the TSM, only a small area in the center of the healing wound beneath the epidermis contained phalloidin-positive myofibroblasts. Electron-microscopic examination of the residual granulation tissue at this time revealed the complete absence of the pericellular matrix. It is postulated that during the 3-week delay in wound closure, the presence of a localized pericellular matrix prevents the interaction between cells and collagen fibers necessary for the reorganization of collagen. It is also thought that the tightly adherent uninjured skin surrounding the healing wound may cause delayed wound closure. There was no evidence that the absence of myofibroblasts is responsible for delayed wound contraction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID

  19. Differential expression of myc, max and RB1 genes in human gliomas and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, H. E.; Salonen, R.; Sandberg, M. M.; Vuorio, E.; Västrik, I.; Kotilainen, E.; Kalimo, H.

    1994-01-01

    Deregulated expression of myc proto-oncogenes is implicated in several human neoplasias. We analysed the expression of c-myc, N-myc, L-myc, max and RB1 mRNAs in a panel of human gliomas and glioma cell lines and compared the findings with normal neural cells. The max and RB1 genes were included in the study because their protein products can interact with the Myc proteins, being thus putative modulators of Myc activity. Several gliomas contained c/L-myc mRNAs at levels higher than those in fetal brain, L-myc predominantly in grade II/III and c-myc in grade III gliomas. High-level N-myc expression was detected. In one small-cell glioblastoma and lower levels in five other gliomas. In contrast, glioma cell lines totally lacked N/L-myc expression. The in situ hybridisations revealed mutually exclusive topographic distribution of myc and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNAs, and a lack of correlation between myc expression and proliferative activity, max and RB1 mRNAs were detected in most tumours and cell lines. The glioma cells displayed interesting alternative splicing patterns of max mRNAs encoding Max proteins which either suppress (Max) or augment (delta Max) the transforming activity of Myc. We conclude that (1) glioma cells in vivo may coexpress several myc genes, thus resembling fetal neural cells; but (2) cultured glioma cells expression only c-myc; (3) myc, max and RB1 are regulated independently in glioma cells; and (4) alternative processing of max mRNA in some glioma cells results in delta Max encoding mRNAs not seen in normal fetal brain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8286200

  20. Mammalian tyrosinase-related protein-1 is recognized by autoantibodies from vitiliginous Smyth chickens. An avian model for human vitiligo.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, L. M.; Boissy, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The Smyth line (SL) chicken is an animal model for the human acquired depigmentary disorder vitiligo. Affected birds from this line express a postnatal loss of melanocytes in feather and ocular tissues. This vitiligo-like depigmentation is considered to be a disorder with two interacting components: melanocyte dysfunctions and autoimmune reactions. Previously, SL chicks were shown to express high levels of circulating autoantibodies that bind to chicken melanocyte proteins with molecular masses between 65 and 80 kd. Three mammalian melanocyte proteins known to have isoforms in this molecular mass range are tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2. Of these, only tyrosinase is reported to be expressed in chicken melanocytes. The results presented in this study indicate that, of these three candidate proteins, TRP-1 is the primary antigen recognized by the SL autoantibodies. SL autoantibodies recognize a chicken melanocyte protein that is different from that of tyrosinase or the candidate chicken TRP-2. In addition, several types of experiments incriminate TRP-1 as the primary mammalian melanocyte antigen recognized by SL autoantibodies. We further verified that chicken melanocytes expressed messages for TRP-1 by finding positive signals on Northern blots of chicken melanocyte RNA probed with mammalian TRP-1 cDNA fragments. Therefore, we conclude from these results that the SL autoantibodies primarily recognize TRP-1 in mammalian melanocytes and suggest that chicken melanocytes express a homologue of TRP-1 (the human gp75 and the murine brown/b locus protein). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7778691

  1. Effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants on amphibian oogenesis: methoxychlor inhibits progesterone-induced maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pickford, D B; Morris, I D

    1999-01-01

    There is currently little evidence of pollution-induced endocrine dysfunction in amphibia, in spite of widespread concern over global declines in this ecologically diverse group. Data regarding the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) on reproductive function in amphibia are particularly lacking. We hypothesized that estrogenic EDCs may disrupt progesterone-induced oocyte maturation in the adult amphibian ovary, and tested this with an in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown assay using defolliculated oocytes from the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. While a variety of natural and synthetic estrogens and xenoestrogens were inactive in this system, the proestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor was a surprisingly potent inhibitor of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation (median inhibitive concentration, 72 nM). This inhibitory activity was specific to methoxychlor, rather than to its estrogenic contaminants or metabolites, and was not antagonized by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, suggesting that this activity is not estrogenic per se. The inhibitory activity of methoxychlor was dose dependent, reversible, and early acting. However, washout was unable to reverse the effect of short methoxychlor exposure, and methoxychlor did not competitively displace [3H]progesterone from a specific binding site in the oocyte plasma membrane. Therefore, methoxychlor may exert its action not directly at the site of progesterone action, but downstream on early events in maturational signaling, although the precise mechanism of action is unclear. The activity of methoxychlor in this system indicates that xenobiotics may exert endocrine-disrupting effects through interference with progestin-regulated processes and through mechanisms other than receptor antagonism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10090707

  2. Cytoskeletal changes in podocytes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, I.; Sakai, T.; Kimura, K.; Tomino, Y.; Kriz, W.

    1996-01-01

    Foot process effacement represents the most characteristic change in podocyte phenotype under a great variety of experimental as well as human glomerulopathies. It consists in simplification up to a total disappearance of an interdigitating foot process pattern. Finally, podocytes affix to the glomerular basement membrane by outspread epithelial sheets. Structural and immunocytochemical techniques were applied to analyze the cytoskeletal changes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis. Three days after injection of the anti-glomerular-basement-membrane serum an interdigitating foot process pattern was almost fully lost; more than 90 percent of the outer glomerular capillary surface were covered by expanded sheets of podocyte epithelium that contain a highly organized cytoskeleton adhering to the basal cell membrane. Structurally, this cytoskeleton consists of an interwoven network of microfilaments with regularly distributed dense bodies, which obviously serve as cross-linkers within this network. Immunocytochemically, the expression of actin, alpha-actinin, and pp44 (a specific podocyte protein normally associated with the cytoskeleton of foot processes) were increased in this structure; alpha-actinin was especially prominent in the dense bodies. The results are consistent with the view that foot process effacement represents an adaptive change in cell shape including hypertrophy of the contractile apparatus, reinforcing the supportive role of podocytes. Several factors associated with increased distending forces to podocytes may underlie this phenotype change including loss of mesangial support, elevated glomerular pressures, and impairment of GBM substructure as well as of podocyte-GBM-contacts. Twenty-eight days after serum injection a remodeling of the foot process pattern was seen. It appears that this restitution depends on a preceding repair of mesangial support function to glomerular capillaries. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure

  3. Characterization of the antigens recognized by two monoclonal antibodies reactive with basal-layer keratinocytes of human epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G P

    1994-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies, GR3 and GR4, reactive with the basal-layer keratinocytes of human epidermis, were derived by immunization of Balb/c mice with glycoproteins isolated from cultured keratinocytes by lectin-affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitation of Triton X-100 extracts from human keratinocytes metabolically labelled with D-[1-14C]glucosamine revealed that GR3 recognized a major glycoprotein with migration properties identical with those of a glycoprotein (reduced form M(r) 126,000) which was previously shown to be implicated in intercellular adhesion [Roberts and Brunt (1985) Biochem J. 232, 67-70]. In their unreduced forms the antigens recognized by GR3 and GR4 both migrated as two bands with M(r) values of 118,000 and 147,000. Comparison of 125I-labelled glycoproteins immunoprecipitated by GR3, GR4 and integrin antibodies revealed that, under reducing conditions, the major band immunoprecipitated by both GR3 and GR4 co-migrated with the alpha 3 and beta 1 integrin chains. In addition the immunoprecipitate obtained with GR4 contained an additional band co-migrating with the alpha 2 integrin chain. Sequential immunoprecipitation studies with GR3, GR4 and integrin antibodies confirmed that GR3 is directed against the alpha 3 integrin chain, whereas GR4 is directed against the beta 1 chain. These studies also indicate that some of the alpha 2 integrin chains on keratinocytes may be associated with a beta-chain not recognized by the antisera against the beta 1 integrin chain used in this study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8192654

  4. A histologic study of the extracellular matrix during the development of glomerulosclerosis in murine chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bergijk, E. C.; Munaut, C.; Baelde, J. J.; Prins, F.; Foidart, J. M.; Hoedemaeker, P. J.; Bruijn, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The development of glomerulosclerosis was studied in murine chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which is a model for human systemic lupus erythematosus. The authors investigated the distribution patterns of six components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), i.e., laminin, fibronectin, collagen types I, III, IV, and VI during the course of the disease. All of these ECM components except collagen type I were found in the glomeruli of normal mice, where all of them were intrinsic constituents of the mesangium. Laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type IV were also found in the glomerular capillary walls. Starting 6 weeks after the induction of GvHD and continuing at week 8, the onset of an expansion of the mesangial matrix was observed. At the same time, the amounts of laminin, fibronectin, and collagen types IV and VI increased. Ten weeks after the onset of the disease, glomerulosclerosis developed. Traces of the interstitial collagen type I were found in sclerotic glomeruli. The levels of four ECM components, i.e., collagens III, IV, VI, and laminin were markedly decreased in the sclerotic glomeruli as compared with week 8. In contrast, the amount of fibronectin in the sclerotic glomeruli increased dramatically. Immunoelectron microscopic examination showed fibronectin in the sclerotic lesions, in contrast to laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV. It is concluded that the sclerotic lesions in murine chronic GvHD contain fibronectin. The small amounts of the ECM components laminin, as well as collagens III, IV, and VI in the sclerotic glomeruli in GvHD, might represent remnants of mesangial material and collapsed capillary walls. These components are probably replaced by increased production and/or accumulation of collagen type I and fibronectin. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1580327

  5. Immunopathology of B-cell lymphomas induced in C57BL/6 mice by dualtropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV).

    PubMed Central

    Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.

    1982-01-01

    Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:6282131

  6. Activated protein kinase C binds to intracellular receptors in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Flores, M; García-Sáinz, J A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in rat hepatocytes cellular polypeptides that bind protein kinase C (PKC) and may influence its activity and its compartmentation. At least seven proteins, with apparent M(r) values between 12,000 and 36,000, that behave like Receptors for Activated C-Kinase (RACKs) were found in the Triton-X-100-insoluble fraction of these cells; i.e. PKC bound to these polypeptides when it was in its active form. RACKS seem to be PKC substrates. Studies using isotype-specific PKC antibodies suggested some selectivity of RACKs, i.e. RACKs in the M(r) approximately 28,000-36,000 region bound PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the presence of phosphatidylserine, diolein and Ca2+, whereas those of M(r) approximately 12,000-14,000 bound all isoforms studied, and, in contrast with the other RACKs, they did this even in the absence of Ca2+. Peptide I (KGDYEKILVALCGGN), which has a sequence suggested to be involved in the PKC-RACKs interaction [Mochly-Rosen, Khaner, Lopez and Smith (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14866-14868], inhibited PKC activity. Preincubation of RACKs with antisera directed against peptide I prevented PKC binding to them. The data suggest that peptide I blocks PKC binding to RACKs by two mechanisms: inhibition of PKC activity and competition with a putative binding site. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8257439

  7. Expression of sialyl-Lewis X, an E-selectin ligand, in inflammation, immune processes, and lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, J. M.; Lo, S. K.; Corless, C.; Robertson, M. J.; Lee, N. C.; Barnhill, R. L.; Weinberg, D. S.; Bevilacqua, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The carbohydrate structure sialyl-Lewis X (SLex) can function as a ligand for E-selectin, formerly known as endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). This study was performed to analyze the expression of SLex by leukocytes and other cell types in the context of inflammatory and immune processes. Human peripheral blood cells were examined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibody CSLEX1 directed against SLex. Cell surface SLex was found in abundance on nearly all isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and at low levels on a substantial portion (up to 40%) of natural killer cells. This moiety was expressed also on approximately 10% of peripheral blood T cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed on various human tissues involved in inflammatory or immune processes and on secondary lymphoid tissues. In acute appendicitis, endothelial cells of postcapillary venules expressed E-selectin, and most PMN, both within vessels and extravasated, expressed SLex. A substantial number of monocytes/macrophages in inflamed appendiceal, synovial, and dermal tissues also reacted with antibody CSLEX1; however, only rare tissue macrophages in uninflamed nonlymphoid sites showed expression of SLex. These observations are consistent with the concept that SLex on circulating PMN and monocytes functions as a ligand for endothelial E-selectin in the development of inflammatory reactions. SLex-positive lymphocytes also were seen, notably, T lymphocytes in inflamed skin. An unexpected finding was that the CSLEX1 antibody also reacted with venular endothelium in certain lymphoid tissues and in inflamed appendix, but not with endothelium in normal appendix. Whether the SLex antigen identified on endothelium represents de novo expression or passive adsorption remains to be determined. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1281620

  8. Mechanisms of orbital floor fractures: a clinical, experimental, and theoretical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Ballal, D R; Ballal, R D

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the two accepted mechanisms of the orbital blow-out fracture (the hydraulic and the buckling theories) from a clinical, experimental, and theoretical standpoint. METHODS: Clinical cases in which blow-out fractures resulted from both a pure hydraulic mechanism and a pure buckling mechanism are presented. Twenty-one intact orbital floors were obtained from human cadavers. A metal rod was dropped, experimentally, onto each specimen until a fracture was produced, and the energy required in each instance was calculated. A biomathematical model of the human bony orbit, depicted as a thin-walled truncated conical shell, was devised. Two previously published (by the National Aeronautics Space Administration) theoretical structural engineering formulas for the fracture of thin-walled truncated conical shells were used to predict the energy required to fracture the bone of the orbital floor via the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. RESULTS: Experimentally, the mean energy required to fracture the bone of the human cadaver orbital floor directly was 78 millijoules (mj) (range, 29-127 mj). Using the engineering formula for the hydraulic theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 71 mj (range, 38-120 mj); for the buckling theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 68 mj (range, 40-106 mj). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we have experimentally determined the amount of energy required to fracture the bone of the human orbital floor directly and have provided support for each mechanism of the orbital blow-out fracture from a clinical and theoretical basis. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5E FIGURE 5F PMID:10703119

  9. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  10. Quantitative comparisons of in vitro assays for estrogenic activities.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, H; Tong, W; Perkins, R; Soto, A M; Prechtl, N V; Sheehan, D M

    2000-01-01

    assays to screen estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10964792

  11. Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P

    2000-01-01

    An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522

  12. Dirofilaria immitis. 5. Immunopathology of filarial nephropathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Abramowsky, C. R.; Powers, K. G.; Aikawa, M.; Swinehart, G.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen beagles infected with larvae (microfilariae) of Dirofilaria immitis, were randomly selected from another study in which the toxic effects of subfilaricidal doses of diethylcarbamazine were being evaluated. This group of 14 dogs, together with 4 uninfected control animals, were variably sacrificed between 14 and 25 months after larval inoculations, and the ensuing renal lesions were studied by light and ultrastructural microscopy and by immunofluorescence and antibody elution techniques. On the basis of these studies, two groups of animals were distinguished. The first group was characterized by a striking pattern of linear fluorescence and fine ultrastructural dense deposits along the glomerular basement membrane, poor antibody response, and an inability to clear microfilariae from the tissues and circulation. The second group, with a nonlinear pattern of fluorescence, was characterized by a strong immune response, efficient elimination of microfilariae, and immunofluorescence and ultrastructural evidence of predominantly mesangiopathic immune complex renal disease. In both groups, elution studies demonstrated tissue deposits of antiworm antibodies, suggesting a filaria-antibody immune-complex nephropathy. No evidence was found for the presence of anti-basement-membrane antibodies. On the basis of a previous experimental model, it is postulated that in the first group of animals with linear fluorescence, the observed lesions may represent a natural form of an immunopathogenic mechanism of glomerular damage in which filarial antigen becomes uniformly localized in the glomerulus and elicits an autologous antibody response. The possible role of the drug diethylcarbamazine in inducing this mechanism of immune injury is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7020425

  13. p21WAF1 immunohistochemical expression in breast carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathological data, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression, p53 gene and protein alterations and relapse-free survival.

    PubMed Central

    Barbareschi, M.; Caffo, O.; Doglioni, C.; Fina, P.; Marchetti, A.; Buttitta, F.; Leek, R.; Morelli, L.; Leonardi, E.; Bevilacqua, G.; Dalla Palma, P.; Harris, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    p21 protein (p21) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases is a critical downstream effector in the p53-specific pathway of growth control. p21 can also be induced by p53-independent pathways in relation to terminal differentiation. We investigated p21 immunoreactivity in normal breast and in 91 breast carcinomas [three in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) with microinfiltration and 88 infiltrating carcinomas, 17 of which with an associated DCIS; 57 node negative and 34 node positive] with long-term follow-up (median = 58 months). Seven additional breast carcinomas with known p53 gene mutations were investigated. In normal breast p21 expression was seen in the nuclei of rare luminal cells of acinar structures, and in occasional myoepithelial cells. Poorly differentiated DCIS showed high p21 expression, whereas well-differentiated DCIS tumours showed few p21-reactive cells. p21 was seen in 82 (90%) infiltrating tumours; staining was heterogeneous; the percentage of reactive nuclei ranged from 1% to 35%. High p21 expression (more than 10% of reactive cells) was seen in 24 (26%) cases, and was associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.032); no associations were seen with tumour size, metastases, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression and p53 expression. p21 expression in cases with p53 gene mutations was low in six cases and high in one. High p21 expression was associated with short relapse-free survival (P = 0.003). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8688323

  14. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  15. Estrogenic activity assessment of environmental chemicals using in vitro assays: identification of two new estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Lascombe, I; Beffa, D; Rüegg, U; Tarradellas, J; Wahli, W

    2000-01-01

    Environmental chemicals with estrogenic activities have been suggested to be associated with deleterious effects in animals and humans. To characterize estrogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action, we established in vitro and cell culture assays that detect human estrogen receptor [alpha] (hER[alpha])-mediated estrogenicity. First, we assayed chemicals to determine their ability to modulate direct interaction between the hER[alpha] and the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and in a competition binding assay to displace 17ss-estradiol (E(2)). Second, we tested the chemicals for estrogen-associated transcriptional activity in the yeast estrogen screen and in the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The chemicals investigated in this study were o,p'-DDT (racemic mixture and enantiomers), nonylphenol mixture (NPm), and two poorly analyzed compounds in the environment, namely, tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methane (Tris-H) and tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methanol (Tris-OH). In both yeast and MCF-7 cells, we determined estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor (ER) for o,p'-DDT, NPm, and for the very first time, Tris-H and Tris-OH. However, unlike estrogens, none of these xenobiotics seemed to be able to induce ER/SRC-1 interactions, most likely because the conformation of the activated receptor would not allow direct contacts with this coactivator. However, these compounds were able to inhibit [(3)H]-E(2) binding to hER, which reveals a direct interaction with the receptor. In conclusion, the test compounds are estrogen mimics, but their molecular mechanism of action appears to be different from that of the natural hormone as revealed by the receptor/coactivator interaction analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10903615

  16. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Dungworth, D. L.; Schwartz, L. W.; Tyler, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone fpr 4--50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4--12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18% was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67--80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20--33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell type most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal. Images Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6767409

  17. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    PubMed Central

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequential extraction revealed the solubility of lead compounds at less than 7% in the exchangeable and mildly acidic steps for the bulk dusts collected from four smelter areas. The later steps of the extraction procedure were more effective in dissolving the lead compounds associated with the bulk dust samples, with 43%, 26%, and 8% of the total lead, in the ore storage, sinter, and blast/dross smelter areas, respectively, being extracted in the residual step. Sequential extraction of coarse airborne dust samples from the ore storage and sinter plant showed that 1.2% and 4.1% of the total lead, respectively, was exchangeable. The finer particle size fractions from these areas of the smelter showed higher percentages of exchangeable lead. Of the course airborne dust from the blast/dross furnace processes, 65% of the total lead was exchangeable. However, the largest percentage of lead from these areas was associated with the finer particle-size fractions. If lead bioavailability is related to its solubility as determined through sequential extraction, the health hazards associated with lead exposure may be appreciably enhanced in the blast and dross furnace processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721256

  18. Carcinogenic and Cocarcinogenic Effects of Radon and Radon Daughters in Rats.

    PubMed Central

    Monchaux, G; Morlier, JP; Morin, M; Chameaud, J; Lafuma, J; Masse, R

    1994-01-01

    It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 3000 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of lung cancers was higher by a factor of 2-4 according to the cumulative radon exposure and the duration of tobacco smoke exposure. When mineral fibers were injected intrapleurally, an increased incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. Images p64-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9719670

  19. Retrospective study of possible alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy and associated cell proliferation in male Fischer 344 rats dosed with t-butyl alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, K; Lindamood, C; Maronpot, R R

    1993-01-01

    Tert-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, additive to unleaded gasoline, and contaminant of drinking water, was evaluated for toxicity and was found to enhance nephropathy in male Fischer 344 rats. Because male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol for 2 years had a low incidence of renal cortical tumors, additional renal sections for the 90-day toxicity study were examined for the presence of hyaline droplet accumulation, nephropathy, and evidence of replicative DNA synthesis (S-phase nuclei) to indirectly and retrospectively investigate a possible role of alpha-2 mu-globulin in the pathogenesis of the nephropathy. Dose levels for t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v) administered in drinking water. Significant body weight gain depressions were observed in all treated males, and there was an absolute weight loss in the 4% male group, none of which survived to the end of the study. Except for the 4% dose group, there was a treatment-related increase in hyaline droplet accumulation in the renal proximal tubules with crystalline, rectangular, and rhomboid forms of the protein evident. The severity of nephropathy was enhanced in treated rats, except for the 4% dose group. Replicative DNA synthesis, as measured by immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, was increased in proximal tubules of rats dosed with 2% t-butyl alcohol. It is concluded that t-butyl alcohol exacerbated nephropathy in male Fischer 344 rats and increased renal accumulation of hyaline protein material consistent with alpha-2 mu-globulin deposition. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 7. PMID:7516874

  20. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  1. Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy: clinical, pathologic, and biochemical delineation of a syndrome affecting both males and females.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, R.; Crumrine, P.; Hashida, Y.; Moser, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    We describe the detailed clinical, pathologic, and biochemical features of brother and sister with the neonatal onset form of adrenoleukodystrophy, together with evidence of the biochemical defect. When compared with reports of previous cases, it becomes clear that this is a newly described clinical entity with remarkable uniformity of signs and very different from the usual childhood form. Some pathologic features are shared, including the morphologic abnormality of the adrenal in both neonatal and childhood forms, but deposition of abnormally metabolized lipids is more systemic and widespread in the neonatal form. The biochemistry of the disease is presented in both children and parents. Plasma values of long-chain fatty acid C26:0 are 0.328 +/- 0.18 micrograms/ml in a control population and 0.381 +/- 0.312 micrograms/ml in the father and mother. Values for C26:0 in the plasma of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy are 1.62 +/- 0.87 micrograms/ml and in our two cases, 2.79 micrograms/ml in the male, 1.83 micrograms/ml in the female. The basic biochemical defect appears to be a diminished capacity to oxidize these fatty acids leading to accumulation in cholesterol esters. Fatty acid oxidation to CO2 by cultured skin fibroblasts was 51% of control value for stearic acid, 5% for lignoceric acid in the male, and 39% of control value for stearic acid, 5% for lignoceric acid in the female. The genetics of this disease is different; whereas childhood adrenoleukodystrophy is X-linked, the neonatal onset form affects males and females equally and is most probably autosomally recessive in inheritance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7091298

  2. Effect of water temperature on dermal exposure to chloroform.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, S M; Wallace, L A; Callahan, P J; Kenny, D V; Brinkman, M C

    1998-01-01

    We have developed and applied a new measurement methodology to investigate dermal absorption of chloroform while bathing. Ten subjects bathed in chlorinated water while breathing pure air through a face mask. Their exhaled breath was delivered to a glow discharge source/ion trap mass spectrometer for continuous real-time measurement of chloroform in the breath. This new method provides abundant data compared to previous discrete time-integrated breath sampling methods. The method is particularly well suited to studying dermal exposure because the full face mask eliminates exposure to contaminated air. Seven of the 10 subjects bathed in water at two or three different temperatures between 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Subjects at the highest temperatures exhaled about 30 times more chloroform than the same subjects at the lowest temperatures. This probably results from a decline in blood flow to the skin at the lower temperatures as the body seeks to conserve heat forcing the chloroform to diffuse over a much greater path length before encountering the blood. These results suggest that pharmacokinetic models need to employ temperature-dependent parameters. Two existing models predict quite different times of about 12 min and 29 min for chloroform flux through the stratum corneum to reach equilibrium. At 40 degrees C, the time for the flux to reach a near steady-state value is 6-9 min. Although uptake and decay processes involve several body compartments, the complicating effect of the stratum corneum lag time made it difficult to fit multiexponential curves to the data; however, a single-compartment model gave a satisfactory fit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9618350

  3. Enhanced production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Kunkel, S. L.; Pearce, W. H.; Shah, M. R.; Parikh, D.; Evanoff, H. L.; Haines, G. K.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory leukocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerotic disease, from early atherogenesis to the late stages of atherosclerosis, such as aneurysm formation. We have shown previously that human abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by the presence of numerous chronic inflammatory cells throughout the vessel wall (Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1199-1213). The signals that attract lymphocytes and monocytes into the aortic wall in aneurysmal disease remain to be precisely defined. We have studied the production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by aortic tissues obtained from 47 subjects. We compared the antigenic production of these cytokines by explants of: 1) human abdominal aneurysmal tissue, 2) occlusive (atherosclerotic) aortas, and 3) normal aortas. IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells was liberated in greater quantities by abdominal aortic aneurysms than by occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, macrophages, and to a lesser degree endothelial cells, were found to be positive for the expression of antigenic IL-8. Similarly, MCP-1, a potent chemotactic cytokine for monocytes/macrophages, was released by explants from abdominal aortic aneurysms in greater quantities than by explants from occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, the predominant MCP-1 antigen-positive cells were macrophages and to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that human abdominal aortic aneurysms produce IL-8 and MCP-1, both of which may serve to recruit additional inflammatory cells into the abdominal aortic wall, hence perpetuating the inflammatory reaction that may result in the pathology of vessel wall destruction and aortic aneurysm formation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8494046

  4. Monoclonal antibodies specific for human monocytes, granulocytes and endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, N; MacDonald, S; Slusarenko, M; Beverley, P C

    1984-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies against antigens of human myeloid cells have been produced and thoroughly characterized in terms of their reactions with peripheral blood cells, cell lines, nine lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the polypeptides with which they react. UCHM1 and SmO identify antigens present on the majority of blood monocytes and a variable, but lower, proportion of tissue macrophages. From their morphology and location in tissues, these cells appear to be recirculating monocytes. SMO antigen is also present on platelets. In addition, both antibodies stained endothelial cells, SMO in all tissues examined and UCHM1 variably. Biochemical investigation indicated that the UCHM1 antigen is a protein of 52,000 MW while the SMO antigen could not be indentified. The antibodies TG1 and 28 identify antigens mainly present on granulocytes. While mAb 28 reacted with neutrophils, TG1 also stained eosinophils and stained strongly a proportion of monocytes. TG1 also reacted variably with some non-haemopoietic cell lines. Both antibodies reacted predominantly with granulocytes in tissue sections. MAb TG1 precipitated a single polypeptide of 156,000 MW from monocytes and granulocytes, while mAb 28 precipitated non-convalently associated polypeptides of 83,000 and 155,000 MW from granulocytes but only a single molecule from monocytes, corresponding to the lower MW chain of 83,000. The epitope with which mAb 28 reacts appears not to be exposed on the surface of intact monocytes. This suggests that a similar or identical 83,000 MW molecule is made by both neutrophils and monocytes, but that its expression differs according to cell type. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6389324

  5. NONCICATRIZING ALOPECIAS—With Special Reference to Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    New, William N.; Nickel, Walter R.

    1958-01-01

    hormones have been employed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13585156

  6. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  7. Adenovirus 12 E1A gene detection by polymerase chain reaction in both the normal and coeliac duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, M; Humphries, P; O'Farrelly, C; Hoey, H; Sheils, O; Jeffers, M; O'Briain, D S; Kelleher, D

    1994-01-01

    A 12 amino acid sequence from the adenovirus 12 E1B protein is homologous at the protein level with a similar 12-mer derived from the wheat protein A-gliadin. It has been suggested that exposure to Ad 12 could sensitise individuals to gliadins with resultant gluten sensitive enteropathy. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse duodenal biopsy tissue from patients with coeliac disease for the presence of Ad 12. The sensitivity of the assay system was at least 1 in 10(5) cells and specificity was confirmed both by probing with an internal oligonucleotide and by direct sequencing. Ad 12 sequences were detected in three of 17 patients with adult coeliac disease and in five of 16 adult controls with normal duodenal biopsies. Since exposure to the virus would be predicted to occur in infancy we also studied patients with childhood coeliac disease diagnosed at less than 1 year of age. Ad 12 was positive in three of 10 childhood coeliac patients and one of seven controls. In addition, we studied a cohort of patients who presented with a diarrhoeal illness and associated anti alpha gliadin antibodies in 1983. These patients had duodenal biopsies performed at this time. One of three patients with abnormal histology had detectable Ad 12 while two of 14 with normal findings were positive for Ad 12. Finally, the potential oncogenic nature of Ad 12 prompted examination of a group of patients with intestinal tumours. Ad 12 DNA was, however, in only two of 19 tumour samples tested. These data indicate that Ad 12 can be successfully detected using PCR on paraffin embedded tissue. Furthermore, Ad 12 was detected at a relatively high level in normal duodenum. The results do not, however, support the hypothesis that prior exposure to Ad 12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7959228

  8. Immediate breast reconstruction-impact on radiation management.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi A.; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ashton, Cori; Goldson, Alfred L.

    2003-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is an option for women undergoing modified radical mastectomy due to a diagnosis of breast cancer. In certain patients, breast reconstruction is performed by insertion of a temporary tissue expander prior to the placement of permanent breast implants. Some of these patients, following mastectomy, may require chest wall irradiation to prevent loco regional relapse. The compatibility of radiation and tissue expanders placed in the chest wall is of major concern to the radiation oncologist. Clinically undetectable changes can occur in the tissue expander during the course of radiation therapy. This can lead to radiation treatment set-up changes, variation in tissue expansion resulting in unwanted cosmesis, and deviation from the prescribed radiation dose leading to over and/or under dosing of tumor burden. At Howard University hospital, a CT scan was utilized to evaluate the status of the temporary tissue expander during radiation treatment to enable us to prevent radiation treatment related complications resulting from dosimetric discrepancies. CT images of the tissue expander were obtained through the course of treatment. To avoid a 'geographic miss' the amount of fluid injected into the tissue expander was kept constant following patient's satisfaction with the size of the breast mound. The CT scans allowed better visualization of the prosthesis and its relation to the surrounding tumor bed. This technique ensured that anatomical changes occurring during radiation treatment, if any, were minimized. Repeated dosimetry evaluations showed no changes to the prescribed dose distribution. A CT of the reconstructed breast provides an important quality control. Further studies with greater number of patients are required for confirming this impact on radiation treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:12749619

  9. Apoptosis is abundant in human atherosclerotic lesions, especially in inflammatory cells (macrophages and T cells), and may contribute to the accumulation of gruel and plaque instability.

    PubMed Central

    Björkerud, S.; Björkerud, B.

    1996-01-01

    by macrophages, or a combination of these factors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8701977

  10. Interstitial photodynamic therapy in a rat liver metastasis model.

    PubMed Central

    van Hillegersberg, R.; Marijnissen, J. P.; Kort, W. J.; Zondervan, P. E.; Terpstra, O. T.; Star, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of hepatic tumours has been restricted owing to the preferential retention of photosensitizers in liver tissue. We therefore investigated interstitial tumour illumination as a means of selective PDT. A piece of colon carcinoma CC531 was implanted in the liver of Wag/Rij rats. Photofrin was administered (5 mg kg-1 i.v.) 2 days before laser illumination. Tumours with a mean (+/- s.e.) diameter of 5.7 +/- 0.1 mm (n = 106, 20 days after implantation) were illuminated with 625 nm light, at 200 mW cm-1 from a 0.5 cm cylindrical diffuser and either 100, 200, 400, 800 or 1600 J cm-1. Control groups received either laser illumination only, Photofrin only or diffuser insertion only. Short-term effects were studied on the second day after illumination by light microscopy and computer-assisted integration of the circumference of damaged areas. Long-term effects were studied on day 36. To determine the biochemistry of liver damage and function, serum ASAT and ALAT levels were measured on day 1 and 2, and antipyrine clearance on day 1. Tumour and surrounding liver necrosis increased with light dose delivered (P < 0.001). Best long-term results were obtained at 800 J cm-1 with complete tumour remission in 4 out of 6 animals. No deterioration in liver function was found. The results of this study show the ability of interstitial PDT to cause major destruction of tumour tissue in the liver combined with minimal liver damage. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1457339

  11. A follow-up study of progression from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical examination of p53 protein overexpression in the bronchi of ex-chromate workers.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Hirano, T.; Tsuchiya, E.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bronchus is considered to develop from preneoplastic 'dysplasia', but reports of sequential observation of this dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in humans are very few. We followed four dysplastic lesions found in the bronchi of three ex-chromate workers by bronchoscopy and biopsy and found that all of them progressed to SCC. Of the four lesions, three were severe dysplasias at the first biopsy which progressed to SCCs in 7-13 months. The last one was a slight dysplasia at the first biopsy and showed progression of the atypia to carcinoma in 6 years and 10 months. An immunohistochemical analysis of the chronological change in p53 protein expression in these lesions and in normal ciliated epithelium taken from the surroundings was conducted in each case. Overexpression of p53 protein was observed in two of the severe dysplasias and the one slight dysplasia, as well as their eventual SCCs. However, no such change was apparent in one case of severe dysplasia or its eventual SCC. Normal epithelium was consistently negative. Our results provide direct proof of the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and suggest that alteration in the expression of p53 protein might be an important early event which persists. Therefore, the immunohistochemical detection of p53 overexpression in biopsy specimens of bronchial epithelium might be useful for evaluation of preneoplastic lesions in high-risk group individuals and for early diagnosis of bronchial cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9043024

  12. Expression of Osmotin-Like Genes in the Halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Ana M.; Nelson, Donald E.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Singh, Narendra K.; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    A peptide (molecular mass 50 kilodaltons) that is immunologically related to tobacco osmotin was detected in cells of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia. This protein was constitutively expressed in both unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells. A predominant osmotin-like peptide (molecular mass 24 kilodaltons) was also found in culture media after cell growth. Two unique A. nummularia cDNA clones, pA8 and pA9, encoding osmotin-like proteins have been isolated. The pA8 and pA9 inserts are 952 and 792 base pairs and encode peptides of 222 and 224 amino acids, respectively. The peptide deduced from pA8 has a molecular mass of 23,808 daltons and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.31, whereas the peptide derived from pA9 has a molecular mass of 23,827 daltons and an isoelectric point of 6.88. Unique transcripts were detected by the inserts of the cDNA clones, two (1.2 and 1.0 kilobases) by pA8 and one (0.9 kilobase) by pA9. The pA8 transcripts were constitutively accumulated in unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells, whereas the mRNA levels were up-regulated by abscisic acid treatment. The level of pA9 mRNA was induced by NaCl treatment and increased in cells as a function of NaCl adaptation. Southern analysis of the genomic DNA indicated the presence of osmotin-like multigene families in A. nummularia. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:16668870

  13. Neurofibrillary degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. Immunochemical characterization of tau proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Buée-Scherrer, V.; Buée, L.; Hof, P. R.; Leveugle, B.; Gilles, C.; Loerzel, A. J.; Perl, D. P.; Delacourte, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles are observed in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. The major components of neurofibrillary tangles are hyperphosphorylated tau proteins that can be directly detected in brain homogenates, using immunoblotting with specific immunological probes. To investigate whether tau proteins differ biochemically among various neurodegenerative disorders, we analyzed a series of brain samples from Guamanian patients in comparison with Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and normal aging. In Alzheimer's disease, these hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are composed of a triplet referred to as tau 55, 64, and 69, whereas in progressive supranuclear palsy, neurofibrillary degeneration is characterized by a tau doublet (tau 64 and 69). In the present study, characterization of tau proteins was performed by immunoblotting, on different cortical and subcortical regions of postmortem brain specimens from Guamanian natives. In all of the cases, biochemical data were always consistent with neuropathological findings. In contrast to Alzheimer's disease patients where the tau triplet is found mostly in cortical regions, a similar triplet was strongly detected in both cortical and subcortical areas in Guamanian patients. The tau profile differed quantitatively from case to case demonstrating that the Alzheimer's disease-related tau triplet had a heterogeneous regional distribution. These data suggest that the tau triplet found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam is similar to that observed in Alzheimer's disease, and the regional distribution of tau proteins differs in these disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7717459

  14. Corrective Neuromuscular Approach to the Treatment of Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, Robert; Dolski, Angela

    2000-01-01

    corrective neuromuscular approach in the management of iliotibial band friction syndrome represents a viable alternative to orthotic intervention. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:16558617

  15. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  16. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  17. Unilateral microfibrillar abnormalities in a case of asymmetric Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, M; Olson, S; Burgio, R G; Martini, A; Valli, M; Cetta, G; Hori, H; Hollister, D W

    1990-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome is a dominantly inherited connective-tissue disorder characterized by ocular, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Although the underlying biochemical and molecular defect(s) of this pleiotropic disease is currently unknown, we have consistently observed apparent diminished content of elastin-associated microfibrillar fibers accumulating in skin, or produced by cultured fibroblasts, from patients with the Marfan syndrome and have documented the cosegregation of these immunofluorescent abnormalities of microfibrillar fibers with the Marfan syndrome phenotype in family studies. Recently, an unusual patient has been described with unilateral phenotypic features of the Marfan syndrome, providing an unique opportunity to compare microfibrillar fibers and other connective-tissue components between the affected and nonaffected sides. In the present report, we demonstrate striking differences in apparent content of microfibrillar fibers, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence of skin and fibroblast cultures, that are revealed when multiple homologous samples derived from different sides of the patient's body are compared. In contrast, no differences in apparent content of type III collagen or in the biosynthesis and apparent structure of types I and III (pro)collagens were found. HLA types and chromosome heteromorphisms were identical in fibroblasts from both sides of the body, eliminating the formal possibility of chimerism and suggesting that a postzygotic mutation accounts for the asymmetric manifestation of the Marfan syndrome in this patient. The observation of striking decreases in microfibrillar fibers on the affected side of the body provides further evidence that abnormalities of this component of the elastic fiber system may be central to the pathogenesis and possibly the etiology of the Marfan syndrome. Images Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:2180285

  18. Reactive Neuromuscular Training for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Fields, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the response to a proprioceptive training model during a 1-week rehabilitation regime. The techniques were demonstrated on a college-aged female basketball player who had injured her anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) several weeks earlier. The athlete was tested, trained, and then retested during her semester break. Background: The ACL injury has become a fairly common occurrence in the world of athletics. Knowing this, the athletic trainer is constantly searching for ways to improve the rehabilitative process. New research demonstrates that rehabilitation should be based on proprioception. The ACL not only serves a mechanical role by limiting passive knee mobility but also serves a sensory role through the mechanoreceptors deep in its tissue, which communicate with the neuromuscular system to provide proprioceptive feedback during training and competition. Differential Diagnosis: Partial or complete tear of the ACL. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a rehabilitation protocol based on proprioception, which uses reactive neuromuscular training. Uniqueness: Our rehabilitation focused on the muscular imbalances about the hip, knee, and ankle. The athlete achieved dramatic decreases in muscular imbalances about the hip and knee in only 1 week of rehabilitation through reactive neuromuscular training. Conclusions: The athlete had significant gains in strength over her brief period of therapy. However, these gains can be viewed only as neuromuscular changes and not strictly as gains in strength. The athlete returned to postseason competition under the supervision of her surgeon, who later recommended surgical reconstruction at the completion of the basketball season with rehabilitation during the offseason. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:16558562

  19. Cosegregation of intragenic markers with a novel mutation that causes Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I: implication in carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Moghrabi, N; Clarke, D J; Burchell, B; Boxer, M

    1993-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1 (CN-1) is a familial disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice and leads to kernicterus, neurological damage, and eventual death unless treated with liver transplantation. Previous reports identified mutations in the UGT1 gene complex to be the cause of the disease. The total absence of all phenol/bilirubin UGT proteins and their activities in liver homogenate of a CN-1 patient was determined by enzymological and immunochemical analysis. A novel homozygous nonsense mutation (CGA-->TGA) was identified in the patient by the combined techniques of PCR and direct sequencing. This mutation was located in exon 3 of the constant region in the gene complex which is common to all phenol and bilirubin UGTs. The segregation of the mutation in the patient's family was analyzed and confirmed the recessive nature of the disease. Newly developed intragenic polymorphic probes (UGT1* 4 and UGT-Const) were used on Southern blots of MspI-digested genomic DNA of the patient and his family. The segregation of individual alleles within the family was observed from haplotypes generated. Comparison of the segregation of haplotypes with the mutation for the patient and his family revealed the allele identified by the A1-B1-C2 haplotype to be carrying the mutation. The risk of recombination occurring is negligible, because of the intragenic nature of the probes. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of these probes in carrier detection and prenatal/presymptomatic diagnosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8102509

  20. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  1. Autoantibodies to evolutionarily conserved epitopes of enolase in a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Gitlits, V M; Sentry, J W; Matthew, M L; Smith, A I; Toh, B H

    1997-01-01

    Although the pathology of discoid lupus erythematosus is well documented the causative agents are not known. Here, we report the identity of the target antigen of an autoantibody present in high titre in the serum of a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus. We have demonstrated that the antigen is enolase; first, because it has properties consistent with this glycolytic enzyme (47,000 MW, cytosolic localization and ubiquitous tissue distribution). Secondly, limited amino acid sequence determination after trypsin digestion shows identity with alpha-enolase. Finally, the autoimmune serum immunoblots rabbit and yeast enolase and predominantly one isoelectric form of enolase (PI approximately 6.1). These results indicate that the reactive autoepitopes are highly conserved from man to yeast. The results also suggest that the autoantibodies are most reactive to the alpha-isoform of enolase, although it is possible that they may also be reactive with gamma-enolase, and have least reactivity to beta-enolase. The anti-enolase autoantibodies belong to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype. This is the first report of IgG1 autoantibodies to evolutionarily conserved autoepitopes of enolase in the serum of a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus. Previous reports of autoantibodies to enolase have suggested associations with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I and cancer-associated retinopathy. This report and an earlier report of what is likely to be enolase autoantibodies in two patients without systemic disease suggest that enolase autoantibodies have a broad association and are not restricted to any particular disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9486109

  2. Lectin histochemistry of an ovine lysosomal storage disease with deficiencies of beta-galactosidase and alpha-neuraminidase.

    PubMed Central

    Murnane, R. D.; Ahern-Rindell, A. J.; Prieur, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Lectin histochemistry is a useful technique to identify and to localize in cells and tissues the terminal carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The specific diagnosis of some glycoprotein storage diseases was accomplished using lectin staining patterns, and such methods of diagnosis have been attempted for some glycolipid storage diseases. This technique was applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and frozen neural, hepatic, and renal tissues of sheep with an inherited lysosomal storage disease with deficiencies of beta-galactosidase and alpha-neuraminidase. The cytoplasm of central nervous system neurons of affected sheep in paraffin-embedded sections stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). The cytoplasm of neurons in frozen sections of these tissues stained with PNA, RCA-I, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I). The cytoplasm of frozen and paraffin-embedded sections of liver and kidney of affected sheep stained with PNA, whereas paraffin-embedded sections also stained with RCA-I. These results suggest the stored material in this disease has terminal saccharide moieties consisting of beta-galactose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Paraffin processing altered lectin staining patterns. Although the staining pattern in this glycolipid storage disease was complex, lectin histochemistry may prove to be a useful technique for the characterization of storage products and for the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2508478

  3. Effect of nitrous oxide on intracellular events of GT1-7 GnRH-secreting neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q.; Rosenberg, M.; Kugel, G.; Agarwal, R. K.; Phillips, J.; Kumar, M. S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) may result in decreased fertility and other reproductive problems in women working in dental offices. This study explored direct effects of N2O on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons involved in pituitary-gonadal function. An immortalized GnRH-secreting GT1-7 cell line was used to evaluate the effects of 60% N2O exposure for 24 hours on pro-GnRH mRNA levels, KCl-stimulated GnRH levels, and certain signaling pathways. N2O exposure for 24 hours decreased pro-GnRH mRNA levels by approximately 80% without affecting cell viability or intracellular GnRH levels. The ability of KCl to release GnRH stores was also significantly reduced. Western blot analyses of ERK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation and IkappaB did not indicate any change in phosphorylation, although p63 tyrosine phosphorylation was increased after short-term N2O exposure. Levels of c-fos, a nuclear transcription factor, were not changed by N2O exposure. These results indicate that N2O significantly decreases evoked release of GnRH as well as GnRH mRNA levels either by decreased synthesis or by mRNA stability. These results may be important in understanding adverse effects of N2O on female workers in dental practice where the gas is not scavenged. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:12866801

  4. Retrospective on community dentistry and public health at the University of Southern California (1966-1976), Part 2.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    The authorization of departments of community dentistry and public health in the nation's dental schools is a relatively recent innovation in dental education. Such a department was established at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry in 1966, as part of the School of Medicine's effort to share responsibility in providing both access and availability of health services in inner-city Los Angeles, California. Dentistry was included in the protocol submitted to the US Office of Economic Opportunity to build a neighborhood health center in Watts, operated under the joint jurisdiction of the medical and dental schools. The dental division of the health center was designated a satellite of the community dentistry department. The department envisioned future changes during the revolutionary 1960s when all aspects of the nation were experiencing upheaval as traditional concepts were challenged by new attitudes. The nation's leaders in government and education as well as in the health professions were stimulated by scientific and technologic discoveries. Dentistry had come of age, having gained the respect of other health-care disciplines. It was a time of expanded exploration of means toward a healthier populace and a more sensitive ethical provider of health care. In one decade, the USC community dentistry department accomplished a major shift in attitude about the specialty from one of pervasive opposition and antipathy to that of acceptance and even enthusiasm. The department became competitive with similar units nationwide in educating dental students and practitioners to fulfill their responsibilities at the highest level of proficiency and to be true to the trust bestowed on them by the public. In pursuit of these goals, the department reflected credit on dentistry and the University of Southern California. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9617072

  5. Expression of 32/67-kDa laminin receptor in laminin adhesion-selected human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, W. H.; Lee, B. L.; Jun, S. H.; Song, S. Y.; Kleinman, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Laminin promotes the malignant phenotype, and the expression of certain laminin receptors is increased in malignancy. Previously, we demonstrated that a laminin-adhesive subclone of a human colon cancer cell line showed increased tumorigenicity in nude mice and increased affinity of the beta1 integrin for laminin relative to the laminin-non-adhesive subclone. The total amount of either beta1 integrin protein or mRNA did not increase. As levels of the 32/67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) correlate with malignancy, we examined 67LR expression in the laminin adhesion-selected human colon cancer cells. The laminin-adhesive subclone, which was more tumorigenic in both heterotopic and orthotopic locations than in a laminin-non-adhesive subclone, showed cell-surface membrane staining of 67LR, whereas the laminin-non-adhesive subclone showed cytoplasmic staining of 67LR. No difference in either the amount of 67LR mRNA or the amount of protein was observed in the parental cells than in the laminin-adhesive and non-adhesive subclones. When assayed on a laminin affinity column, more 67LR molecules bound to the column with cell extracts from the laminin-adhesive subclone than was observed with the non-adhesive subclone. These findings suggest that the increased tumorigenicity of laminin adhesion-selected tumour cells might be due to an alteration in the distribution and/or adhesiveness of multiple receptors including 67LR and beta1 integrin. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9459140

  6. Lipoproteins modulate expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Han, J.; Nicholson, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR) bind and internalize oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), a modified lipoprotein that is thought to be the proximal source of lipids that accumulate within cells of atherosclerotic lesions. The role of lipoproteins in modulating MSR expression are undetermined. We studied the effect of lipoproteins, native and modified LDL (acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and OxLDL) on the expression of the MSR in RAW cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Exposure to lipoproteins resulted in a marked induction of MSR mRNA expression (12- to 17-fold) with OxLDL and AcLDL having the greatest effects. Maximum induction occurred 1 hour after treatment with OxLDL and LDL. AcLDL induced a fourfold increase at 1 hour followed by a return to baseline and peak expression (sixfold) at 14 hours. Scavenger receptor function, as measured by 125I-AcLDL binding, was only modestly increased in response to lipoproteins. Incubation of macrophages with a cholesterol acceptor particle resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in MSR mRNA expression, which paralleled cholesterol loss from the cells. OxLDL did not affect MSR mRNA stability, implying that MSR mRNA was transcriptionally regulated by lipoproteins. Finally, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from mice following intraperitoneal injection of lipoproteins. Macrophage expression of MSR mRNA was significantly (16-fold) increased by LDL, AcLDL, or OxLDL relative to mice infused with phosphate-buffered saline. This demonstration that exposure to lipoproteins increases expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor implies that lipoproteins can further contribute to foam cell development in atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626069

  7. Chronic arsenic exposure and risk of infant mortality in two areas of Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Browning, S R; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Ferreccio, C; Peralta, C; Gibb, H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with a range of neurologic, vascular, dermatologic, and carcinogenic effects. However, limited research has been directed at the association of arsenic exposure and human reproductive health outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the trends in infant mortality between two geographic locations in Chile: Antofagasta, which has a well-documented history of arsenic exposure from naturally contaminated water, and Valparaíso, a comparable low-exposure city. The arsenic concentration in Antofagasta's public drinking water supply rose substantially in 1958 with the introduction of a new water source, and remained elevated until 1970. We used a retrospective study design to examine time and location patterns in infant mortality between 1950 and 1996, using univariate statistics, graphical techniques, and Poisson regression analysis. Results of the study document the general declines in late fetal and infant mortality over the study period in both locations. The data also indicate an elevation of the late fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates for Antofagasta, relative to Valparaíso, for specific time periods, which generally coincide with the period of highest arsenic concentration in the drinking water of Antofagasta. Poisson regression analysis yielded an elevated and significant association between arsenic exposure and late fetal mortality [rate ratio (RR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.9], neonatal mortality (RR = 1.53; CI, 1.4-1.7), and postneonatal mortality (RR = 1.26; CI, 1.2-1.3) after adjustment for location and calendar time. The findings from this investigation may support a role for arsenic exposure in increasing the risk of late fetal and infant mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10903622

  8. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  9. Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markaverich, B M; Webb, B; Densmore, C L; Gregory, R R

    1995-01-01

    Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subsequent effects on uterine growth suggest these compounds are less active estrogens than estradiol and therefore may reduce the risk of developing breast or prostate cancer in humans by preventing estradiol binding to ER. With the renewed interest in the relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer cause and prevention, we assessed the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on uterotropic response in the immature, ovariectomized rat. Our studies demonstrated that in this animal model, coumestrol is an atypical estrogen that does not stimulate uterine cellular hyperplasia. Although acute (subcutaneous injection) or chronic (multiple injection or orally via drinking water) administration of coumestrol significantly increased uterine wet and dry weights, the phytoestrogen failed to increase uterine DNA content. The lack of true estrogenic activity was characterized by the inability of this phytoestrogen to cause cytosolic ER depletion, nuclear ER accumulation, or the stimulation of nuclear type II sites which characteristically precede estrogenic stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and proliferation. In fact, subcutaneous or oral coumestrol treatment caused an atypical threefold induction of cytosolic ER without corresponding cytosolic depletion and nuclear accumulation of this receptor, and this increased the sensitivity of the uterus to subsequent stimulation by estradiol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p574-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:7556010

  10. Laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with hematologic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, J L; Lefor, A T; Steers, J; Heyman, M; Graham, S M; Imbembo, A L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors review their initial experience with laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with hematologic diseases. Efficacy, morbidity, and mortality of the technique are presented, and other patient recovery parameters are discussed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed infrequently and data regarding its safety and efficacy are scarce. Factors such as a high level of technical difficulty, the potential for sudden, severe hemorrhage, and slow accrual of operative experience due to a relatively limited number of procedures are responsible. The potential patient benefits from the development of a minimally invasive form of splenectomy are significant. METHODS. Clinical follow-up, a prospective longitudinal database, and review of medical records were analyzed for all patients referred for elective splenectomy for hematologic disease from March 1992 to March 1995. RESULTS. Laparoscopic splenectomy was attempted in 43 patients and successfully completed in 35 (81%). Therapeutic platelet response to splenectomy occurred in 82% of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hematocrit level increased in 60% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia undergoing successful laparoscopic splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 11.6% (5 of 43 patients), and the mortality rate was 4.7% (2 of 43 patients). Return of gastrointestinal function occurred in patients 23.1 hours after laparoscopic splenectomy and 76 hours after conversion to open splenectomy (p < 0.05). Mean length of stay was 2.7 days after laparoscopic splenectomy and 6.8 days after conversion to open splenectomy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. Laparoscopic splenectomy may be performed with efficacy, morbidity, and mortality rates comparable to those of open splenectomy for hematologic diseases, and it appears to retain other patient benefits of laparoscopic surgery. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8678613

  11. Anion exchanger immunoreactivity in human salivary glands in health and Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, J. J.; Vázquez, M.; Idoate, M. A.; Montuenga, L.; Martínez-Ansó, E.; Castillo, J. E.; García, N.; Medina, J. F.; Prieto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Salivary gland ducts play a relevant role in saliva secretion through transport processes. Na(+)-independent chloride-bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) may be involved in these processes by generating ion fluxes into the salivary secretion. In Sjögren's syndrome, a disorder with gland dysfunction, there might be an impaired expression of AE proteins. Here we study AE immunoreactivities in human salivary glands, both in health and in Sjögren's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on salivary glands from normal subjects and patients with Sjögren's syndrome, using two monoclonal antibodies against AE1 and AE2. Normal salivary glands showed AE2 immunoreactivity, which was restricted to the epithelium of the ducts, with no staining at the acini. A strong positivity was seen in the basolateral portion of the striated ducts, while interlobular duct cells showed a discrete positivity at their apical pole. In salivary glands from most of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome, AE2 immunoreactivity was absent in the ducts as well as in the acini. In both normal and diseased salivary glands, AE1 immunoreactivity was only located at the erythrocyte membrane. The recently reported AE0 was discarded because no AE0 message was found in salivary glands by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, AE2 immunoreactivity is observed in the ducts of normal salivary glands, particularly in the striated ducts. AE2 immunoreactivity is virtually absent in salivary glands from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, which may reflect either a loss of AE2 after inflammatory atrophy, or a primary defect occurring in the disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7778681

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to a rat nestin fusion protein recognize a 220-kDa polypeptide in subsets of fetal and adult human central nervous system neurons and in primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tohyama, T.; Lee, V. M.; Rorke, L. B.; Marvin, M.; McKay, R. D.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Nestin is the major intermediate filament protein of embryonic central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells. To identify proteins involved in early stages of lineage commitment in the developing human CNS we generated monoclonal antibodies to a TrpE-rat nestin fusion protein. This resulted in a monoclonal antibody (designated NST11) that did not recognize authentic human nestin, but did recognize a novel neuron-specific human polypeptide expressed in a subset of embryonic and adult CNS neurons as well as in medulloblastomas. NST11 immunoreactivity was abundant in developing spinal cord motor neurons, but was extinguished in these neurons by 17 weeks gestation. NST11 also labeled Purkinje cells at 17 weeks gestation, but Purkinje cells continued to express the NST11 antigen throughout gestation as well as in the adult cerebellum, and NST11 immunoreactivity was more abundant in Purkinje cells than in any other human CNS neurons. No NST11 immunoreactivity was detected in cells of the adult human peripheral nervous system or in a variety of adult non-neural human tissues. Further, NST11 almost exclusively stained cerebellar medulloblastomas. In Western blots of immature and mature human cerebral and cerebellar extracts, NST11 did not bind human nestin, but did detect an immunoband with a molecular weight of 220 kd. A similar immunoband was detected in medulloblastoma-derived cell lines with a neuron-like phenotype. These findings suggest that the NST11 monoclonal antibody recognizes a novel protein expressed by a subpopulation of immature and mature human CNS neurons, medulloblastomas, and medulloblastoma-derived cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7686344

  13. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  14. Adhesion-induced domain formation by interplay of long-range repulsion and short-range attraction force: a model membrane study.

    PubMed Central

    Albersdörfer, A; Feder, T; Sackmann, E

    1997-01-01

    We study the role of the interplay of specific and universal forces for the adhesion of giant vesicles on solid supported membranes. To model the situation of cell adhesion, we incorporated lipopolymers (phospholipids with polyethyleneoxide headgroups) as artificial glycocalix, whereas attractive lock-and-key forces are mimicked by incorporating biotinylated lipids into both membranes and by mediating the strong coupling through streptavidin. Adhesion is studied by quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM), which enables visualization of the contact zone and reconstruction of the height profile of the membrane beyond the contact line (outside the contact zone) up to a height of 1 micron. We demonstrate that adhesion is accompanied by lateral phase separation, leading to the formation of domains of tight adhesion (adhesion plaques) separated by areas of weak adhesion exhibiting pronounced flickering. By analyzing the height profile S(x) near the contact line in terms of the tension equilibrium (Young equation) and the moment equilibrium, respectively, the adhesion energy and membrane tension can be approximately measured locally. We show that the adhesion energy is about three orders of magnitude larger for the adhesion plaques than for the weekly adhering regions. The adhesion is studied as a function of the excess area of the vesicle generated by temperature variation. A very remarkable finding is that increased excess area is not always stored in the contact area, but leads to the formation of microbuds (diameter approximately 2 microns). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:9199789

  15. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  16. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    mutation yet reported in type II procollagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7741714

  17. The morphologic characteristics of intercellular junctions between normal human liver cells and cells from patients with extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Robenek, H.; Herwig, J.; Themann, H.

    1980-01-01

    Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7395970

  18. An evaluation of the utility of anti-granulocyte and anti-leukocyte monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, R. F.; Gatter, K. C.; Pulford, K. A.; Mason, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of six different monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies (Leu M1, TG1, 3C4, BY/87a, BY/37a, and 3CD1) has been evaluated in 23 cases of Hodgkin's disease (7 lymphocyte predominant, 12 nodular sclerosing, and 5 mixed cellularity); in a variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in a series of reactive and benign lesions of lymph nodes. Applying a monoclonal antibody (PD7/26) to leukocyte common antigen (T200), we have also investigated reports that the L&H variants in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease are strongly immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen in contrast to the lack of reactivity of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and variants thereof in other forms of Hodgkin's disease. All six monoclonal anti-granulocyte antibodies reacted against RS cells and "Hodgkin's cells" in the nodular sclerosing (NSHD) and mixed cellularity (MCHD) types, with strong cell membrane and juxtanuclear (Golgi) staining. In contrast an anti-leukocyte antibody PD7/26 was unreactive with RS cells and variants thereof in NSHD and MCHD. On the other hand, RS cells and L&H variants thereof in the nodular L&H form of Hodgkin's disease (nodular lymphocyte predominant type) showed reactivity with PD7/26 but not with the anti-granulocyte markers. Rare L&H cells in 2 cases of diffuse lymphocyte predominant type showed reactivity with some, but not all, of the anti-granulocyte antibodies. These findings provide further support for the concept that the nodular L&H type of Hodgkin's disease represents an entity distinct from other forms of this disorder. Our studies also demonstrate the usefulness of these immunoperoxidase techniques when applied to formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5A and B Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3717303

  19. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, B. A.; Spencer, C.; Eberwine, J.

    1996-01-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington's disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to > 37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and UV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8751857

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  1. Influence of transbilayer area asymmetry on the morphology of large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Mui, B L; Döbereiner, H G; Madden, T D; Cullis, P R

    1995-01-01

    The morphological consequences of differences in the monolayer surface areas of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) have been examined employing cryoelectron microscopy techniques. Surface area was varied by inducing net transbilayer transport of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC):DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It is shown that when DOPG is transported from the inner to the outer monolayer, initially invaginated LUVs are transformed to long narrow tubular structures, or spherical structures with one or more protrusions. Tubular structures are also seen in response to outward DOPG transport in DOPC:DOPG:Chol (6:1:3, mol:mol:mol) LUV systems, and when lyso-PC is allowed to partition into the exterior monolayer of DOPC:DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in the absence of DOPG transport. Conversely, when the inner monolayer area is expanded by the transport of DOPG from the outer monolayer to the inner monolayer of non-invaginated LUVs, a reversion to invaginated structures is observed. The morphological changes are well described by an elastic bending theory of the bilayer. Identification of the difference in relaxed monolayer areas and of the volume-to-area ratio of the LUVs as the shape-determining factors allows a quantitative classification of the observed morphologies. The morphology seen in LUVs supports the possibility that factors leading to differences in monolayer surface areas could play important roles in intracellular membrane transport processes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8519993

  2. Development of neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic mice. Heterogeneity of hormone expression.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Grant, S. G.; Yiangou, Y.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.; Bautch, V. L.; Solcia, E.; Polak, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Expression of hormones in endocrine tumors and derived cell lines of transgenic mice carrying insulin-promoted oncogenes has been investigated by histochemical, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and radioimmunologic means. Tumors of the pancreas, small intestine, mesentery, and liver were examined. Insulin-immunoreactive cells were prevalent in pancreatic tumors, with a significant subpopulation of pancreatic polypeptide-immunoreactive elements. Conventional ultrastructural and immunogold analysis identified insulin-storing beta granules in pancreatic tumor cells. In contrast, the largest immunoreactive subpopulation of intestinal tumors expressed secretin (53% of total cells), followed by proglucagon-related peptides (15%), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (7%), gastrin (7%), pancreatic polypeptide (2%), neurotensin (2%), and somatostatin (1%). No detectable immunoreactivity for either insulin or serotonin was observed. Electron microscopy and immunogold labeling showed that intestinal tumor cells contained secretin-storing S-type granules. Lymph node and liver tumors contained secretin-immunoreactive cells with ultrastructural features similar to those of intestinal tumors. In addition, high levels of circulating insulinlike and secretinlike immunoreactants were detectable. Analogous hormone profiles were identified in tumor cell lines and culture media. Large T-antigen immunoreactivity was detected in all the nuclei of neoplastic cells, as well as in insulin-immunoreactive elements of non-neoplastic islets and pancreatic ducts and in some secretin-immunoreactive cells of small intestinal mucosa. These data indicate that neuroendocrine tumors arise both in beta cell and S-cell subpopulations of transgenic mice. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2162628

  3. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  4. Urinary nickel excretion in populations living in the proximity of two russian nickel refineries: a Norwegian-Russian population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Sivertsen, T; Tchachtchine, V; Lund, E; Bykov, V; Thomassen, Y; Norseth, T

    1998-01-01

    The Russian nickel refineries located in the cities of Nikel and Zapolyarny close to the Norwegian border are responsible for extensive sulfur dioxide and nickel pollution, as well as severe ecological damage in both countries. The aim of our study was to investigate human nickel exposure in the populations living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. The design was a cross-sectional population-based study of adults aged 18-69 years residing in Sor-Varanger municipality, Norway, and Nikel and Zapolyarny, Russia, during 1994 and 1995. Individual exposure to nickel was assessed by measurements of nickel in urine using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For controls, urine was collected from adults in the Russian cities of Apatity and Umba (Kola Peninsula) and the Norwegian city of Tromso, all of which are locations without nearby point sources of nickel. Altogether 2,233 urine specimens were analysed for nickel. People living in Nikel had the highest concentrations (median 3.4 microg/l), followed by Umba (median 2.7 microg/l), Zapolyarny (median 2.0 microg/l), Apatity (median 1.9 microg/l), Tromso (median 1.2 microg/l), and Sor-Varanger (median 0.6 microg/l). Regardless of geographical location, the Russian study groups all had a higher urinary-nickel average than those in Norway (p<0.001). With the exception of Nikel, neither the Russian nor the Norwegian urinary-nickel levels were associated with residence location near a Russian nickel refinery. We concluded that industrial nickel pollution alone could not explain the observed discrepancy between Norway and Russia; we also discuss other possible nickel exposure sources that may account for the high urinary levels found in Russia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9681979

  5. DNase I hypersensitivity sites and nuclear protein binding on the fatty acid synthase gene: identification of an element with properties similar to known glucose-responsive elements.

    PubMed Central

    Foufelle, F; Lepetit, N; Bosc, D; Delzenne, N; Morin, J; Raymondjean, M; Ferré, P

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression is positively regulated by glucose in rat adipose tissue and liver. In the present study, we have identified in the first intron of the gene a sequence closely related to known glucose-responsive elements such as in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes, including a putative upstream stimulatory factor/major late transcription factor (USF/MLTF) binding site (E-box) (+ 292 nt to + 297 nt). Location of this sequence corresponds to a site of hypersensitivity to DNase I which is present in the liver but not in the spleen. Moreover, using this information from a preliminary report of the present work, others have shown that a + 283 nt to + 303 nt sequence of the FAS gene can confer glucose responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. The protein binding to this region has been investigated in vitro by a combination of DNase I footprinting and gel-retardation experiments with synthetic oligonucleotides and known nuclear proteins. DNase I footprinting experiments using a + 161 nt to + 405 nt fragment of the FAS gene demonstrate that a region from + 290 nt to + 316 nt is protected by nuclear extracts from liver and spleen. This region binds two ubiquitous nuclear factors, USF/MLTF and the CAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 (CTF/NF1). Binding of these factors is similar in nuclear extracts from liver which does or does not express the FAS gene as observed for glucose-responsive elements in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes. This suggests a posttranslational modification of a factor of the complex after glucose stimulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7772036

  6. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083

  7. Expression of a chimeric helix-loop-helix gene, Id-SCL, in K562 human leukemic cells is associated with nuclear segmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, A. N.; Wolf, M. L.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a chimeric gene, Id-SCL, in which the 3' helix-loop-helix encoding portion of the presumptive oncogene SCL/tal is joined to the 5' coding portion of Id, an inhibitory helix-loop-helix gene. The predicted protein product of this chimeric gene contains the helix-loop-helix dimerization domain of SCL/tal, but, lacking a basic DNA binding domain, is predicted to have the inhibitory function of the Id product. Expression of the Id-SCL fusion gene in stably transfected K562 cells reproducibly resulted in nuclear segmentation and depressed growth rates; both of these phenotypic effects demonstrated a dosage dependence on the levels of Id-SCL mRNA and protein expressed in the various clones. Electron microscopy of cells expressing high levels of Id-SCL mRNA showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic perinuclear thin filaments and diminution of marginal heterochromatin in the nuclei. No other changes in hematopoietic differentiation status were observed in association with Id-SCL expression. Expression of intact Id and SCL/tal genes, as well as deletion mutants of Id and SCL/tal, independently transfected into K562 cells, indicated that the nuclear segmentation effect is dependent on the presence of a protein possessing a helix-loop-helix domain but lacking a basic domain. Our studies suggest that the balance of transcriptional inhibitory and stimulatory helix-loop-helix proteins in cells may be important determinants of proliferation and of structural organization within cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:1443047

  8. Expression of thrombospondins by endothelial cells. Injury is correlated with TSP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M. J.; Iruela-Arispe, L.; O'Brien, E. R.; Truong, T.; LaBell, T.; Bornstein, P.; Sage, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSP-1, -2, and -3) comprise a family of proteins that are homologous at the carboxy terminus but have unique sequences at the amino terminus that might be correlated with the regulation of cell behavior. To investigate the expression of TSP-1, -2, and -3 in endothelial cells, we examined developing murine blood vessels and human atherosclerotic plaques by in situ hybridization. The expression of TSP-1 was also characterized in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Expression of TSP-2 was seen in the dorsal aorta as early as embryonic day 10; TSP-1 was not detected in endothelial cells until later stages, and TSP-3 was not apparent in the vasculature. In atherosclerotic specimens, TSP-1 mRNA was detected in many intraplaque microvessels and in the endothelium lining the atheromatous plaque; TSP-2 was absent from these regions. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells did not transcribe TSP-2 mRNA at detectable levels. There were high steady-state levels of TSP-1 mRNA in subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells before confluence and at the wound edge after injury of the cell monolayer, with maximal expression of TSP-1 in cultures at a time during which approximately 35% of the cells were in S phase. As the majority of these cells subsequently undergo mitosis, these data are consistent with TSP-1 as an inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation that functions in G1. These results support the conclusion that, despite sequence homology, the TSPs have distinct functions in vascular biology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7573352

  9. A familial "balanced" 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, J; Hemann, M

    1995-01-01

    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband's father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father's 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband's sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7825591

  10. Reflex-mediated desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs exposed acutely to sulfuric acid aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Terminal conducting airways are known to be vulnerable to direct injury by a variety of noxious aerosols. Sulfuric acid aerosol, a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, produces desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs that is believed to result from direct deep lung irritation, an effect separable from reflex airway constriction induced by sulfuric acid. To characterize desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium, 20 guinea pigs were exposed to 32.6 mg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.0 micron for 4 hours. The guinea pigs were killed upon termination of the exposure, or 24 hours later, and airway alterations were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy. To test whether the development of bronchiolar epithelial desquamation is independent of reflex airway constriction, 24 guinea pigs were exposed to an identical aerosol for 4 hours after pretreating half with 5 mg/kg atropine sulfate intraperitoneally to inhibit airway constriction. Sulfuric acid produced diffuse pulmonary hyperinflation with areas of consolidation and atelectasis. Epithelial desquamation occurred in airways supplying regions of developing atelectasis and was most extensive in terminal bronchioles. Parasympathetic effector blockade with atropine eliminated epithelial desquamation. These results indicate that sulfuric acid-produced desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium is not separable from reflex airway constriction and that terminal conducting airways are vulnerable not only to direct injury by noxious aerosols but also to indirect, reflex-mediated injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:7361847

  11. HOXC4, HOXC5, and HOXC6 expression in primary cutaneous lymphoid lesions. High expression of HOXC5 in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Bijl, J. J.; Rieger, E.; van Oostveen, J. W.; Walboomers, J. M.; Kreike, M.; Willemze, R.; Meijer, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Homeobox (HOX) genes are involved in the lineage-specific differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. Recently, we reported a largely similar expression pattern of HOXC4 and HOXC6 in normal and neoplastic cells of the lymphoid lineage. In contrast, HOXC5 was specifically expressed in a subset of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL) but not in normal lymphocytes or lymphoid leukemias. This might suggest a role for HOXC5 in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. In the present study the expression of HOXC4, HOXC5, and HOXC6 in primary cutaneous lymphomas was investigated. Using RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we found strong expression of HOXC4 and HOXC6 in all, except one, primary cutaneous lymphomas and all reactive cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Interestingly, a strong expression of HOXC5 in primary anaplastic CD30+ large T-cell lymphomas was found. RISH was consistently negative for HOXC5 in all other types of primary cutaneous B- and T-cell lymphomas. However, by semiquantitative RT-PCR these lymphomas showed a weak expression of HOXC5 mRNA. Therefore, we concluded that these lymphomas express low constitutive levels of HOXC5 mRNA. Furthermore, HOXC5 expression was consistently absent in reactive cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates, hyperplastic tonsils and lymph nodes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes either unstimulated or stimulated by a cocktail of CD3 and CD28 antibodies. As a strong expression of HOXC5 in primary cutaneous lymphomas was observed only in anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and reactive control tissues lacked HOXC5 expression, these data strongly support a role for HOXC5 in the genesis of anaplastic large-T-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327740

  12. Health effects of indoor fluoride pollution from coal burning in China.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Tadano, M; Asanuma, S; Tamura, K; Matsushima, S; Watanabe, T; Kondo, T; Sakurai, S; Ji, R; Liang, C; Cao, S

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of high fluoride-content coal as an energy resource for heating, cooking, and food drying is a major exhaust emission source of suspended particulate matter and fluoride. High concentrations of these pollutants have been observed in indoor air of coal-burning families in some rural areas in China. Because airborne fluoride has serious toxicological properties, fluoride pollution in indoor air and the prevalence of fluorosis have been analyzed in a fluorosis area and a healthy nonfluorosis area in China and in a rural area in Japan. For human health, fluoride in indoor air has not only been directly inhaled by residents but also has been absorbed in stored food such as corn, chilies, and potatoes. In the fluorosis area in China, concentrations of urinary fluoride in the residents have been much higher than in the nonfluorosis area in China and in the rural area in Japan. In the fluorosis area, almost all elementary and junior high school students 10-15 years of age had dental fluorosis. Osteosclerosis in the skeletal fluorosis patients was very serious. Urinary deoxypyridinoline in rural residents in China was much higher than in rural residents in Japan. Data suggest that bone resorption was extremely stimulated in the residents in China and that fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Because indoor fluoride from combustion of coal is easily absorbed in stored food and because food consumption is a main source of fluoride exposure, it is necessary to reduce airborne fluoride and food contamination to prevent serious fluorosis in China. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9518433

  13. In Flanders fields: the Great War, Antoine Depage, and the resurgence of débridement.

    PubMed Central

    Helling, T S; Daon, E

    1998-01-01

    . To him, we owe our current management of traumatic wounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9712561

  14. Glucocorticoid-and non-glucocorticoid induction of lipocortins (annexins) 1 and 2 in rat peritoneal leucocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Peers, S. H.; Smillie, F.; Elderfield, A. J.; Flower, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have studied the occurrence, distribution and disposition of lipocortins (annexins) 1, 2 and 5 in mixed peritoneal leucocytes obtained from rats in which glucocorticoid levels were altered by adrenalectomy, administration of the glucocorticoid antagonist, RU486, or by injection of dexamethasone or hydrocortisone, as well as from rats in which the peritoneal cells were elicited by inflammatory stimuli. 2. In cells obtained from untreated rats with an intact adrenal cortex, lipocortins 1, 2 and 5 were readily detectable: the majority of each of the proteins was apparently located intracellularly with much smaller amounts in the membrane. Lipocortin 1 and to a lesser extent lipocortin 5 were also seen in a Ca(2+)-dependent association with the external plasma membrane. Following administration of RU486 (2 x 20 mg kg-1) the amounts of lipocortin 1 and 2 in cells were greatly reduced. Conversely, injection of hydrocortisone (1 mg kg-1) or dexamethasone (0.08 mg kg-1) caused an increase in the amount of lipocortin 1 and 2 in peritoneal cells within 30 min. Lipocortin 5 was unchanged by any manipulation of glucocorticoid levels. 3. Lipocortins 1 and 2 were elevated in both intracellular and membrane-associated fractions of macrophages elicited by intraperitoneal injection in inflammogens. This phenomenon also occurred in adrenalectomized animals. 4. Our data indicate that glucocorticoids control the synthesis of some members of the lipocortin family in rat mixed peritoneal cells but also suggest the existence of a separate system for controlling the generation of this protein. The significance of these observations is considered in relation to the mechanism of glucocorticoid hormone action on eicosanoid production. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8428216

  15. Familial cutaneous vasculopathy of German shepherds: clinical, genetic and preliminary pathological and immunological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, J A; Yager, J A; Caswell, J L; Parker, W M; Johnstone, I B; Basrur, P K; Emms, C

    1994-01-01

    A genodermatosis affecting the German shepherd breed has been recognized in 26 dogs in Ontario since 1991. Clinical signs, first noted in young puppies, are manifested as pyrexia and lethargy. The main cutaneous lesions are footpad swelling and depigmentation, but there is also crusting and ulceration of ear tips and tail tips, and focal depigmentation of the nasal planum. Affected puppies show no consistent abnormalities in hematological or biochemical parameters, and immunological tests (antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor titer, immunoglobulin levels, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentages) are normal. Bone marrow analysis has shown myeloid hyperplasia in 5 of 7 cases and myelofibrosis has been detected in 1 case. All but 3 of the 19 clinical cases have been strongly positive for platelet factor-3; however, normal puppies routinely develop positive platelet factor-3 tests. Furthermore, affected pups all had normal numbers of platelets on repeat complete blood counts. Light microscopic examination of footpad biopsies reveals a multifocal nodular dermatitis in which neutrophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells surround foci of dermal collagenolysis, and degenerative and inflammatory vessel lesions. Depigmented lesions have a mild, cell-poor, interface dermatitis, characterized by single cell necrosis of the basal cells, in addition to the nodular dermatitis. Similarities and differences between this disease, a condition known as collagen disorder of the footpads of German shepherds and other forms of cutaneous vasculitis in the dog are discussed. The cause and the pathogenesis of the disease are yet to be elucidated; however, pedigree analysis indicates an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9132286

  16. Neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor proteins in medulloblastomas and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pediatric central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Washiyama, K.; Muragaki, Y.; Rorke, L. B.; Lee, V. M.; Feinstein, S. C.; Radeke, M. J.; Blumberg, D.; Kaplan, D. R.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1996-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood childhood neoplasms, and medulloblastomas are the most common pediatric PNETs. Neoplastic cells in medulloblastomas and other PNETs resemble progenitor cells of the developing central nervous system, but they also may exhibit the molecular phenotype of immature neurons or glia. As neurotrophins play a role in regulating differentiation, proliferation, and cell death in the normal developing central nervous system, and recent evidence suggests that neurotrophins may influence the behavior of medulloblastomas, we studied 29 PNET biopsy samples (27 of which were posterior fossa medulloblastomas) by immunobistochemistry using antibodies specific for each of the major high affinity neurotrophin receptor proteins, ie, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC. A subset of these tumors also was examined by Western blot. Immunoreactive TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC were observed in neoplastic cells in 8 (27%), 18 (62%), and 14 (48%) of these PNETs, respectively. Additional immunohistochemical studies of a subset of these PNETs using antibodies to neurotrophins that primarily activate TrkB and TrkC, ie, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5, showed that immunoreactive brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 were detected in 22, 9, and 19% of these PNET biopsies, respectively. Finally, 19 pediatric brain tumors other than these PNETs also were studied here, and they expressed these neurotrophins and their receptors to a variable extent. The demonstration here that neurotrophins and their cognate receptor proteins are expressed in PNETs as well as in other pediatric brain tumors may imply that signal transduction pathways mediated by neurotrophins and/or their receptors influence the induction or progression of these common childhood neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8774147

  17. HIV is trapped and masked in the cytoplasm of lymph node follicular dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tacchetti, C.; Favre, A.; Moresco, L.; Meszaros, P.; Luzzi, P.; Truini, M.; Rizzo, F.; Grossi, C. E.; Ciccone, E.

    1997-01-01

    To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, lymph nodes from seven asymptomatic HIV+ subjects were analyzed during the latent phase of disease. Both ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, in all of the cases, plasma cells producing IgM/gamma were present in germinal centers. Secreted immunoglobulins formed extracellular deposits mimicking the follicular dendritic cell network. Immunoglobulin produced by germinal center plasma cells are specific for HIV because they bind the HIV env protein gp 120. Plasma cells producing antibodies with the same specificity were also abundant in the extrafollicular regions of lymph nodes. During the latent phase of infection, the virus largely accumulates within the germinal centers. Therefore, extracellular immunoglobulin may form immune complexes, as shown by the presence of HIV-specific antibodies, HIV particles, and complement components C3c, C3d, and C1q in the interdendritic spaces. When the ultrastructural localization of HIV in germinal centers was analyzed, abundant virus particles were found in the interdendritic spaces. In addition to this extracellular localization of HIV, receptor-mediated endocytosis of viral particles by follicular dendritic cells was observed. Complete HIV particles were found within the endosomal compartment of the follicular dendritic cells and, as complete viral particles, free in the cytoplasm, indicating that the virus may escape from the endocytic compartment. As the virus is abundant in the cytoplasm, this event leads to formation of a hidden reservoir within follicular dendritic cells. In this location, HIV escapes recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In contrast, virus budding indicating a productive infection of follicular dendritic cells that would render them susceptible to T-cell-mediated lysis has been seldom observed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9033269

  18. Role of retinal vascular endothelial cells in development of CMV retinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N A; Zhang, J; Ishimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    retinal pigment epithelium. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:10360285

  19. Conserved cis-elements bind a protein complex that regulates Drosophila ras2/rop bidirectional expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, K.; Maltby, L.; Duarte, R.; Veale, R.; Segev, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila ras2 promoter region exhibits bidirectional activity, as has been demonstrated for the human c-Ha-ras1 and the mouse c-Ki-ras. Here we address a unique case of ras regulation, as Drosophila ras2 provides the only example to date in which the flanking gene (rop) and its product have been isolated. A linking mechanism of control suggests a mutual interaction between the two gene products. Our studies indicate that the Drosophila ras2 promoter region shares with the human c-Ha-ras1 promoter a CACCC box and an AP-1-like sequence. A 14 bp promoter fragment which holds a CACCC element is demonstrated to interact with a specific transcription factor (factor B). This CACCC promoter element represents a stretch of imperfect palindrome. We present evidence that this factor can form a complex with another specific DNA-binding protein (factor A). The binding sites (A + B) for these protein factors are essential for 95% expression of both genes flanking the promoter (ras2 and rop). Region A consists of four overlapping consensus sequences: a TATA-like element, a DSE-like motif (the core sequence of the serum response element), a DRE octamer, which has been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, and a 5 bp direct repeat representing the GATA consensus sequence. Factor A has a very weak affinity to the full promoter region, but when complexed with factor B binding efficiency is enhanced. We also show that alterations of DNA-protein binding specificities can be achieved by supplementing the growth media with different sera. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8297724

  20. Examination of the thoracic cavity and lung lobectomy by means of thoracoscopy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    García, F; Prandi, D; Peña, T; Franch, J; Trasserra, O; de la Fuente, J

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of thoracoscopy for viewing the chest cavity and performing pulmonary lobectomy was assessed in 8 mongrel dogs. Previously, selective intubation had been performed in another group of dogs (n = 8) in order to monitor respiratory physiology and assess its safety. Each hemithorax was intubated using a double-barrelled endotracheal tube with one barrel placed in the left main bronchus and the other in the bifurcation of the trachea. The thoracoscope was introduced through a cannula inserted through a 2-cm incision at the ventral third of the left 5th intercostal space. The cranial, dorsal, and caudal surfaces of the pleura, lobes of the left lung, and the mediastinum were examined. A 2nd cannula was located in the dorsal 3rd of the 5th intercostal space with a prior incision and used for the introduction of forceps to separate the viscera. To biopsy, a 3rd cannula was inserted at the dorsal third of the 8th intercostal space with a prior incision, through which a 12-mm diameter stapler was introduced. Should a lobectomy be necessary, a 4th cannula is located in the middle third of the 4th intercostal space. Excision of the left caudal pulmonary lobe was performed through the incision made for the 12-mm diameter cannula (8th intercostal space); a twisting movement facilitated removal. Thoracoscopy is a procedure that can be used in dogs and is particularly suitable for examination, collection of biopsy specimens, and even lung lobectomies. Images Figure 2.1. Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5. Figure 2.6. Figure 2.7. Figure 2.8. PMID:9592615

  1. Characterization of α-Amylase-Inhibitor, a Lectin-Like Protein in the Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Joaquin; Altabella, Teresa; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1990-01-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect α-amylases, but not of plant α-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, α-amylase inhibitor (αAl) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Purified αAl can be resolved by SDS-PAGE into five bands (Mr 15,000-19,000), four of which have covalently attached glycans. These bands represent glycoforms of two different polypeptides. All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it (LM Hoffman [1984] J Mol Appl Genet 2: 447-453; J Moreno, MJ Chrispeels [1989] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7885-7889). The primary translation product of αAl is a polypeptide of Mr 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of Mr 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (Mr 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that αAl is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmlc reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667338

  2. Molecular heterogeneity of late-onset forms of globoid-cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    De Gasperi, R.; Gama Sosa, M. A.; Sartorato, E. L.; Battistini, S.; MacFarlane, H.; Gusella, J. F.; Krivit, W.; Kolodny, E. H.

    1996-01-01

    Globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase, the lysosomal enzyme responsible for the degradation of the myelin glycolipid galactocerebroside. Although the most common form of the disease is the classical infantile form (Krabbe disease), later-onset forms also have been described. We have analyzed the galactocerebrosidase gene in 17 patients (nine families) with late-onset GLD and in 1 patient with classical Krabbe disease. Half of the patients were heterozygous for the large gene deletion associated with the 502C-->T polymorphism, the most common mutation in infantile patients. Several novel mutations that result in deficient galactocerebrosidase activity were also identified in these patients. They include the missense mutations R63H, G95S, M101L, G268S, Y298C, and I234T; the nonsense mutation S7X; a one-base deletion (805delG); a mutation that interferes with the splicing of intron 1; and a 34-nt insertion in the RNA, caused by the aberrant splicing of intron 6. All of these genetic defects are clustered in the first 10 exons of the galactocerebrosidase gene and therefore affect the 50-kD subunit of the mature enzyme. Studies on the distribution and enzymatic activity of the polymorphic alleles 1637T/C (I546/T546) provided support for previous data that had indicated the existence of two galactocerebrosidase forms with different catalytic activities in the general population. Our data also indicate that the mutations occur preferentially in the "low activity" 1637C allele. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8940268

  3. The origins and early history of the National Chiropractic Association

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S

    1993-01-01

    Early organization in chiropractic was prompted by the profession’s need to promote itself and to defend against the onslaught of political medicine and organized osteopathy. The first priorities were legal defense against prosecution for unlicensed practice and malpractice insurance. The Universal Chiropractors’ Association (UCA), organized at the Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) in 1906, sought to meet these needs by insuring its members and by developing a legal department under the supervision of attorney Tom Morris, one time lieutenant governor of Wisconsin. The public relations and marketing needs of chiropractors were largely served by the PSC and its legendary leader. However, as chiropractors increasingly sought to avoid prosecution by passage of chiropractic laws, Palmer’s efforts to direct this legislation so as to limit chiropractors’ scope of practice increasingly alienated many in the profession. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) was founded in 1922 to provide a broadscope alternative to BJ’s UCA. With Palmer’s departure from the UCA following the neurocalometer debacle, ACA and UCA sought amalgamation. Simultaneously, organized medicine renewed its attack on the profession by introducing basic science legislation, which prompted chiropractors to try to upgrade and standardize chiropractic education. Early efforts to bring about the needed consensus were centered in the International Chiropractic Congress (ICC), particularly its division of state examining boards. In 1930 the ACA and UCA combined to form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA), and by 1934 the ICC had merged with the NCA to form part of its council structure. With this modicum of solidarity the NCA began the process of educational boot-strapping at its 1935 convention in Los Angeles, when its Committee on Education, a forerunner of today’s Council on Chiropractic Education, was proposed by C.O. Watkins of Montana. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  4. An RNA-splicing mutation (G+5IVS20) in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) in a family with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita.

    PubMed Central

    Tiller, G E; Weis, M A; Polumbo, P A; Gruber, H E; Rimoin, D L; Cohn, D H; Eyre, D R

    1995-01-01

    Defects in type II collagen have been demonstrated in a phenotypic continuum of chondrodysplasias that includes achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC), Kniest dysplasia, and Stickler syndrome. We have determined that cartilage from a terminated fetus with an inherited form of SEDC contained both normal alpha 1(II) collagen chains and chains that lacked amino acids 256-273 of the triple-helical domain. PCR amplification of this region of COL2A1, from genomic DNA, yielded products of normal size, while amplification of cDNA yielded a normal sized species and a shorter fragment missing exon 20. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA from the fetus revealed a G-->T transversion at position +5 of intron 20; the affected father was also heterozygous for the mutation. Allele-specific PCR and heteroduplex analysis of a VNTR in COL2A1 independently confirmed the unaffected status of a fetus in a subsequent pregnancy. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the mutation prevents normal splicing of exon 20 by interfering with binding of U1 small-nuclear RNA to pre-mRNA, thus leading to skipping of exon 20 in transcripts from the mutant allele. Electron micrographs of diseased cartilage showed intracellular inclusion bodies, which were stained by an antibody to alpha 1(II) procollagen. Our findings support the hypothesis that alpha-chain length alterations that preserve the Gly-X-Y repeat motif of the triple helix result in partial intracellular retention of alpha 1(II) procollagen and produce mild to moderate chondrodysplasia phenotypes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7847372

  5. Pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine evaluated by EEG brain mapping, psychometry and psychophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Saletu, B; Grünberger, J; Anderer, P; Linzmayer, L; Semlitsch, H V; Magni, G

    1992-01-01

    1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effects of venlafaxine--a novel nontricyclic compound inhibiting neuronal uptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and to a lesser extent dopamine--were investigated utilizing EEG brain mapping, psychometric and psychophysiological measures. 2. Sixteen healthy volunteers (eight males, eight females) aged 21-36 years received randomized and at weekly intervals single oral doses of placebo, 12.5 mg, 25 mg and 50 mg venlafaxine. EEG recordings, psychometric and psychophysiological tests, and evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side-effects were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. 3. EEG brain mapping demonstrated that venlafaxine exerted a significant action on human brain function as compared with placebo at all three doses, characterized mostly by attenuation of absolute power, increase of relative delta/theta and beta, and decrease of alpha power, as well as by an acceleration of the total centroid fronto-temporally and by its slowing centrally and parietally. These findings are similar to antidepressants such as imipramine. Topographically, drug-induced alterations were most pronounced over both fronto-temporal and the right temporal to temporo-occipital regions. 4. Psychometric and psychophysiological investigations demonstrated significant dose-dependent psychotropic properties of the drug. Multivariate statistics exhibited an improvement of both the noopsyche (e.g. attention, concentration, attention variability, memory, fine motor activity, reaction time performance) and thymopsyche (e.g. drive, wakefulness)) but also significant psychophysiological activation (e.g. in c.f.f., pupillary and skin conductance measures). 5. Time-efficiency calculations showed significant central effects from the 2nd hour onwards, with increasing differences between placebo and treatment up to the 8th hour. Nausea was the most frequent complaint and appeared dose dependent. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel human neutrophil protein related to the S100 family.

    PubMed Central

    Guignard, F; Mauel, J; Markert, M

    1995-01-01

    A rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP-8), a protein of the S100 family, recognized another S100 protein (MRP-14) as well as a protein of 6.5 kDa (p6) in the cytosol of resting neutrophils. p6 was found to be a novel member of the S100 family. It consisted of two isoforms with pI values of 6.2 (the minor form, p6a) and 6.3 (the major form, p6b) and constituted 5% of the total cytosolic proteins. Both isoforms were also demonstrated in the cytosol of monocytes, but not in lymphocytes, as previously shown for MRP-8 and MRP-14. Only the major isoform bound radioactive Ca2+, as also observed for MRP-8, whereas the different variants of MRP-14 were all labelled. On neutrophil activation with opsonized zymosan, a stimulant known to require extracellular Ca2+, 58% of p6a and 42% of p6b was translocated to the membrane. With phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a Ca(2+)-independent stimulant, no translocation was detected. This translocation pattern was similar to that observed with MRP-8 and MRP-14. In addition, p6, MRP-8 and MRP-14 were specifically associated with the cytoskeletal fraction of the membrane. The Ca(2+)-dependent translocation of the novel S100 protein in parallel with MRP-8 and MRP-14 suggests a role for these proteins in regulating the Ca2+ signal to the membrane cytoskeleton and thus in regulating neutrophil activation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626002

  7. Deletion of antigens of the Lewis a/b blood group family in human prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W. W.; Mills, S. E.; Lippert, M. C.; Ahmed, P.; Lau, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of antigens of the blood group Lewis a/b family were studied in a series of 42 prostatectomy specimens from patients with adenocarcinoma clinically confined to the prostate; 19 of these were later reclassified as pathologic Stage C. Staining of normal or hyperplastic versus neoplastic epithelium was assessed in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue using murine monoclonal antibodies and an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Antigens screened and the antibodies used to recognize them were Lewis a (CF4C4), Lewis b and Type 1 H (NS10), monosialosyl Lewis a I (19.9), and disialosyl Lewis a and monosialosyl Lewis a II (FH7). FH7 strongly stained the benign epithelium of all 39 Lewis positive cases, suggesting that the sialyltransferase responsible for synthesis of FH7-reactive determinants is highly active in benign prostatic tissue. When compared to the reactivity of benign epithelium in Lewis positive cases, the staining of the carcinomas was markedly reduced in 18 cases (46%) and absent in 16 cases (41%). This reduction or loss of staining of the malignant epithelium was observed for all antibodies that stained the corresponding benign epithelium of each case. In only five of the cases (13%) was the intensity of staining in the carcinoma equal to that of the surrounding benign epithelium. No cases in this latter group had recurrence of disease, whereas in the other staining groups 25-33% of the cases had recurrences; median follow-up for the entire group was 78 months. No correlation was apparent between Gleason score and the staining pattern with these antigens. In summary, antigens of the Lewis a/b family are deleted in a high percentage of cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2454582

  8. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  9. PM2.5 and mortality in long-term prospective cohort studies: cause-effect or statistical associations?

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, J F

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) were associated with increased mortality in two prospective cohort studies. In this paper, I assess whether the weight of the evidence supports a causal association. I assumed the study population in each city to have the same exposure; therefore, these are ecologic studies because exposure is at the group level. Health outcome and confounding data are at the individual level. Ambient PM concentrations are inadequate surrogates for personal exposure because they are at the group level and comprise only a small proportion of personal exposure, they change over time, and they constitute only a small proportion of a life span. The strength of association and exposure-response relationships cannot be determined because the ecologic group-level risks of PM2.5 are overestimated 150- to 300-fold based on an analogy with individual-level exposure to inhaled cigarette smoke. Risk estimates may also be high because of confounding from factors such as physical activity and lung function. The evidence is not coherent because the stronger associations are expected to be with morbidity, but instead are with mortality. For example, PM2.5 was associated with mortality but not with measurable reductions in lung function. Biological plausibility is lacking because lifetime exposure of rats to combustion products at concentrations two to three orders of magnitude higher than air pollution levels cause lung overloading but no consistent reduction in survival. Criteria for quantitative risk assessment are not met so the data are not useful for setting air quality standards. The weight of evidence suggests there is no substantive basis for concluding that a cause-effect relationship exists between long-term ambient PM2.5 and increased mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9721253

  10. Goiter formation following prostaglandin administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lupulescu, A.

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGE1 and PGE2) induced a hyperplastic microfollicular goiter with a high radioiodine (131I) thyroid uptake, increased endocytosis, a heavy autoradiographic (125I) reaction, and a moderate increase of thyroid hormones (T4, T3), thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB), and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations in adult rats. Ultrastructurally, both prostaglandins (E1 and E2) markedly stimulated the thyroid cell activity and increased the number of pseudopodia, the size of colloid and dense granule populations, and the number of polysomes. Conversely, a hypofunction of thyroid glands with low radioiodine (131I) thyroid uptake, a decreased autoradiographic (125I) reaction, and a moderate decrease in T4, T3, TGB, and TSH concentrations were observed following prostaglandin F 2alpha. Ultrastructurally, a decrease in size of the colloid and dense granule population and the number of degenerative mitochondria occurred infollicular cells. An intense hyperplasia of parafollicular (C) cells, with abundant population of characteristic dense granules, could be seen in PGF 2alpha-treated rats. A marked decrease of radioiodine (131I) uptake, endocytosis, and autoradiographic (125I) reaction and a sharp decline in T4, T3, and TBG were observed in hypophysectomized and chronically prostaglandin-treated rats. Light and electron microscopy revealed signs of an advanced thyroid hypofunction with flat cuboidal cells, reduced microvilli, scarce endoplasmic reticulum, and few dense droplets. The present findings demonstrate that the chronic administration of prostaglandins exerts significant effects of thyroid gland and goiter formation (goitrogenesis), radioiodine metabolism, and hormone synthesis, and that these effects are mediated by TSH secretion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:970439

  11. Cellular retinol-binding protein-1 is transiently expressed in granulation tissue fibroblasts and differentially expressed in fibroblasts cultured from different organs.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, G.; Redard, M.; Gabbiani, G.; Neuville, P.

    1997-01-01

    We have reported that cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) is transiently expressed by arterial smooth muscle cells during experimental intimal repair (P. Neuville, A. Geinoz, G. Benzonana, M. Redard, F. Gabbiani, P. Ropraz, G. Gabbiani: Am J Pathol 1997, 150:509-521). We have examined here the expression of CRBP-1 during wound healing after a full-thickness rat skin wound. CRBP-1 was transiently expressed by a significant proportion of fibroblastic cells including myofibroblasts. Expression started 4 days after wounding, reached a maximum at 12 days, and persisted up to 30 days when a scar was formed. After wound closure, most CRBP-1-containing fibroblastic cells underwent apoptosis. We have further investigated CRBP-1 expression in rat fibroblasts cultured from different organs. CRBP-1 was abundant in lung and heart fibroblasts and was detected in decreasing amounts in muscle, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and granulation tissue fibroblasts. Dermis fibroblasts contained no detectable levels of CRBP-1. All-trans retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited cell proliferation and increased CRBP-1 expression in fibroblastic populations except dermis fibroblasts. We demonstrate that during granulation tissue formation a subpopulation of fibroblastic cells express CRBP-1 de novo. We also demonstrate that CRBP-1 expression by fibroblasts is regulated in vitro by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta1. Our results suggest that CRBP-1 and possibly retinoic acid play a role in the evolution of granulation tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:9403724

  12. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  13. Induction of mortality and malformation in Xenopus laevis embryos by water sources associated with field frog deformities.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, J G; Helgen, J C; Fort, D J; Gallagher, K; Bowers, D; Propst, T L; Gernes, M; Magner, J; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from several ponds in Minnesota were evaluated for their capacity to induce malformations in embryos of Xenopus laevis. The FETAX assay was used to assess the occurrence of malformations following a 96-hr period of exposure to water samples. These studies were conducted following reports of high incidences of malformation in natural populations of frogs in Minnesota wetlands. The purpose of these studies was to determine if a biologically active agent(s) was present in the waters and could be detected using the FETAX assay. Water samples from ponds with high incidences of frog malformations (affected sites), along with water samples from ponds with unaffected frog populations (reference sites), were studied. Initial experiments clearly showed that water from affected sites induced mortality and malformation in Xenopus embryos, while water from reference sites had little or no effect. Induction of malformation was dose dependent and highly reproducible, both with stored samples and with samples taken at different times throughout the summer. The biological activity of the samples was reduced or eliminated when samples were passed through activated carbon. Limited evidence from these samples indicates that the causal factor(s) is not an infectious organism nor are ion concentrations or metals responsible for the effects observed. Results do indicate that the water matrix has a significant effect on the severity of toxicity. Based on the FETAX results and the occurrence of frog malformations observed in the field, these studies suggest that water in the affected sites contains one or more unknown agents that induce developmental abnormalities in Xenopus. These same factors may contribute to the increased incidence of malformation in native species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9831545

  14. Quantification of two aromatic amine mutagens, PBTA-1 and PBTA-2, in the yodo river system.

    PubMed Central

    Ohe, T; Takeuchi, N; Watanabe, T; Tada, A; Nukaya, H; Terao, Y; Sawanishi, H; Hirayama, T; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    The levels of two aromatic amine mutagens, 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-am ino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-1) and 2-[2-(acetylamino-4-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)ethylamino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-a mino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-2), were quantitatively analyzed in the Yodo River system in Japan. The river water samples were collected at nine sampling sites from the Yodo River system twice or three times between May and July in 1997. PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the river water samples were concentrated on blue rayon columns, partially purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reverse-phase columns, then quantified by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The amounts of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the water samples were < 0.01-1.91 and < 0.01-2.25 ng/L, respectively. High levels of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 were detected in the samples collected within 4 km downstream of two sewage plants, which are located along the banks of the Nishitakase River, a tributary of the Yodo River system, and these samples showed stronger mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with S9 mix than the other water samples. On the other hand, the river water samples from upstream of the sewage plant were weakly or not mutagenic and PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 were not detected. These results confirmed that a major source of PBTA-1 and PBTA-2 in the Yodo River system is effluent from the sewage plants and that discharged mutagens, including PBTA-1 and PBTA-2, are diluted and/or decomposed while moving down the Yodo River system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10464068

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cornali, E.; Zietz, C.; Benelli, R.; Weninger, W.; Masiello, L.; Breier, G.; Tschachler, E.; Albini, A.; Stürzl, M.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant vasculature with increased permeability is a prominent histological feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a multifocal, cytokine-regulated tumor. Here we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-KS angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We demonstrate that different cytokines, which were previously shown to be active in KS development, modulate VEGF expression in KS spindle cells and cooperate with VEGF on the functional level. Northern blot analysis as well as studies on single cells using in situ hybridization revealed that VEGF expression in cultivated AIDS-KS spindle cells is up-regulated by platelet-derived growth factor-B and interleukin-1 beta. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of cell culture supernatants demonstrated that the VEGF protein is secreted by stimulated AIDS-KS spindle cells in sufficiently high amounts to activate proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor did not increase VEGF expression but acted synergistically with VEGF in the induction of angiogenic KS-like lesions in a mouse model in vivo. Angiogenesis and cellularity of KS-like lesions were clearly increased when both factors were injected simultaneously into the flanks of mice, compared with separate injection of each factor. A comparable angiogenic reaction as obtained by simultaneous injection of basic fibroblast growth factor and VEGF was observed when cell culture supernatants of AIDS-KS spindle cells were used for these experiments. Finally, analysis of primary human AIDS-KS lesions revealed that high amounts of VEGF mRNA and protein were present in KS spindle cells in vivo. These data provide evidence that VEGF, in concert with platelet-derived growth factor-B, interleukin-1 beta, and basic fibroblast growth factor, is a key mediator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability in KS lesions in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

  16. Consensus-interferon and platelet-derived growth factor adversely regulate proliferation and migration of Kaposi's sarcoma cells by control of c-myc expression.

    PubMed Central

    Köster, R.; Blatt, L. M.; Streubert, M.; Zietz, C.; Hermeking, H.; Brysch, W.; Stürzl, M.

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) is a potent paracrine-acting mitogen in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. Interferon-alpha is widely used for clinical treatment of KS. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor-B activates proliferation and migration of cultivated AIDS-KS spindle cells whereas interferon-alpha acts as an inhibitor. At the molecular level, these opposite activities of platelet-derived growth factor-B and interferon-alpha converged onto the adverse regulation of the c-myc gene expression. Platelet-derived growth factor-B induced c-myc mRNA and protein synthesis in cultivated AIDS-KS spindle cells whereas interferon-alpha inhibited these processes. Using c-myc-specific phoshothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, we demonstrated that down-regulation of c-myc expression is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and migration of KS spindle cells in vitro. This indicated that c-Myc protein may be an important regulatory molecule of KS spindle cell proliferation and migration. High amounts of the c-Myc protein were detected in the nuclei of KS spindle cells in histological sections of AIDS-KS biopsies. This suggested that the c-myc gene may also regulate proliferation and migration of AIDS-KS spindle cells in vivo. In this case, c-myc may play an important role in the focus of major pathogenic and therapeutic pathways of KS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8952524

  17. Effects of complement inhibition with soluble complement receptor-1 on vascular injury and inflammation during renal allograft rejection in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, J. R.; Hibbs, M. J.; Laver, A. J.; Smith, R. A.; Sacks, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    Complement is both an effector of the humoral immune response and a stimulator of leukocyte activation. To examine the influence of complement on the allograft response, we inhibited complement using recombinant human soluble complement receptor-1 (sCR1; TP10), in an unsensitized model of rat renal allograft rejection. Lewis to DA renal transplant recipients were treated daily with 25 mg/kg sCR1 or saline and sacrificed on days 1 to 5 after transplant. Transplanted organs were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for leukocyte subset markers and for the third component of complement, C3, and membrane attack complex deposition. A second set of recipients was followed from day 5 to day 9 to assess graft survival. sCR1-treated recipients displayed > 90% inhibition of plasma complement activity and a marked reduction in tissue C3 and membrane attack complex deposition. Inactivation of complement reduced the vascular injury such that there was almost complete sparing of vascular damage in day 5 sCR1-treated rats. There was a significant reduction in infiltrating leukocytes by day 5 after transplant, and complement inhibition delayed the time to reach a histologically defined end point of graft survival from 5 days in controls to 9 days in the sCR1-treated group. These results imply that the vascular and cell-mediated injury arises, in part, from complement activation. The partial inhibition of these injuries by sCR1 may have functional implications for strategies to inhibit allograft rejection. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8952538

  18. Morphology and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen-Martin, D. J.; Garvin, A. J.; Gansler, T.; Tarnowski, B. I.; Sens, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to establish cell cultures representing the epithelial component of Wilms' tumor was determined for 18 cases of classic Wilms' tumors. From these 18 cases only two resulted in the culture of epithelial cells. Although the tumors from both cases were composed of a prominent epithelial component, other classic tumors not producing epithelial cell cultures also possessed appreciable epithelial components. Likewise, heterotransplants of these two primary tumors failed to give rise to epithelial cell cultures, although cultures of the blastemal element were produced. This suggests that Wilms' tumors may be prone to differentiate in different directions at varying times during tumor growth, possibly dependent on local tumor environment. Epithelial cells from these two classic cases were grown in culture in basal medium composed of a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with selenium, insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, tri-iodothyronine, and epidermal growth factor, on a collagen type I matrix with absorbed fetal calf serum proteins. One of the two cases also required the addition of bovine pituitary extract, ethanolamine, prostaglandin E1, and putrescine for optimum growth. Morphological analysis disclosed that the cultured cells were very similar to normal renal tubular cells in culture, except that the cells displayed little evidence for differentiated active ion transport and tended to grow in a multilayered arrangement. The culture of the epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors provides a model system for the study of tumor differentiation and progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8384407

  19. Presentation and Patterns of Late Recurrence of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, William E.; Shah, Mitesh V.; Weisberger, Edward C.; Campbell, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the recurrence pattern of olfactory groove meningiomas after surgical resection. Four patients, one female and three males, with surgically resected olfactory groove meningiomas presented with tumor recurrence. All patients underwent resection of an olfactory groove meningioma and later presented with recurrent tumors. The mean age at initial diagnosis was 47 years. All presented initially with vision changes, anosmia, memory dysfunction, and personality changes. Three patients had a preoperative MRI scan. All patients had a craniotomy, with gross total resection achieved in three, and 90% tumor removal achieved in the fourth. Involved dura was coagulated, but not resected, in all cases. Three patients were followed with routine head CT scans postoperatively, and none was followed with MRI scan. The mean time to recurrence was 6 years. Three patients presented with recurrent visual deterioration, and one presented with symptoms of nasal obstruction. Postoperative CT scans failed to document early tumor recurrence, whereas MRI documented tumor recurrence in all patients. Tumor resection and optic nerve decompression improved vision in two patients and stabilized vision in two. Complete resection was not possible because of extensive bony involvement around the anterior clinoid and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa in all cases. Evaluation of four patients with recurrent growth of olfactory groove meningiomas showed the epicenter of recurrence to be inferior to the anterior cranial fossa, with posterior extension involving the optic canals, leading to visual deterioration. This location led to a delay in diagnosis in patients who were followed only with routine CT scans. Initial surgical procedures should include removal of involved dura and bone, and follow-up evaluation should include formal ophthalmologic evaluations and routine head MRI scans. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID

  20. Evidence of cardiocyte apoptosis in myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, V. G.; Sabbah, H. N.; Shimoyama, H.; Goussev, A. V.; Lesch, M.; Goldstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    It is often speculated that progressive deterioration of left ventricular function in heart failure is due to ongoing loss of viable cardiocytes. In this study, we examined the possibility that cardiocyte loss in heart failure may be due, in part, to apoptosis, an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction. Studies were performed in left ventricular tissue obtained from 10 dogs with chronic heart failure produced by multiple intracoronary microembolizations (left ventricular ejection fraction 27 +/- 1%) and from 5 normal dogs. Evidence for cardiocyte apoptosis was based on transmission electron microscopy criteria and on in situ immunohistochemical labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. There was no evidence of apoptotic cardiocytes in normal dogs. Features of cardiocyte apoptosis were observed in dogs with heart failure primarily in regions bordering old infarcts. Electron microscopic features of cardiocyte apoptosis included (1) intact sarcolemma and inner organelles in the presence of compaction and segregation of nuclear chromatin into sharply delineated masses that about the nuclear envelope, (2) intact sarcolemma in the presence of cytoplasm shrinkage, blebbing, and nuclear fragmentation, and (3) intact sarcolemma in the presence of complete disorganization of inner organelles and disappearance of nucleolemma. A count of all of the apoptotic bodies positively labeled for nuclear DNA fragments showed that 11% were of cardiocyte origin confirmed by positive labeling with striated muscle antimyosin antibody. We conclude that morphological and biochemical features of cardiocyte apoptosis exist in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546201

  1. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-01-01

    . Accordingly, the window of developmental vulnerability to chlorpyrifos is likely to extend from the embryonic period into postnatal life. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:10229709

  2. Exposure estimates to disinfection by-products of chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, C P; Kim, H; Haltmeier, P; Klotz, J B

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) of drinking water is multiroute and occurs in households serviced by municipal water treatment facilities that disinfect the water as a necessary step to halt the spread of waterborne infectious diseases. Biomarkers of the two most abundant groups of DBPs of chlorination, exhaled breath levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary levels of two haloacetic acids, were compared to exposure estimates calculated from in-home tap water concentrations and responses to a questionnaire related to water usage. Background THM breath concentrations were uniformly low. Strong relationships were identified between the THM breath concentrations collected after a shower and both the THM water concentration and the THM exposure from a shower, after adjusting for the postshower delay time in collecting the breath sample. Urinary haloacetic acid excretion rates were not correlated to water concentrations. Urinary trichloroacetic acid excretion rates were correlated with ingestion exposure, and that correlation was stronger in a subset of individuals who consumed beverages primarily within their home where the concentration measurements were made. No correlation was observed between an average 48-hr exposure estimate and the urinary dichloroacetic acid excretion rate, presumably because of its short biological half-life. Valid biomarkers were identified for DBP exposures, but the time between the exposure and sample collection should be considered to account for different metabolic rates among the DBPs. Further, using water concentration as an exposure estimate can introduce misclassification of exposure for DBPs whose primary route is ingestion due to the great variability in the amount of water ingested across a population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9924004

  3. The Ultrastructure of the Human Epidermis in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gallucci, Betty B.; Shulman, Howard M.; Sale, George E.; Lerner, Kenneth G.; Caldwell, Leslie E.; Thomas, E. Donnall

    1979-01-01

    The epidermal ultrastructure of 11 allogeneic bone marrow recipients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was compared with that of 4 recipients without chronic GVHD. This electron microscope study revealed three patterns of epidermal injury typical of chronic GVHD. The first type was a nonacantholytic (nondissecting) injury with a prominent cellular infiltrate consisting primarily of lymphocytes accompanied by a few macrophages. The second type was an acantholytic (dissecting) injury with a prominent infiltrate, while the third was a nondissecting injury with a sparse infiltrate. Broad-zone contact was observed between lymphocytes and all epidermal cell types as well as between other lymphocytes and macrophages. Point contact was only observed between lymphocytes and epidermal cells. Lymphocytes appeared to detach desmosomes from adjacent keratinocytes by isolating them with cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon not previously described. Typical damage to the epidermal cells in the basal and spinous layers consisted of either swelling of the organelles or condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus. In the keratinocyte, the condensation reaction resulted in the formation of colloid bodies, some of which were phagocytized by macrophages. Besides the cytolytic events, a concurrent stimulatory reaction occurred in the epidermal cells. The number of melanosomes in melanocytes and of Langerhans cell granules and dense bodies in the Langerhans cells all increased. Extensive areas of replication and disruption of the basal lamina were subjacent to areas of necrosis in the basal layer. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:36763

  4. Dietary Induced Atherogenesis in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Gerrity, Ross G.; Naito, Herbert K.; Richardson, Mary; Schwartz, Colin J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia was induced in pigs by feeding a chow diet supplemented with 1.5% cholesterol and 19.5% lard for periods up to 12 weeks. The aortic intima from areas of spontaneously differing permeability to proteins, as demarcated by their uptake of Evans blue dye, was examined using light microscopy and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy to describe the earliest detectable changes in intimal morphology induced by the diet. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of feeding, cholesterol/lardfed pigs demonstrated monocyte adherence to the endothelium in areas of enhanced permeability (blue areas) in 86% of samples examined, as compared to 52% in areas of lesser permeability (white areas) and 17% in control animals. Similarly, the number of monocytes in the intima was higher in blue areas than in adjacent white areas or blue areas from control animals. After 12 weeks of feeding, all blue areas showed intimal monocytes, with fewer seen in white areas. Aortic endothelial cells in hypercholesterolemic pigs were normal in ultrastructural appearance, except they contained more lysosomes and cytoplasmic filaments than those from control animals. No lesions were observed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, although plasma cholesterol levels were substantially elevated (200-400 mg/dl) at these times. A marked hyper-β-lipoproteinemia was evident from 4 weeks onward, but no elevation of serum triglycerides was evident at any stage. Plasma phospholipid concentrations increased but not in direct proportion to cholesterol levels. At 12 weeks, foam cell lesions were observed in areas of enhanced permeability but not in adjacent areas of normal permeability. Lesion foam cells appeared to be derived from the monocytes which adhered to and penetrated the endothelium at earlier stages, since no intimal involvement, or lipid engorgement, by medial smooth muscle cells was observed. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 1Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure

  5. Immunocytochemical patterns of islet cell tumors as defined by the monoclonal antibody HISL-19.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, C.; Krisch, K.; Horvat, G.; Srikanta, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 51 islet cell tumors removed from 28 patients was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HISL-19. The antibody was produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with human islet cells and was found to react with a wide range of neuroendocrine and neural cells. All tumors presented positive immunoreaction showing various combinations of 2 basic patterns. The first pattern reflected the immunostaining of the secretory granules of the tumor cells. This "granular" staining was predominantly associated with benign neoplasms and with the tumoral production of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), while it was absent or inconsistent in most insulin-secreting tumors. The second pattern consisted of focal immunoreactive aggregates located in a peri- (and, in polarized cells, supra-) nuclear position. This "cluster-type" staining showed a good morphologic and topographic correspondence with the Golgi apparatus of the cells of the same tumors, as shown by electron microscopy. The latter pattern was well represented in all types of islet cell tumors except those producing PP. Moreover, it was more apparent in less differentiated tumors in which the granular pattern was often absent or inconsistent. Cluster-type (but not granular) immunoreactivity was frequently found in some nonendocrine, nontumoral pancreatic structures, particularly in the epithelium of small ducts. However, the immunoreactive aggregates of nonendocrine cells were distinctly less prominent than those of endocrine cells. On the basis of a comparison with other immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine cells, it is concluded that the HISL-19 monoclonal antibody presents specific staining characteristics useful for the cytologic analysis of islet cell tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2840831

  6. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  7. Increased oxidative DNA damage and hepatocyte overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in hepatitis of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed Central

    Sipowicz, M. A.; Chomarat, P.; Diwan, B. A.; Anver, M. A.; Awasthi, Y. C.; Ward, J. M.; Rice, J. M.; Kasprzak, K. S.; Wild, C. P.; Anderson, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A recently discovered bacterium, Helicobacter hepaticus, infects the intrahepatic bile canaliculi of mice, causing a severe chronic hepatitis culminating in liver cancer. Thus, it affords an animal model for study of bacteria-associated tumorigenesis including H. pylori-related gastric cancer. Reactive oxygen species are often postulated to contribute to this process. We now report that hepatitis of male mice infected with H. hepaticus show significant increases in the oxidatively damaged DNA deoxynucleoside 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, with the degree of damage increasing with progression of the disease. Perfusion of infected livers with nitro blue tetrazolium revealed that superoxide was produced in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, especially in association with plasmacytic infiltrates near portal triads. Contrary to expectations, Kupffer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were rarely involved. However, levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 1A2 and 2A5 in hepatocytes appeared to be greatly increased, as indicated by the number of cells positive in immunohistochemistry and the intensity of staining in many cells, concomitant with severe hepatitis. The CYP2A5 immunohistochemical staining co-localized with formazan deposits resulting from nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and occurred in nuclei as well as cytoplasm. These findings suggest that CYP2A5 contributes to the superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation, although reactive oxygen species from an unknown source in the hepatocytes leading to CYP2A5 induction or coincidental occurrence of these events are also possibilities. Three glutathione S-transferase isoforms, mGSTP1-1 (pi), mGSTA1-1 (YaYa), and mGSTA4-4, also showed striking increases evidencing major oxidative stress in these livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327726

  8. Heat shock protein 27 expression in human proximal tubule cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of CdCl2.

    PubMed Central

    Somji, S; Sens, D A; Garrett, S H; Sens, M A; Todd, J H

    1999-01-01

    The expression of hsp 27 mRNA and protein was determined in cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd2+ under both acute and extended conditions. Initial procedures demonstrated that HPT cells display the classic stress response following physical and chemical stress. Heat stress (42.5 degrees C for 1 hr) caused an increase in both hsp 27 mRNA and protein as well as a shift in the protein to a more phosphorylated state. Results were similar when the cells were subjected to chemical stress (exposure to 100 microM sodium arsenite for 4 hr). Acute exposure to 53 microM CdCl2 for 4 hr also resulted in an increase in hsp 27 mRNA and protein and a shift to the more phosphorylated protein isoform. Extended Cd2+ exposure involved continuous treatment with Cd2+ at both lethal and sublethal levels over a 16-day time course. The results of this treatment showed that chronic exposure to Cd2+ failed to increase either hsp 27 mRNA or protein expression in HPT cells, even at lethal Cd2+ concentrations. In fact, hsp 27 protein levels decreased as compared to controls at both lethal and sub-lethal exposure to Cd2+. These findings imply that hsp 27 expression in human proximal tubule cells may have two distinct modes depending on the nature (acute vs. chronic) of the stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10379001

  9. Characterization of estrogenicity of phytoestrogens in an endometrial-derived experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Hopert, A C; Beyer, A; Frank, K; Strunck, E; Wünsche, W; Vollmer, G

    1998-01-01

    Severe developmental and reproductive disorders in wild animals have been linked to high exposure to persistent environmental chemicals with hormonal activity. These adverse effects of environmental estrogens have raised considerable concern and have received increasing attention. Although numerous chemicals with the capacity to interfere with the estrogen receptor (ER) have been identified, information on their molecular mechanism of action and their relative potency is rather limited. For the endometrium, the lack of information is due to the lack of a suitable experimental model. We investigated the functions of phytoestrogens in an endometrial-derived model, RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. The cells were cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane to preserve their functional differentiation and estrogen responsiveness. We assessed the relative binding affinity to the estrogen receptor of the selected phytoestrogens coumestrol, genistein, daidzein, and the putative phytoestrogen mangostin compared to estradiol by a competitive Scatchard analysis. The following affinity ranking was measured: 17beta-estradiol >>> coumestrol > genistein > daidzein >>> mangostin. In addition, we investigated the capacity of these compounds to promote the increased production of complement C3, a well-known estradiol-regulated protein of the rat endometrium. All substances tested increased the production of complement C3, although different concentrations were necessary to achieve equivalent levels of induction compared to estradiol. Mechanistically we were able to demonstrate that the increase of complement C3 production was mediated by primarily increasing its steady-state mRNA level. These findings indicate that RUCA-I cells represent a sensitive model system to elucidate relative potencies and functions of environmental estrogens in an endometrium-derived model. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721258

  10. Onset of spermatogenesis is accelerated by gestational administration of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene in male rat offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Omura, M; Masuda, Y; Hirata, M; Tanaka, A; Makita, Y; Ogata, R; Inoue, N

    2000-01-01

    We treated pregnant rats with 1 microg/kg body weight/day 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene (1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN) on days 14-16 of gestation and examined the effects on the reproductive systems of their male offspring at various phases of sexual maturation. Sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did not change in 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN-treated rats on postnatal day 89, the age of sexual maturity, but the sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did increase to approximately 180% of the control value on postnatal day 62. In addition, homogenization-resistant testicular spermatids increased to approximately 160% of the control value on postnatal day 48, and the percent of postmeiotic tubules increased to approximately 190% of the control value on postnatal day 31 in this group. These results indicate that the onset of spermatogenesis was accelerated in the 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN rats. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) had already reached the maximum level on postnatal day 31 in the 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN group, suggesting that the onset of LH and FSH secretions from the pituitary gland was also accelerated and that this endocrine disruption was the cause of early onset of spermatogenesis in this group. In the fat of 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN-treated dams, 5.75+/-2.81 ppb 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN was detected when offspring were weaned. This concentration was 5-10 times higher than that found in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10856028

  11. Interaction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and beta with the rat caeruloplasmin gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, C D; Fleming, R E; Gitlin, J D

    1993-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms of expression of the rat caeruloplasmin gene, the promoter region was analysed by DNAase I footprinting. Using nuclear extract from rat liver, a prominent site of protein-DNA interaction was detected from -93 to -48 upstream of the caeruloplasmin gene transcription start and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) consensus elements. Mobility-shift analysis using an oligonucleotide encoding this region identified specific binding of proteins from rat liver nuclear extract, and some of these complexes were supershifted using antisera to the C/EBP alpha and beta family members. Mobility-shift studies using a polypeptide encoding the DNA-binding domain of C/EBP alpha also revealed a specific interaction with this region of the caeruloplasmin promoter, and DNAase I footprinting using this polypeptide protected the identical region from -93 to -48. Co-transfection of expression plasmids encoding C/EBP alpha or a related leucine-zipper factor D-binding protein (DBP) revealed a C/EBP-specific increase in reporter gene activity in HepG2 cells transfected with caeruloplasmin-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase containing the -93 to -48 region. A similar result was obtained when these constructs were co-transfected into mouse L cells which were shown not to express the endogenous caeruloplasmin gene. Taken together, these data indicate a role for C/EBP alpha and beta in mediating transcription from the caeruloplasmin gene promoter and suggest that this region of the promoter is not responsible for tissue-specific expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8373362

  12. Location of type XV collagen in human tissues and its accumulation in the interstitial matrix of the fibrotic kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, P. M.; Hägg, P. O.; Peltonen, S.; Autio-Harmainen, H.; Pihlajaniemi, T.

    1997-01-01

    An antipeptide antibody was produced against the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous domain of human type XV collagen and used to localize this recently described collagen in a number of human tissues. The most conspicuous findings were powerful staining of most of the capillaries and staining of the basement membrane (BM) zones of muscle cells. Not all of the BM zones were positive, however, as shown by the lack of staining in the developing fetal alveoli and some of the tubules in developing kidney. Nor was type XV collagen staining restricted to the BM zones, as some could be observed in the fibrillar collagen matrix of the papillary dermis and placental villi, for example. Interestingly, differences in the expression of type XV collagen could be observed during kidney development, and staining of fetal lung tissue suggested that changes in its expression may also occur during the formation of vascular structures. Another intriguing finding was pronounced renal interstitial type XV collagen staining in patients with kidney fibrosis due to different pathological processes. This suggests that the accumulation of type XV collagen may accompany fibrotic processes. Full-length human type XV collagen chains with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 200 kd were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. The fact that these had a markedly higher molecular mass than the 100- to 110-kd type XV collagen chains found in homogenates of heart and kidney tissue suggests either proteolytic processing during the synthesis of type XV collagen or an inability to solubilize complete molecules from tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9176399

  13. Analysis of p60 and p80 tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor messenger RNA and protein in human placentas.

    PubMed Central

    Yelavarthi, K. K.; Hunt, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), a pleiotrophic, multifunctional polypeptide factor, has been reported in both normal and infected human placentas. To identify potential targets for this cytokine, the cells in early and late gestation placentas and extraplacental membranes that express the two TNF receptor (TNF-R) genes, p60 and p80, were identified by using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Gestation-related, cell lineage-specific differences in steady-state levels of p60 and p80 TNF-R messenger RNA were observed. p60 TNF-R messenger RNA predominated at both early and late stages of gestation, being high in both mesenchymal and trophoblastic cell lineages. By contrast, p80 TNF-R messenger RNA was abundant only in intermittent stretches of first trimester syncytiotrophoblast and term placental mesenchymal cells. Overall, intensities of the TNF-R hybridization signals were stronger in term than in first trimester tissues. Transcription of the two TNF-R genes was confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Translation was verified in all samples by immunohistology using polyclonal antibodies specific for the receptor proteins. p60 and p80 TNF-R proteins were identified both intracellularly and in maternal and fetal blood. Because TNF-Rs exist in both membrane-bound and soluble forms, the results of this study are consistent with the postulate that placental TNF-R have two critical functions: 1) modulation of TNF utilization by specific placental cell lineages during the course of pregnancy; and 2) protection against excessive TNF produced during infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8214007

  14. Expression of collagenase (MMP2), stromelysin (MMP3) and tissue inhibitor of the metalloproteinases (TIMP1) in pancreatic and ampullary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bramhall, S. R.; Stamp, G. W.; Dunn, J.; Lemoine, N. R.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    It is now recognised that epithelial-stromal interactions are important in a wide range of disease processes including neoplasia and inflammation. Metalloproteinases are central to matrix degradation and remodelling, which are key events in tumour invasion and metastasis and may also be involved in tissue changes occurring in chronic inflammation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on sections from 50 patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 27), ampullary cancer (n = 12), low bile duct cancer (n = 3), neuroendocrine tumours (n = 3) and chronic pancreatitis (n = 5), using antibodies raised against collagenase (MMP2), stromelysin (MMP3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP1) and developed using the avidin-biotin complex method. Abundance of MMP2, MMP3 and TIMP1 was greater in pancreatic and ampullary cancer than any other pathology and immunoreactivity in the malignant epithelial cells in pancreatic and ampullary cancer was greater than in the stromal tissues (in pancreatic cancer: MMP2 100% vs 37%, MMP3 93% vs 15%, TIMP1 93% vs 4%, P < 0.0001). There were strong correlations between the immunoreactivity of the two antibodies for MMP2 (P < 0.0001), between MMP2 and TIMP1 (P < 0.0001) and between MMP3 and TIMP1 (P < 0.0001). The immunoreactivity for TIMP1 in pancreatic and ampullary cancers with lymph node metastases was significantly less compared with those cases without lymph node metastases (P < 0.02) and there was an association between increased immunoreactivity for MMP2 and the degree of tumour differentiation (P < 0.01). The results implicate MMP2, MMP3 and TIMP1 in the invasive phenotype of pancreatic and ampullary cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8611434

  15. Structural and biochemical changes in lungs of 3-methylindole-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451

  16. Cellular localization of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor messenger RNA and protein in murine renal tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, M.; Eguchi, Y.; Sawdey, M.; Ahn, C.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) may be markedly increased in the plasma of patients with endotoxemia and/or renal disease. To investigate renal PAI-1 production during acute endotoxemia, a murine model system was used. Mice were injected with either saline alone or saline containing 50 micrograms endotoxin, and sacrificed 3 hours later and their tissues analyzed for PAI-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and antigen. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the level of renal PAI-1 mRNA was greatly increased in the endotoxemic mice relative to the saline controls. In situ hybridization was then performed to determine the cellular localization of PAI-1 mRNA within the renal tissues. In the control kidneys, low levels of PAI-1 mRNA were detected in the renal papilla and in the muscular walls of renal arteries. However, in the endotoxemic mice, an intense hybridization signal for PAI-1 mRNA was observed in glomerular and peritubular cells. These cells also stained positively for von Willebrand factor antigen, an endothelial cell-specific marker. The PAI-1 mRNA hybridization signal could further be observed in peritubular endothelial cells in the medulla and in endothelial cells of veins and arteries throughout the kidney. Immunochemical analysis revealed that PAI-1 antigen co-localized to the cytoplasm of cells expressing PAI-1 mRNA. This study provides the first direct evidence that PAI-1 is induced in endothelial cells of the kidney during endotoxemia in vivo and suggests a role for PAI-1 in the pathogenesis of renal disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8424466

  17. Progression from ischemic injury to infarct following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Yoshida, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lian, J.; Chen, S.; Chopp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural alterations involving the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to an arterial occlusion, at intervals ranging from 30 min to 7 days. Microscopic changes developed over time in separate areas of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere in a predictable pattern, appearing as small lesions in the preoptic area (30 minutes), enlarging to involve the striatum, and finally involving the cerebral cortex. Two types of neuronal responses were noted according to the time elapsed; acute changes (up to 6 hours) included scalloping, shrinkage, and swelling, whereas delayed changes (eosinophilia and karyolysis) appeared later (> or = 12 hours). Three types of astrocytic responses were noted. 1) Cytoplasmic disintegration occurred in the preoptic area at a time and in a place where neurons appeared minimally injured. 2) Nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling were prominent responses in the caudoputamen and cerebral cortex at a time when neurons showed minimal alterations. 3) Increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein reactivity was noted at the interface between the lesion and the surrounding brain tissue after 4 to 6 hours. The gross pattern of the brain lesion and the maturation of neuronal changes typical of a brain infarct have a predictable progression. Focal brain ischemia of up to 6-hour duration does not induce coagulation necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434652

  18. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  19. A time-series analysis of acidic particulate matter and daily mortality and morbidity in the Buffalo, New York, region.

    PubMed Central

    Gwynn, R C; Burnett, R T; Thurston, G D

    2000-01-01

    A component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution that may provide one biologically plausible pathway for the observed PM air pollution-health effect associations is aerosol acidity (H(+)). An increasing number of observational studies have demonstrated associations between H(+) and increased adverse health effects in the United States and abroad. Although studies have shown significant H(+) associations with increased morbidity in the United States, similar associations have yet to be shown with daily mortality. We considered a 2.5-year record of daily H(+) and sulfate measurements (May 1988-October 1990) collected in the Buffalo, New York, region in a time-series analysis of respiratory, circulatory, and total daily mortality and hospital admissions. Other copollutants considered included particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, coefficient of haze, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Various modeling techniques were applied to control for confounding of effect estimates due to seasonality, weather, and day-of-week effects. We found multiple significant pollutant-health effect associations--most strongly between SO(4)(2-) and respiratory hospital admissions (as indicated by its t-statistic). Additionally, H(+) and SO(4)(2-) demonstrated the most coherent associations with both respiratory hospital admissions [H(+): relative risk (RR) = 1. 31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.51; and SO(4)(2-): RR = 1. 18, CI, 1.09-1.28] and respiratory mortality (H(+): RR = 1.55, CI, 1. 09-2.20; and SO(4)(2-): RR = 1.24, CI, 1.01-1.52). Thus, acidic sulfate aerosols represent a component of PM air pollution that may contribute to the previously noted adverse effects of PM mass on human health, and the associations demonstrated in this study support the need for further investigations into the potential health effects of acidic aerosols. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10656852

  20. Compound heterozygosity for COL7A1 mutations in twins with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: a recessive paternal deletion/insertion mutation and a dominant negative maternal glycine substitution result in a severe phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Christiano, A. M.; Anton-Lamprecht, I.; Amano, S.; Ebschner, U.; Burgeson, R. E.; Uitto, J.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated genetic linkage between the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) and the dominant (DDEB) and recessive (RDEB) forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) and have subsequently identified pathogenetic mutations in several families. Mutations in DDEB identified thus far are glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain of COL7A1, while the most severe forms of RDEB result from premature termination codon (PTC) mutations on both alleles. In this study, we performed mutation analysis in the COL7A1 gene in twins who displayed a severe DEB phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed a paternal 2-bp deletion/1-bp insertion in exon 56, designated 5103CC-->G, which results in a frameshift and downstream PTC. Analysis of the maternal COL7A1 allele revealed a glycine-to-arginine substitution in exon 91 (G2351R). Careful questioning of the mother revealed that she and her father had a history of shedding of toenails and occasional poorly healing erosions, consistent with a mild form of DDEB. Immunoprecipitation of type VII collagen from fibroblasts of the twins revealed a marked reduction in intracellular protein production, consistent with the drastic reduction in mRNA transcript from the paternal mutant allele, while the majority of polypeptides bearing the glycine substitution appeared to be degraded intracellularly. Thus, the severe RDEB phenotype in the probands results from compound heterozygosity for one glycine substitution and one PTC mutation in COL7A1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8644730

  1. Ultrastructural alterations in allylamine cardiovascular toxicity. Late myocardial and vascular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Boor, P. J.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The late myocardial and vascular ultrastructural changes in rat hearts following consumption of the cardiovascular toxin allylamine were studied. Rats were given 0.1% allylamine HCl in drinking water for 10-104 days. From 10 to 21 days, there was organization of acute myocardial necrosis by macrophages and scattered polymorphonuclear leukocytes with prominent interstitial-cell proliferation. Alterations at 21-104 days included extensive scarring with formation of dense mature collagen with scattered fibroblasts present, grossly evident left-ventricular aneurysm, and gross and microscopic changes similar to those observed in the secondary form of endocardial fibroelastosis. Areas of scar contained highly cellular foci of smooth-muscle cells, myofibroblasts, and abundant extracellular elastin. Cardiac myocytes frequently showed markedly disorganized myofilaments, bizarrely distorted mitochondria with condensed cristae, and other severe degenerative changes. Small vessels within and adjacent to scar showed proliferation of intimal smooth-muscle cells. Endothelial lesions or recent or organized thrombi were not seen. Focal endocardial metaplasia, consisting of both chondroid and osseous tissue, was found in areas of transmural scarring, or ventricular aneurysm. Chondrocytes had the overall nuclear and cellular morphology, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and surrounding lacunae typical of mature fibrocartilage. In some areas, the collagen matrix was undergoing calcification with the typical cross-banded pattern of calcifying connective tissue. Osteocytes were located in a densely calcified bone matrix and displayed characteristic cellular extensions into surrounding canaliculi. These findings indicate a severe myocardial, small-vessel, and endocardial injury during the course of chronic allylamine intoxication. Images Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure

  2. Electrostatic properties of cytochrome f: implications for docking with plastocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, D C; Gross, E L; David, E S

    1996-01-01

    The electrostatic properties of cytochrome f (cyt f), a member of the cytochrome b6f complex and reaction partner with plastocyanin (PC) in photosynthetic electron transport, are qualitatively studied with the goal of determining the mechanism of electron transfer between cyt f and PC. A crystal structure for cyt f was analyzed with the software package GRASP, revealing a large region of positive potential generated by a patch of positively charged residues (including K58, K65, K66, K122, K185, K187, and R209) and reinforced by the iron center of the heme. This positive field attracts the negative charges of the two acidic patches on the mobile electron carrier PC. Three docked complexes are obtained for the two proteins, based on electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions or both and on steric fits by manual docking methods. The first of these three complexes shows strong electrostatic interactions between K187 on cyt f and D44 on PC and between E59 on PC and K58 on cyt f. Two other manually docked complexes are proposed, implicating H87 on PC as the electron-accepting site from the iron center of cyt f through Y1. The second complex maintains the D44/K187 cross-link (but not the E59/K58 link) while increasing hydrophobic interactions between PC and cyt f. Hydrophobic interactions are increased still further in the third complex, whereas the link between K187 on cyt f and D44 on PC is broken. The proposed reaction mechanism, therefore, involves an initial electrostatic docking complex that gives rise to a nonpolar attraction between the regions surrounding H87 on PC and Y1 on cyt f, providing for an electron-transfer active complex. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8804589

  3. Nonsedimentable Microvesicles from Senescing Bean Cotyledons Contain Gel Phase-Forming Phospholipid Degradation Products 1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kening; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Thompson, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A mixture of liquid-crystalline and gel-phase lipid domains is detectable by wide angle x-ray diffraction in smooth microsomal membranes isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons, whereas corresponding membranes from young 2-day-old cotyledons are exclusively liquid-crystalline. The gel-phase domains in the senescent membranes comprise phospholipid degradation products including diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, long-chain aldehydes, and long-chain hydrocarbons. The same complement of phospholipid degradation products is also present in nonsedimentable microvesicles isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons by filtration of a 250,000g, 12-hour supernatant through a 300,000 dalton cut-off filter. The phospholipid degradation products in the microvesicles form gel-phase lipid domains when reconstituted into phospholipid liposomes. Nonsedimentable microvesicles of a similar size, which are again enriched in the same gel-phase-forming phospholipid degradation products, are also generated in vitro from smooth microsomal membranes isolated from 2-day-old cotyledons when Ca2+ is added to activate membrane-associated lipolytic enzymes. The Ca2+-treated membranes do not contain detectable gel-phase domains, suggesting that the phospholipid degradation products are completely removed by microvesiculation. The observations collectively indicate that these nonsedimentable microvesicles serve as a vehicle for moving phospholipid degradation products out of membrane bilayers into the cytosol. As noted previously (Yao K, Paliyath G, Humphrey RW, Hallett FR, Thompson JE [1991] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2269-2273), the term “deteriosome” connotes this putative function and would serve to distinguish these microvesicles from other cytoplasmic microvesicles unrelated to deterioration. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668427

  4. Time-resolved delayed luminescence image microscopy using an europium ion chelate complex.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, G.; Heidecker, M.; Diamandis, E. P.; Yan-Marriott, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Improvements and extended applications of time-resolved delayed luminescence imaging microscopy (TR-DLIM) in cell biology are described. The emission properties of europium ion complexed to a fluorescent chelating group capable of labeling proteins are exploited to provide high contrast images of biotin labeled ligands through detection of the delayed emission. The streptavidin-based macromolecular complex (SBMC) employs streptavidin cross-linked to thyroglobulin multiply labeled with the europium-fluorescent chelate. The fluorescent chelate is efficiently excited with 340-nm light, after which it sensitizes europium ion emission at 612 nm hundreds of microseconds later. The SBMC complex has a high quantum yield orders of magnitude higher than that of eosin, a commonly used delayed luminescent probe, and can be readily seen by the naked eye, even in specimens double-labeled with prompt fluorescent probes. Unlike triplet-state phosphorescent probes, sensitized europium ion emission is insensitive to photobleaching and quenching by molecular oxygen; these properties have been exploited to obtain delayed luminescence images of living cells in aerated medium thus complementing imaging studies using prompt fluorescent probes. Since TR-DLIM has the unique property of rejecting enormous signals that originate from scattered light, autofluorescence, and prompt fluorescence it has been possible to resolve double emission images of living amoeba cells containing an intensely stained lucifer yellow in pinocytosed vesicles and membrane surface-bound SBMC-labeled biotinylated concanavalin A. Images of fixed cells represented in terms of the time decay of the sensitized emission show the lifetime of the europium ion emission is sensitive to the environment in which it is found. Through the coupling of SBMC to streptavidin,a plethora of biotin-based tracer molecules are available for immunocytochemical studies. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7

  5. Muscarinic Ca2+ responses resistant to muscarinic antagonists at perisynaptic Schwann cells of the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, R; Jahromi, B S; Charlton, M P

    1997-01-01

    1. Acetylcholine causes a rise of intracellular Ca2+ in perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) of the frog neuromuscular junction. The signalling pathway was characterized using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 and fluorescence microscopy. 2. Nicotinic antagonists had no effect on Ca2+ responses evoked by ACh and no Ca2+ responses were evoked with the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The muscarinic agonists muscarine and oxotremorine-M induced Ca2+ signals in PSCs. 3. Ca2+ responses remained unchanged when extracellular Ca2+ was removed, indicating that they are due to the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Incubation with pertussis toxin did not alter the Ca2+ signals induced by muscarine, but did block depression of transmitter release induced by adenosine and prevented Ca2+ responses in PSCs induced by adenosine. 4. The general muscarinic antagonists atropine, quinuclidinyl benzilate and N-methyl-scopolamine failed to block Ca2+ responses to muscarinic agonists. Atropine (at 20,000-fold excess concentration) also failed to reduce the proportion of cells responding to a threshold muscarine concentration sufficient to cause responses in less than 50% of cells. Only the allosteric, non-specific blocker, gallamine (1-10 microM) was effective in blocking muscarine-induced Ca2+ responses. 5. In preparations denervated 7 days prior to experiments, low concentrations of atropine reversibly and completely blocked Ca2+ responses to muscarine. 6. The lack of blockade by general muscarinic antagonists in innervated, in situ preparations suggests that muscarinic Ca2+ responses at PSCs are not mediated by any of the five known muscarinic receptors or that post-translational modification prevented antagonist binding. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9365908

  6. Regulation of Ascorbate Oxidase Expression in Pumpkin by Auxin and Copper 1

    PubMed Central

    Esaka, Muneharu; Fujisawa, Kouichi; Goto, Miwa; Kisu, Yasutomo

    1992-01-01

    Ascorbate oxidase expression in pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) tissues was studied. Specific ascorbate oxidase activities in pumpkin leaf and stem tissues were about 2 and 1.5 times that in the fruit tissues, respectively. In seeds, little ascorbate oxidase activity was detected. Northern blot analyses showed an abundant ascorbate oxidase mRNA in leaf and stem tissues. Fruit tissues had lower levels of ascorbate oxidase mRNA than leaf and stem tissues. Ascorbate oxidase mRNA was not detected in seeds. Specific ascorbate oxidase activity gradually increased during early seedling growth of pumpkin seeds. The increase was accompanied by an increase in ascorbate oxidase mRNA. When ascorbate oxidase activity in developing pumpkin fruits was investigated, the activities in immature fruits that are rapidly growing at 0, 2, 4, and 7 d after anthesis were much higher than those in mature fruits at 14 and 30 d after anthesis. The specific activity and mRNA of ascorbate oxidase markedly increased after inoculation of pumpkin fruit tissues into Murashige and Skoog's culture medium in the presence of an auxin such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) but not in the absence of 2,4-D. In the presence of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D, ascorbate oxidase mRNA was the most abundant. Thus, ascorbate oxidase is induced by 2,4-D. These results indicate that ascorbate oxidase is involved in cell growth. In pumpkin callus, ascorbate oxidase activity could be markedly increased by adding copper. Furthermore, immunological blotting showed that the amount of ascorbate oxidase protein was also increased by adding copper. However, northern blot analyses showed that ascorbate oxidase mRNA was not increased by adding copper. We suggest that copper may control ascorbate oxidase expression at translation or at a site after translation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16652952

  7. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. METHODS: Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. RESULTS: The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9833800

  8. Leiomyosarcoma in leiomyomatosis of the small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    el-Omar, M.; Davies, J.; Gupta, S.; Ross, H.; Thompson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple leiomyomata of the small intestine are rare. We report one such case where a leiomyosarcoma had arisen from a leiomyoma in the small intestine 8 years after presentation. The possible origin of the leiomyomata is discussed and it is concluded that small intestinal leiomyomatosis should be regarded as a premalignant condition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7971636

  9. Be smart, don't kick the heart

    PubMed Central

    Braam, R.L.; Hertzberger, D.P.; Meursing, B.T.J.; Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude

    2005-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a rare cause of cardiac pathology. Nevertheless, a variety of life-threatening cardiac diseases can be caused by blunt chest traumas. In this case report we describe a myocardial infarction associated with kickboxing. We also review the literature describing myocardial infarction associated with blunt chest trauma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696509

  10. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    with data on human subjects exposed to lead under a variety of experimental and natural conditions. Images p598-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. D Figure 7. E Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 11. Figure 12. p613-a PMID:8143593

  11. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10

  12. Catecholamine-Secreting Paragangliomas at the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kuhweide, Rudolf; Lanser, Michael J.; Fisch, Ugo

    1996-01-01

    Paragangliomas (glomus tumors) comprise 15% of all neoplasms at the skull base. Despite extensive growth, these tumors usually do not secrete active biogenic substances into the circulation in sufficient quantities to produce symptoms. When they do secrete large amounts of catecholamines, they will cause symptoms that mimic a pheochromocytoma. The still confusing nomenclature of paragangliomas is reviewed, and the clinical work-up, surgical treatment, and follow-up of five patients with catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas of temporal bone (3), infratemporal fossa (1), and nasopharynx (1) are presented and discussed. ImagesFigure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170951

  13. Mapping interaction forces with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Radmacher, M; Cleveland, J P; Fritz, M; Hansma, H G; Hansma, P K

    1994-01-01

    Force curves were recorded as the sample was raster-scanned under the tip. This opens new opportunities for imaging with the atomic force microscope: several characteristics of the samples can be measured simultaneously, for example, topography, adhesion forces, elasticity, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions. The new opportunities are illustrated by images of several characteristics of thin metal films, aggregates of lysozyme, and single molecules of DNA. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8075349

  14. Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, J.

    1987-01-01

    Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has proved to be a revolutionary advance in the treatment of renal stone disease. It, itself, is non-invasive but may necessitate or be used as an adjunct to more invasive auxiliary procedures. The basic principles of lithotripsy, the clinical experience thus far and probable future applications are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3330235

  15. Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, B P; Naeher, L; Jankun, T; Balenger, K; Holford, T R; Toth, C; Sullivan, J; Wolfson, J M; Koutrakis, P

    1999-01-01

    kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10064553

  16. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    patients with suspected or established acute myocardial infarction. Imaging of organs other than the heart with 201TI has received much less attention but has been reported in patients with peripheral vascular disease and various primary and secondary neoplasms. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7222645

  17. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    inhibitors also explains the synergism of proton pump inhibition and antibiotics such as amoxicillin and clarithromycin in H. pylori eradication. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 10 PMID:9165699

  18. Simple epithelium keratins are required for maintenance of hepatocyte integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, A.; Duclos, S.; Grenier, A.; Price, J.; Wilson-Heiner, M.; Baribault, H.; Marceau, N.

    1997-01-01

    mice were caused by the disruption of the K8 gene. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that simple epithelium keratins are essential for the maintenance of hepatocyte structural and functional integrity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9403718

  19. Origin and fate of oval cells in dipin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Factor, V. M.; Radaeva, S. A.; Thorgeirsson, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    terminal biliary ductules harbor the hepatic stem cell compartment from which oval cells, capable of differentiating into hepatocytes, may be derived. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8053498

  20. Blast-like cell compartment in carcinogen-induced proliferating bile ductules.

    PubMed Central

    Novikoff, P. M.; Yam, A.; Oikawa, I.

    1996-01-01

    prominent nucleoli. The transitional cells exhibit a similar apical-basal polarity and antigenic phenotype as the oval/bile ductule epithelial cells. However, transitional cells are larger and have an overall less dense cytoplasm than the bile ductule epithelial/oval cells, and some show apical microvilli changes and small catalase-positive peroxisomes. These observations indicate that a greater diversity of cell types exist within intrahepatic bile ductules of rats treated with carcinogens. Furthermore, the nonpolarized ductal blast-like cells undergo proliferation and are significantly different in phenotype from other hepatic cells previously reported as candidates for liver progenitor cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8623918

  1. Characterizations of and interactions between bile ductule cells and hepatocytes in early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by ethionine.

    PubMed Central

    Novikoff, P. M.; Ikeda, T.; Hixson, D. C.; Yam, A.

    1991-01-01

    numerous free ribosomes. Hepatocytes showed a prominent development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, a feature prominent in hepatocytes within hyperplastic nodules. Since BDL cells and hepatocytes proliferate and BDL cells and hepatocytes develop intercellular junction sites, the authors propose that both cell types in early stages of carcinogenesis have the capacity to enter the cell lineage pathway leading to the development of hepatocarcinoma. Furthermore, the finding that BDL cells and hepatocytes form multiple attachment sites at the level of the plasma membrane, suggests the possibility that at some stage convergence of separate hepatic cell pathways may occur. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1750508

  2. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor is localized on specialized sub-regions of the endoplasmic reticulum in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Lièvremont, J P; Hill, A M; Hilly, M; Mauger, J P

    1994-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) is involved in the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular non-mitochondrial stores. In rat liver, it has been shown that the InsP3-binding site co-purifies with the plasma membrane. This suggests that in the liver the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) associates with plasma membrane. We studied the subcellular distribution of the liver InsP3R by measuring the maximal binding capacity of [3H]InsP3 and using antibodies against the 14 C-terminal residues of the type 1 InsP3R. The antibodies recognized a large amount of an InsP3R protein of 260 kDa in a membrane fraction which is also enriched with [3H]InsP3-binding sites and with markers of the basal, the lateral and the bile-canalicular membrane and the plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump (PMCA). The fractions enriched in markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Ca2+ pump of the ER (SERCA2b) contained low levels of InsP3 receptors. The immunofluorescent labelling of cultured hepatocytes with anti-InsP3R antibodies indicated that the receptor is concentrated in the perinuclear area and in some regions near the plasma membrane. The fraction enriched with InsP3R is also contaminated with markers of the ER and with SERCA2b. It was exposed to alkaline medium (pH 10.5) to extract endogenous actin and membrane-associated proteins before being subfractionated by Percoll-gradient centrifugation. The alkaline treatment allowed partial separation of the markers of the ER from the markers of the plasma membrane. The InsP3R was recovered in the heavy subfraction, which was also enriched with markers for the ER and with the SERCA2b and contained low levels of markers of the plasma membrane. These data indicate that the InsP3R is neither localized on the plasma membrane itself nor homogeneously distributed on the ER membrane. This supports the view that part of the receptor is localized on a specialized sub-region of the ER which interacts with the plasma membrane. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure

  3. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  4. Induction of a reversible cardiac lipidosis by a dietary long-chain fatty acid (erucic acid). Relationship to lipid accumulation in border zones of myocardial infarcts.

    PubMed Central

    Chien, K. R.; Bellary, A.; Nicar, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Buja, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiac myocytes in the border zone of acute myocardial infarction become markedly overloaded with neutral lipid during the transition from reversible to irreversible injury. To examine directly the role of these changes in neutral lipid metabolism in the development of irreversible cellular injury and associated increases in tissue Ca2+ content, the authors fed rats large amounts of a fatty acid (erucic acid) that is poorly oxidized by the heart and that subsequently accumulates as neutral lipid. Rats fed a high erucic acid (C22:1) diet in the form of 20% rapeseed oil for 3-5 days had a fourfold increase in triglyceride (49.5 +/- 3.8 SEM mg/g wet wt versus 13.6 +/- 13, n = 4) and a 60% increase in long-chain acyl CoA content (166.0 +/- 21.9 versus 91.5 +/- 9.0 nM/g wet wt, n = 4), compared with controls. However, there was no change in long-chain acyl carnitine or total phospholipid content. Histochemical studies showed accumulation of numerous lipid droplets in the myocytes, and electron microscopy revealed localization of lipid vesicles in direct contact with mitochondria, thus mimicking the lipid-laden cells in the border zone regions of acute myocardial infarcts. The acute lipidosis was reversible with either continued feeding of erucic acid for several weeks or conversion to a normal diet. It was not associated with an increased tissue Ca2+ content, nor with cell necrosis. However, continued erucic acid intake for 3 months was associated with focal myocardial degeneration and loss of myocytes. These results suggest that acute increases in neutral lipids, as found in the border zone of acute myocardial infarction, may not be the cause of progression to irreversible damage during acute myocardial injury, but that the persistent presence of similar lipid material over months may result in focal myocardial degeneration. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6859230

  5. Transgenic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hully, J. R.; Su, Y.; Lohse, J. K.; Griep, A. E.; Sattler, C. A.; Haas, M. J.; Dragan, Y.; Peterson, J.; Neveu, M.; Pitot, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    stainable amounts of the p53 gene product; by contrast, normal hepatocytes express only very low levels of the T antigen within their nuclei and no demonstrable p53. All of the animals develop hepatic lesions, and approximately one-third also develop adenomas and carcinomas derived from the islet cells of the pancreas. Although there are differences in the morphology, biology, and genetic expression in early and late hepatic lesions in this strain of transgenic rat, many similarities also occur, making this a potential model system with which to study the interactions of environmental factors with a genetic program for hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8053496

  6. Defect of Fc receptors and phenotypical changes in sinusoidal endothelial cells in human liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Muro, H.; Shirasawa, H.; Kosugi, I.; Nakamura, S.

    1993-01-01

    .e., capillarization of the sinusoids. These phenotypical changes in SECs may reduce the capacity of FcR-mediated IgG-IC metabolism in diseased livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7686339

  7. Evolution of hepatitis B virus liver disease after hepatic replacement. Practical and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. J.; Todo, S.; Van Thiel, D. H.; Fung, J. J.; Iwaki, Y.; Sysyn, G.; Ming, W.; Trager, J.; Starzl, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    reinfection suggests that, under special circumstances, the B virus may be cytopathic. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2399936

  8. No evidence of HTLV-I proviral integration in lymphoproliferative disorders associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. S.; Schaffer, J. M.; Boni, R.; Dummer, R.; Burg, G.; Takeshita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9033279

  9. Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by monocytes and endothelial cells exposed to thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Colotta, F.; Sciacca, F. L.; Sironi, M.; Luini, W.; Rabiet, M. J.; Mantovani, A.

    1994-01-01

    cells and EC to release chemotactic activity for monocytes that could be inhibited by absorption with anti-MCP-1 antibodies. Induction of a chemotactic cytokine for monocytes by thrombin points to the importance of this enzyme in regulating inflammatory processes and further indicates that hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity are strictly interconnected processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8178946

  10. Langerhans cells require signals from both tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta for migration.

    PubMed Central

    Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I

    1997-01-01

    Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9486113

  11. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    . Preliminary comparisons of the models used to translate track rate densities to average long-term radon concentrations differ between the two studies. Further calibration of the retrospective detectors' models for interpretation of track rate density may allow the pooling of studies that use glass-based retrospective radon detectors to determine historic residential radon exposures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10545336

  12. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    relevant in the exposure to arsenic are still unidentified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9417766

  13. Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M M; Haslam, R J

    1994-01-01