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Sample records for 2g coated conductors

  1. Enhanced critical currents of commercial 2G superconducting coated conductors through proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, Ulrich; Leroux, M.; Kihlstrom, K. J.; Kwok, W.-K.; Koshelev, A. E.; Miller, D. J.; Rupich, M. W.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Kayani, A.

    2015-03-01

    We report on magnetization and transport measurements of the critical current density, Jc, of commercial 2G YBCO coated conductors before and after proton irradiation. The samples were irradiated along the c-axis with 4 MeV protons. Proton irradiation produces a mixed pinning landscape composed of pre-existing rare earth particles and a uniform distribution of irradiation induced nm-sized defects. This pinning landscape strongly reduces the suppression of Jc in magnetic fields resulting in a doubling of Jc in a field of ~ 4T. The irradiation dose-dependence of Jc is characterized by a temperature and field dependent sweat spot that at 5 K and 6 T occurs around 20x1016 p/cm2. Large-scale time dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations yield a good description of our results. This work supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (KK, ML, AEK) and by the D.O.E, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (UW, WKK).

  2. H-formulation for simulating levitation forces acting on HTS bulks and stacks of 2G coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, F.; Sotelo, G. G.; Junior, R. de Andrade; Sirois, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques to model high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are used throughout the world. At the same time, the use of superconductors in transportation and magnetic bearings promises an increase in energy efficiency. However, the most widespread simulation technique in the literature, the H-formulation, has not yet been used to simulate superconducting levitation. The goal of this work is to present solutions for the challenges concerning the use of the H-formulation to predict the behavior of superconducting levitators built either with YBCO bulks or stacks of 2G wires. It is worth mentioning the originality of replacing bulks with HTS stacks in this application. In our simulation methodology, the movement between the HTS and the permanent magnet was avoided by restricting the simulation domain to the HTS itself, which can be done by applying appropriate boundary conditions and analytical expressions for the source field. Commercial finite element software was used for the sake of ease of implementation. Simulation results were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. We conclude that the H-formulation is suitable for problems involving moving objects and is a good alternative to other approaches for simulating superconducting magnetic bearings.

  3. YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2010-01-01

    carefully aligning the grains in YBCO films, low angle boundaries between superconducting YBCO grains allow more current to flow. In fact below a critical misalignment angle of 4 , the critical current density approaches that of YBCO films grown on single crystal substrates [10]. Typically, 2G HTS wires have three components, flexible metal substrate, buffer layers, and REBa2Cu3O7- (REBCO: RE = Rare Earth) superconductor layers [1-7]. Several methods were developed to obtain biaxially textured templates suitable for fabricating high-performance YBCO coated conductors. They are Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) and Inclined-Substrate Deposition (ISD). Compared to 1G wire, for producing 2G wires using RABiTS or IBAD process, silver is replaced by a low cost nickel alloy, which allows for fabrication of less expensive HTS wires.

  4. The role of a-axis grains in the transition to the normal state of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} films and of 2G-coated conductors when induced by high electrical current densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, P. Harnois, C.; Mc Loughlin, C.; Noudem, J.; Thimont, Y.; Ferro, G.; Osorio, M. R.; Veira, J. A.; Vidal, D.; Vidal, F.

    2014-02-07

    The influence of surface defects, in particular of a-axis grains, on the transition to the normal state induced by high current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) thin films and in a commercial 2G-coated conductor is investigated. For that purpose, the surface of the samples is observed by scanning electron microscopy and isothermal current-voltage curves are measured at different temperatures with pulsed currents up to the quenching value I*. The results show that the ratio of I* to the critical current is large if a-axis grains are not visible at the surface of the YBCO films, while it is much lower if the surface includes a-axis grains as this is the case for the coated conductor. The connection between the transition onset and the vortex dynamics, as well as the role of the a-axis grains in this process are discussed. The relation between the I* values obtained from thermal calculations and those resulting from vortex dynamics considerations is also discussed, as well as the possible consequences suggested by this work for the different applications of the coated conductors.

  5. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  6. Improving YBCO Coated Conductors for Applications (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    are lighter in weight and smaller in size than their conventional counterparts. The YBCO coated conductor is expected to be the premiere HTS conductor...superconductors (HTS) can enable megawatt-class power systems which are lighter in weight and smaller in size than their conventional counterparts. The...Pinning, Superconducting Machines . PACS: 74.60.G, 74.76.B, 74.25.H, 74.72.B INTRODUCTION A variety of future military systems will require large amounts

  7. Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications

    DOEpatents

    Hirayama, Chikara; Wagner, George R.

    1982-05-18

    This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu.sub.2 S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors.

  8. Transport AC Losses in Striated YBCO Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0124 TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N. Barnes Mechanical Energy...TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...2006. 14. ABSTRACT DC current-voltage characteristics and transport ac losses of striated and non-striated Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ ( YBCO ) coated conductors

  9. Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradors, Xavier; Puig, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript reports on the recent progress and the remaining materials challenges in the development of coated conductors (CCs) for power applications and magnets, with a particular emphasis on the different initiatives being active at present in Europe. We first summarize the scientific and technological scope where CCs have been raised as a complex technology product and then we show that there exists still much room for performance improvement. The objectives and CC architectures being explored in the scope of the European project EUROTAPES are widely described and their potential in generating novel breakthroughs emphasized. The overall goal of this project is to create synergy among academic and industrial partners to go well beyond the state of the art in several scientific issues related to CCs’ enhanced performances and to develop nanoengineered CCs with reduced costs, using high throughput manufacturing processes which incorporate quality control tools and so lead to higher yields. Three general application targets are considered which will require different conductor architectures and performances and so the strategy is to combine vacuum and chemical solution deposition approaches to achieve the targeted goals. A few examples of such approaches are described related to defining new conductor architectures and shapes, as well as vortex pinning enhancement through novel paths towards nanostructure generation. Particular emphasis is made on solution chemistry approaches. We also describe the efforts being made in transforming the CCs into assembled conductors and cables which achieve appealing mechanical and electromagnetic performances for power systems. Finally, we briefly mention some outstanding superconducting power application projects being active at present, in Europe and worldwide, to exemplify the strong advances in reaching the demands to integrate them in a new electrical engineering paradigm.

  10. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  11. High current DyBCO-ROEBEL Assembled Coated Conductor (RACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldacker, W.; Nast, R.; Kotzyba, G.; Schlachter, S. I.; Frank, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Schmidt, C.; Komarek, P.

    2006-06-01

    Low AC loss high transport current HTS cables (>1 kA) are required for application in transformers, generators and are considered for future generations of fusion reactors coils. 2G coated conductors are suitable candidates for high field application at quite high operation temperatures of 50-77 K, which is crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. As a feasibility study we present the first ROEBEL bar cable of approx. 35 cm length made from industrial DyBCO coated conductor (THEVA GmbH, Germany). Meander shaped ROEBEL strands of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 180 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. The strands carried in average 157 Amps/cm-width DC and were assembled to a subcable with 5 strands and a final cable with 16 strands. The 5 strand cable was tested and carried a transport current of >300 Amps DC at 77 K, equivalent to the sum of the individual strand transport critical currents. The 16 strand cable carried 500 A limited through heating effects and non sufficient stabilisation and current sharing. A pulse current load indicated a current carrying potential of >1 kA for the 16 strand cable.

  12. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-09-01

    When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  13. Overview of Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Taneda, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    There are high expectations for coated conductors in electric power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables, and transformers owing to their ability to contribute to stabilizing and increasing the capacity of the electric power supply grid as well as to reducing CO2 emission as a result of their high critical-current characteristics. Research and development has been performed on wires/tapes and electric power devices worldwide. The Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) Project is a five-year national project in Japan started in 2008, supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), to develop both coated conductors that meet market requirements and basic technologies for the above-mentioned power applications using coated conductors. In this article, research and development results are reviewed and compared with the interim/final targets of the project, and future prospects are discussed.

  14. YBCO Coated Conductors with Reduced AC Losses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-30

    application such as turbo- generators and gyrotron magnets . The major reason is the enhanced in-field performance at 50-65 K and the proven...transformers, current limiters and the stators of rotating equipment. Low AC-loss in 2G HTS requires wire components with low magnetism , and an YBCO...layer with low transport and low hysteretic losses in an alternating magnetic field. The latter loss type requires a suitable filamentization technique

  15. Critical Current in YBCO Coated Conductors in the Presence of a Macroscopic Defect (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2084 CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) Milan Polak and...CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We have studied the effects of localized defects in the YBCO coated conductors on the critical current. The

  16. Removal of degradation of the performance of an epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor double pancake coil by using a polyimide-electrodeposited YBCO-coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Sato, K.; Piao, R.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Kamibayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the epoxy impregnated YBCO coil performance is due to tensile radial stress concentration on the outer edge of the conductor during cool down. This stress acts as a cleavage stress and opens the conductor edge, fracturing the YBCO layer. The fracture propagates to another edge of the conductor, resulting in degradation of the coil performance. Degradation of the epoxy impregnated YBCO coil is eliminated, if we use a polyimide-electrodeposited YBCO-coated conductor: tensile radial stress concentration on the outer edge of the conductor is reduced due to plastic deformation of the ductile polyimide. Polyimide electrodeposition onto the YBCO-coated conductor is reliable, uniform, easy to apply, and can be extended to larger YBCO magnets, removing the risk of coil degradation.

  17. R&D of coated conductors for applications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-11-01

    On the research and development of coated conductors in Japan, the Ic characteristics and the length have been remarkably improved in the national project. Five hundred meter-long tapes with higher Ic values than 300 A/cm-width were realized by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and the metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) processings for the superconducting layer on the IBAD-GZO buffered substrates. In order to realize the low cost by the increasing the production rate of the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) layer, the process of IBAD-MgO was developed and a 1000 m-long IBAD buffer tape was fabricated at an extremely high production rate of 1 km/h. On the other hand, the artificial pinning center has been introduced in both PLD and MOD processing. The BaZrO3 nano-rods were aligned along the c-axis of GdBCO superconducting films by the PLD process. The Jc value in the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis was remarkably improved. Additionally, the BaZrO3 nano-particles were uniformly dispersed in YGdBCO films by the TFA-MOD process and the Jc-B-θ property was confirmed to be isotropic. Based on the above-mentioned achievements, the new national project, whose main objective is the development of some electric power applications using a coated conductor, started in 2008. In this project, the improvement of the coated conductor includes the five sub-themes: (1) degradation of tapes, (2) high Ic under magnetic field, (3) low AC loss, (4) high mechanical strength and high Je and (5) low cost and high yield.

  18. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  19. The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0119 THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS INTO MAGNETS AND ROTATING MACHINERY (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N...COVERED (From - To) February 2012 Conference Paper Postprint 01 January 2004 – 01 January 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED...Keystone, CO (August 29-September 2, 2005) The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery G. A. Levin and P. N. Barnes

  20. Stability and Normal Zone Propagation Speed in YBCO Coated Conductors with Increased Interfacial Resistance (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2085 STABILITY AND NORMAL ZONE PROPAGATION SPEED IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS WITH INCREASED INTERFACIAL RESISTANCE...August 2006 – 25 August 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STABILITY AND NORMAL ZONE PROPAGATION SPEED IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS WITH INCREASED INTERFACIAL...reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We will discuss how stability and speed of normal zone propagation in YBCO

  1. Doubling the Critical Current Density of 2G-Coated Conductors through Proton Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Maxime; Jia, Y.; Miller, D. J.; Wen, J. G.; Kwok, W. K.; Welp, U.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A.; Kayani, A.; Ayala-Valenzuela, O.; Civale, L.

    2014-03-01

    The in-field performance of production-line 2nd generation high temperature superconducting cable can be substantially improved by post-fabrication irradiation with 4 MeV protons. A dose of 8 .1016 p / cm2 nearly doubles the critical current in fields of 6 T // c at 27 K and more generally the suppression of Jc in magnetic field is reduced. A mixed pinning landscape composed of preexisting precipitates and twin boundaries and small, finely dispersed irradiation induced defects may account for the improved vortex pinning in high magnetic fields. Our current data-set indicates that there is significant head-room for further enhancements.This work was supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Y.J., M.L., W.K.K., U.W., O.A.V., L.C.) and by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02- 06CH11357 (D.J.M., J.G.W.). Irradiations were carried out at the Western Michigan University accelerator laboratory. Microstructure was characterized in the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne, supported by the Office of Science-Basic Energy Science.

  2. High Jc coated conductors with a simple buffer layer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianni, L.; Baldini, A.; Bindi, M.; Gauzzi, A.; Rampino, S.; Zannella, S.

    2005-10-01

    We report on the in situ route for the continuous fabrication of YBCO coated conductors (CC) by thermal co-evaporation. CC architecture consists of YBCO film grown on biaxially textured Ni-alloys tapes buffered with a single layer of CeO2. The buffer layer deposition has been optimized by either e-beam or thermal evaporation using respectively ceria or metallic cerium. Best results have been obtained on CeO2 film, with a thickness less or equal than 100 nm, grown in a reducing atmosphere at 690 °C with a growth rate of 2.4 Å/s. The optimal samples exhibit a highly biaxial texture, as indicated by FWHM values in the range of 5-8° and 4-6° for respectively in- and out-of-plane orientations. The layers are characterized by an uniform and crack-free surface with an average roughness lower than 10 nm. SIMS analysis confirms the effectiveness of CeO2 buffer layer against Ni interdiffusion. This template allows to obtain YBCO films strong textured, with good superconductive properties. YBCO texture data are equivalent the CeO2 ones. Midpoint critical temperature, Tc, falls reproducibly in 87-88 K range, with transition widths ΔTc < 2-3 K. Critical current density, Jc, up to 2 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field, have been achieved in a meter long CC corresponding to Ic/width value of 130 A/cm-width. Uniformity and reproducibility of long CC properties are under optimization.

  3. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  4. Measurement Of Transverse Jc Profiles Of Coated Conductors Using A Magnetic Knife Of Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J; Mueller, F M; Ashworth, S P; Coulter, J Y; Matias, Vlad

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {mu}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  5. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-08-01

    Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  6. Magnetization Losses in Multiply Connected YBa2Cu3O6+x-Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    penetration regime. For the YBCO -coated conductors the typical value of Jc 100 A/cm which translates into Bc 10 mT. Hereafter we estimate losses only...removal of YBCO by ablation. The measured transport criti- cal current in the 40-filament sample was close to 100 A.33 The breakeven rate defined by Eq...generation YBa2Cu3O6+x YBCO -coated conductors that are produced in the form of wide, thin tapes.12–16 A way to reduce the hysteresis loss in such tapes by

  7. Delamination behaviour of GdBCO coated conductor tapes under transverse tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorospe, A.; Nisay, A.; Dizon, J. R.; Shin, H. S.

    2013-11-01

    The electromechanical property behaviour of 2G coated conductor (CC) tapes fabricated by multi-layer deposition process both in the in-plane and transverse direction should be understood. The CC tapes are used in the fabrication of epoxy resin-impregnated coils. In such case, the Lorentz force due to the high magnetic field applied as well as the thermal stress due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) among constituent layers during cooling to cryogenic temperature will induce transversely applied load to the surface of CC tapes in coils. Hence, the CC tape should have a good mechanical property in the transverse direction in order to maintain its superior performance under magnetic field. In this study, a test frame which gives precisely aligned transverse load was devised. Using the fixture, the delamination behaviours including the delamination strength of the GdBCO CC tapes under transverse tensile loading were investigated. Large variation on the delamination strength of the CC tapes was recorded and might have resulted from the slit edge effect and the inhomogeneity of the CC tapes. The Ic degradation behaviour under transverse load was related to the location where delamination occurred in the sample.

  8. Inkjet printing of multifilamentary YBCO for low AC loss coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, S. C.; Joseph, D.; Mitchell-Williams, T. B.; Calleja, A.; Vlad, V. R.; Vilardell, M.; Ricart, S.; Granados, X.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Usoskin, A.; Falter, M.; Bäcker, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Considerable progress has been made with the development of REBCO coated conductors in recent years, and high performance conductors are available commercially. For many applications, however, the cost remains prohibitive, and AC losses discourage their selection for higher frequency applications. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) methods are attractive for low-cost, scalable preparation of buffer and superconductor layers, and in many respects inkjet printing is the method of choice, permitting non-contact deposition with minimal materials wastage and excellent control of coating thickness. Highly textured coatings of YBCO and Gd-doped CeO2 have previously been reported on buffered metal substrates. Inkjet printing also introduces the possibility of patterning - directly depositing two and three dimensional structures without subtractive processing - offering a low-cost route to coated conductors with reduced AC losses. In this contribution, the inkjet deposition of superconducting YBCO tracks is reported on industrially relevant buffered metal substrates both by direct printing and an inverse patterning approach. In the latter approach, ceria tracks were printed reported, which are a candidate both for resistive filament spacers and buffer layers. TFA-based precursor solutions have been printed on SS/ABAD-YSZ/CeO2 and Ni-W/LZO/CeO2 RABiTS substrates, and the resulting multifilamentary samples characterised by microscopy and scanning Hall probe measurements. The prospects for future inkjet-printed low AC loss coated conductors are discussed, including control of interfilamentary resistivity and bridging, transposed filamentary structures and stabilisation material.

  9. Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor Geometry by Direct Inkjet Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin, Dr.; Duckworth, Robert, Dr.

    2009-10-01

    The second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) wire offers potential benefits for many electric power applications, including ones requiring filamentized conductors with low ac loss, such as transformers and fault current limiters. However, the use of 2G wire in these applications requires the development of both novel multi-filamentary conductor designs with lower ac losses and the development of advanced manufacturing technologies that enable the low-cost manufacturing of these filamentized architectures. This Phase I SBIR project focused on testing inkjet printing as a potential low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing technique to fabricate potential low ac loss filamentized architectures directly on the 2G template strips.

  10. Long length coated conductor fabrication by inclined substrate deposition and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusseit, W.; Hoffmann, C.; Nemetschek, R.; Sigl, G.; Handke, J.; Lümkemann, A.; Kinder, H.

    2006-06-01

    The commercial development of coated conductors is rapidly progressing. As a result we present an economic route to produce second generation HTS tape from the initial substrate preparation to the final metal coating. The most important and technically challenging steps are the deposition of an oriented buffer layer and the superconductor film in a reel-to-reel configuration. New evaporation techniques have been developed to enable reliable, high rate tape coating. Highly oriented MgO - buffer layers are realized by inclined substrate deposition (ISD) and DyBCO is deposited by simple e-gun evaporation yielding critical currents beyond 200 A/cm. Coated conductors have been fabricated up to 40 m length and are currently tested in a variety of applications.

  11. YBCO Coated Conductor with an Integrated Optical Fiber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Rupich, Marty; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-03-31

    The primary objectives of the Phase I Project was to develop a proof-of-principle for a concept of integrating an optical fiber sensor into the laminated 2G wire, there by producing a functionalized 2G wire with self-monitoring capabilities

  12. Effects of Local Artificial Defects in Multifilamentary Coated Conductors With Patterned Links (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    high-temperature superconducting wires based on YBa2Cu3O7 YBCO , so-called coated con- ductors CCs, have achieved dramatic improvements in current...inherent to the architecture. Several designs have been proposed in order to reduce ac loss.4–6 Carr and Oberly have proposed to divide the YBCO coated...conductor cables into long filamentary strips with a little twist to reduce ac loss.4 The filamentary YBCO epitaxial films and CCs created by laser

  13. Bending properties of different REBCO coated conductor tapes and Roebel cables at T = 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Simon; Kario, Anna; Kling, Andrea; Goldacker, Wilfried

    2016-12-01

    Application of REBCO coated conductors in coils or cables involves deformation of the conductor in different modes, such as in-plane bending, out-of-plane bending and torsion. For example, the dipole magnet designs in the EuCARD-2 project require bending radii as low as 7.5 mm, inducing significant bending strain in the REBCO layer. In this paper, we investigate the effect of out-of-plane bending on the current-carrying properties of coated conductors from different manufacturers. The samples are manipulated by means of a Goldacker-type bending rig, which allows continuous bending at T = 77 K. By reversal to R=∞ after each bending step, the reversible strain effect is separated from irreversible degradation. All tested conductors are found to tolerate compressive bending to a radius of 6 mm with less than 5% irreversible degradation of the critical current. The magnitude of the reversible strain effect shows a large variation among the samples. The effect of out-of-plane bending on Roebel cables is investigated as well, and the results are compared to the bending characteristic of single conductors. The results show no detrimental effect of the cable assembly on the bending properties within the constraints of the test.

  14. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-03-31

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field.

  15. Apparatus and method for measuring critical current properties of a coated conductor

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Fred M [Los Alamos, NM; Haenisch, Jens [Dresden, DE

    2012-07-24

    The transverse critical-current uniformity in a superconducting tape was determined using a magnetic knife apparatus. A critical current I.sub.c distribution and transverse critical current density J.sub.c distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a magnetic knife apparatus. The method utilizes the strong depression of J.sub.c in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low, including zero, magnetic field in a surrounding higher field is moved transversely across a sample of coated conductor. This reveals the critical current density distribution. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J.sub.c distribution in the sample.

  16. On-Line Texture Diagnostics for Coated Conductor Manufacture. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    2002-12-30

    This Phase I project was undertaken to assess the feasibility of implementing a particular diagnostic method for characterizing the crystallographic texture of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors on-line during their reel-to-reel continuous manufacture. Key factors in this technique were the use of an area detector to greatly reduce scan time, an x-ray mirror to enhance incident beam brightness, and an automation scheme for diffractometer control, tape motion control, and calculation and output of texture characterizations.

  17. Measurement of transverse Jc profiles of coated conductors using a magnetic knife of permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haenisch, J; Mueller, F M; Ashworth, S P; Coulter, J Y; Matias, Vlad

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured non-destructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {micro}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  18. Stable Solar-Driven Water Oxidation to O2(g) by Ni-Oxide-Coated Silicon Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; McDowell, Matthew T; Nielander, Adam C; Hu, Shu; Shaner, Matthew R; Yang, Fan; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-02-19

    Semiconductors with small band gaps (<2 eV) must be stabilized against corrosion or passivation in aqueous electrolytes before such materials can be used as photoelectrodes to directly produce fuels from sunlight. In addition, incorporation of electrocatalysts on the surface of photoelectrodes is required for efficient oxidation of H2O to O2(g) and reduction of H2O or H2O and CO2 to fuels. We report herein the stabilization of np(+)-Si(100) and n-Si(111) photoanodes for over 1200 h of continuous light-driven evolution of O2(g) in 1.0 M KOH(aq) by an earth-abundant, optically transparent, electrocatalytic, stable, conducting nickel oxide layer. Under simulated solar illumination and with optimized index-matching for proper antireflection, NiOx-coated np(+)-Si(100) photoanodes produced photocurrent-onset potentials of -180 ± 20 mV referenced to the equilibrium potential for evolution of O2(g), photocurrent densities of 29 ± 1.8 mA cm(-2) at the equilibrium potential for evolution of O2(g), and a solar-to-O2(g) conversion figure-of-merit of 2.1%.

  19. An efficient 3D finite element method model based on the T-A formulation for superconducting coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia

    2017-02-01

    An efficient three dimensional (3D) finite element method numerical model is proposed for superconducting coated conductors. The model is based on the T-A formulation and can be used to tackle 3D computational challenges for superconductors with high aspect ratios. By assuming a sheet approximation for the conductors, the model can speed up the computational process. The model has been validated by established analytical solutions. Two examples with complex geometries, which can hardly be simulated by the 2D model, are given. The model could be used to characterise and design large-scale applications using superconducting coated conductors, such as high field magnets and other electrical devices.

  20. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Carmine; Barth, Christian; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer another. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, J c(T, B, θ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic fields of up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0°, 45° and 90°, in order to probe the angular anisotropy of J c. In spite of the large variability of the CCs’ performance, we show here that field and temperature dependences of J c at a given angle can be reproduced over wide ranges using a scaling relation based only on three parameters. Furthermore, we present and validate a new approach combining magnetic and transport measurements for the determination of the scaling parameters with minimal experimental effort.

  1. Design and test of current limiting modules using YBCO-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Gamble, B.; Kraemer, H.-P.; Madura, D.; Otto, A.; Romanosky, W.

    2010-01-01

    Within the cooperation between American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) and Siemens Corporate Technology we have investigated the fault current limiting performance of YBCO-coated conductors (also called second-generation or 2G HTS wires) stabilized with stainless steel laminates. Design rules for the length and width of the wire depending on utility grid requirements have been established. Bifilar coils have been manufactured and tested with a typical limitation period of 50 ms under stepwise increasing voltage loads to determine the maximum temperature the wires can withstand without degradation. Coils have been assembled into limiter modules demonstrating uniform tripping of the individual coils and recovery within seconds. At present this cooperation is proceeding within a joint project funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) that encompasses the design, construction and testing of a 115 kV FCL for power transmission within a time frame of 4-5 years, and additional partners. Besides AMSC and Siemens, Nexans contributes the high voltage terminations and Los Alamos National Lab investigates the ac losses. Installation and testing are planned for a Southern California Edison substation. The module planned for the transmission voltage application consists of 63 horizontally arranged coils connected in parallel and series to account for a rated current of 1.2 kArms and voltage of 31 kVrms plus margins. The rated voltage of the module is considerably lower than the line to ground voltage in the 115 kV grid owing to our shunted limiter concept. The shunt reactor connected in parallel to the module outside the cryostat allows for adjustment of the limited current and reduces voltage drop across the module in case of a fault. The fault current reduction ratio is 42% for our present design. A subscale module comprising six full-size coils has been assembled and tested recently to validate the coil performance and coil winding technique. The module had a critical

  2. Interlayer structure in YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Luna, Leopoldo; Egoavil, Ricardo; Turner, Stuart; Thersleff, Thomas; Verbeeck, Jo; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Eibl, Oliver; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-07-01

    The functionality of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO)-coated conductor technology depends on the reliability and microstructural properties of a given tape or wire architecture. Particularly, the interface to the metal tape is of interest since it determines the adhesion, mechanical stability of the film and thermal contact of the film to the substrate. A trifluoroacetate (TFA)—metal organic deposition (MOD) prepared YBCO film deposited on a chemical solution-derived buffer layer architecture based on CeO2/La2Zr2O7 and grown on a flexible Ni5 at.%W substrate with a {100}<001> biaxial texture was investigated. The YBCO film had a thickness was 440 nm and a jc of 1.02 MA cm-2 was determined at 77 K and zero external field. We present a sub-nanoscale analysis of a fully processed solution-derived YBCO-coated conductor by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). For the first time, structural and chemical analysis of the valence has been carried out on the sub-nm scale. Intermixing of Ni, La, Ce, O and Ba takes place at these interfaces and gives rise to nanometer-sized interlayers which are a by-product of the sequential annealing process. Two distinct interfacial regions were analyzed in detail: (i) the YBCO/CeO2/La2Zr2O7 region (10 nm interlayer) and (ii) the La2Zr2O7/Ni-5 at.%W substrate interface region (20 nm NiO). This is of particular significance for the functionality of these YBCO-coated conductor architectures grown by chemical solution deposition.

  3. Insert Coil Test for HEP High Field Magnets Using YBCO Coated Conductor Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-15

    The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields of 30-50 T. In this paper we present progress in insert coil development using commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} Coated Conductor. Technological aspects covered in the development, including coil geometry, insulation, manufacturing process and testing are summarized and discussed. Test results of double pancake coils operated in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium are presented and compared with the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} tape short samples.

  4. Superconducting Generators for Airborne Applications and YBCO-Coated Conductors (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    This work was supported in part by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory and Air Force Office of Scientific Research. P . N...Advancing YBCO Coated Conductors for Use on Air Platforms,” Int. J. Appl. Ceramic Technol., vol. 4, pp. 242-249, July 2007. [3] A. P . Malozemoff, S...Fleshler, M. Rupich, C. Thieme, X. Li, W. Zhang, A. Otto, J. Maguire, D. Folts, J. Yuan, H- P . Kraemer, W. Schmidt, M. Wohlfart, and H-W. Neumueller

  5. Development of Coated Conductors in Japanese National Project "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    RE1Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE=rare earth) coated conductors have attracted the attention of many scientists due to the high superconducting properties, etc. Due to the great progress of R&D on coated conductors, the activities have shifted to specific applications. The new Japanese national project, named as "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils", started last year aiming for the applications of MRI and medical accelerators. To meet the requirements of those applications, the R&D of REBCO coated conductors (CCs) are being performed with that of coiling technology in parallel. The theme has two sub-themes of "development of long CCs with high in-field performance" and "development of CCs with extremely low heat generation" in this national project. The ambitious goals of these themes are set as intermediate ones due 2016 Mar; the theme of in-field: 100m-500A/cm-w@65K, 3T -850A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 100m-500 μm of filament width w/ Icfilament inhomogeneity of distribution within 10% and joint resistance below 5nΩ. The final goals of these themes due 2018 Mar. were set as follows; the theme of in-field: 200m-600A/cm-w@65K, 3T -1000A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 200m-500 μm of filament width w/ Icfilament distribution within 5% and joint resistance below 3nΩ. The objectives, goals and progress of this project will be reviewed in this article. As for the progress, for example, the combination of EuBCO+BHO was found to be effective to improve the in-field performance of PLD derived coated conductors. A 94 m long wire with Icmin of 108A/cm-w@77K, 3T (corresponding to 472A/cm-w @65K, 3T) was successfully fabricated. It is as twice Icmin of the long tape as the highest one in the previous project.

  6. Influence of superconductor film composition on adhesion strength of coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Khatri, Narayan; Liu, Yuhao; Delgado, Louis; Galstyan, Eduard; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2015-11-20

    The effect of high temperature superconductor (HTS) film composition on the adhesion strength of rare- earth barium copper oxide coated conductors (CCs) has been studied. It has been found that the mechanical integrity of the superconductor layer is very susceptible to the defects especially those along the ab plane, probably due to the weak interfaces between the defects and the matrix. Gd and Y in the standard composition were substituted with Sm and the number of in-plane defects was drastically reduced. Consequently, a four-fold increase in adhesion or peeling strength in Sm-based CCs was achieved compared to the standard GdYBCO samples.

  7. Growth and properties of REBiO 3 new buffer materials for coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Pu, M. H.; Sun, R. P.; Wang, W. T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C. H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-09-01

    A new series of ABO 3-type REBiO 3 have been derived from the system Bi 2O 3-RE 2O 3, in which cubic RE 2O 3 stabilize cubic structure of δ-Bi 2O 3, enabling the formation of REBiO 3 at relatively low temperature range. A chemical solution deposition (CSD) route has been used to deposit epitaxial thin films of REBiO 3. The crystal lattice, chemical stability, texture development, combined with the successful deposition of high quality superconducting layer demonstrate that the newly developed compounds may play as potential alternatives of buffer layer materials for REBCO-based coated conductors.

  8. Coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an IBAD oriented material thereon, and, a layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the layer of an IBAD oriented material. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates.

  9. Flux pinning study of RE barium coper oxide coated conductors for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aixia

    REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO, RE = rare earth) coated conductor (CC) holds great promise for high field magnet applications owing to its strong irreversibility field (Hirr), low electromagnetic anisotropy (γ2), and high critical current density (Jc). The work of this thesis is tightly related to the development of the funded 32 T, all-superconducting magnet project at the NHMFL. My concern is thus for understanding the optimizing of the working parameters of REBCO CC at low temperatures T, and very high magnetic fields H, focusing on how to enhance Ic and to reduce its angular dependence. Increasing the active cross-section is a direct and economical strategy to enhance the current-carrying capability for REBCO coated conductors. Unfortunately, the high Jc in thin REBCO layers is seldom sustained in thick layers because of difficulties of thick film growth control. In the presence of strong 3D (pin separation far less than film thickness) pins, a high and thickness-independent (Jc) should result. One of major tasks of this thesis is to explore what are the effective strong 3D pins that develop a high and thickness-independent Jc. High and weak thickness-dependent Jc at 77 K is obtained on most recent coated conductors, and BZO nanorods and RE2O 3 nanoparticles are identified as strong 3D pins contributing to this respectable Jc performance. At 77 K, we found that the strong pinning of BZO nanorods remains at least up to 9 T, whereas the strong pinning of RE2O3 nanoparticles gradually evolves to weak collective pinning as the irreversibility field is approached. The second principal part of this thesis concentrates on understanding and minimizing the angular dependence of Jc. Our study is based on the following procedure. First, we investigated the angular dependence of Jc (Jc(θ)) in the working condition of the future 32 T all-superconducting magnet, i.e. 4.2 K and high magnetic field up to 31 T. Our work shows that the low temperature Jc(θ) is Ginzburg-Landau-like at

  10. Development of buffer layers on 30 mm wide textured metal substrates for REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ota, H.; Ohki, K.; Konishi, M.; Ohmatsu, K.

    2010-11-01

    We have been studying REBa2Cu3Ox (RE: rare earth elements) coated conductors on clad-type substrates. We developed coated conductors on the 10 mm wide clad-type tape, and succeeded in obtaining the maximum critical current of 380 A/cm with the 2.0 μm thick GdBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film. At present, we are trying to widen the tape width from 10 mm to 30 mm in order to increase production throughput. We report our recent progress on scaling-up of the buffer layers and their properties. The buffer layers consisted of three layers; CeO2 as the seed layer, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the diffusion barrier layer and CeO2 as the lattice matching layer. They were grown by the RF-sputtering method and the electron beam evaporation technique (EB). EB deposition has possibility of higher throughput compared with the RF-sputtering. The intensity ratio of (2 0 0) to (2 0 0) + (1 1 1) for the lattice matching layer showed as high as 98%. The uniform properties of 40 m long and 30 mm wide substrates were successfully produced by all sputtering method. Additionally, the tape travel speed of the seed layer can be increased from 7 m/h (RF-sputtering deposition) to 10 m/h (EB deposition) on short sample (0.3 m long).

  11. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-10-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured.

  12. Study of Corrosion Resistance Improvement by Metallic Coating for Overhead Transmission Line Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isozaki, Masanori; Adachi, Kouichi; Hita, Takanori; Asano, Yuji

    Applying anti-corrosion grease and aluminum clad steel (AC) wires to ACSR has adopted as general methods to prevent overhead transmission line conductors and/or wires from corrosion. However, there are some cases that ineffectiveness of those means are reported on some transmission lines passing through acid atmosphere in the vicinity of a factory exhausting acid smoke. The feature of the corrosion caused by acid atmosphere is to show a higher speed in its progressing as well known. As means against such acid corrosion, application of high purity aluminum, selective removal of inter-metallic compound in aluminum and plastic coating wires has been reported before, and each has both of advantage and disadvantage actually. In the former letter, we reported the new type of anti-corrosion grease that shows an excellent property against acid atmosphere as well as in a salty circumstance. Here presents a new type of anti-corrosion technology of applying high corrosion resistance aluminum alloy or zinc coatings on each component wires of a conductor that we succeed in developing through a serial study of anti-corrosion methods on overhead transmission lines.

  13. Multi-scale model of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters based on 2G HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnard, Charles-Henri; Sirois, Frédéric; Lacroix, Christian; Didier, Gaëtan

    2017-01-01

    In order to plan the integration of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in power systems, accurate models of SFCLs must be made available in commercial power system transient simulators. In this context, we developed such a model for the EMTP-RV software package, a power system transient simulator widely used by power utilities. The model can be used with any resistive-type SFCL (rSFCL) made of high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, which are discretized in ‘electro-thermal elements’. Those elements consist solely of electric circuit components, and are used to represent portions of tape of various sizes and dimensions (a ‘multi-scale’ approach). Both the electrical and thermal behaviors of the tape are modeled, including interfacial effects, nonlinear properties of materials and heat transfer to the surrounding environment. Such a multi-scale model can simulate accurately both the local quench dynamics of HTS tapes (microscopic scale) and the global impact of the rSFCL on the power system (macroscopic/system scale). In this paper, the model is used to compute phenomena such as propagation velocity of a hot spot and heat diffusion through the thickness of the tape. Results were verified by comparing EMTP-RV results with finite element simulations. In addition to the development of the multi-scale model itself, which is the major contribution of this paper, the use of the model allowed us to determine the conditions of validity of the commonly used ‘homogenization’ of the thermal properties across the tape thickness. Indeed, when the current flowing into the rSFCL is slightly above its critical current I c (and up to 2{I}{{c}}), very important errors in the power waveforms arise, leading to potentially wrong decisions of protection systems. Homogenized thermal models should thus be used with great care in practice.

  14. Stability measurement of double-side-surface-coated Bi-2212 tape conductors in water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. P.; McDevitt, J. T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    1999-09-01

    The stability of double-side-coated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) tapes on Ag substrates in a water environment has been studied. A phase analysis of the as-processed tape conductors was performed and indicated that aqueous precipitates are formed in the tapes exposed to aerated water solution. The nominal composition of the precipitates was found to be Sr1-xCaxCuO2 (xicons/Journals/Common/backsimeq" ALT="backsimeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.4). This phase is present in the tapes before the corrosive damage ensues. In order to evaluate the stability properties of the Sr0.6Ca0.4CuO2 phase in a water environment, the pure compound was synthesized and treated under the same conditions as the tapes. Studies reveal that similar corrosion occurs in the Sr0.6Ca0.4CuO2 phase. Thus, the presence of this impurity phase, which appears upon heat treatment of the tape assemblies, is found to be an important factor in the degradation behaviour of the Bi-2212 tape conductors.

  15. VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION AND MECHANICAL STRENGTH IN SPLICE JOINTS MADE FROM AS-MANUFACTURED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Zhang, Yifei; Gouge, Michael J; Rey, Christopher M; Van der Laan, Danko; Clickner, Cam

    2010-01-01

    With recommendations from wire manufacturers as a starting point, a series of solder joints were fabricated and characterized to determine the best method to produce repeatable, low-resistance and high-mechanical-strength splices in as-manufactured, stabilized YBCO coated conductors. From the 2.54 cm long splice joints that were fabricated, parameters such as solder material, stabilization material, fabrication method, and conductor geometry were varied to determine the impact of each on splice joint properties. Results indicate that the lowest resistance splice joints were influenced primarily by the tape orientation in the joint and the stabilization material. The lowest resistances were between 2 10-8 and 1.0 10-7 in 4-mm wide tapes and were obtained from pure copper stabilized tapes oriented with the YBCO layers in closest proximity. The voltage drop along the splice length indicated that only a fraction of the splice length contributes to the splice joint resistance. Mechanical characterization of splice joints showed that the joint resistance remained unchanged under axial stress up to a stress level at which the critical current of the tapes forming the joint degrades irreversibly.

  16. Powder metallurgy for the fabrication of bi-axially textured Ni tapes for YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Ki Ji, Bong; Hyung Lim, Jun; Jung, Choong-Hwan; Joo, Jinho; Park, Soon-Dong; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Hong, Gye-Won; Kim, Chan-Joong

    2003-04-01

    Bi-axially textured Ni tapes for YBCO coated conductors were fabricated by forming, sintering, cold rolling and heat treatment of Ni powder compacts. The powder metallurgy process consists of filling of fine Ni powders in a rubber mold, cold isostatical pressing in a water chamber and sintering of the powder compacts. The sintered compacts were cold-rolled and made into tapes with a thickness of 100 micron and then heat-treated at 1000 °C for various time periods for the development of the (2 0 0) texture. The (2 0 0) texture of Ni tape was successfully formed through the optimization of the recrystallization heat treatment condition for the cold rolled Ni tapes. The full width half maximum of the Ni tapes was 8-10° and the atomic force microscopy surface roughness was 3-5 nm.

  17. Strain-controlled critical temperature in REBa2Cu3Oy-coated conductors

    PubMed Central

    Awaji, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takumi; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we succeeded in detwinning REBa2Cu3O7 (RE123, RE = rare-earth elements)-coated conductors by annealing under an external uniaxial strain. Using the untwinned RE123 tapes, the uniaxial-strain dependencies of the critical temperature Tc along the a and b crystal axes were investigated over a wide strain region from compression to tension. We found that the strain dependencies of Tc for the a and b axes obey a power law but exhibit opposite slopes. In particular, the maximum value of Tc is obtained when the CuO2 plane becomes a square, and its lattice constant is close to 0.385 nm. It is suggested that a tetragonal structure with a ≈ 0.385 nm is the optimum condition for a high critical temperature in high-Tc cuprates. PMID:26063123

  18. Individual grain boundary properties and overall performance of metal-organic deposition coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Speller, S. C.; Hughes, G. M.; Rutter, N. A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Durrell, J. H.

    2010-05-01

    We have investigated single grain boundaries (GBs) isolated in coated conductors produced by metal-organic deposition. When a magnetic field is swept in the film plane, an angle-dependent crossover from boundary to grain limited critical current density Jc is found. In the force-free orientation, even at fields as high as 8 T, the GBs still limit Jc . We deduce that this effect is a direct consequence of GB meandering. We have employed these single GB results to explain the dependence of Jc of polycrystalline tracks on their width: in-plane measurements become flatter as the tracks are narrowed down. This result is consistent with the stronger GB limitation at field configurations close to force-free found from the isolated boundaries. Our study shows that for certain geometries even at high fields the effect of GBs cannot be neglected.

  19. Development of Solution Buffer Layers for RABiTS Based YBCO Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Qiu, Xiaofeng; List III, Frederick Alyious; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoping; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Thieme, C. L. H.; Rupich, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of this research is to find a suitable alternate solution based seed layer for the standard RABiTS three-layer architecture of physical vapor deposited CeO cap/YSZ barrier/Y O seed on Ni-5%W metal tape. In the present work, we have identified CeO buffer layer as a potential replacement for Y O seeds. Using a metal-organic deposition (MOD) process, we have grown smooth, crack-free, epitaxial thin films of CeO (pure and Zr, Cu and Gd-doped) directly on biaxially textured Ni-5W substrates in short lengths. Detailed XRD studies indicate that a single epitaxial CeO phase with slightly improved out-of-plane texture compared to the texture of the underlying Ni-W substrates can be achieved in pure, undoped CeO samples. We have also demonstrated the growth of YSZ barrier layers on pure CeO seeds using sputtering. Both sputtered CeO cap layers and MOD-YBCO films were grown epitaxially on these YSZ-buffered MOD-CeO /Ni-5W substrates. High critical currents per unit width, of 264 A/cm (critical current density, of 3.3 MA/cm ) at 77 K and 0.01 T was achieved for 0.8 m thick MOD-YBCO films grown on MOD-CeO seeds. These results indicate that CeO films can be grown directly on Ni-5W substrates and still support high performance YBCO coated conductors. This work holds promise for a route for producing low-cost buffer architecture for RABiTS based YBCO coated conductors.

  20. An equation for the quench propagation velocity valid for high field magnet use of REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonura, M.; Senatore, C.

    2016-06-01

    Based on a study of the thermophysical properties, we derived a practical formula for the normal zone propagation velocity appropriate for REBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors in high magnetic fields. An analytical expression to evaluate the current sharing temperature as a function of the operating conditions is also proposed. The presented study has allowed us to account for experimental results not fully understood in the framework of the models widely used in the literature. In particular, we provided a fundamental understanding of the experimental evidence that the normal zone propagation velocity in REBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors can be mainly determined by the operating current, regardless of the applied field and temperature.

  1. Voltage-ampere characteristics of YBCO coated conductor under inhomogeneous oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Shen, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, H.; Matsuda, K.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct current carrying type II superconductors present a dynamic resistance when subjected to an oscillating magnetic field perpendicular to the current direction. If a superconductor is under a homogeneous field with high magnitude, the dynamic resistance value is nearly independent of transport current. Hoffmann and coworkers [Hoffmann et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 1628 (2011)] discovered, however, flux pumping effect when a superconducting tape is under an inhomogeneous field orthogonal to the tape surface generated by rotating magnets. Following their work, we report the whole Voltage-Ampere (V-I) curves of an YBCO coated conductor under permanent magnets rotating with different frequencies and directions. We discovered that the two curves under opposite rotating directions differ from each other constantly when the transport current is less than the critical current, whereas the difference gradually reduces after the transport current exceeds the critical value. We also find that for different field frequencies, the difference between the two curves decreases faster with lower field frequency. The result indicates that the transport loss is dependent on the relative direction of the transport current and field travelling, which is distinct from traditional dynamic resistance model. The work may be instructive for the design of superconducting motors.

  2. Fabrication of YSZ buffer layer by single source MOCVD technique for YBCO coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Sun, Jong-Won; Kim, Ho-Jin; Lee, Dong-Wook; Jung, Choong-Hwan; Park, Soon-Dong; Kim, Chan-Joong

    2003-10-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layers were deposited by a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique using a single liquid source for the application of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) coated conductor. Y:Zr mole ratio was 0.2:0.8, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) was used as a solvent. The (1 0 0) single crystal MgO substrate was used for searching the deposition conditions. Bi-axially oriented CeO 2 and NiO films were fabricated on {1 0 0} <0 0 1> textured Ni substrate by the same method and used as templates. At a constant working pressure of 10 Torr, the deposition temperatures (660-800 °C) and oxygen flow rates (100-500 sccm) were changed to find the optimum deposition condition. The best (1 0 0) oriented YSZ film on MgO was obtained at 740 °C and O 2 flow rate of 300 sccm. For a YSZ buffer layer with this deposition condition on a CeO 2/Ni template, full width half maximum values of the in-plane ( ϕ-scan) and out-of-plane ( ω-scan) alignments were 10.6° and 9.8°, respectively. The SEM image of YSZ film on CeO 2/Ni showed surface morphologies without microcracks. The film deposition rate was about 100 nm/min.

  3. Influence of soft ferromagnetic substrate on magneto-elastic behavior in a superconducting coated conductor strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An; Xue, Cun; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-11-01

    Ferromagnetic materials will affect not only the electromagnetic response but also the mechanical behaviors of coated conductors. The influence of soft ferromagnetic substrate on magneto-elastic behavior in a superconductor/ferromagnetic (SC/FM) bilayer exposed to a transverse magnetic field is investigated theoretically. The ferromagnetic substrate is regarded as ideal soft magnets with high permeability and small magnetic hysteresis. Due to the composite structure of SC/FM hybrids, magneto-elastic behavior will be subjected to combined effect of equivalent force and flexural moment. Analytical expressions for internal stress and strain components are derived by virtue of a two-dimensional elasticity analysis. It is worth pointing out that the y component of strain has much larger positive value during field ascent, which may result in the delamitation at the interface. Irreversible magnetostrictive behaviors are observed both along x direction and along y direction. For the thickness dependence of magnetostriction, the flexural moment dominates when the SC thickness is small while the equivalent force plays a critical role at higher SC thickness.

  4. Measurement of AC Losses in a Racetrack Superconducting Coil Made from YBCO Coated Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Eugen; Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Kováč, Ján; Wichmann, Mike; Træholt, Chresten

    We present the results of transport measurements of AC losses in a racetrack shaped superconducting coil made from coated conductor tape. The outer dimensions of the coil are approximately 24 cm × 12 cm and it has 57 turns. The coil is impregnated with epoxy resin and fiberglass tape is used to insulate the individual turns and to improve the mechanical properties of the epoxy when exposed to thermal cycling. The coil is manufactured as a part of the field winding of a small synchronous generator; therefore stainless steel frames are installed on the inner and outer side of the winding to reinforce it. The AC loss is measured versus the transport current Ia with the coil immersed in liquid nitrogen. Measurements at frequencies 21 Hz, 36 Hz and 72 Hz are compared. The AC losses follow Ia2 dependence at low current amplitudes and Ia3 at high amplitudes. After cutting the inner steel frame the low amplitude losses are decreased, their frequency dependence is reduced but their dependence on the current remains unchanged.

  5. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A.; Heller, R.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-02-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability.

  6. Microstructure Characteristics of High Lift Factor MOCVD REBCO Coated Conductors With High Zr Content

    SciTech Connect

    Galstyan, E; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Delgado, L; Xu, AX; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-06-01

    We report the microstructural characteristics of high levels of Zr-added REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE = Gd, Y rare earth) coated conductors fabricated by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The enhancements of the lift factor defined as a ratio of the in-field (3 T, B parallel to c-axis) critical current density (J(c)) at 30 K and self-field J(c) at 77 K have been achieved for Zr addition levels of 20 and 25 mol% via optimization of deposition parameters. The presence of strong flux pinning is attributed to the aligned nanocolumns of BaZrO3 and nanoprecipitates embedded in REBa2Cu3O7-x matrix with good crystal quality. A high density of BZO nanorods with a typical size 6-8 nm and spacing of 20 nm has been observed. Moreover, the high Zr content was found to induce a high density of intrinsic defects, including stacking faults and dislocations. The correlation between in-field performance along the c-axis and microstructure of (Gd, Y) BCO film with a high level of Zr addition is discussed.

  7. Modeling of screening currents in coated conductor magnets containing up to 40000 turns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, E.

    2016-08-01

    Screening currents caused by varying magnetic fields degrade the homogeneity and stability of the magnetic fields created by REBCO coated conductor coils. They are responsible for the AC loss; which is also important for other power applications containing windings, such as transformers, motors and generators. Since real magnets contain coils exceeding 10000 turns, accurate modeling tools for this number of turns or above are necessary for magnet design. This article presents a fast numerical method to model coils with no loss of accuracy. We model a 10400-turn coil for its real number of turns and coils of up to 40000 turns with continuous approximation, which introduces negligible errors. The screening currents, the screening current induced field (SCIF) and the AC loss is analyzed in detail. The SCIF is at a maximum at the remnant state with a considerably large value. The instantaneous AC loss for an anisotropic magnetic-field dependent J c is qualitatively different than for a constant J c , although the loss per cycle is similar. Saturation of the magnetization currents at the end pancakes causes the maximum AC loss at the first ramp to increase with J c . The presented modeling tool can accurately calculate the SCIF and AC loss in practical computing times for coils with any number of turns used in real windings, enabling parameter optimization.

  8. Degradation of the performance of a YBCO-coated conductor double pancake coil due to epoxy impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takematsu, T.; Hu, R.; Takao, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Uglietti, D.; Kiyoshi, T.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2010-09-01

    Now that YBCO-coated conductors have been commercialized, a number of YBCO coils have been developed. However, their basic performances have not been systematically investigated so far. Here, we demonstrate that of a YBCO double pancake coil. The critical current of an epoxy impregnated YBCO double pancake coil was substantially degraded, i.e. the normal voltage appears above 8 A, only 18% of that for the dry coil. It was inferred that degradation occurs if the cumulative radial stress developed during cool down exceeds the critical transverse stress for the YBCO-coated conductor (typically 10 MPa). Under these conditions, the conductor was debonded at the interface between the buffer layer and YBCO layers, or fractured in the YBCO layer itself, causing cracks on the YBCO layer, resulting in a significant decline of the critical current. These negative effects are suppressed if the coils are dry wound or impregnated with paraffin, as the bonding strengths between turns are negligible and therefore turns are separated if the cumulative radial stress tends to be tensile. For non-circular coils in which epoxy impregnation is inevitable, degradation due to cumulative tensile transverse stress is still the major problem.

  9. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  10. Development of scribing process of coated conductors for reduction of AC losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Iwakuma, M.; Ibi, A.; Miyata, S.; Yamada, Y.

    2008-09-01

    Coated conductors (CCs) are prospective for electric power applications intended for not only better cost performance but also high critical current density ( Jc) under magnetic fields comparing with Bi 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O y (BSCCO) tapes. Furthermore, they also have a possibility to reduce AC losses by various methods of post-treatments since the CCs are of a laminated structure with the insulating buffer layers. Multifilamentation by narrowing the tape width is quite effective to reduce the AC losses and therefore this approach is valid for the standard process to fabricate practical CCs with an appropriate architecture. In this study, we developed a tape scribing technique applying a technique of YAG laser with/without chemical etching to control the filament width in YBa 2Cu 3O y (YBCO) CCs for the multifilament. The AC loss was reducible to one-twentieth by 20-multifilament structure in a short sample test, and to one-third by 3-multifilament structure in the coil using 28 m long tapes in total. The authors measured the resistance between the filaments at 60-300 K after post-treatment to investigate the effective bridged materials, which is essential for decoupling of the filaments. We improved the resistance value between the filaments at liquid nitrogen temperature up to the order of 10 Ω/cm using the YAG laser with high-temperature oxygen anneals. Furthermore, the resistance over 10 6 Ω/cm was evident by the combination of laser scribing and chemical etching, which is much higher than the requirements of all the applications.

  11. Modeling AC ripple currents in HTS coated conductors by integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Francesco; Xu, Zhihan

    2016-12-01

    In several HTS applications, the superconducting tapes experience the simultaneous presence of DC and AC excitations. For example in high-current DC cables, where the transport current is not perfectly constant, but it exhibits some ripples at different frequencies introduced by the rectification process (AC-DC conversion). These ripples give rise to dissipation, whose magnitude and possible influence on the device's cooling requirements need to be evaluated. Here we report a study of the AC losses in a HTS coated conductor subjected to DC currents and AC ripples simultaneously. The modeling approach is based on an integral equation method for thin superconductors: the superconducting tape is modeled as a 1-D object with a non-linear resistivity, which includes the dependence of the critical current density Jc on the magnetic field. The model, implemented in a commercial finite-element program, runs very fast (the simulation of one AC cycle typically takes a few seconds on standard desktop workstation): this allows simulating a large number of cycles and estimating when the AC ripple losses stabilize to a constant value. The model is used to study the influence of the flux creep power index n on the stabilization speed and on the AC loss values, as well as the effect of using a field-dependent Jc instead of a constant one. The simulations confirm that the dissipation level should not be a practical concern in HTS DC cables. At the same time, however, they reveal a strong dependence of the results upon the power index n and the form of Jc , which spurs the question whether the power-law is the most suitable description of the superconductor's electrical behavior for this kind of analysis.

  12. The Effect of Strain on Grains and Grain Boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-Delta Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-09

    sample had a 2.5◦ GB isolated with the FIB and one had a 4◦ GB. The 200 nm thick YBCO thin films were deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on 4 mm × 12...transport current critical current density (Jc) of YBa2Cu3O7−δ ( YBCO ) coated conductors that are produced with metal–organic deposition (MOD) was...boundaries from the two kinds of YBCO samples can be expressed by the same function, however with a greater effective tensile strain at the grain

  13. Co-evaporated YBCO/doped-CeO 2/Ni-W coated conductors oxygen improved using a supersonic nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilioli, E.; Baldini, M.; Bindi, M.; Bissoli, F.; Pattini, F.; Rampino, S.; Ginocchio, S.; Gauzzi, A.; Rocca, M.; Zannella, S.

    2007-10-01

    A novel process for the coated conductors (CC) deposition, characterized by a single CeO2 buffer layer architecture, and a new oxygenation device for the YBCO layer has been developed. In CC technology, usually the ceria layer thickness must be less than 100 nm to avoid the formation of cracks; in order to ensure an efficient barrier effect, complex and costly multi-buffer layers architectures must be grown. In this work, we describe the way to increase the thickness of crack-free single buffer layer.

  14. Note: Effective anvil size for transverse delamination test of rare-earth-Ba2Cu3Oy coated conductor tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Gorospe, Alking B.; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.

    2015-10-01

    In coated conductor (CC) tapes used in magnet and coil applications, delamination due to excessive transverse tensile stresses is still one of the major issues that need considerations. Recently, several methods in evaluating the delamination strength of CC tapes are being used. In the case of anvil test, size of the anvils will be an important factor considering its applications (i.e., superconducting coil impregnation). In this study, delamination strength of CC tape was examined using different upper anvil sizes and their effects were discussed. Finally, reasonable sizes of upper anvil to be used were proposed considering the application conditions.

  15. Percolation analysis of the effect of tape length on the critical current density of 123 coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2001-07-01

    Although the RE123 coated conductors substantially consist of highly bi-axially aligned polycrystalline RE123 superconductors, the supercurrent must flow through grain boundaries with some angles of misorientation. To investigate the effects of tape length and number of grains in width on the critical current density (Jc), percolation analysis was performed considering the Jc reduction due to misorientation at grain boundaries. The calculation results suggested that the normalized critical current density increased as increasing the number of grains in width and decreased as increasing the tape length. The degree of Jc reduction as increasing the tape length became smaller as increasing the number of grains in width. The calculation results showed that the Jc value of 1 km tape conductor with misorientation full width half maximum /(FWHM)=9° was possibly kept more than 44% of the intragrain Jc when the grain number in width was more than 100 with the grain size of 100 /μm. The tendency of the calculation results of length and FWHM dependence on Jc agreed well with the experimentally obtained length dependence on Jc values of ion-beam assisted deposition conductors.

  16. Percolation analysis of the effect of tape length on the critical current density of 123 coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2002-07-01

    Although the RE123 coated conductors substantially consist of highly bi-axially aligned polycrystalline RE123 superconductors, the supercurrent must flow through grain boundaries with some angles of misorientation. To investigate the effects of tape length and number of grains in width on the critical current density ( Jc), percolation analysis was performed considering the Jc reduction due to misorientation at grain boundaries. The calculation results suggested that the normalized critical current density increased as increasing the number of grains in width and decreased as increasing the tape length. The degree of Jc reduction as increasing the tape length became smaller as increasing the number of grains in width. The calculation results showed that the Jc value of 1 km tape conductor with misorientation full width half maximum (FWHM)=9° was possibly kept more than 44% of the intragrain Jc when the grain number in width was more than 100 with the grain size of 100 μm. The tendency of the calculation results of length and FWHM dependence on Jc agreed well with the experimentally obtained length dependence on Jc values of ion-beam assisted deposition conductors.

  17. High current superconductivity in FeSe0.5Te0.5-coated conductors at 30 tesla.

    PubMed

    Si, Weidong; Han, Su Jung; Shi, Xiaoya; Ehrlich, Steven N; Jaroszynski, J; Goyal, Amit; Li, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Although high-temperature superconductor cuprates have been discovered for more than 25 years, superconductors for high-field application are still based on low-temperature superconductors, such as Nb(3)Sn. The high anisotropies, brittle textures and high manufacturing costs limit the applicability of the cuprates. Here we demonstrate that the iron superconductors, without most of the drawbacks of the cuprates, have a superior high-field performance over low-temperature superconductors at 4.2 K. With a CeO(2) buffer, critical current densities >10(6)  A cm(-2) were observed in iron-chalcogenide FeSe(0.5)Te(0.5) films grown on single-crystalline and coated conductor substrates. These films are capable of carrying critical current densities exceeding 10(5) A cm(-2) under 30 tesla magnetic fields, which are much higher than those of low-temperature superconductors. High critical current densities, low magnetic field anisotropies and relatively strong grain coupling make iron-chalcogenide-coated conductors particularly attractive for high-field applications at liquid helium temperatures.

  18. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleutot, Benoit; Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li3PO4 coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li3PO4 coated Li4Ti5O12 is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g-1 at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  19. Barrier efficiency of sponge-like La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Leopoldo; Tan, Haiyan; Biermans, Ellen; Batenburg, Kees J.; Verbeeck, Jo; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2011-06-01

    Solution derived La2Zr2O7 films have drawn much attention for potential applications as thermal barriers or low-cost buffer layers for coated conductor technology. Annealing and coating parameters strongly affect the microstructure of La2Zr2O7, but different film processing methods can yield similar microstructural features such as nanovoids and nanometer-sized La2Zr2O7 grains. Nanoporosity is a typical feature found in such films and the implications for the functionality of the films are investigated by a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and quantitative electron tomography. Chemical solution based La2Zr2O7 films deposited on flexible Ni-5 at.%W substrates with a {100}lang001rang biaxial texture were prepared for an in-depth characterization. A sponge-like structure composed of nanometer-sized voids is revealed by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron tomography. A three-dimensional quantification of nanovoids in the La2Zr2O7 film is obtained on a local scale. Mostly non-interconnected highly faceted nanovoids compromise more than one-fifth of the investigated sample volume. The diffusion barrier efficiency of a 170 nm thick La2Zr2O7 film is investigated by STEM-EELS, yielding a 1.8 ± 0.2 nm oxide layer beyond which no significant nickel diffusion can be detected and intermixing is observed. This is of particular significance for the functionality of YBa2Cu3O7 - δ coated conductor architectures based on solution derived La2Zr2O7 films as diffusion barriers.

  20. Roebel cables from REBCO coated conductors: a one-century-old concept for the superconductivity of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldacker, Wilfried; Grilli, Francesco; Pardo, Enric; Kario, Anna; Schlachter, Sonja I.; Vojenčiak, Michal

    2014-09-01

    Energy applications employing high-temperature superconductors (HTS), such as motors/generators, transformers, transmission lines and fault current limiters, are usually operated in the alternate current (ac) regime. In order to be efficient, the HTS devices need to have a sufficiently low value of ac loss, in addition to the necessary current-carrying capacity. Most applications are operated with currents beyond the current capacity of single conductors and consequently require cabled conductor solutions with much higher current carrying capacity, from a few kA up to 20-30 kA for large hydro-generators. A century ago, in 1914, Ludwig Roebel invented a low-loss cable design for copper cables, which was successively named after him. The main idea behind Roebel cables is to separate the current in different strands and to provide a full transposition of the strands along the cable direction. Nowadays, these cables are commonly used in the stator of large generators. Based on the same design concept of their conventional material counterparts, HTS Roebel cables from REBCO coated conductors were first manufactured at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and have been successively developed in a number of varieties that provide all the required technical features such as fully transposed strands, high transport currents and low ac losses, yet retaining enough flexibility for a specific cable design. In the past few years a large number of scientific papers have been published on the concept, manufacturing and characterization of such cables. Therefore it is timely for a review of those results. The goal is to provide an overview and a succinct and easy-to-consult guide for users, developers, and manufacturers of this kind of HTS cable.

  1. High-performance FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films fabricated on less-well-textured flexible coated conductor templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongtang; Yuan, Pusheng; Ma, Yanwei; Cai, Chuanbing

    2017-03-01

    We report on the transport properties of FeSe0.5Te0.5 (FST) thin films fabricated on less-well-textured flexible coated conductor templates with LaMnO3 (LMO) as buffer layers using pulsed laser deposition. The LMO buffer layers exhibit large in-plane misalignment of ˜7.72°, which is unfavorable for cuprate-coated conductors due to the high grain boundaries. The FST thin films show a superconducting transition temperature of 16.8 K, higher than that of bulk materials due to the compressive strain between LMO and FST. Atomic force microscopy observations reveal that island-like features appear at the surfaces of both LMO and FST, confirming the island growth mode. A self-field transport critical-current density of up to 0.43 MA cm-2 at 4.2 K has been observed in FST thin films, which is much higher than that in powder-in-tube processed FST tapes. The films are capable of carrying current densities of over 105 A cm-2 in the whole applied magnetic field up to 9 T, showing great potential for high-field applications. The results indicate that, for FST, highly textured metal tapes are not needed to produce coated conductors with high performance, which is of great advantage over cuprate-coated conductors.

  2. Trapping a magnetic field of 7.9 T using a bulk magnet fabricated from stack of coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamegai, T.; Hirai, T.; Sun, Y.; Pyon, S.

    2016-11-01

    We have fabricated a bulk magnet using double stack, each 130 layers, of short segments of coated conductors (CCs). The bulk magnet is magnetized by field-cooling in a magnetic field of 9 T down to 4.2 K. After reducing the magnetic field down to zero, we have successfully trapped a magnetic field of 7.9 T at the centre of the double stack. The magnetic field profile of the bulk magnet is calculated by fully considering the Jc(B) characteristics of the short segment of the CC. The trapped magnetic field values measured by Hall probes at three locations near the centre of the double stacks agree reasonably well with the calculated magnetic induction.

  3. Electro-mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors from various industrial manufacturers at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Mondonico, G.; Senatore, C.

    2015-04-01

    Rare-Earth-barium-copper-oxide tapes are now available from several industrial manufacturers and are very promising conductors in high field applications. Due to diverging materials and deposition processes, these manufacturers’ tapes can be expected to differ in their electro-mechanical and mechanical properties. For magnets designers, these are together with the conductors’ in-field critical current performance of the highest importance in choosing a suitable conductor. In this work, the strain and stress dependence of the current carrying capabilities as well as the stress and strain correlation are investigated for commercial coated conductors from Bruker HTS, Fujikura, SuNAM, SuperOx and SuperPower at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T.

  4. Dynamic resistance of a high-T c coated conductor wire in a perpendicular magnetic field at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Toyomoto, Ryuki; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Zhang, Xingyou; Bumby, Chris W.

    2017-03-01

    Superconducting high-T c coated conductor (CC) wires comprise a ceramic thin film with a large aspect ratio. This geometry can lead to significant dissipative losses when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. Here we report experimental measurements of the ‘dynamic resistance’ of commercially available SuperPower and Fujikura CC wires in an AC perpendicular field. The onset of dynamic resistance occurs at a threshold field amplitude, which is determined by the total DC transport current and the penetration field of the conductor. We show that the field-dependence of the normalised magnetisation loss provides an unambiguous value for this threshold field at zero transport current. From this insight we then obtain an expression for the dynamic resistance in perpendicular field. This approach implies a linear relationship between dynamic resistance and applied field amplitude, and also between threshold field and transport current and this is consistent with our experimental data. The analytical expression obtained yields values that closely agree with measurements obtained across a wide range of frequencies and transport currents, and for multiple CC wires produced by different wire manufacturers and with significantly differing dimensions and critical currents. We further show that at high transport currents, the measured DC resistance includes an additional nonlinear term which is due to flux-flow resistance incurred by the DC transport current. This occurs once the field-dependent critical current of the wire falls below the DC transport current for part of each field cycle. Our results provide an effective and simple approach to calculating the dynamic resistance of a CC wire, at current and field magnitudes consistent with those expected in superconducting machines.

  5. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD-MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7-x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ɛ)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ɛ = 0.35% and ɛ = 0.45% strain, and ɛ = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  6. High Upper Critical Field and Irreversibility Field in MgB2 Coated-Conductor Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    for MgB2 by sputtering on Hastelloy 9 and by electroplating on stainless steel .10 These works have gener- ated Hc2 and Hirr values similar to those of...wires because it is brittle and costly, MgB2 coatings can be made on inexpensive and strong metallic wires such as stainless steel .10,26 Therefore

  7. Chemically deposited La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for YBCO-coated conductors: film growth and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L.; Knoth, K.; Engel, S.; Holzapfel, B.; Eibl, O.

    2006-11-01

    An adequate buffer layer architecture is of great importance for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO)-coated conductor fabrication. We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates for YBCO-coated conductors prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD). The LZO thin films were heat-treated at 900 and 1050 °C respectively. Electron diffraction patterns, and bright and dark-field images were used to determine the microstructure, texture and the nanoporosity of the films. By x-ray diffraction the films were found to be [100] oriented and strongly biaxially textured. Although x-ray diffraction suggests an epitaxial growth of LZO on Ni it was shown by TEM that this was not the case. The grain size of the films is between 100 and 300 nm and therefore much smaller than the Ni grain size of 40 µm. Appropriate acquisition conditions for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM imaging are given to identify the nanogranularity of the films. For the film annealed at 1050 °C high-resolution SEM images clearly show a polycrystalline LZO microstructure and the grain size can readily be determined. Electron diffraction rings are more pronounced than for the film annealed at 900 °C, indicating a higher level of polycrystallinity in the film. SEM images of the film annealed at 900 °C yield no evidence of a polycrystalline microstructure; only single misoriented LZO grains separated by 500 nm are observed. Nanovoids 10-40 nm in size were found in the LZO buffer layers with a high density. The voids had approximately cuboid shape, indicating an anisotropy of the surface energy in LZO. The surface planes of the voids were identified as {111} lattice planes. Despite the nanoporosity, which is a typical feature of CSD-grown buffer layers, the LZO buffer layers act as efficient Ni diffusion barriers. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) in the transmission electron microscope yielded the composition of

  8. buffer Layer Growth, the Thickness Dependence of Jc in Coated Conductors, Local Identification of Current Limiting Mechanisms and Participation in the Wire Development Group

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David; Hellstron, Eric; Abraimov, Dmytro

    2011-12-17

    The primary thrusts of our work were to provide critical understanding of how best to enhance the current-carrying capacity of coated conductors. These include the deconstruction of Jc as a function of fim thickness, the growth of in situ films incorporating strong pinning centers and the use of a suite of position-sensitive tools that enable location and analysis of key areas where current-limiting occurs.

  9. Observation of the three-dimensional distribution of flux pinning centers in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, M.; Ortalan, V.; Morgan, D. G.; Browning, N. D.; Rupich, M. W.

    2008-04-01

    The spatial distribution of flux pinning centers (such as defects, secondary phases, etc.) has a critical effect on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors. To increase the flux pinning in coated conductors, impurities such as Dy can be intentionally added during processing to induce the formation of distributed insulating nanostructures. In this work, we show that the addition of Dy to a particular YBCO coated conductor gives rise to a high density of secondary nanoparticles of composition (YsDy1-s)2Cu2O5 with s ˜0.6. Using high-angle annular dark-field tomographic methods, the three-dimensional distribution of these insulating nanoparticles is determined. The size of the nanoparticles and the uniformity of their distribution are found to depend on their interaction with the grain boundary network within the YBCO layer. A bimodal distribution in the size of the particles is seen, where areas away from grain boundaries have a favorable uniform distribution of small particles (˜25 nm) while unfavorable isolated large particles 100-140 nm are seen to intersect the grain boundaries. A grain boundary diffusion model is proposed to account for the agglomeration of the small nanoparticles to form the large ones to the detriment of flux pinning within these local regions of the superconductor.

  10. Laser drilling: enhancing superconducting joint of GdBa2Cu3O7 - δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. J.; Lee, M. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Lee, H. G.

    2014-08-01

    While GdBa2Cu3O7 - δ (GdBCO) coated conductors (CCs) have been proposed for superconducting applications, they have not been used in devices with persistent current mode (PCM) operation because of a lack of joining techniques. A superconducting joint of CCs, formed via melting diffusion and oxygenation annealing, offers no electrical resistance between the CCs, thus establishing a superconducting closed loop for PCM operation. Because superconductivity degrades with oxygen out-diffusion during melting diffusion, oxygenation annealing allows oxygen diffusion into the GdBCO lattices. As effective oxygenation annealing requires oxygen pathways in the joint, low solubility and diffusivity of oxygen in the buffer and CC substrate hinder full superconductivity recovery. Here we show a laser-drilling technique to produce microholes as conduits on the surfaces of GdBCO CCs’ to promote oxygen in-diffusion, which resulted in reduced superconductivity recovery time. Superconductivity was fully recovered after laser drilling, melting diffusion at 850 °C for 1 min, and oxygenation annealing at 500 °C for 350 h.

  11. Reel-to-reel deposition of epitaxial double-sided MgO buffer layers for coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Yahui; Zhang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Peng; Hui, Wang; Wang, Quiling; Cheng, Guo; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Tao, Bo-Wan

    2016-06-01

    We have successfully employed a double-sided process to deposit MgO buffer layers on both sides of amorphous Y2O3 surface for double-sided YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors (CCs) for the first time, the structure of which is of great prospect to improve the performance and cut the production cost. The biaxial textures of MgO buffer layer are noticeably affected by the ion energy and film thickness, which is demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. The best biaxial texture of double-sided MgO films shows ω-scan of (002) MgO and Φ-scan of (220) MgO yield full width at half maximum values of 4° and 7.8° for one side, respectively, as well as 3.5° and 6.7° for the other side. The subsequent double-sided YBCO films are deposited on the as-prepared MgO template with entire critical current of over 300 A/cm for both sides.

  12. Planar current anisotropy and field dependence of J c in coated conductors assessed by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, M.; Hecher, J.; Sieger, M.; Pahlke, P.; Bauer, M.; Hühne, R.; Eisterer, M.

    2017-02-01

    The local distribution of the critical current density, J c, of coated conductors and YBa2Cu3O{}7-δ (YBCO) films on single crystalline substrate was investigated by scanning Hall probe microscopy. The high spatial resolution of the measurements enabled an assessment of dependence of the local J c on the local magnetic induction, B, and electric field, E. The derived J c(B)-dependence agreed well with the global J c obtained from magnetization loops and provided values of J c at very low fields, which are inaccessible to magnetization and transport measurements. The anisotropic current flow within the film plane was investigated in YBCO films on miscut SrTiO3 substrates and a GdBa2Cu3O{}7-δ film on an MgO buffer layer prepared by inclined substrate deposition on a Hastelloy substrate. The c-axis currents calculated from the Hall maps were significantly larger than previously reported data obtained from direct transport measurements. The planar current anisotropy at 77 K was found to be highly influenced by the microstructure which can either deteriorate the current flowing across the ab-planes or cause enhanced pinning and increase the critical current flowing parallel to the ab-planes.

  13. Thermal instability induced by high current densities in high-Tc coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, J.; Ferro, G.; Veira, J. A.; Vidal, F.

    2013-10-01

    By using a 1 ms pulse technique, the current-voltage curves (CVC) under zero-applied magnetic field have been measured in practical high-Tc superconducting wires based on coated (RE)BCO. The measurements extend up to the so-called supercritical current intensity, I*, at which superconductivity disappears accompanied by an abrupt jump in the voltage. The resulting CVC, including the temperature dependence of I*, were analysed at a quantitative level in terms of a thermal instability model proposed recently. An attractive aspect of our thermal instability approach is that in spite of the complexity of the coated layered structure, in its simpler formulation all the geometric and thermal variables are encapsulated into a single characteristic parameter r with units of thermal resistance. All the experimental results for I* from 76 to 86 K are quantitatively, within 2%, accounted for by the thermal instability analysis. Furthermore, the best-fit value of r is found to be quite consistent with the inner geometry and composition of the wires. Another remarkable result of our analysis is that the temperature T* reached by the wire at I*, i.e., the temperature triggering the thermal runaway, is less than one kelvin above the bath temperature. These results further support the universality of the thermal instability mechanism of superconductivity quenching by high current densities.

  14. Raman study of CeO2 texture as a buffer layer in the CeO2/La2Zr2O7/Ni architecture for coated conductors.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Caroff, T; Bartasyte, A; Margueron, S; Abrutis, A; Chaix-Pluchery, O; Weiss, F

    2009-04-01

    The CeO(2)/La(2)Zr(2)O(7)/Ni piled-up structure is a very promising architecture for YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) coated conductors. We have grown YBCO/CeO(2)/LZO/Ni epitaxial structures by metalorganic decomposition (MOD) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) methods. The crystallographic quality of the CeO(2) layer is not well determined by conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) due to the superposition of LZO and CeO(2) reflections. An alternative simple Raman spectroscopy analysis of the crystalline quality of the CeO(2) films is proposed. The F(2g) Raman mode of CeO(2) can be quantified either by using two polarization configurations (crossed or parallel) or at two different rotation angles around the normal axis (0 degrees and 45 degrees ) to obtain information about the sample texture. The sample texture can be determined via a quality factor (referred to as the Raman intensity ratio, RIR) consisting of calculating the ratio of the integrated intensity of the CeO(2) F(2g) mode at 0 degrees and 45 degrees in parallel polarization. This factor correlates with superconducting performance and the technique can be used as an on-line nondestructive characterization method.

  15. Insulation effect on thermal stability of Coated Conductors wires in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubeli, Thomas; Dutoit, Bertrand; Martynova, Irina; Makarevich, Artem; Molodyk, Alexander; Samoilenkov, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting wires are not perfectly homogeneous in term of critical current as well as stabilization. In resistive fault current limiter applications this could lead to hot spots if the fault current is only slightly above the nominal current of the device. Increasing stabilization by using thicker silver coating for example may prevent this problem but this method implies longer wire length to maintain the same impedance during a fault. Very efficient cooling in another way to prevent hot spots, this can be achieved in nucleate boiling regime. Optimal insulation can be used to prevent film boiling regime, staying in nucleate boiling regime in a much broader temperature range. In this work a novel technique is used to monitor in real time the temperature of the wire during the quench. Using this method several increasing insulation thicknesses are tested, measuring for each the heat exchange rate to the nitrogen bath. Exchange rate measurements are made in quasistatic regime and during the re-cooling of the wire. SuperOx wires provided with different insulation thicknesses exhibit an excellent stability, far above a bare wire. On the other side, for very thick insulations the stability gain is lost. Re-cooling speeds dependency on insulation thicknesses is measured too.

  16. On-line characterization of YBCO coated conductors using Raman spectroscopy methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V. A.; Reeves, J. L.; Schwab, G.; Chemical Engineering; SuperPower, Inc.

    2007-04-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy for on-line monitoring of the production of superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+X (YBCO) thin films on long-length metal tapes coated with textured buffer layers is reported for the first time. A methodology is described for obtaining Raman spectra of YBCO on moving tape exiting a metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) enclosure. After baseline correction, the spectra recorded in this way show the expected phonons of the specific YBCO crystal orientation required for high supercurrent transport, as well as phonons of non-superconducting second-phase impurities when present. It is also possible to distinguish YBCO films that are properly textured from films having domains of misoriented YBCO grains. An investigation of the need for focus control on moving tape indicated that focusing of the laser on the surface of the highly reflective YBCO films exiting the MOCVD enclosure tends to produce aberrant photon bursts that swamp the Raman spectrum. These photon bursts are very likely a consequence of optical speckle effects induced by a combination of surface roughness, crystallographic texture, and/or local strain within the small grain microstructure of the YBCO film. Maintaining a slightly out-of-focus condition provides the best signal-to-noise ratio in terms of the obtained Raman spectra. In addition to examining moving tape at the post-MOCVD stage, Raman spectra of the film surface can also be recorded after the oxygen anneal performed to bring the YBCO to the optimum superconducting state. Consideration is given to data processing methods that could be adapted to the on-line Raman spectra to allow the tagging of out-of-specification tape segments and, at a more advanced level, feedback control to the MOCVD process.

  17. Architecture for coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan; Stan, Liliana

    2010-06-01

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material with a rock-salt-like structure layer thereon, and, a layer of epitaxial titanium nitride upon the layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of epitaxial titanium nitride or upon a intermediate buffer layer upon the layer of epitaxial titanium nitride.

  18. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng; ...

    2015-04-02

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the depositedmore » AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.« less

  19. Plasmonic Three-Dimensional Transparent Conductor Based on Al-Doped Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanostructured Glass Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, Gary A.; Aytug, Tolga; Liu, Qingfeng; Wu, Judy

    2015-04-02

    Transparent nanostructured glass coatings, fabricated on glass substrates, with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture were utilized as the foundation for the design of plasmonic 3D transparent conductors. Transformation of the non-conducting 3D structure to a conducting 3D network was accomplished through atomic layer deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO). After AZO growth, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited by electronbeam evaporation to enhance light trapping and decrease the overall sheet resistance. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microcopy images revealed the highly porous, nanostructured morphology of the AZO coated glass surface along with the in-plane dimensions of the deposited AuNPs. Sheet resistance measurements conducted on the coated samples verified that the electrical properties of the 3D network are comparable to that of the untextured two-dimensional AZO coated glass substrates. In addition, transmittance measurements of the glass samples coated with various AZO thicknesses showed preservation of the highly transparent nature of each sample, while the AuNPs demonstrated enhanced light scattering as well as light-trapping capability.

  20. Introduction of Artificial Pinning Center into PLD-YBCO Coated Conductor on IBAD and Self-Epitaxial CeO2 Buffered Metal Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Yamada, Y.; Ishida, S.; Takahashi, K.; Konishi, M.; Ibi, A.; Miyata, S.; Kato, T.; Hirayama, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2006-03-31

    In order to fabricate YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors with high critical current density Jc in magnetic fields, we fabricated YBCO coated conductors with artificial pinning centers by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on a self epitaxial PLD-CeO2 layer and ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD)-Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) buffered Hastelloy tape. Artificial pinning centers were introduced by the PLD deposition using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) oxide target (nano-dot method) and YBCO target including YSZ particles (mixed target method). In the experiments using YSZ oxide target, YSZ nano-dots were observed. They were approximately 15 nm in height and 10 nm to 70 nm in diameter. We found that the density of nano-dots was controlled by the number of laser pulses. These samples exhibited higher Jc than YBCO films in magnetic fields. Furthermore, a similar improvement of Jc was observed in the experiments using YBCO target including YSZ particles. TEM observation revealed that columnar nano-structure made of BaZrO3 was formed during YBCO deposition and it was effective for pinning. We call this new epitaxial nano-structure 'bamboo structure' from its anisotropic growth and morphology.

  1. Pursuing low joint resistivity in Cu-stabilized REBa2Cu3O δ coated conductor tapes by the ultrasonic weld-solder hybrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Jong-min; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.

    2016-01-01

    Development of a coated conductor tape joint with good quality and low joint resistivity, R sj, in terms of transport and mechanical properties, was attempted by direct bonding at the interface of the Cu-Cu stabilizers in overlapped GdBCO CC tapes. In this study, we attempted to achieve a low R sj by introducing hybrid joining, soldering and ultrasonic welding (UW), and its mechanism was analyzed theoretically. Coated conductor tapes were experimentally joined using various methods of soldering, UW, and combinations of the two. As a result, a much lower R sj of about 57 nΩ · cm2 was obtained for RCE-DR-processed GdBCO CC tape joints using the hybrid joining method. The mechanical properties of the jointed CC tapes were also evaluated at room temperature and 77 K under self-field. Load-displacement curves of joined CC tapes followed the curve of the single CC tape. Critical current and joint resistance, R j, of hybrid-joined CC tape were retained after double bending at room temperature up to 20 mm bending diameter.

  2. Grain and grain-boundary critical currents in coated conductors with noncorrelating YBa2Cu3O7 and substrate grain-boundary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Feenstra, R.; Gapud, A. A.; Specht, E. D.; Feldmann, D. M.; Holesinger, T. G.

    2006-03-01

    The superconducting grain-boundary (GB) network of coated conductors (CCs) is usually assumed to be a replica of the substrate network. In this letter, we analyze IBAD and RABITS CCs, where such replica either do or do not exist. We have analyzed the effect of GB overgrowth on the critical currents by quantifying the average superconducting grain size and determining the intragrain and grain-boundary critical current densities, JcG and JcGB. We have employed a recently developed inductive methodology enabling the simultaneous determination of these three parameters. We show that the percolative JcGB may be reduced by 50% if the GB networks do not correlate, while JcG and the grain pinning properties appear unaffected.

  3. Engineered pinning landscapes for enhanced 2G coil wire

    DOE PAGES

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; ...

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the samemore » enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. In conclusion, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.« less

  4. Engineered pinning landscapes for enhanced 2G coil wire

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Li, Qiang; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Ozaki, Toshinori; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai -Kwong; Leroux, Maxime; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Miller, Dean J.; Kihlstrom, Karen; Civale, Leonardo; Eley, Serena; Kayani, Asghar

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. In conclusion, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.

  5. Engineered Pinning Landscapes for Enhanced 2G Coil Wire

    DOE PAGES

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; ...

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wiresmore » show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. Finally, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.« less

  6. Engineered Pinning Landscapes for Enhanced 2G Coil Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Li, Qiang; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Ozaki, Toshinori; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Leroux, Maxime; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Miller, Dean J.; Kihlstrom, Karen; Civale, Leonardo; Eley, Serena; Kayani, Asghar

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. Finally, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.

  7. Sample and length-dependent variability of 77 and 4.2 K properties in nominally identical RE123 coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, L.; Hu, X.; Kametani, F.; Abraimov, D.; Polyanskii, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    We present a broad study by multiple techniques of the critical current and critical current density of a small but representative set of nominally identical commercial RE123 (REBa2Cu3O7-δ , RE = rare Earth, here Y and Gd) coated conductors (CC) recently fabricated by SuperPower Inc. to the same nominal high pinning specification with BaZrO3 and RE2O3 nanoprecipitate pinning centers. With high-field low-temperature applications to magnet technology in mind, we address the nature of their tape-to-tape variations and length-wise I c inhomogeneities by measurements on a scale of about 2 cm rather than the 5 m scale normally supplied by the vendor and address the question of whether these variations have their origin in cross-sectional or in vortex pinning variations. Our principal method has been a continuous measurement transport critical current tool (YateStar) that applies about 0.5 T perpendicular and parallel to the tape at 77 K, thus allowing variations of c-axis and ab-plane properties to be clearly distinguished in the temperature and field regime where strong pinning defects are obvious. We also find such in-field measurements at 77 K to be more valuable in predicting 4.2 K, high-field properties than self-field, 77 K properties because the pinning centers controlling 77 K performance play a decisive role in introducing point defects that also add strongly to J c at 4.2 K. We find that the dominant source of I c variation is due to pinning center fluctuations that control J c, rather than to production defects that locally reduce the active cross-section. Given the 5-10 nm scale of these pinning centers, it appears that the route to greater I c homogeneity is through more stringent control of the REBCO growth conditions in these Zr-doped coated conductors.

  8. Magnetic and structural characterization of inkjet-printed TFAYBa2Cu3O7-x/MODCZO/ABADYSZ/SS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Vlad, V. R.; Calleja, A.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzmán, R.; Arbiol, J.; Granados, X.; Palau, A.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Usoskin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The superconductor industry is demanding new methodologies to manufacture km-long, high quality coated conductors at high growth rates, using cost-effective, scalable processes. We report on the fabrication by an all-chemical deposition method of highly textured, thick (0.9 μm) inkjet-printed YBCO films, using a Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 (CZO) capping layer deposited by MOD, on top of robust, buffered ABADYSZ/SS substrates. Thinner, 0.25 μm spin-coated YBCO films were also analyzed for comparison. The structural study performed by x-ray diffraction, optical, AFM, SEM and TEM microscopy demonstrates the success of the capping layer for enhancing the planarity of the as-received tape and obtaining highly homogeneous and well-textured YBCO films. DC magnetometry granularity analysis was used to determine the mean superconducting grain diameter, ˜2.5 μm, and the intra- and intergranular critical current densities of the coated conductors (CCs). For the thin, spin-coated sample, high self-field intragrain critical currents were measured ({J}_{{c}}^{{G}}=4 0, 3.3 MA cm-2 at 5, 77 K). For the thick, inkjet-printed tape {J}_{{c}}^{{G}} was reduced by ˜30%, but, notably, the percolative critical current, {J}_{{c}}^{{GB}}=1 2.5~{MA}~{{cm}}^{-2}, was only ˜10% smaller at 5 K, thanks to good preservation of the texture. At 77 K, {J}_{{c}}^{{GB}}=1.3~{MA}~{{cm}}^{-2} was achieved, implying a critical current of Ic = 117 A/cm-width. AC susceptibility measurements allowed us to demonstrate the high homogeneity of the fabricated CCs, and investigate the magnetic vortex-pinning phase diagram. Remarkably, the thick, inkjet-printed sample showed comparable irreversibility line (IL) and activation energy for thermal depinning, Ue(H), to the thin sample. The present results open new perspectives for the fabrication of high quality-to-cost ratio, all-chemical CCs with yet higher Ic values by inkjet printing multideposition of thicker YBCO layers.

  9. Electrochemical performance of Li-rich oxide composite material coated with Li0.75La0.42TiO3 ionic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Liao, Pin-Ci; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2017-03-01

    Li-rich (spray-dried (SP)-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2) composite materials were prepared via two-step ball-mill and spray dry methods by using LiOH, α-MnO2, β-Ni(OH)2 raw materials. Two raw materials of α-MnO2 nanowires and microsphere β-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. In addition, Li0.75La0.42TiO3 (LLTO) fast ionic conductor was coated on SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composite via a sol-gel method. The properties of the LLTO-coated SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composites were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman, XPS, and the AC impedance method. The discharge capacities of 1 wt.%-LLTO-coated SP-Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.60O2 composites were 256, 250, 231, 200, 158, and 114 mAh g-1 at rates of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5C, respectively, in the voltage range 2.0-4.8 V. The 1 wt.%-LLTO-coated Li-rich oxide composite showed the discharge capacities of up to 256 mAh g-1 in the first cycle at 0.1C. After 30 cycles, the discharge capacity of 244 mAh g-1 was obtained, which showed the capacity retention of 95.4%.

  10. Flexible, Polymer-Filled Metallic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Swec, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure developed to make materials both flexible and reasonably good electrical conductors. Metal or polymer sheet substrate cleaned with beam of energetic inert-gas ions to remove adsorbed gases and contaminants from surface. After cleaning, substrate coated by cosputter deposition of both conductive metal and flexible polymer. Removed by either mechanical or chemical-dissolution technique, and resulting flexible metal/polymer conductor bonded at low temperature to conductor-surface contacts.

  11. General approach for the determination of the magneto-angular dependence of the critical current of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhong, Z.; Ruiz, H. S.; Geng, J.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    The physical understanding and numerical modelling of superconducting devices which exploit the high performance of second generation high temperature superconducting tapes (2G-HTS), is commonly hindered by the lack of accurate functions which allow the consideration of the in-field dependence of the critical current. This is true regardless of the manufacturer of the superconducting tape. In this paper, we present a general approach for determining a unified function I c(B, θ), ultimately capable of describing the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of commercial 2G-HTS tapes in the Lorentz configuration. Five widely different superconducting tapes, provided by three different manufacturers, have been tested in a liquid nitrogen bath and external magnetic fields of up to 400 mT. The critical current was recorded at 90 different orientations of the magnetic field ranging from θ = 0°, i.e., with B aligned with the crystallographic ab-planes of the YBCO layer, towards ±90°, i.e., with B perpendicular to the wider surfaces of the 2G-HTS tape. The whole set of experimental data has been analysed using a novel multi-objective model capable of predicting a sole function I c(B, θ). This allows an accurate validation of the experimental data regardless of the fabrication differences and widths of the superconducting tapes. It is shown that, in spite of the wide set of differences between the fabrication and composition of the considered tapes, at liquid nitrogen temperature the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of YBCO-based 2G-HTS tapes, can be described by a universal function I c(f(B), θ), with a power law field dependence dominated by the Kim’s factor B/B 0, and an angular dependence moderated by the electron mass anisotropy ratio of the YBCO layer.

  12. A study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for HTS wind power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Minwon; Go, Byeong-Soo; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-05-01

    YBCO or REBCO coated conductor (2G) materials are developed for their superior performance at high magnetic field and temperature. Power system applications based on high temperature superconducting (HTS) 2G wire technology are attracting attention, including large-scale wind power generators. In particular, to solve problems associated with the foundations and mechanical structure of offshore wind turbines, due to the large diameter and heavy weight of the generator, an HTS generator is suggested as one of the key technologies. Many researchers have tried to develop feasible large-scale HTS wind power generator technologies. In this paper, a study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for large-scale wind power generators is discussed. A 12 MW class large-scale wind turbine and an HTS generator are designed using 2G HTS wire. The total length of the 2G HTS wire for the 12 MW HTS generator is estimated, and the essential prerequisites of the 2G HTS wire based generator are described. The magnetic field distributions of a pole module are illustrated, and the mechanical stress and strain of the pole module are analysed. Finally, a reasonable price for 2G HTS wire for commercialization of the HTS generator is suggested, reflecting the results of electromagnetic and mechanical analyses of the generator.

  13. Comparison between Bi-2223 tape and RE-123 coated conductor from the view point of current transport properties influencing thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Takanobu; Inoue, Masayoshi; Higashikawa, Kohei; Suzuki, Takumi; Lyu, Lin; Takasaki, Ken; Imamura, Kazutaka; Onodera, Yuta; Uetsuhara, Dai; Ibi, Akira; Izumi, Teruo; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated flux flow dissipation in typical two kinds of HTS tapes, i.e., a Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape and a RE-123 coated conductor (CC) from the view point of heat load under over current conditions. Based on systematic measurements on current-voltage characteristics, the nonlinear flux flow dissipation has been described analytically by taking into account current sharing in metallic sheath or stabilization layer. Flux flow dissipation in the RE-123 CC shows much steeper temperature dependence than that of the Bi-2223 tape. As a result, attainable cooling power becomes smaller in the RE-123 CC in comparison with that of Bi-2223 tape even if the same cooling condition. In other word, acceptable temperature rise in the RE-123 CC is small at over current condition, whereas moderate temperature dependence in the Bi-2223 tape allows stable operation even if the bias current exceeds the critical current. Influence of spatial inhomogeneity in the both HTS tapes has also been investigated. Longitudinal variation of local critical current, Ic, and its statistical behavior have been characterized by use of reel-to-reel scanning Hall probe microscopy. It has been found that the flux flow dissipation is possibly localized more than one order higher than that of the average value due to discrete local Ic drops.

  14. Decoupling and tuning competing effects of different types of defects on flux creep in irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, S.; Leroux, M.; Rupich, M. W.; Miller, D. J.; Sheng, H.; Niraula, P. M.; Kayani, A.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Civale, L.

    2017-01-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors (CCs) have achieved high critical current densities (J c) that can be further increased through the introduction of additional defects using particle irradiation. However, these gains are accompanied by increases in the flux creep rate, a manifestation of competition between the different types of defects. Here, we study this competition to better understand how to design pinning landscapes that simultaneously increase J c and reduce creep. CCs grown by metal organic deposition show non-monotonic changes in the temperature-dependent creep rate, S(T). Notably, in low fields, there is a conspicuous dip to low S as the temperature (T) increases from ˜20 to ˜65 K. Oxygen-, proton-, and Au-irradiation substantially increase S in this temperature range. Focusing on an oxygen-irradiated CC, we investigate the contribution of different types of irradiation-induced defects to the flux creep rate. Specifically, we study S(T) as we tune the relative density of point defects to larger defects by annealing both an as-grown and an irradiated CC in O2 at temperatures T A = 250 °C-600 °C. We observe a steady decrease in S(T > 20 K) with increasing T A, unveiling the role of pre-existing nanoparticle precipitates in creating the dip in S(T) and point defects and clusters in increasing S at intermediate temperatures.

  15. The influence of grain boundary I c on the macroscopic strain effect of I c in BHO-doped GdBCO-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Takashi; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Sugano, Michinaka; Ibi, Akira; Izumi, Teruo

    2016-07-01

    The effect of strain in REBa2Cu3O y (REBCO: RE = Y, Gd, Sm, Eu) coated conductors (CCs) on the critical current (I c) is one of the most fundamental factors for superconducting coil applications because CCs experience a variety of stresses. In this study, we carried out bending tests and measured the peak strain and the strain sensitivity of I c (a-value) for GdBCO CCs at 77 K under self-field. These values were evaluated for pure GdBCO CCs and BaHfO3 BHO-doped GdBCO CCs, which had oxide buffer layers with varying in-plane grain alignments of the CeO2 top layer. As a result, the peak strains and a-values for the BHO-doped GdBCO CCs depended on the FWHM of the CeO2 220 reflection in the φ-scan profile (Δφ), and decreased monotonically with decreasing Δφ. On the other hand, the peak strain and a-value were nearly independent of Δφ in the pure-GdBCO CCs. The change in peak strains for the BHO-doped GdBCO CCs are discussed on the basis of the relative contribution of intra-grain I c and inter-grain I c to the macroscopic strain effect of I c in the CCs.

  16. Characterizing transport current defects in 1-cm-wide YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-delta] coated conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Peterson, E. J.; Coulter, J. Y.; Dowden, P. C.; Arendt, P. N.; Foltyn, S. R.; Mueller, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    We have used a low temperature magnetic imaging system to determine current pathways in 5 cm long 'good' and 'bad' regions of a 1-cm-wide YBa2Cu3O7-{delta} coated conductor. The good and bad regions were identified with 4 point probe measurements taken at 1 cm intervals along the tape length. The current density map from the good region showed the expected edge peaked structure, similar to that seen in previous work on high quality test samples grown on single crystal substrates. The structure was also consistent with theoretical understanding of thin film superconductors where demagnetizing effects are strong. The maps from the bad region showed that the current was primarily confined to the right half of the sample. The left half carried only a small current that reached saturation quickly. Effectively halving the sample width quantitatively explains the critical current measured in that section. Spatially resolved xray analysis with 1 mm resolution was used to further characterize the bad section and suggested an abnormally large amount of a-axis YBCO present. This may be the result of non-uniform heating leading to a low deposition temperature in that area.

  17. HTS planar gradiometer consisting of SQUID with multi-turn input coil and large pickup coil made of GdBCO coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Oshikubo, Yasuo; Hato, Tsunehiro; Enpuku, Keiji; Sugisaki, Masaki; Arai, Eiichi; Tanabe, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the fabrication of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) gradiometer with long baseline for geophysical applications. The proof-of-concept gradiometer using a 1-turn pickup coil made of a GdBa2Cu3Oy coated conductor (GCC) and 5.5-turn input coil integrated on a SQUID was fabricated in our previous work. In this study, we have optimized the device structure to improve the frequency response, gradient field sensitivity and gradiometer balance. The fabricated flux transformer consists of a 6-turn planar gradiometric pickup coil and a 26-turn input coil made of an HTS thin film. A low-melting-point alloy was used to connect polished Ag surfaces of the CGG pickup coil and Au pads of the input coil. An HTS SQUID was formed on another substrate and stacked on the input coil. A mechanical balancing structure using three pieces of GCC as a superconducting shield was also implemented. The fabricated gradiometer showed a gradient field noise of 0.8 fT/cm Hz1/2 in the white noise regions, a gradiometer balance of 1/142, and a cutoff frequency of 9 Hz corresponding to a 2 mΩ contact resistance between the pickup coil and the input coil.

  18. Simulation and experiments of stacks of high temperature superconducting coated conductors magnetized by pulsed field magnetization with multi-pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shengnan; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Baskys, A.; Patel, A.; Grilli, Francesco; Glowacki, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    High temperature superconducting bulks or stacks of coated conductors (CCs) can be magnetized to become trapped field magnets (TFMs). The magnetic fields of such TFMs can break the limitation of conventional magnets (<2 T), so they show potential for improving the performance of many electrical applications that use permanent magnets like rotating machines. Towards practical or commercial use of TFMs, effective in situ magnetization is one of the key issues. The pulsed field magnetization (PFM) is among the most promising magnetization methods in virtue of its compactness, mobility and low cost. However, due to the heat generation during the magnetization, the trapped field and flux acquired by PFM usually cannot achieve the full potential of a sample (acquired by the field cooling or zero field cooling method). The multi-pulse technique was found to effectively improve the trapped field by PFM in practice. In this work, a systematic study on the PFM with successive pulses is presented. A 2D electromagnetic-thermal coupled model with comprehensive temperature dependent parameters is used to simulate a stack of CCs magnetized by successive magnetic pulses. An overall picture is built to show how the trapped field and flux evolve with different pulse sequences and the evolution patterns are analyzed. Based on the discussion, an operable magnetization strategy of PFM with successive pulses is suggested to provide more trapped field and flux. Finally, experimental results of a stack of CCs magnetized by typical pulse sequences are presented for demonstration.

  19. Spray coating of crack templates for the fabrication of transparent conductors and heaters on flat and curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Srivastava, Kartikeya; Kumar, Ankush; Kiruthika, S; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-08-27

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) have been made on flat, flexible, and curved surfaces, following a crack template method in which a desired surface was uniformly spray-coated with a crackle precursor (CP) and metal (Ag) was deposited by vacuum evaporation. An acrylic resin (CP1) and a SiO2 nanoparticle-based dispersion (CP2) derived from commercial products served as CPs to produce U-shaped cracks in highly interconnected networks. The crack width and the density could be controlled by varying the spray conditions, resulting in varying template thicknesses. By depositing Ag in the crack regions of the templates, we have successfully produced Ag wire network TCEs on flat-flexible PET sheets, cylindrical glass tube, flask and lens surface with transmittance up to 86%, sheet resistance below 11 Ω/□ for electrothermal application. When used as a transparent heater by joule heating of the Ag network, AgCP1 and AgCP2 on PET showed high thermal resistance values of 515 and 409 °C cm(2)/W, respectively, with fast response (<20 s), requiring only low voltages (<5 V) to achieve uniform temperatures of ∼100 °C across large areas. Similar was the performance of the transparent heater on curved glass surfaces. Spray coating in the context of crack template is a powerful method for producing transparent heaters, which is shown for the first time in this work. AgCP1 with an invisible wire network is suited for use in proximity while AgCP2 wire network is ideal for use in large area displays viewed from a distance. Both exhibited excellent defrosting performance, even at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Comparison of the Performance of CoP-Coated and Pt-Coated Radial Junction n(+)p-Silicon Microwire-Array Photocathodes for the Sunlight-Driven Reduction of Water to H2(g).

    PubMed

    Roske, Christopher W; Popczun, Eric J; Seger, Brian; Read, Carlos G; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole; Vesborg, Peter C K; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Schaak, Raymond E; Chorkendorff, Ib; Gray, Harry B; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-05-07

    The electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution has been evaluated for radial-junction n(+)p-Si microwire (MW) arrays with Pt or cobalt phosphide, CoP, nanoparticulate catalysts in contact with 0.50 M H2SO4(aq). The CoP-coated (2.0 mg cm(-2)) n(+)p-Si MW photocathodes were stable for over 12 h of continuous operation and produced an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, a light-limited photocurrent density (Jph) of 17 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (ff) of 0.24, and an ideal regenerative cell efficiency (ηIRC) of 1.9% under simulated 1 Sun illumination. Pt-coated (0.5 mg cm(-2)) n(+)p-Si MW-array photocathodes produced Voc = 0.44 V, Jph = 14 mA cm(-2), ff = 0.46, and η = 2.9% under identical conditions. Thus, the MW geometry allows the fabrication of photocathodes entirely comprised of earth-abundant materials that exhibit performance comparable to that of devices that contain Pt.

  1. Buffer layers for coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2011-08-23

    A composite structure is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, and a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material. Additionally, an article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and a thick film upon the cubic metal oxide material. Finally, a superconducting article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and an yttrium barium copper oxide material upon the cubic metal oxide material.

  2. Microstructural investigation of phases and pinning properties in MBa2Cu3O7-x (M = Y and/or Gd) coated conductors produced by scale-up facilitie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hye-Jin; Moon, Han-Kyoul; Yoon, Seokhyun; Jo, William; Kim, Kunsu; Kim, Miyoung; Ko, Rock-Kil; Jo, Young-Sik; Ha, Dong-Woo

    2016-03-01

    To expedite the commercialization of coated conductors, a robust stacking architecture of the wires must be developed and the performance of the critical currents improved. More importantly, the manufacturability, or large-scale delivery, and the capability of sustaining production at a high rate must be considered. The products of three companies, American Superconductor, Superpower Inc., and SuNAM Co., Ltd, were selected because these companies have announced commercial-grade production lines and delivered a significant amounts of wires to the open market that meet the standards demanded by power devices. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to verify the structural properties and the phase formation in the wires, and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the conductors. In addition, Raman scattering spectroscopy was used for the analysis of the phase formation and for the elucidation of secondary phases in the superconducting layers. The field dependence of the critical current was also studied to compare the transport characteristics under relatively low and medium magnetic field at 77 K and 60 K. Pinning forces were obtained from the field dependence of transport properties and pinning characteristics were investigated. The theoretical and experimental analyses were combined together using the Dew-Hughes formula to extract the scaling exponents and estimate the irreversibility lines of the fields. The results showed that the three conductors possess pinning mechanisms that originate from core pinning with a surface pinning geometry. It is remarkable that the wires discussed in this paper exhibit very similar pinning characteristics even though they have different characteristics in terms of chemical composition, microstructure, stacking architectures, and distribution of parasitic phases.

  3. Stretchable, transparent, ionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Christoph; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Foo, Choon Chiang; Rothemund, Philipp; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-08-30

    Existing stretchable, transparent conductors are mostly electronic conductors. They limit the performance of interconnects, sensors, and actuators as components of stretchable electronics and soft machines. We describe a class of devices enabled by ionic conductors that are highly stretchable, fully transparent to light of all colors, and capable of operation at frequencies beyond 10 kilohertz and voltages above 10 kilovolts. We demonstrate a transparent actuator that can generate large strains and a transparent loudspeaker that produces sound over the entire audible range. The electromechanical transduction is achieved without electrochemical reaction. The ionic conductors have higher resistivity than many electronic conductors; however, when large stretchability and high transmittance are required, the ionic conductors have lower sheet resistance than all existing electronic conductors.

  4. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pleva, E. F.; Mehrotra, V.; Schwenterly, S W

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  5. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  6. An all chemical solution deposition approach for the growth of highly textured CeO2 cap layers on La2Zr2O7-buffered long lengths of biaxially textured Ni W substrates for YBCO-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, S.; Knoth, K.; Hühne, R.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.

    2005-10-01

    A reel-to-reel, dip coating process has been developed to continuously deposit epitaxial La2Zr2O7 (LZO) and CeO2 on 5 m long cube-textured {100} (001)Ni tapes. Recent results for La2Zr2O7 and CeO2 buffer layers deposited on long lengths of Ni substrate for the realization of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)-coated conductors are presented. The major achievement is the development of a new all chemical solution deposition (CSD) process leading to the formation of highly textured buffer layers at moderate annealing temperatures. Reproducible highly textured, dense and crack-free LZO buffer layers and CeO2 cap layers were obtained for annealing temperatures as low as 900 °C in a reducing atmosphere (Ar-5 at.%-H2). The thickness of the LZO buffer layers was determined to be (200 ± 10) nm per single coating; prepared cerium oxide layers showed a thickness of 60 nm ± 10 nm. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow YBCO films on these substrates. A Tc 0 of T = 90.5 K and ΔTc = 1.4 K was obtained on PLD-YBCO/CSD-CeO2 /CSD-LZO/Ni-5 at.% W, which shows the outstanding features of this new buffer layer architecture processed by CSD. The large layer thickness combined with low annealing temperatures is the main advantage of this new process for low-cost buffer layer deposition on Ni-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates).

  7. Fabrication and characterization of La2Zr2O7 films on different buffer architectures for YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Liu, Linfei; Xiao, Guina; Li, Yijie

    2013-02-27

    La2Zr2O7 (LZO) films were grown on different buffer architectures by radio frequency magnetron sputtering for the large-scale application of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)-coated conductors. The three different buffer architectures were cerium oxide (CeO2), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO2, and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2. The microstructure and surface morphology of the LZO film were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The LZO films prepared on the CeO2, YSZ/CeO2, and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer architectures were preferentially c-axis-oriented and highly textured. The in-plane texture of LZO film on CeO2 single-buffer architecture was ∆ φ = 5.5° and the out-of-plane texture was ∆ ω = 3.4°. All the LZO films had very smooth surfaces, but LZO films grown on YSZ/CeO2 and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer architectures had cracks. The highly textured LZO film grown on CeO2-seed buffered NiW tape was suitable for the epitaxial growth of YBCO film with high currents.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of La2Zr2O7 films on different buffer architectures for YBa2Cu3O7−δ coated conductors by RF magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    La2Zr2O7 (LZO) films were grown on different buffer architectures by radio frequency magnetron sputtering for the large-scale application of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO)-coated conductors. The three different buffer architectures were cerium oxide (CeO2), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO2, and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2. The microstructure and surface morphology of the LZO film were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The LZO films prepared on the CeO2, YSZ/CeO2, and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer architectures were preferentially c-axis-oriented and highly textured. The in-plane texture of LZO film on CeO2 single-buffer architecture was ∆ φ = 5.5° and the out-of-plane texture was ∆ ω = 3.4°. All the LZO films had very smooth surfaces, but LZO films grown on YSZ/CeO2 and CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer architectures had cracks. The highly textured LZO film grown on CeO2-seed buffered NiW tape was suitable for the epitaxial growth of YBCO film with high currents. PMID:23445764

  9. Vortex creep and critical current densities J c in a 2 μm thick SmBa2Cu3O7-d coated conductor with mixed pinning centers grown by co-evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, N.; Coulter, Y.; Condó, A. M.; Granell, P.; Golmar, F.; Ha, H. S.; Moon, S. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the critical current densities J c and flux creep rates in a 2 μm thick SmBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor produced by co-evaporation. The sample presents strong pinning produced by correlated disorder (CD) (boundaries between growth islands, dislocations and twin boundaries) as well as random nanoparticles. Correlated pinning along the c-axis was evidenced due to the appearance of a large peak in the angular critical current, centered at H║c. The analysis of the critical current density J c (with the magnetic field applied parallel (H║c) and at 45° of the c-axis (H║45°)) indicates that CD assists pinning throughout the temperature range. For all temperatures and at both angles the in-field dependence of J c exhibits a power-law behavior. The contribution of CD drops when the field is rotated to intermediate angles between the c axis and a-b axis (i. e. H║45°), which derives in a reduction of the absolute J c value and poorer in-field dependences. The flux creep rate depends on the angle and its values remain approximately constant within the power-law regime. For H║c and H║45° and for magnetic fields lower than 20 kOe, the flux relaxation presents characterizing glassy exponents μ = 1.70 and μ = 1.32, respectively.

  10. Miniaturization of BaHfO3 nanoparticles in YBa2Cu3O y -coated conductors using a two-step heating process in the TFA-MOD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, H.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, K.; Sato, Y.; Otaguro, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Izumi, T.; Awaji, S.

    2017-02-01

    The critical current density (J c) of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO)-coated conductors in a magnetic field can be enhanced by the doping of flux-pinning centers in a metal organic deposition (MOD) process with trifluoroacetates (TFA). The size of these flux-pinning centers should be less than 10 nm to achieve commercial use due to the coherence length of YBCO at 77 K. In this paper, BaHfO3 (BHO) nanoparticles were introduced into YBCO films using the TFA-MOD method. Microstructures and the J c properties of the films prepared using a two-step heating process at crystallization were compared with film prepared using a conventional one-step heating process. The two-step heating process produced 15 nm average-sized BHO nanoparticles in the film compared to 19 nm nanoparticles in a film prepared using a one-step process. It was revealed that the size of nanoparticles in the films could be miniaturized by improving the heating processes in the MOD method, and the miniaturized nanoparticles could contribute to increased J c in magnetic fields. The mechanism of miniaturization is also discussed based on microstructure observations of quenched films.

  11. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... least a No. 18 AWG conductor. (e) Each conductor installed separately must be at least a No. 16 AWG conductor. (f) Each No. 18 AWG conductor in a multiconductor sheath may not extend out of the sheath more... length and cranking motor conductors. Table 5—Allowable Amperage of Conductors Conductor size...

  12. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... least a No. 18 AWG conductor. (e) Each conductor installed separately must be at least a No. 16 AWG conductor. (f) Each No. 18 AWG conductor in a multiconductor sheath may not extend out of the sheath more... length and cranking motor conductors. Table 5—Allowable Amperage of Conductors Conductor size...

  13. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... least a No. 18 AWG conductor. (e) Each conductor installed separately must be at least a No. 16 AWG conductor. (f) Each No. 18 AWG conductor in a multiconductor sheath may not extend out of the sheath more... length and cranking motor conductors. Table 5—Allowable Amperage of Conductors Conductor size...

  14. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... least a No. 18 AWG conductor. (e) Each conductor installed separately must be at least a No. 16 AWG conductor. (f) Each No. 18 AWG conductor in a multiconductor sheath may not extend out of the sheath more... length and cranking motor conductors. Table 5—Allowable Amperage of Conductors Conductor size...

  15. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... least a No. 18 AWG conductor. (e) Each conductor installed separately must be at least a No. 16 AWG conductor. (f) Each No. 18 AWG conductor in a multiconductor sheath may not extend out of the sheath more... length and cranking motor conductors. Table 5—Allowable Amperage of Conductors Conductor size...

  16. Rapid doubling of the critical current of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors for viable high-speed industrial processing

    DOE PAGES

    Leroux, M.; Kihlstrom, K. J.; Holleis, S.; ...

    2015-11-09

    Here, we demonstrate that 3.5-MeV oxygen irradiation can markedly enhance the in-field critical current of commercial second generation superconducting tapes with an exposure time of just 1 s per 0.8 cm2. Furthermore we demonstrate how speed is now at the level required for an industrial reel-to-reel post-processing. The irradiation is made on production line samples through the protective silver coating and does not require any modification of the growth process. From TEM imaging, we identify small clusters as the main source of increased vortex pinning.

  17. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  18. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  19. Current distribution mapping in insulated (Gd,Y)BCO based stabilizer-free coated conductor after AC over-current test for R-SFCL application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Soumen; Li, Xiao-Fen; Selvamanickam, Venkat; Rao, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Uniformity of critical current (Ic ) over long lengths of (GdY)-Ba-Cu-O ((Gd,Y)BCO)-based high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes after long periods of AC current excitation is an important criterion in their selection for resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (R-SFCL). The present work describes such critical current (Ic ) uniformity measurements performed over 1m long, stabilizer-free (SF), 12 mm wide, 2nd generation (2G) (Gd,Y)BCO based HTS tape. A non-destructive method using a static hall probe (Tapestar®) with moving HTS tape configuration was employed for estimation of Ic uniformity. Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) was then used to examine the weak superconducting regions (i.e. less Ic ) with a static HTS tape. Remanent field distribution on the HTS tape was measured to yield the critical current density distribution. Except for small degradation of Ic at some locations, these studies confirmed near-uniform critical current distribution over meter-long (Gd,Y)BCO tapes, both in virgin state and after exposure to AC over current.

  20. Anchored terminal conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, M.A.; Delmolino, W.P.

    1986-08-19

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a cell container which is closed by a resilient insulative cell top and an electrode conductor inserted through the cell top and into an electrode of the cell, with the electrode conductor being physically and electrically accessible to the exterior of the cell whereby it functions as a terminal for the electrode, and wherein a portion of the electrode conductor is enclosed within the cell top, characterized in that the cell further comprises means for substantially restraining movement of the electrode conductor relative to the cell top. The electrode conductor has a nail configuration comprising a head and a shank with the head of the nail providing the external physical and electrical accessibility, wherein the restraining means is integrated with the shank of the nail. The restraining means is positioned on the shank, interior to the cell container and below the interior surface of the cell top and in close juxtaposition to the interior surface. The restraining means comprises a circumferential barb longitudinally disposed on the shank and having an upper portion which engages the interior surface to provide the substantial restraining of movement.

  1. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  2. Experimental measurement of characteristic I(c) (ε, θ, B) response in GdBa2Cu3Oδ coated conductor tapes under low magnetic field at 77 K.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Dedicatoria, Marlon J; Gorospe, Alking; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2015-03-01

    The continued development in the design technology of practical superconducting devices adopting high temperature superconductors tapes has led to a deeper understanding of their electromechanical behaviors. Rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide coated conductor (CC) tapes exhibit anisotropy of transport property (Ic) under magnetic field and its intrinsic strain effect is much significant depending on the orientation to the tape surface and the magnetic field intensity applied. Different experimental systems have already been developed to measure the relation of Ic with mechanical strain ε, magnetic field intensity B, and its angle of orientation, θ. However, few systems and instruments can measure these relationships simultaneously; either Ic-B-θ or Ic-ε-B is usually measured. In this study, a device which can measure these influences simultaneously based on a pair of permanent magnet systems was constructed and the characteristic responses of critical current Ic with strain, magnetic field, and its orientation with respect to the CC tape surface were investigated. The angular dependence of Ic with strain at 77 K in reactive co-evaporation by deposition and reaction GdBCO CC tapes has been measured using the permanent magnet system. The orientation angle of magnetic field with respect to the tape's surface was varied by rotating the rig fixture that holds a pair of permanent magnets. The strain sensitivity of Ic at different angles under low magnetic field was evaluated. As a result, a characteristic surface Ic (ε, θ, B) has been constructed as the characteristic response of Ic with strain and varying orientation under magnetic field.

  3. Tensile fatigue behavior and crack growth in GdBa2Cu3O7‑x /stainless-steel coated conductor grown via reactive co-evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Samuel; Schwartz, Justin

    2017-04-01

    (RE)Ba2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO) conductors have the potential to enable a wide range of superconducting applications over a range of temperatures and magnetic fields (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805), yet AC applications and devices with a charge/discharge cycle may be limited by the conductor fatigue properties. Here the fatigue behavior of GdBa2Cu3O7‑x (GdBCO) conductors grown by reactive co-evaporation on stainless-steel substrates is reported for axial tensile strains, ε, up to 0.5% and 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies and compared with a commercially available IBAD/MOCVD REBCO conductor. Results show that GdBCO/stainless-steel conductors retain their transport critical current for 10 000 cycles at ε = 0.35% and ε = 0.45%, and for 1000 cycles at ε = 0.50%. The main cause of fatigue degradation in GdBCO conductors is crack propagation and delamination that initiates at the edge of the conductor due to manufacturing defects.

  4. 75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...FRA proposes to prescribe regulations for certification of conductors, as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The proposed rule would require railroads to have a formal program for certifying conductors. As part of that program, railroads would be required to have a formal process for training prospective conductors and determining that all persons are competent before......

  5. Polymeric ion conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    There are several requirements for (polymeric) ion conductors in electrochromic window applications: (1) they have high ionic conductivity (desirably, > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} Scm{sup {minus}1}); (2) they have high chemical and electrochemical stabilities with respect to the wide usable potential window and thermal and UV stabilities; (3) they are transparent in a specific wavelength region, which is, however, dependent of applications; and (4) they have enough adhesiveness to the substrates and have acceptable mechanical properties. Many kinds of polymeric ionic conductors have since been reported and some of them were applied to electrochromic uses. In this chapter, electrochemical and physicochemical properties of these materials are reviewed. However, certain aspects such as crystallographic studies and conduction models in detail have been omitted, which are still controversial.

  6. Intercalated Graphite Fiber Conductor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Lightweight electrical conductors were developed from graphitic fibers inter- calated with highly electrophilic intercalants. Conductance increases of...intercalated with highly electrophilic molecules ("intercalants") to en- hance their electrical conductivity. Evaluation of the elec- trical resistance of two...corrosion resistant to fluorine containing chemicals. Since the moisture permeability of the TFE is much less than that of the FEP, attempts were made to

  7. Method for preparing a thick film conductor

    DOEpatents

    Nagesh, Voddarahalli K.; Fulrath, deceased, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for preparing a thick film conductor which comprises providing surface active glass particles, mixing the surface active glass particles with a thermally decomposable organometallic compound, for example, a silver resinate, and then decomposing the organometallic compound by heating, thereby chemically depositing metal on the glass particles. The glass particle mixture is applied to a suitable substrate either before or after the organometallic compound is thermally decomposed. The resulting system is then fired in an oxidizing atmosphere, providing a microstructure of glass particles substantially uniformly coated with metal.

  8. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  9. Dip-coated multi-core (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tape process - an alternative way of fabricating multi-core (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tape conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Y. S.; Kumakura, H.; Togano, K.

    2000-04-01

    The dip-coating-then-stacking (DIS) process, which is simpler and easier than the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) process, was developed to fabricate multi-core (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x conductors. In the DIS process, multi-core tapes were prepared by stacking several layers of single side dip-coated Ag strips then wrapping them with Ag foil. After burning at 500°C to remove organic materials, tape samples were rolled to increase the packing density of oxide core, then were heat-treated twice at 838°C in air with an intermediate pressing. There was no bubbling problem throughout the heat treatment and the interface between oxide core and Ag was very smooth. By the DIS process, transport critical current ( Ic) ∼73 A and transport critical current density ( Jc) ∼17 600 A/cm 2 at 77 K, 0 T were so far obtained. Considering the easiness and simplicity of the DIS process relative to OPIT with reasonably high Ic and Jc values so far obtained, it appears that the DIS process can be applied as an alternative way to OPIT for fabricating multi-core (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tape conductors.

  10. Photoluminescent conductor polymer holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limón, B.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-02-01

    An organic conductor polymer was doped with benzalkonium chloride to get a photoluminescent effect at 560 nm and it was used as holographic material. We used a digital image to generate a hologram in a computer and it was transferred by microlithography techniques to our polymer to get a phase hologram. The transference is successful by rubbing, the heat increment produce temperature gradients and the information in the mask is transferred to the material by the refraction index changes, thus the film is recorded. We recorded some gratings to observe the behavior of photoluminescent light with different frequencies when it is radiated with a green laser beam at 532 nm.

  11. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M.

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  12. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  13. Fluorite Ce0.8Sm0.2O2- δ porous layer coating to enhance the oxygen permeation behavior of a BaCo0.7Fe0.2Nb0.1O3- δ mixed conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tai-he; Song, Wei-jia; Li, Rong; Zhen, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Fluorite Ce0.8Sm0.2O2- δ (SDC) nanopowder with a crystallite size of 15 nm was synthesized by a co-precipitation method. An SDC porous layer was coated onto a BaCo0.7Fe0.2Nb0.1O3- δ (BCFN) mixed conductor to improve its oxygen transport behavior. The results show that the SDC-coated BCFN membrane exhibits a remarkably higher oxygen permeation flux ({J_{{O_2}}}) than the uncoated BCFN in the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG). The maximum {J_{{O_2}}} value of the SDC-coated BCFN is 18.28 mL·min-1·cm-2 under a COG/air flux of 177 mL·min-1/353 mL·min-1 at 875°C when the thickness of the BCFN membrane is 1 mm; this {J_{{O_2}}} value is 23% higher than that of the uncoated BCFN membrane. This enhancement is likely because of the higher oxygen ionic conductivity of SDC, which supplies oxygen vacancies and accelerates oxygen exchange on the membrane/coating layer/gas three-phase boundary.

  14. Intercalated graphite electrical conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    For years NASA has wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft and aircraft. Experiments are conducted to find a lightweight synthetic metal to replace copper. The subject of this paper, intercalated graphite, is such a material. Intercalated graphite is made by heating petroleum or coal to remove the hydrogen and to form more covalent bonds, thus increasing the molecular weight. The coal or petroleum eventually turns to pitch, which can then be drawn into a fiber. With continued heating the pitch-based fiber releases hydrogen and forms a carbon fiber. The carbon fiber, if heated sufficiently, becomes more organized in parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in the form of graphite. A conductor of intercalated graphite is potentially useful for spacecraft or aircraft applications because of its low weight.

  15. Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guowei; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Qian; Hui, Rongqing; Chen, Zhijun; Maroni, Victor A; Wu, Judy

    2012-03-08

    Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

  16. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  17. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  19. 33 CFR 183.445 - Conductors: Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors: Protection. 183.445 Section 183.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Conductors: Protection. (a) Each conductor or group of conductors that passes through a bulkhead,...

  20. Testing flat-conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes characteristics of type of FCC which consists of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with self-extinguishing polyester adhesive.

  1. 77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... management'' (CRM), a concept perfected in aviation and urgently pressed on the railroad industry by the... railroads have included CRM in their training programs. It is particularly important that a conductor...

  2. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  3. A lithium superionic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10-2 S cm-1) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm-1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  4. Coating method enables low-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, F. D.

    1965-01-01

    Gold coated stainless steel tubes containing insulated electrical conductors are brazed at a low temperature to a copper coated stainless steel sealing block with a gold-copper eutectic. This produces an effective seal without using flux or damaging the electrical conductors.

  5. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  6. Conductor shears as iceberg encroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    Operators in the Arctic regions must protect wellheads from encroaching icebergs and icepack sheets. Diverting ice masses and excavating large holes below scour depth is expensive. Now an alternate approach allows the conductor to shear, shuts in the well, and provides a method of re-entering the well. The new system has been successfully used by Mobil on two exploratory wells in the Hibernia field off eastern Canada. The wells used 18 3/4-in. wellheads rated at 10,000 psi with 36-in. conductor pipe. The performance of the system is discussed.

  7. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  8. Computer simulation of superionic conductors: II. Cationic conductors. Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov-Shitz, A. K.

    2007-03-15

    The state of the art of the molecular-dynamics simulation of superionic conductors is reviewed. The main studies devoted to the structural, dynamic, and transport properties of the basic classes of solid electrolytes with conductivity via silver, copper, lithium, sodium, and hydrogen cations are considered. The premelting effect in ionic crystals is discussed.

  9. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  10. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  11. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  12. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  14. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  15. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  16. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  17. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  18. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  19. Preparing the Conductor as Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    While music is as old as humanity, conducting as a profession is relatively new. Although a nineteenth-century model has served as the template for the training of conductors, many undergraduate conducting students will spend their teaching careers working with inexperienced and/or amateur musicians. Additionally, the size of many ensembles in…

  20. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  1. The Evaluation of Student Attitudes toward MC2G

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol-Gocmen, Gulsah; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Blankson, Lydia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of MC2G program to teach certain topics in statistics education. MC2G is a program written in Pascal Delphi by Gordon Brooks of Ohio University based on Monte Carlo studies. MC2G provides students opportunity to practice important topics in an introductory statistics course, such as power, Type I…

  2. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  3. Method for making conductors for ferrite memory arrays. [from pre-formed metal conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H.; Baba, P. D.; Bhiwandker, N. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The ferrite memory arrays are made from pre-formed metal conductors for the ferrite arrays. The conductors are made by forming a thin sheet of a metallizing paste of metal alloy powder, drying the paste layer, bisque firing the dried sheet at a first temperature, and then punching the conductors from the fired sheet. During the bisque firing, the conductor sheet shrinks to 58 percent of its pre-fired volume and the alloy particles sinter together. The conductors are embedded in ferrite sheet material and finally fired at a second higher temperature during which firing the conductors shrink approximately the same degree as the ferrite material.

  4. Tetrathiapentalene-based organic conductors

    PubMed Central

    Misaki, Yohji

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and properties of tetrathiapentalene-based (TTP) organic conductors are reviewed. Among various TTP-type donors, bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene, 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) and its derivatives afford many metallic radical cation salts stable down to low temperatures, regardless of the size and shape of the counter anions. Most BDT-TTP conductors have a β-type donor arrangement with almost uniform stacks. Introduction of appropriate substituents results in molecular packing that differs from the β-type. A vinylogous TTP, 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-5-(2-ethanediylidene-1,3-dithiole)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (DTEDT) has yielded an organic superconductor (DTEDT)3Au(CN)2 as well as metallic radical cation salts, regardless of the counter anions. (Thio)pyran analogs of TTP, namely (T)PDT-TTP and its derivatives produce molecular conductors with novel molecular arrangements. A TTP analog with reduced π-electron system 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP) has afforded several organic superconductors. Highly conducting molecular metals with unusual oxidation states (+1, +5/3 and neutral) have been developed on the basis of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDT-TTP) derivatives and analogous metal derivatives M(dt)2 (M = Ni, Au). PMID:27877274

  5. Rapid doubling of the critical current of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors for viable high-speed industrial processing

    SciTech Connect

    Leroux, M.; Kihlstrom, K. J.; Holleis, S.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Fleshler, S.; Sheng, H. P.; Miller, D. J.; Eley, S.; Civale, L.; Kayani, A.; Niraula, P. M.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2015-11-09

    Here, we demonstrate that 3.5-MeV oxygen irradiation can markedly enhance the in-field critical current of commercial second generation superconducting tapes with an exposure time of just 1 s per 0.8 cm2. Furthermore we demonstrate how speed is now at the level required for an industrial reel-to-reel post-processing. The irradiation is made on production line samples through the protective silver coating and does not require any modification of the growth process. From TEM imaging, we identify small clusters as the main source of increased vortex pinning.

  6. Rapid doubling of the critical current of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} coated conductors for viable high-speed industrial processing

    SciTech Connect

    Leroux, M.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Kihlstrom, K. J.; Holleis, S.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Fleshler, S.; Sheng, H. P.; Miller, D. J.; Eley, S.; Civale, L.; Kayani, A.; Niraula, P. M.

    2015-11-09

    We demonstrate that 3.5-MeV oxygen irradiation can markedly enhance the in-field critical current of commercial second generation superconducting tapes with an exposure time of just 1 s per 0.8 cm{sup 2}. The speed demonstrated here is now at the level required for an industrial reel-to-reel post-processing. The irradiation is made on production line samples through the protective silver coating and does not require any modification of the growth process. From TEM imaging, we identify small clusters as the main source of increased vortex pinning.

  7. Rapid doubling of the critical current of Yba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor for viable high-speed industrial processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Leroux, M.; Kihlstrom, K. J.; Holleis, S.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Fleshler, S.; Sheng, H. P.; Miller, D. J.; Eley, S.; Civale, L.; Kayani, A.; Niraula, P. M.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2015-11-09

    We demonstrate that 3.5-MeV oxygen irradiation can markedly enhance the in-field critical current of commercial 2nd generation superconducting tapes with an exposure time of just one second per 0.8 cm2. The speed demonstrated here is now at the level required for an industrial reel-to-reel post-processing. The irradiation is made on production line samples through the protective silver coating and does not require any modification of the growth process. From TEM imaging, we identify small clusters as the main source of increased vortex pinning.

  8. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  9. Ultra-stretchable conductors based on buckled super-aligned carbon nanotube films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Luo, Shu; Sun, Li; Wu, Yang; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-stretchable conductors are fabricated by coating super-aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) films on pre-strained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and forming buckled SACNT structures on PDMS after release of the pre-strain. The parallel SACNT/PDMS conductors demonstrate excellent stability with normalized resistance changes of only 4.1% under an applied strain as high as 200%. The SACNT/PDMS conductors prepared with cross-stacked SACNT films show even lower resistance variation. The parallel SACNT/PDMS conductors exhibit high durability with a resistance increase of less than 5% after 10 000 cycles at 150% strain. In situ microscopic observations demonstrate that the buckled SACNT structures are straightened during the stretching process with reversible morphology evolution and thus the continuous SACNT conductive network can be protected from fracture. Due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of SACNT films and the formation of the buckled structure, SACNT/PDMS films exhibit high stretchability and durability, possessing great potential for use as ultra-stretchable conductors for wearable electronics, sensors, and energy storage devices.Ultra-stretchable conductors are fabricated by coating super-aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) films on pre-strained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and forming buckled SACNT structures on PDMS after release of the pre-strain. The parallel SACNT/PDMS conductors demonstrate excellent stability with normalized resistance changes of only 4.1% under an applied strain as high as 200%. The SACNT/PDMS conductors prepared with cross-stacked SACNT films show even lower resistance variation. The parallel SACNT/PDMS conductors exhibit high durability with a resistance increase of less than 5% after 10 000 cycles at 150% strain. In situ microscopic observations demonstrate that the buckled SACNT structures are straightened during the stretching process with reversible morphology evolution and thus the continuous

  10. Coupling Losses and Transverse Resistivity of Multifilament YBCO Coated Superconductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0125 COUPLING LOSSES AND TRANSVERSE RESISTIVITY OF MULTIFILAMENT YBCO COATED SUPERCONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) M. Polak, E... YBCO COATED SUPERCONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR(S) M...filamentary YBCO coated conductors. A 10 mm wide YBCO coated conductor was subdivided into 20 filaments by laser ablation. We measured the frequency

  11. Precision gold conductors for HMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmer, M. R.

    1994-08-01

    Ti/Pd/Au multiple code coded switch (MCCS) networks were built and compared to Cr/Au MCCS networks. The data showed no measurable difference between the two systems. Interface resistance of both types of networks was measured as a diagnostic aid to determine if hydrogen was affecting the Ti/Pd/Au MCCS networks. The data showed that although hydrogen does affect Ti/Pd/Au, the changes are not significant with respect to MCCS environments. An evaluation of several proprietary gold electroplating solutions for use in the production of Ti/Pd/Au conductors was performed. All the testing results were comparable to the current product requirements.

  12. Ag Nanowire Based Transparent Conductor for CIGS PV

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Wolk, J.; Smith, M.; Davande, H.; Ribelin, R. M.; Perkins, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Coated silver nanowires (AgNW) have been considered as a replacement for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in CIGS based photovoltaic devices. The advantages of AgNW over TCOs are discussed, and optical and electrical characteristics of AgNWs on glass are presented. Similarly fabricated AgNWs with varying sheet resistance on CIGS devices were tested against ITO transparent conductor controls. The CIGS was produced using a roll-to-roll technique on a flexible polymer substrate. Variations in the ZnO layer resistivity that are adjacent to the AgNW layer in the CIGS device were also tested. Device results indicate similar Jsc, but a reduced FF for cells made with the AgNWs, and Voc dependence on the resistivity of the coated AgNW and ZnO window layers. FF and Voc losses associated with the use of AgNWs are discussed.

  13. Solid-state proton conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewulski, J. R.; Osif, T. L.; Remick, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling, and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies are described which include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells are presented which include the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms.

  14. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Superconducting-magnetic heterostructures: a method of decreasing AC losses and improving critical current density in multifilamentary conductors.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, B A; Majoros, M

    2009-06-24

    Magnetic materials can help to improve the performance of practical superconductors on the macroscale/microscale as magnetic diverters and also on the nanoscale as effective pinning centres. It has been established by numerical modelling that magnetic shielding of the filaments reduces AC losses in self-field conditions due to decoupling of the filaments and, at the same time, it increases the critical current of the composite. This effect is especially beneficial for coated conductors, in which the anisotropic properties of the superconductor are amplified by the conductor architecture. However, ferromagnetic coatings are often chemically incompatible with YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) and (Pb,Bi)(2)Sr(2)Ca(2)Cu(3)O(9) conductors, and buffer layers have to be used. In contrast, in MgB(2) conductors an iron matrix may remain in direct contact with the superconducting core. The application of superconducting-magnetic heterostructures requires consideration of the thermal and electromagnetic stability of the superconducting materials used. On one hand, magnetic materials reduce the critical current gradient across the individual filaments but, on the other hand, they often reduce the thermal conductivity between the superconducting core and the cryogen, which may cause destruction of the conductor in the event of thermal instability. A possible nanoscale method of improving the critical current density of superconducting conductors is the introduction of sub-micron magnetic pinning centres. However, the volumetric density and chemical compatibility of magnetic inclusions has to be controlled to avoid suppression of the superconducting properties.

  17. Towards G2G: Systems of Technology Database Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Bell, David

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach and methodology for developing Government-to-Government (G2G) Systems of Technology Database Systems. G2G will deliver technologies for distributed and remote integration of technology data for internal use in analysis and planning as well as for external communications. G2G enables NASA managers, engineers, operational teams and information systems to "compose" technology roadmaps and plans by selecting, combining, extending, specializing and modifying components of technology database systems. G2G will interoperate information and knowledge that is distributed across organizational entities involved that is ideal for NASA future Exploration Enterprise. Key contributions of the G2G system will include the creation of an integrated approach to sustain effective management of technology investments that supports the ability of various technology database systems to be independently managed. The integration technology will comply with emerging open standards. Applications can thus be customized for local needs while enabling an integrated management of technology approach that serves the global needs of NASA. The G2G capabilities will use NASA s breakthrough in database "composition" and integration technology, will use and advance emerging open standards, and will use commercial information technologies to enable effective System of Technology Database systems.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  19. Frontiers of organic conductors and superconductors.

    PubMed

    Saito, Gunzi; Yoshida, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    We review the development of conductive organic molecular assemblies including organic metals, superconductors, single component conductors, conductive films, conductors with a switching function, and new spin state (quantum spin liquid state). We emphasize the importance of the ionicity phase diagram for a variety of charge transfer systems to provide a strategy for the development of functional organic solids (Mott insulator, semiconductor, superconductor, metal, complex isomer, neutral-ionic system, alignment of chemical potentials, etc.). For organic (super)conductors, the electronic dimensionality of the solids is a key parameter and can be designed based on the self-aggregation ability of a molecule. We present characteristic structural and physical properties of organic superconductors.

  20. Thermodynamic Study of UO3(g), UO2(OH)2(g), UO2Cl2(g), and UO2F2(g)

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Krikorian, O H; Fleming, D L

    2002-11-07

    Using the transpiration method, the volatility of uranium oxide in the presence of oxygen and water vapor has been measured at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1573 K and the volatility of uranium oxide in the presence of oxygen and chlorine has been measured at 1175 K. The major vapor species in the presence of oxygen and water vapor are found to be UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(0H){sub 2}(g). Third law treatment of the vaporization data yields {Delta}H{sub f}{sup o}(298) values of -790.52 {+-} 7.32 and -1199.94 {+-} 10.25 kJ/mol, respectively. The major vapor species in the presence of oxygen and chlorine is found to be UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g). Third law treatment of the vaporization data yields a {Delta}H{sub f}{sup o}(298) value of -1002.04 {+-} 3.26 kJ/mol. From an assessment of all the thermodynamic data available for UO{sub 3}(g), UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(g), and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(g), the best {Delta}H{sub f{sup o}}(298) values for each of these species are calculated to be -796.74 {+-} 3.52, -1199.94 {+-} 10.25, -999.64 {+-} 2.40, and -1369.22 {+-} 2.87 kJ/mol, respectively. From these, the {Delta}H{sub f{sup o}} (298) values for UO{sub 2}ClOH(g), UO{sub 2}FOH(g), and UO{sub 2}FCl(g) are estimated to be -1099.79, -1284.58, and -1184.43 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic data for all the vapor species are then applied to conditions one might expect in a thermal oxidation processor for mixed waste to estimate the amount of uranium volatility.

  1. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  2. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  3. Conductor Development for High Field Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Higley, H.C.

    2000-03-01

    Historically, improvements in dipole magnet performance have been paced by improvements in the superconductor available for use in these magnets. The critical conductor performance parameters for dipole magnets include current density, piece length, effective filament size, and cost. Each of these parameters is important for efficient, cost effective dipoles, with critical current density being perhaps the most important. Several promising magnet designs for the next hadron collider or a muon collider require fields of 12 T or higber, i.e. beyond the reach of NbTi. The conductor options include Nb{sub 3}Sn, Nb{sub 3}Al, or the high temperature superconductors. Although these conductors have the potential to provide the combination of performance and cost required, none of them have been developed sufficiently at this point to satisfy all the requirements. This paper will review the status of each class of advanced conductor and discuss the remaining problems that require solutions before these new conductors can be considered as practical. In particular, the plans for a new program to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al conductors for high energy physics applications will be presented. Also, the development of a multikiloamp Bi-2212 cable for dipole magnet applications will be reported.

  4. Nonlinear electrochemical relaxation around conductors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin T; Bazant, Martin Z

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the simplest problem of electrochemical relaxation in more than one dimension-the response of an uncharged, ideally polarizable metallic sphere (or cylinder) in a symmetric, binary electrolyte to a uniform electric field. In order to go beyond the circuit approximation for thin double layers, our analysis is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations of dilute solution theory. Unlike most previous studies, however, we focus on the nonlinear regime, where the applied voltage across the conductor is larger than the thermal voltage. In such strong electric fields, the classical model predicts that the double layer adsorbs enough ions to produce bulk concentration gradients and surface conduction. Our analysis begins with a general derivation of surface conservation laws in the thin double-layer limit, which provide effective boundary conditions on the quasineutral bulk. We solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations numerically for strong fields and also perform a time-dependent asymptotic analysis for weaker fields, where bulk diffusion and surface conduction arise as first-order corrections. We also derive various dimensionless parameters comparing surface to bulk transport processes, which generalize the Bikerman-Dukhin number. Our results have basic relevance for double-layer charging dynamics and nonlinear electrokinetics in the ubiquitous PNP approximation.

  5. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite weak conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzelt, J.; Nuzhnyy, D.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss broadband dielectric spectroscopy from mHz up to the infrared range mainly for materials with inhomogeneous weak conductivity, including conductor-dielectric nanocomposites. Our discussion is based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) and experiments modeled by this approach are reviewed. We discuss core-shell composites modeled by coated-spheres (Hashin-Shtrikman model) and normal composites with a possible percolation of the conductor component resulting in sharp or smeared percolation threshold of the DC conductivity and diverging static permittivity in the former case. The sharp percolation threshold is modeled by the Bruggeman EMA or by general EMA with arbitrary percolation threshold and arbitrary critical exponents of the DC conductivity and static permittivity. For the case of smeared percolation threshold in the case of complex topologies, we use the Lichtenecker model allowing for partial percolation of both the components. Finally, numerous papers reporting negative permittivity in weakly conducting materials are criticized and concluded to be due to spurious effects.

  6. Temperature regulation in rats exposed to a 2 G field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihama, Linda M.; Murakami, Dean M.; Fuller, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of body temperature involves both homeostatic and circadian control systems. Both systems are influenced by exposure to hyperdynamic fields and demonstrate acute responses that eventually recover to an adapted level. This experiment examined both the homeostatic and circadian responses of body temperature to a separate environmental challenge (high frequency light/dark cycles) during exposure to a 2 G hyperdynamic field.

  7. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  8. Effects of Conductor Baton Use on Band and Choral Musicians' Perceptions of Conductor Expressivity and Clarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nápoles, Jessica; Silvey, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' (college band and choral musicians, N = 143) perceptions of conductor clarity and expressivity after viewing band and choral directors conducting with or without a baton. One band and one choral conductor each prepared and conducted two excerpts of Guy Forbes's "O Nata Lux", a piece…

  9. Preparation of coated conductor architectures on Ni composite tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hühne, R.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Okai, D.; Thersleff, T.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.

    2007-07-01

    An epitaxial Y2O3/YSZ/CeO2 buffer architecture has been prepared using pulsed laser deposition on cube texture Ni-3 at.% W/Ni-10 at.% Cr-1.5 at.% Al and Ni-5 at.% W/Ni-10 at.% W composite tapes. The buffer layer growth was studied in detail and revealed good texture transfer throughout the structure, similar to standard Ni-5 at.% W substrates. YBCO layers were successfully deposited on the buffered tapes and compared to films grown on SrTiO3 single crystals. A superconducting transition temperature of about 90 K with a small transition width was observed on all metal substrates. A critical current density Jc of about 1 MA cm-2 was measured at 77 K in a self-field. It was found that Jc is mainly limited by the grain boundary network in magnetic fields below 4 T, whereas similar values as on SrTiO3 single crystals were measured at higher fields.

  10. Material Science and Physics of High-IC Coated Conductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-02

    defects as shown in Fig. 1. Two schemes have been explored in details. One is to chop vortices to shorter pieces in a multilayer YBCO/ CeO2 structure...distributed point defects (black), decoupled into two identical segments in a trilayered YBCO/ CeO2 /YBCO (red) and an ideal solution to eliminate Jc−t by...Materials 96, 2136 (2006) 23. X. Wang and J.Z. Wu, “Effect of magnetic coupling on the Jc of YBa2Cu3O7-x/ CeO2 / YBa2Cu3O7-x trilayers”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 062513(2006). Also in virtual journal of superconductivity.

  11. Incorporating YBCO Coated Conductors in High-speed Superconducting Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    This work was supported in part by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory and Air Force Office of Scientific Research. P ...the magnetic flux. If p is the number of the rotor poles and f is the frequency of its rotation (in revolutions per second), then fp...output: D W B B D W B B P Q n r n routput h 6.0 24 2 . (9) The output power and the total hysteresis loss are

  12. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  13. Hydrate melting in soil around hot conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Briaud, J.L.; Chaouch, A.

    1997-07-01

    There is ice in the Gulf of Mexico, and this type of ice called gas hydrates burns when ignited. Gas hydrates form slowly within the soil mass when the gas seeping up from offshore oil reservoirs mixes with water under high pressures (>500 m of water) and low temperatures (a few degrees Celsius). The oil travels from the well to the platform through a conductor pipe. The oil and therefore the conductor are very hot and melt the existing hydrates that are within the depth of the foundation piles. The melting process generates a large amount of gas that can endanger the stability of the foundation. The rate at which the temperature rises around the hot conductor in the hydrate rich soil is studied using the finite-element method (FEM). A detailed thermodynamic analysis is performed. It includes a laboratory experiment to help validate FEM, a study of the mesh size, the thermodynamic analysis results, a study of the conductor size, and of the latent heat influence. The results can be used to evaluate the temperature rise around a hot pipe buried in soil and therefore the propagation of the hydrate melting front around the conductor and toward the piles.

  14. Infrared thermography and overloaded neutral conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, John; Niebla, Hector E.

    1999-03-01

    Present findings of two recent case studies. One involves transformer failures on three computer-stores within eight hours of their grand opening. The second discusses the findings during an infrared thermography-training course for electric utility engineers of a transformer vault serving an industrial customer. Both of these deal with overloaded neutral conductors. Historically, the average neutral conductor carried only the imbalance of the current between the phases of a three-phase system. This current was typically small in relation to the load being served. In fact, for economic reasons many neutrals were installed smaller than their associated phase conductors. Today however, certain types of loads (non-linear loads such as computers) and certain transformer connections (4 bushing single phase with a collector bus) cause the neutral to have up to three times as much amperage as the phase conductors. This paper will discuss the conditions under which such loading occurs and further investigate steps that can be taken/recommended should an infrared test indicate an overloaded neutral conductor.

  15. Locating PHEV exchange stations in V2G

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Bent, Russell; Berscheid, Alan; Izraelevitz, David

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PREV) is an environment friendly modem transportation method and has been rapidly penetrate the transportation system. Renewable energy is another contributor to clean power but the associated intermittence increases the uncertainty in power generation. As a foreseen benefit of a vchicle-to-grid (V2G) system, PREV supporting infrastructures like battery exchange stations can provide battery service to PREV customers as well as being plugged into a power grid as energy sources and stabilizer. The locations of exchange stations are important for these two objectives under constraints from both ,transportation system and power grid. To model this location problem and to understand and analyze the benefit of a V2G system, we develop a two-stage stochastic program to optimally locate the stations prior to the realizations of battery demands, loads, and generation capacity of renewable power sources. Based on this model, we use two data sets to construct the V2G systems and test the benefit and the performance of these systems.

  16. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III

    2005-09-15

    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  17. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Joseph A.; Domroese, Michael K.; Lindeman, David D.; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Roger; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  18. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  19. Homogenization Modeling for Mechanical Properties of Composite Conductor With Cooling Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, We; Tzeng, Jerome T.

    2002-11-01

    An electrical composite conductor may consist of a metallic core with a cooling channel and a multilayered insulating material. A model was developed to predict the mechanical properties of the composite conductor based on two-level homogenization hierarchies. A composite cylinder assembly model was developed in the level 1 homogenization for metallic core with a cooling channel, in which the cooling channel was analogized as a fiber void with null material properties. The effective mechanical properties of the composite insulation layers were homogenized by smearing the properties of the multiple polymer coatings and fiber-reinforced composite. In the level 2 homogenization, combined homogenization sequences were used based on the requirement of the displacement-or the traction-prescribed continuity. The developed model can calculate the nine effective mechanical constants of the conductor made of a metallic core and any angle (+00) plain-woven glass-fiber composite. The model predictions were compared well with the results obtained from the finite element analyses. The developed model provides a theoretical basis and an accurate calculation for effective mechanical constants that are often difficult to be accurately determined through an experimental approach due to the structural heterogeneity and material anisotropy of the composite conductor.

  20. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  1. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate carrying capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition,...

  2. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate carrying capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate carrying capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition,...

  4. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate carrying capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition,...

  5. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate carrying capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition,...

  6. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  7. Development of sensory motor reflexes in 2 G exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Wubbels, Réne; Bouët, Valentine; de Jong, Herman; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2004-07-01

    During gestation and early postnatal development, the animal's size and weight rapidly increase. Within that period, gravity affects sensory and motor development. We studied age-dependent modifications of several types of motor reflexes in 5 groups of rats conceived, born and reared in hypergravity (HG; 2 g). These rats were transferred to normal gravity (NG; 1 g) at various postnatal days, and their behavioral reflexes were compared with a control group which was constantly kept under NG. HG induced a retarded development of vestibular dependent reflexes. Other types of motor behavior were not delayed.

  8. Method and apparatus for preparing multiconductor cable with flat conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcell, G. V. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preparing flat conductor cable having a plurality of ribbon-like conductors disposed upon and adhesively bonded to the surface of a substrate is described. The conductors are brought into contact with the substrate surface, and while maintained in axial tension on said substrate, the combination is seated on a yieldably compressible layer to permit the conductor to become embedded into the surface of the substrate film.

  9. Full tape thickness feature conductors for EMI structures

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Knudson, Richard T.; Smith, Frank R.; Barner, Gregory

    2014-06-10

    Generally annular full tape thickness conductors are formed in single or multiple tape layers, and then stacked to produce an annular solid conductive wall for enclosing an electromagnetic isolation cavity. The conductors may be formed using punch and fill operations, or by flowing conductor-containing material onto the tape edge surfaces that define the interior sidewalls of the cavity.

  10. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at mantrip loading and unloading points, and at shaft stations. Where such trolley wires and bare...

  15. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  16. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  17. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  18. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  19. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  20. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  1. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  2. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  3. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  5. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  6. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  7. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  8. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  9. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  10. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  11. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  12. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  13. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  14. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503-1 Electric conductors. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size to...

  15. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be #14 AWG (2.10 mm2) or larger; and (b) Each thermocouple, pyrometer, or instrumentation cable conductor must be #22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger....

  16. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be #14 AWG (2.10 mm2) or larger; and (b) Each thermocouple, pyrometer, or instrumentation cable conductor must be #22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger....

  17. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be #14 AWG (2.10 mm2) or larger; and (b) Each thermocouple, pyrometer, or instrumentation cable conductor must be #22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger....

  18. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be #14 AWG (2.10 mm2) or larger; and (b) Each thermocouple, pyrometer, or instrumentation cable conductor must be #22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger....

  19. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be #14 AWG (2.10 mm2) or larger; and (b) Each thermocouple, pyrometer, or instrumentation cable conductor must be #22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger....

  20. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... together to a common ground by a normally non-current carrying conductor. Metallic cases of instruments...

  1. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... in each ungrounded conductor of the same circuit. (b) Overcurrent protection of conductors....

  2. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... in each ungrounded conductor of the same circuit. (b) Overcurrent protection of conductors....

  3. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... in each ungrounded conductor of the same circuit. (b) Overcurrent protection of conductors....

  4. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... in each ungrounded conductor of the same circuit. (b) Overcurrent protection of conductors....

  5. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... in each ungrounded conductor of the same circuit. (b) Overcurrent protection of conductors....

  6. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  7. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  8. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56.12004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  16. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu2Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  17. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J{sub c} in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2`s bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J{sub c} at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices.

  18. Cubic interaction parameters for t2g Wannier orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribic, T.; Assmann, E.; Tóth, A.; Held, K.

    2014-10-01

    Many-body calculations for multi-orbital systems at present typically employ Slater or Kanamori interactions which implicitly assume a full rotational invariance of the orbitals, whereas the real crystal has a lower symmetry. In cubic symmetry, the low-energy t2g orbitals have an on-site Kanamori interaction, albeit without the constraint U =U'+2J implied by spherical symmetry (U is the intra-orbital interaction, U' is the interorbital interaction, J is Hund's exchange). Using maximally localized Wannier functions we show that deviations from the standard, spherically symmetric interactions are indeed significant for 5d orbitals (˜25% for BaOsO3; ˜12% if screening is included) but are less important for 3d orbitals (˜6% for SrVO3; ˜1% if screened).

  19. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  20. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  1. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  2. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bloom, Ira D.; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  3. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  4. Multipole Expansion for a Single Helical Current Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaka, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Katayama, T.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the expression of the multipole expansion for a single helical current conductor. This analytical expression will be useful for the electromagnetic analysis of various helical coils such as helical dipoles, multifilamentary superconductors and superconducting strands. The present treatment of the multipole expansion for a single helical current conductor is derived as the extension of the case for a single straight current conductor. In addition, the comparison between the analytical and numerical calculations is presented for a single helical current conductor. As a result, the agreement between the analytical and numerical calculations is quite good, except the region near the radius of a single helical current conductor. Then, for the sum of the multipole expansion for a single helical current conductor, the Cesaro's method of summation are adopted.

  5. Protection of Overhead Conductors at the Inlet to a Connector

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, S. V.

    2003-11-15

    A method that enables determination of maximum amplitudes of standing vibration waves, off-horizontal angles of the conductors, moments of resistance, and cutting forces in any cross section of any type of conductor and connector with the help of 'SVT-connector' software is described. Comparative values of the mentioned parameters at the outlet of the conductor from rigid dress and at the inlet to the connector are presented.

  6. Flat conductor cable connectors with individually sealed contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Information is presented on flat conductor cable connectors, a series with individually sealed contacts. Data are concerned with connector historical development, design requirements, and testing and costs.

  7. Development of twisted high-temperature superconductor composite conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, C.J.; Riley, G.N. Jr.

    1995-04-24

    Multifilamentary high-temperature superconductor (HTS) composite conductors have been developed for alternating current (ac) applications. A twisted HTS conductor containing the Bi-2223 phase fabricated using a modified powder-in-tube technique is reported. Transport critical current densities of 13 800 and 10 900 A/cm {sup 2} (77 K, self-field, 1 {mu}V/cm) have been achieved for twisted tape and wire conductors with twist pitches of 3.7 and 3.6 mm, respectively. These conductors are strongly linked and are thus suitable for use in ac applications.

  8. Development of twisted high-temperature superconductor composite conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, C. J.; Riley, G. N., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Multifilamentary high-temperature superconductor (HTS) composite conductors have been developed for alternating current (ac) applications. A twisted HTS conductor containing the Bi-2223 phase fabricated using a modified powder-in-tube technique is reported. Transport critical current densities of 13 800 and 10 900 A/cm 2 (77 K, self-field, 1 μV/cm) have been achieved for twisted tape and wire conductors with twist pitches of 3.7 and 3.6 mm, respectively. These conductors are strongly linked and are thus suitable for use in ac applications.

  9. Actuating dielectric elastomers in pure shear deformation by elastomeric conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yin; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-10

    Pure shear experiments are commonly used to characterize dielectric elastomer (DE) material properties and to evaluate DE actuator/generator performance. It is increasingly important for many applications to replace conventional carbon grease electrodes with stretchable elastomeric conductors. We formulate a theory for DE with elastomeric conductors, synthesize transparent hydrogel as ionic conductors, and measure actuation of DE in pure shear deformation. Maximum 67% actuation strain is demonstrated. The theory agrees well with our measurement and also correlates well with reported experiments on DE with electronic conductors.

  10. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall... powerlines, they shall be installed as specified by the National Electrical Code....

  11. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  12. Miniaturized bendable 400 MHz artificial magnetic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Anthony; Tarot, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    A bendable artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with a resonant frequency of 400 MHz is proposed. The dimensions of the unit cell are 50 × 50 mm2 or 0.07 × 0.07 λ0. The miniaturization is achieved with closely coupled patches printed on each side of a 0.127-mm-thick dielectric substrate. This last one is stacked on a flexible 3-mm-thick silicone over a ground plane. An AMC prototype is simulated and manufactured. Also, a printed inverted-F antenna is used to highlight the bandwidth of the AMC.

  13. NASA Test Conductor Monitoring DIME competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA test conductor at the top of the 2.2-second Drop Tower monitors a student lecture at a lower level. This was part of the Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  14. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  15. 30 CFR 56.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 56.12010 Section 56.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Electricity § 56.12010 Isolation or insulation of communication conductors. Telephone and low... energized power conductors or any other power source....

  16. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  17. Casimir interaction of arbitrarily shaped conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straley, Joseph P.; Kolomeisky, Eugene B.

    2017-04-01

    We review a systematic practical implementation of the multiple scattering formalism due to Balian and Duplantier (1977 Ann. Phys. 104 300, 1978 Ann. Phys. 112 165) for the calculation of the Casimir interaction between arbitrarily shaped smooth conductors. The leading two-point scattering term of the expansion has a simple compact form, amenable to exact or accurate numerical evaluation. It is a general expression which improves upon the proximity force and pairwise summation approximations. We show that for many geometries it captures the bulk of the interaction effect. The inclusion of terms beyond the two-point approximation provides an accuracy check and explains screening. As an illustration of the power and versatility of the method we re-evaluate sphere–sphere and sphere–plane interactions and compared the results with previous findings that employed different methods. We also compute for the first time interaction of a hyperboloid (mimicking an atomic force microscope tip) and a plane. We also analyze the anomalous situations involving long cylindrical conductors where the two-point scattering approximation fails qualitatively. In such cases analytic summation of the entire scattering series is carried out and a topological argument is put forward as an explanation of the result. We give the extension of this theory to the case of finite temperatures where the two-point scattering approximation result has a simple compact form, also amenable to exact or accurate numerical evaluation.

  18. Effect of Conductor Expressivity on Ensemble Evaluations by Nonmusic Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.; Mann, Alison; Morrison, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    This study continues research that examines effects that conductors have on the assessment of ensemble performances. The current study used the same four recordings orders of two strict and two expressive examples by two conductors with a single repeated recording used in previous research, but the participants were not music majors. In addition…

  19. The Effect of Conductor Expressivity on Ensemble Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Steven J.; Price, Harry E.; Geiger, Carla G.; Cornacchio, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether a conductor's use of high-expressivity or low-expressivity techniques affected evaluations of ensemble performances that were identical across conducting conditions. Two conductors each conducted two 1-minute parallel excerpts from Percy Grainger's "Walking Tune." Each directed one excerpt…

  20. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011 Section 57.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  9. [Disorders of adaptive processes in conductors of passenger cars].

    PubMed

    Kopirovskiĭ, K M; Delektorskiĭ, N V; Kutovoĭ, V S

    1998-01-01

    Passenger carriage conductors work under difficult conditions, including night working hours, unfavorable working and rest conditions with sleep impairment, and other poor factors. This makes it necessary to assume that the conductors should be given some advantages: privilege pension provision, shorter working travelling hours, longer intertrip rest and annual vacation, special nutrition, etc.

  10. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  11. Characterization of MgB2 Conductors for Coil Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanoglu, Z.; Arda, L.; Akin, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Tomsic, M.; Hascicek, Y. S.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of the heat treatment conditions on microstructure and the transport critical current density of MgB2 wires, which were fabricated by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) process, have been investigated. Two types of MgB2 conductors, Fe/MgB2 and Cu/MgB2, were studied. It was found that the sheath materials affect the optimum annealing profile of MgB2 conductor. The annealing temperature for Cu/MgB2 conductors was lower than that for the Fe/MgB2 conductors. The critical current density, Jc was measured to be 1.1×105 A/cm2 at 20 K in-self field for Cu/MgB2 conductor of 1.25 mm in diameter. The processing, microstructure and superconducting properties are presented.

  12. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  13. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.H.

    1984-04-24

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly. 7 figs.

  14. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  15. Proteins as solid-state electronic conductors.

    PubMed

    Ron, Izhar; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cahen, David

    2010-07-20

    Protein structures can facilitate long-range electron transfer in solution. But a fundamental question remains: can these structures also serve as solid-state electronic conductors? Answering this question requires methods for studying conductivity of the "dry" protein (which only contains tightly bound structured water molecules) sandwiched between two electronic conductors in a solid-state type configuration. If successful, such systems could serve as the basis for future, bioinspired electronic device technology. In this Account, we survey, analyze, and compare macroscopic and nanoscopic (scanning probe) solid-state conductivities of proteins, noting the inherent constraints of each of these, and provide the first status report on this research area. This analysis shows convincing evidence that "dry" proteins pass orders of magnitude higher currents than saturated molecules with comparable thickness and that proteins with known electrical activity show electronic conductivity, nearly comparable to that of conjugated molecules ("wires"). These findings suggest that the structural features of proteins must have elements that facilitate electronic conductivity, even if they do not have a known electron transfer function. As a result, proteins could serve not only as sensing, polar,or photoactive elements in devices (such as field-effect transistor configurations) but also as electronic conductors. Current knowledge of peptide synthesis and protein modification paves the way toward a greater understanding of how changes in a protein's structure affect its conductivity. Such an approach could minimize the need for biochemical cascades in systems such as enzyme-based circuits, which transduce the protein's response to electronic current. In addition, as precision and sensitivity of solid-state measurements increase, and as knowledge of the structure and function of "dry" proteins grows, electronic conductivity may become an additional approach to study electron

  16. The Adipocyte-Inducible Secreted Phospholipases PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E Play Distinct Roles in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ushida, Ayako; Isogai, Yuki; Kojima, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Tetsuya; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Ida, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo; Miyata, Keishi; Oike, Yuichi; Gelb, Michael H.; Murakami, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Summary Metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance have their basis in dysregulated lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation. In a microarray search of unique lipase-related genes whose expressions are associated with obesity, we found that two secreted phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s), PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E, were robustly induced in adipocytes of obese mice. Analyses of Pla2g5−/− and Pla2g2e−/− mice revealed distinct and previously unrecognized roles of these sPLA2s in diet-induced obesity. PLA2G5 hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine in fat-overladen low-density lipoprotein to release unsaturated fatty acids, which prevented palmitate-induced M1 macrophage polarization. As such, PLA2G5 tipped the immune balance toward an M2 state, thereby counteracting adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and obesiy. PLA2G2E altered minor lipoprotein phospholipids, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and moderately facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and liver. Collectively, the identification of “metabolic sPLA2s” adds this gene family to a growing list of lipolytic enzymes that act as metabolic coordinators. PMID:24910243

  17. Exploratory Development of Transparent Conductor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Zr DOPED Cd2 SnO4 FILMS 4 3. OPTICAL TRANSMNJSION OF SPRAY COATED CADMIUM STANNATE 14 -? ~ F ILM ,. DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF Cau2 SnOj and Cd2 Sn... properties by doping , 3. coating of different substrate materials and h. cadmium stannate film testing. S~Three deposition technologies have been...electrical and optical film properties by doping was attempted via partial cadmium or tin substitution to achieve larger band gaps, via substitutional

  18. Transparent conductive coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  19. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-03-28

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics.

  20. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  1. Plasma waves and jets from moving conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfvén outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form for an arbitrary time-dependent, nonaxisymmetric incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  2. Plasma bullets behavior in a tube covered by a conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Xian, Y. B.; Xu, H. T.; Lu, X. P. Pei, X. K.; Gong, W. W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2015-06-15

    In this work, for better applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets, the physics of plasma streamers in a glass tube with a part of it covered by a conductor is investigated. To better understand the propagation mechanism of plasma bullets in capillary tubes passing through a curved or narrow passage for some biomedical or material applications, the propagation of plasma streamers in a tube covered by a floating conductor is investigated. For a plasma streamer propagating in a tube covered by a conductor, the plasma streamer is suppressed and becomes shorter, and a secondary streamer is generated in the tube at the downstream end of the conductor. The larger the area covered by the conductor, or the thinner the tube, the stronger the plasma streamer is inhibited. The electric potential of the conductor is measured to be as high as 6 kV. On the other hand, a higher voltage applied on the HV electrode, or a higher gas flow rate will make the secondary plasma streamer longer. It is found that the capacitor formed by the conductor outside the tube and the wall of the tube plays an important role in inhibiting the original plasma streamer and generating the secondary streamer. Moreover, the active species generated by the original plasma play important role in generating a secondary plasma streamer.

  3. PLA2G16 promotes osteosarcoma metastasis and drug resistance via the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Liang, Shoulei; Wasylishen, Amanda R; Zhang, Yanqin; Yang, Xueli; Zhou, Bingzheng; Shan, Luling; Han, Xiuxin; Mu, Tianyang; Wang, Guowen; Xiong, Shunbin

    2016-04-05

    The prognosis of metastatic osteosarcoma is dismal and a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease progression is essential to improve treatment options and patient outcomes. We previously demonstrated Pla2g16 overexpression in mouse osteosarcoma contributes to metastasis phenotypes and increased expression of PLA2G16 is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in human tumors. To further examine the mechanisms through which PLA2G16 contributes to human osteosarcoma metastasis and explore the potential of PLA2G16 as a therapeutic target in osteosarcoma, we generated a panel of human osteosarcoma cell lines expressing different levels of PLA2G16. The functional analyses of these cell lines demonstrated high levels of PLA2G16 expression increased osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion, clonogenic survival, and anchorage-independent colony formation. Importantly, this activity was dependent on the phospholipase activity of PLA2G16. Additionally, PLA2G16 overexpression decreased the sensitivity of cells to a panel of chemotherapeutic agents. Analysis of downstream pathways revealed the pro-metastasis functions of PLA2G16 were mediated through the MAPK pathway, as knockdown of PLA2G16 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and pharmacological inhibition of MEK significantly repressed PLA2G16 mediated cell migration and clonogenic survival. Furthermore, PLA2G16 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth in vivo, and these tumors exhibit increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Lastly, the expression of PLA2G16 is strongly correlated with the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human osteosarcoma samples, and the combined lesions are associated with reduced overall and metastasis-free survival. Collectively, these results demonstrate increased PLA2G16 expression activates the MAPK pathway to enhance osteosarcoma metastasis and may be a novel therapeutic target for these cancers.

  4. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... MINES Electricity § 56.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over power conductors, unless...

  5. 33 CFR 183.435 - Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors in circuits of 50... Requirements § 183.435 Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a nominal voltage of 50 volts or more must be: (1) A conductor that has insulation listed and...

  6. Insulation failure and externalized conductor of a single-coil Kentrox lead: an ongoing story?

    PubMed

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Mijic, Dejan; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Winter, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Conductor externalization is a frequent complication with the St. Jude Medical Riata lead. Single case reports also reported externalization of conductors for dual-coil Biotronik leads. Up to now, conductor externalization has not yet been reported for any single coil leads. We report for the first time an externalization of conductors in a Biotronik Kentrox single-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead.

  7. Instability of Dielectrics and Conductors in Electrostatic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Grégoire; Rauch, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    This article proves most of the assertion in §116 of Maxwell's treatise on electromagnetism. The results go under the name Earnshaw's Theorem and assert the absence of stable equilibrium configurations of conductors and dielectrics in an external electrostatic field.

  8. 42. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST; MBE BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, CONDUCTORS' LOCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST; MBE BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, CONDUCTORS' LOCKER ROOM INTERIOR (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Contact-spring forming machine for flat conductor cable receptacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Martineck, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    Machine tool produces beryllium-copper contact springs for FCC /flat conductor cable/ feed-through receptacles. The springs are heat-treated and plated to impart the required electrical contact properties.

  10. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  11. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... secondary windings of instrument transformers must be grounded. (b) On a nonmetallic vessel, where a...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles supporting powerlines, they shall be installed as specified by the National Electrical Code....

  13. Surface-mounted flat conductor cable for home wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Carden, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts are discussed which are being considered and developed for surface-mounted wiring using flat conductor cable. Safety aspects, problems being encountered, and advantages are also discussed.

  14. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  15. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... secondary windings of instrument transformers must be grounded. (b) On a nonmetallic vessel, where a...

  16. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  17. Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigling, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200 C.

  18. New resistivity for high-mobility quantum Hall conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceuen, P. L.; Szafer, A.; Richter, C. A.; Alphenaar, B. W.; Jain, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements showing dramatic nonlocal behavior in the four-terminal resistances of a high-mobility quantum Hall conductor are presented. These measurements illustrate that the standard definition of the resistivity tensor is inappropriate, but they are in excellent agreement with a new model of the conductor that treats the edge and bulk conducting pathways independently. This model uses a single intensive parameter, analogous to a local resistivity for the bulk channel only, to characterize the system.

  19. The magnetic field due to a number of toroidal conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1982-03-01

    This is an extension of the work carried out by Gibson and Caldwell on the optimization of the uniformity of the magnetic field produced in the bore of a toroidal conductor of rectangular cross section. In this paper the work is extended to consider the magnetic field due to a number of conductors. The usefulness of the work is assessed by comparing it to the work of Garrett, and numerical results are given for particular coil parameters.

  20. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor for... equivalent for parallel generators—AWG-MCM (mm2) Greater than Less than or equal to Size of the system grounding conductor—AWG(mm2) 2 (33.6) 8 (8.4) 2 (33.6) 0 (53.5) 6 (13.3) 0 (53.5) 3/0 (85.0) 4 (21.2)...

  1. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor for... equivalent for parallel generators—AWG-MCM (mm2) Greater than Less than or equal to Size of the system grounding conductor—AWG(mm2) 2 (33.6) 8 (8.4) 2 (33.6) 0 (53.5) 6 (13.3) 0 (53.5) 3/0 (85.0) 4 (21.2)...

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor for... equivalent for parallel generators—AWG-MCM (mm2) Greater than Less than or equal to Size of the system grounding conductor—AWG(mm2) 2 (33.6) 8 (8.4) 2 (33.6) 0 (53.5) 6 (13.3) 0 (53.5) 3/0 (85.0) 4 (21.2)...

  3. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor for... equivalent for parallel generators—AWG-MCM (mm2) Greater than Less than or equal to Size of the system grounding conductor—AWG(mm2) 2 (33.6) 8 (8.4) 2 (33.6) 0 (53.5) 6 (13.3) 0 (53.5) 3/0 (85.0) 4 (21.2)...

  4. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor for... equivalent for parallel generators—AWG-MCM (mm2) Greater than Less than or equal to Size of the system grounding conductor—AWG(mm2) 2 (33.6) 8 (8.4) 2 (33.6) 0 (53.5) 6 (13.3) 0 (53.5) 3/0 (85.0) 4 (21.2)...

  5. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings.

  6. Assembly of conductor guides for off-shore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, J. J.

    1985-12-31

    A conductor guide assembly for conductors of an off-shore well platform having a jacket with an interior pile for extending from a sea bed to above a water level which is over the sea bed. In accordance with one inventive feature, a first guide mechanism comprising a plurality of vertically spaced supports which hold the tubular conduits within the interior pile is assembled in a plurality of sections wherein the upper support of each section is provided with removable bolt-on units for supporting the first guide mechanism as successive sections are jointed thereto. In accordance with another inventive feature, a second guide mechanism comprises a pair of circular plates positioned to rotate within a lower deck opening and which are connected together and define a plurality of passages for receiving the plurality of conductors that extend in the interior pile. The connected plates are temporarily attached to the lower deck for transport so that the second guide mechanism can be detached and rotated to align the passages with the intended positions for the conductors whereafter the second guide mechanism is permanently attached to the lower deck. In accordance with another inventive feature, a third guide mechanism comprising a plurality of radially extending beams is supported on an upper deck. The second guide mechanism also has passages for access to the conductors and it too can be rotated into a position of alignment with the conductors and thereafter permanently fixed to the upper deck.

  7. Search for solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions - Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five new conductors of positive Na and K ions, for use as separators in high energy secondary batteries, have been discovered. They include: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F; (2) the bcc form of NaSbO3; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O-3Nb2O5 and 2K2O-3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the completely determined structure. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, generalizations have been made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  8. Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. )

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-02-18

    The morphological and electrical properties of yttrium (Y) and indium (In) doped barium cerate perovskites of the form BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} (with x=0-0.3) prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors with improved chemical stability. The sinterability increased with the increase of In-doping, and the perovskite phase was found in the BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions over the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.3. The conductivities decreased (from x to x, insert quantitative values) while the tolerance to wet CO{sub 2} improved for BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} samples with an increase of In-doping.

  10. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Steven J.; Price, Harry E.; Smedley, Eric M.; Meals, Cory D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity. PMID:25104944

  11. Aluminide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H; Shin, Yongsoon; Samuels, William D

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  12. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  13. Polyepitope protein incorporated the HIV-1 mimotope recognized by monoclonal antibody 2G12.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Larisa I; Scherbakova, Nadezhda S; Chikaev, Anton N; Tumanova, Olga Yu; Lebedev, Leonid R; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Pyankova, Olga G; Ryzhikov, Alexander B; Ilyichev, Alexander A

    2012-04-01

    A major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research is to develop an immunogen that can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies that efficiently neutralize a wide range of the HIV-1 subtypes. Using biopanning procedure we have selected linear peptide VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS mimicking the structure of discontinuous binding sites of broadly neutralizing antibodies 2G12 from phage peptide library. As a protein carrier, we used the earlier designed artificial polyepitope immunogen named TBI (T- and B-cell immunogen), which comprises B-cell and T-helper epitopes from the HIV-1 Env and Gag proteins. On the base of selected peptide mimotope VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS the artificial protein TBI-2g12 was constructed and its immunogenic properties was investigated. It was shown that the TBI-2g12 as well as the original TBI induces antibodies that recognize HIV-1 proteins and TBI protein using ELISA and immunoblotting. However only anti-TBI-2g12 serum recognized the synthetic peptide mimotope VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS, whereas the antibodies against original TBI don't recognize it. The neutralization assay demonstrated that serum antibodies of the mice immunized with TBI-2g12 possess virus neutralizing activity. The addition of selected peptide leads to inhibition neutralizing activity of anti- TBI-2g12 serum. We conclude from these results that immunogen TBI-2g12 containing the selected peptide VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS elicits HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies during immunization. Our data suggest that this immunogen may be useful in designing effective HIV-vaccine candidates.

  14. The load-carrying and thermal characteristics of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    The load-carrying and thermal characteristics of flat conductor cable and round wire cables have been investigated with all conductors in each cable under varying loads in air and vacuum environments. The test procedure is described and results are presented in graphic form. Derating factors for both round wire and flat conductor cable are established for operation in a vacuum environment. Rating factors are established for flat conductor cable for use with round wire loading tables. The results of these tests show that single layer flat conductor size, or that the voltage drop across flat conductor cable will be lower than that of round cable under the same load.

  15. Center conductor diagnostic for multipactor detection in inaccessible geometries.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Hubble, Aimee A; Clements, Kathryn A; Graves, Timothy P

    2017-01-01

    Electron collecting current probes are the most reliable diagnostic of multipactor and radiofrequency (RF) ionization breakdown; however, stand-alone probes can only be used in test setups where the breakdown region is physically accessible. This paper describes techniques for measuring multipactor current directly on the center conductor of a coaxial RF device (or more generally, on the signal line in any two-conductor RF system) enabling global multipactor detection with improved sensitivity compared to other common diagnostics such as phase null, third harmonic, and reflected power. The center conductor diagnostic may be AC coupled for use in systems with a low DC impedance between the center conductor and ground. The effect of DC bias on the breakdown threshold was studied: in coaxial geometry, the change in threshold was <1 dB for positive biases satisfying VDC/VRF0<0.8, where VRF0 is the RF voltage amplitude at the unperturbed breakdown threshold. In parallel plate geometry, setting VDC/VRF0<0.2 was necessary to avoid altering the threshold by more than 1 dB. In most cases, the center conductor diagnostic functions effectively with no bias at all-this is the preferred implementation, but biases in the range VDC=0-10V may be applied if necessary. The polarity of the detected current signal may be positive or negative depending on whether there is net electron collection or emission globally.

  16. Center conductor diagnostic for multipactor detection in inaccessible geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Hubble, Aimee A.; Clements, Kathryn A.; Graves, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Electron collecting current probes are the most reliable diagnostic of multipactor and radiofrequency (RF) ionization breakdown; however, stand-alone probes can only be used in test setups where the breakdown region is physically accessible. This paper describes techniques for measuring multipactor current directly on the center conductor of a coaxial RF device (or more generally, on the signal line in any two-conductor RF system) enabling global multipactor detection with improved sensitivity compared to other common diagnostics such as phase null, third harmonic, and reflected power. The center conductor diagnostic may be AC coupled for use in systems with a low DC impedance between the center conductor and ground. The effect of DC bias on the breakdown threshold was studied: in coaxial geometry, the change in threshold was <1 dB for positive biases satisfying VD C/VR F 0 <0.8 , where VRF0 is the RF voltage amplitude at the unperturbed breakdown threshold. In parallel plate geometry, setting VD C/VR F 0 <0.2 was necessary to avoid altering the threshold by more than 1 dB. In most cases, the center conductor diagnostic functions effectively with no bias at all—this is the preferred implementation, but biases in the range VD C=0 -10 V may be applied if necessary. The polarity of the detected current signal may be positive or negative depending on whether there is net electron collection or emission globally.

  17. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

  18. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO.sub.2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a .beta.-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca.degree. used for reducing UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to U and Pu.

  19. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Results Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups. PMID:24204021

  20. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Mixed conductors—single phases that conduct electronically and ionically—enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the ‘super-ionic’ conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors.

  1. Effect of Elastic Compression Stocking (ECS) on Leg Veins During 2G Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Kaspransky, R.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: evaluate the calf vein response to hypergravity, and check the efficiency of elastic compression stocking (ECS) in preventing their distension. Method: Tibial (Tib csa) and Gastrocnemius (Gast csa) vein cross section area were investigated by echography. The subject was submitted to (a) 10 min stand test (ST), (b) 2G centrifugation for 2 min, (c) 10 min ST, with and without ECS. Results: Centrifugation at 2G induced a higher vein distension for both Gast and Tib vein compare to ST. At 2G centrifugation, ECS reduced the amplitude of the csa increase and limited the max vein csa to the ST value without ECS.

  2. Search for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions: Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five conductors of three structure types were discovered which, as solids, can transport Na(+) or K(+) ions with conductivities of approximately .00001/(omega cm) at 300 K. These compounds are: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F, both with an activation energy for conduction delta E of 21 kJ/mole; (2) the bodycentered cubic form of NaSbO3, with delta E = 42 kJ/mole; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O with 3Nb2O5 and 2K2O with 3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the incompletely determined structure; delta E = 17 kJ/mole. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, some generalizations were made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  3. Transport in low-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, Marina Milan

    In this thesis, I address the problems of transport in low-dimensional conductors and superconductors. The problem of how the onset of superconductivity takes place in low-dimensional superconductors has been studied for a long time. Until recently, the zero-temperature phase transition in thin films was believed to occur from the superconducting to an insulating state. The question of existence of an intermediate metallic phase in a superconductor-metal-insulator transition is still an open experimental question. The effects that need to be addressed are those of superconducting quantum fluctuations and the weak-localization effects. In this dissertation I neglect the weak-localization corrections. I present a model which shows the existence of a zero-temperature superconductor-metal transition in thin films. The transition takes place even in the absence of disorder, and at an arbitrarily large normal-state film conductance. Mesoscopic superconducting fluctuations in superconducting junctions have been studied since the 1980's, but only recently has experimental evidence appeared with advances in fabrication of superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor junctions. I studied the case of thick superconductor-metallic ferromagnet-superconductor junctions and present how even in this case, when the current averaged over the impurity distribution is exponentially small in the ferromagnetic-layer thickness, mesoscopic effects can cause the sample specific current to oscillate with temperature. The conductance of an electron gas at low temperatures is dominated by quantum, interference effects, whereas at high temperatures the scattering events can be considered independent of each other, so the Boltzmann kinetic equation governs the electron dynamics and the Drude result is obtained. In the intermediate region of temperatures, there appear classical corrections to transport coefficients that are due to correlations between individual scattering events. The effects of

  4. Development of TiO2 electrical insulation coating on Ag-alloy sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x round-wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H.; Lu, J.; Jiang, J.; Chen, P.; Matras, M.; Craig, N.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed TiO2 coating on Ag-alloy sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) round-wire conductor for electrical insulation in Bi-2212 magnets. The green coating has a base layer comprised of TiO2, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and a small amount of polysilicate and a top layer made of polyacrylic. The coating was applied on the conductor using a continuous reel-to-reel dip coating process and showed very good adherence and flexibility that is suitable for magnet coil winding. The thickness of the coating is a function of slurry viscosity, wire withdrawal speed and wire radius. Small test coils were built with the coated Bi-2212 round-wires and were heat treated at 100 atm pressure. During the heat treatment, the PVB and polyacrylic were removed from the green coating and the polysilicate decomposed to SiO2 that served as a sintering aid for TiO2. After the heat treatment, the coating remained strongly adhered to the conductor and did not have a detrimental effect on the critical current (Ic) values. The breakdown voltage was about 150 V across a 7 μm thick heat treated coating on Bi-22112 round-wire conductor, corresponding to a dc dielectric strength of about 21 MV m-1.

  5. Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)

    1999-05-01

    For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.

  6. Mobility propagation and dynamic facilitation in superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Annamareddy, Ajay Eapen, Jacob

    2015-11-21

    In an earlier work [V. A. Annamareddy et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 010301(R) (2014)], we showed the manifestation of dynamical heterogeneity (DH)—the presence of clustered mobile and immobile regions—in UO{sub 2}, a model type II superionic conductor. In the current work, we demonstrate the mechanism of dynamic facilitation (DF) in two superionic conductors (CaF{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}) using atomistic simulations. Using the mobility transfer function, DF is shown to vary non-monotonically with temperature with the intensity of DF peaking at temperatures close to the superionic transition temperature (T{sub λ}). Both the metrics quantifying DH and DF show remarkable correspondence implying that DF, in the framework of kinematically constrained models, underpins the heterogeneous dynamics in type II superionic conductors.

  7. Fundamental Physics and Promising Applications of Superionic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Ishigame, Mareo

    1993-02-01

    Recently, superionic conductors (SIC’s) have been considered to be a key material for several application fields as well as energy engineering and ceramic technology. We review the recent stage of the basic models and concepts for the physical understanding of high-speed ionic transport in solids. In the latter part of this paper, we briefly review the applications of SIC’s to solid-state fuel cells and sensors. As a new application of SIC’s, we introduce a technique developed on a complex system consisting of an oxygen ionic conductor and high-Tc oxide super-conductors. Finally, we introduce the possibility of the application of SIC’s to optical devices.

  8. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.

    PubMed

    Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-29

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  9. Relative electron dosimetry using the Scanditronix-Wellhoefer beam imaging system-2G

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, Kirsten . E-mail: kirsten.nygaard@helse-bergen.no; Odland, Odd Harald; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2006-10-01

    The Beam Imaging System 2G (BIS-2G) from Scanditronix-Wellhoefer is a two-dimensional (2D) charge-coupled device (CCD)-camera that measures the scintillation light produced by incident radiation. We examined the performance of the BIS-2G as a tool in quality control of patient boluses. In an attempt to simplify the production of the patient boluses, bolus edges were built as staircases and the dose distributions were measured and compared to the dose profiles below corresponding sloped bolus edges. Perspex plates covering half the irradiated field were used as generalized bolus edges. All BIS-2G measurements were performed using buildup of solid water while a diode measured corresponding dose profiles in a water phantom. Below the patient boluses, regions with doses < 95% and > 107% of the prescribed dose were defined. Below the edge, the relative doses measured by the BIS-2G were generally within 3% in dose and 3 mm in position compared to the diode measurements. Close to the field edge below the bolus, the BIS-2G measurements were in some cases as much as 7% lower in dose than the diode measurements. The BIS-2G measurements revealed hotspots below the patient boluses covering 1-16% of the total irradiated area. The highest point dose measured below the patient boluses ranged from 105% to 125% of the prescribed dose. For all bolus thicknesses, each edge in the staircase bolus caused a fluctuation in dose and increased the maximum dose compared to the sloped edge. For several cases, the maximum dose increased with 13% in relative dose, e.g., from 103% to 116%. The BIS-2G was found to be a useful tool in quality control of patient boluses, revealing large hot spots in the treatment volume for several patients. Bolus edges built as staircases cause considerable dose fluctuations and increase the maximum dose, and can therefore not be recommended.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Methods 2G through 3C A Appendix A-2 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-2 Appendix A-2 to Part 60—Test Methods 2G through 3C Method...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Methods 2G through 3C A Appendix A-2 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-2 Appendix A-2 to Part 60—Test Methods 2G through 3C Method...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test Methods 2G through 3C A Appendix A-2 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-2 Appendix A-2 to Part 60—Test Methods 2G through 3C...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 60 - Test Methods 2G through 3C

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Methods 2G through 3C A Appendix A-2 to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. A-2 Appendix A-2 to Part 60—Test Methods 2G through 3C Method...

  14. The HABP2 G534E polymorphism does not increase nonmedullary thyroid cancer risk in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Bohórquez, Mabel E; Estrada, Ana P; Stultz, Jacob; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Williamson, John; Lott, Paul; Duque, Carlos S; Donado, Jorge; Mateus, Gilbert; Bolaños, Fernando; Vélez, Alejandro; Echeverry, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has not been clearly linked to causal germline variants, despite the large role that genetic factors play in risk. Recently, HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) has been implicated as a causal variant in NMTC. We have previously shown that the HABP2 G534E variant is not associated with TC risk in patients from the British Isles. Hispanics are the largest and the youngest minority in the United States and NMTC is now the second most common malignancy in women from this population. In order to determine if the HABP2 G534E variant played a role in NMTC risk among Hispanic populations, we analyzed 281 cases and 1105 population-matched controls from a multicenter study in Colombia, evaluating the association through logistic regression. We found that the HABP2 G534E variant was not significantly associated with NMTC risk (P=0.843) in this Hispanic group. We also stratified available clinical data by multiple available clinicopathological variables and further analyzed the effect of HABP2 on NMTC presentation. However, we failed to detect associations between HABP2 G534E and NMTC risk, regardless of disease presentation (P≥0.273 for all cases). Therefore, without any significant associations between the HABP2 G534E variant and NMTC risk, we conclude that the variant is not causal of NMTC in this Hispanic population. PMID:27097599

  15. Bone metabolism and formation of mice bred in a 2G environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Iwasaki, K.; Onishi, R.; Fujisawa, M.; Kim, H.; Shibata, S.; Ito, M.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of chronic hypergravity exposure on the bone formation and the bone metabolism when mammals produce offspring in a 2G environment. We measured the length and width of the thighbone, the length of the pelvis, the width of the pelvic cavity and the width of the fourth cervical vertebra on the second (F2) and the third (F3) generation mice bred in a 2G environment every ten days from 20 days old to 60 days old in an experiment on bone formation. In an experiment on bone metabolism, we measured calcium and phosphorus in the bones of the F3 in the 2G group.Ratios of the thighbone length, pelvis length, pelvic cavity width, and fourth cervical vertebra width versus the body length were calculated.These ratios were higher in the 2G group than the control group during all measuring periods.Calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the thighbone and the lumbar vertebra were lower in the 2G group than in the control group. However, the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the cervical vertebrae of the 2G group were higher. These results suggest that the influence of gravity load may vary in the bones.

  16. A base-metal conductor system for silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, M. G.; Pryor, R. A.; Sparks, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Solder, copper, and silver are evaluated as conductor layer metals for silicon solar cell metallization on the basis of metal price stability and reliability under operating conditions. Due to its properties and cost, copper becomes an attractive candidate for the conductor layer. It is shown that nickel operates as an excellent diffusion barrier between copper and silicon while simultaneously serving as an electrical contact and mechanical contact to silicon. The nickel-copper system may be applied to the silicon by plating techniques utilizing a variety of plating bath compositions. Solar cells having excellent current-voltage characteristics are fabricated to demonstrate the nickel-copper metallization system.

  17. Equivalent circuit of the barrier-conductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    Novel heterostructure devices are comprised of potential barriers connected by short conductors. In this paper we present a simple theory for the transport properties of the barrier-conductor chain. The analysis is based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation supplemented by the boundary conditions provided by the barrier reflection and transmission probabilities. As an application of the theory the small signal equivalent circuit is constructed for the single and double barrier cases and for the infinite periodic chain. The high frequency properties of these structures are discussed. In general, the multibarrier structures show transit time resonances associated with multiple reflections.

  18. Conductor design for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Kashikhin, V.; McAshan, M.; Mazur, P.O.; Piekarz, H.; Volk, J.T.; Walker, R.

    1999-03-01

    The transmission line magnet [1] is under development for the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) at Fermilab with the expectation that it’s cost will be several times less (per Tesla-meter) than conventional superconducting magnets. It is a dual-aperture warm-iron superferric magnet built around an 80kA superconducting transmission line. The superconductor consists of 8 Rutherford (SSC Outer) cables in an Invar pipe jacket. The conductor design requirements and development program is described. A 100kA conductor test facility based on inductive coupling is described.

  19. Design of a Wireless Sensor Module for Monitoring Conductor Galloping of Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhao, Long; Chen, Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor. Both the hardware design and the software design are described in details. The corresponding test platforms are established, and the experiments show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed monitoring sensor. The field operation of the proposed sensor in a conductor spanning 734 m also shows its effectiveness. PMID:27735852

  20. 33 CFR 183.435 - Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... volts or more. 183.435 Section 183.435 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 183.435 Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a nominal voltage of 50 volts or more must be: (1) A conductor that has insulation listed and...

  1. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05-33 Section 111.05-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor...

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05-33 Section 111.05-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor...

  3. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  4. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  5. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  6. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  7. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 57.12010 Section 57.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... conductors. Telephone and low-potential signal wire shall be protected, by isolation or suitable insulation, or both, from contacting energized power conductors or any other power source....

  9. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over...

  10. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1002 - Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors; permissibility. 75.1002 Section 75.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1002 Installation of electric equipment and conductors... equipment is located within 150 feet of pillar workings or longwall faces. (b) Electric conductors...

  12. Loss of PLA2G6 leads to elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Bartolome, Fernando; Angelova, Plamena R.; Li, Li; Pope, Simon; Cochemé, Helena M.; Khan, Shabana; Asghari, Shabnam; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The PLA2G6 gene encodes a group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta enzyme that selectively hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids. Mutations in PLA2G6 have been associated with disorders such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type II and Karak syndrome. More recently, PLA2G6 was identified as the causative gene in a subgroup of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread Lewy body pathology and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, supporting a link between PLA2G6 mutations and parkinsonian disorders. Here we show that knockout of the Drosophila homologue of the PLA2G6 gene, iPLA2-VIA, results in reduced survival, locomotor deficits and organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of iPLA2-VIA function leads to a number of mitochondrial abnormalities, including mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, reduced ATP synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA is strongly associated with increased lipid peroxidation levels. We confirmed our findings using cultured fibroblasts taken from two patients with mutations in the PLA2G6 gene. Similar abnormalities were seen including elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane defects, as well as raised levels of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Finally, we demonstrated that deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit lipid peroxidation, were able to partially rescue the locomotor abnormalities seen in aged flies lacking iPLA2-VIA gene function, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential in fibroblasts from patients with PLA2G6 mutations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that loss of normal PLA2G6 gene activity leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent mitochondrial membrane

  13. The Review on the Charge Distribution on the Conductor Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matehkolaee, M. Jafari; Asrami, A. Naderi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have a full review on the surface charge density at disordered conductor surfaces. Basically, reading text books does not resolve ambiguities in this field. As far as is possible, we have tried to the concepts easier to turn. In fact we will answer two questions. One of them is that why do charges tend to go where the curvature is…

  14. Exploring a Metamorphosis: Identity Formation for an Emerging Conductor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchione, Cayenna

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the manner in which professional identity formation in emerging conductors is entangled with the cultural context of orchestras, I focus on the amorphous evolution from a student identity to that of a professional, illuminating some underlying social conditions of the ever-elusive profession of conducting. Prevailing assumptions about…

  15. Glass ceramic ionic conductor materials and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Badzioch, S.

    1985-03-26

    Solid, crystalline glass ceramic compositions which are useful as ionic conductor materials, especially for use as solid electrolytes in high temperature, high energy density storage batteries. The glass ceramics are derived from sodium or calcium borates containing one or more metal halide, preferably the chlorides and bromides of the metals from Group 2 to 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

  16. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  17. Improved Writing-Conductor Designs For Magnetic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Writing currents reduced to practical levels. Improved conceptual designs for writing conductors in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access integrated-circuit memory reduces electrical current needed to magnetize micromagnet in each memory cell. Basic concept of micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memory presented in "Magnetic Analog Random-Access Memory" (NPO-17999).

  18. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011 Section 56.12011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. Undergraduate Conductors' and Conducting Teachers' Perceptions of Basic Conducting Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.; Baumgartner, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate conductors' and conducting teachers' perceptions about basic conducting efficacy. At the beginning and end of the semester, undergraduate students (N = 19) enrolled in a basic conducting course (a) were surveyed about the importance of certain skills necessary for being an effective conductor…

  4. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in singly connected disordered conductors.

    PubMed

    Aleiner, I L; Andreev, A V; Vinokur, V

    2015-02-20

    We show that the transport and thermodynamic properties of a singly connected disordered conductor exhibit quantum Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as a function of the total magnetic flux through the sample. The oscillations are associated with the interference contribution from a special class of electron trajectories confined to the surface of the sample.

  5. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    PubMed

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention.

  6. Conductor and Ensemble Performance Expressivity and State Festival Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.; Chang, E. Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study is the second in a series examining the relationship between conducting and ensemble performance. The purpose was to further examine the associations among conductor, ensemble performance expressivity, and festival ratings. Participants were asked to rate the expressivity of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts from a…

  7. Development of flat conductor cable for commercial and residential wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The overall spectrum of the space technology spin-off development project: development of Flat Conductor Cable (FCC) for commercial and residential wiring, is presented. A discussion of the background, program milestones, industry participants, system outgrowth, hardware availability, cost estimates, and overall status of the program is presented for the 1970-to-present time period.

  8. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be permanently grounded to the hull on...

  9. 46 CFR 183.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be permanently grounded to the hull on a metallic vessel. On a nonmetallic vessel, the enclosures and frames of...

  10. RNAi Mediated Silencing of LRRK2G2019S in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    United States. Two forms, sporadic and familial, are recognized with the sporadic form accounting for about 90% of cases. Of the six characterized...cells in vivo, we replaced the original cytomegalovirus ( CMV ) promoter on the lentiviral vector with human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) promoter or...well plates at 2.5X105 cells/well. Cells were transfected with plasmids pCDH- CMV - dNLRRK2G2019S, pCDH-hNSE-dNLRRK2G2019S and pCDH-hPGK- dNLRRK2GS

  11. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  12. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  13. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Suenaga, Masaki

    1984-01-17

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu.sub.5 Sn.sub.6 with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  14. Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl

    1984-02-14

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

  15. Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

  16. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  17. Research on High Temperature Ceramic Insulation for Electrical Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidler, Eric R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya Praveen

    2001-01-01

    Three methods for applying ceramic coatings to wires were examined in depth and a fourth (chemical vapor deposition) was studied briefly. CVD coatings were not reported in the thesis because it was realized early in the study that the deposition rate of the coatings was too slow to be used in a commercial process. Of the methods reported in the thesis, slurry coating was the most promising. This method consists of slowly drawing a platinum wire through a thixotropic slurry of alumina in a vehicle composed of polyvinyl butyral, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The coatings produced by this method were continuous and free of cracks after sintering. The sintered coatings crack when the wire is bent around sharp corners, but most of the coating remains in place and still provides electrical insulation between the wire and any metallic structure to which the wire may be attached. The coating thickness was 0.61 mm (16 micrometers). The electrical resistivity of the intact coating was 340 M-Ohm-cm at 800 C and 23 M-Ohm-cm at 1050 C. Therefore, these coatings more than meet the electrical requirements for use in turbine engines. Although adherence of the coating to the wire was generally excellent, a problem was noted in localized areas where the coating flaked off. Further work will be needed to obtain good coating adherence along the entire length of the wire. The next most promising coatings were made by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of Al2O3 onto platinum wires, using mixtures of ethanol and acetone as the suspending liquid. These EPD coatings were made only on short lengths of wire because the coating is too fragile to allow spooling of the wire. The worst coatings were those made by electrophoretic deposition from aqueous suspensions. Continuous slurry coating of wire was achieved, but due to lack of suitable equipment, the wire had to be cut into short lengths for sintering.

  18. Test results of the FER/ITER conductors in the FENIX test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Isono, T.; Koizumi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nishi, M.; Okuno, K.; Yoshida, K.; Nakajima, H.; Ando, T.; Hosono, F.

    1994-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has developed the Advanced Disk and the Hollow Monolithic conductors for the FER/ITER Toroidal Field coils. The Advanced Disk conductor is a Cable-in-Conduit conductor which consists of 324 Nb3Sn strands. The Hollow monolithic conductor has hollow cooling channels and 23 Nb3Sn strands. The JA-FENIX sample consists of a pair of straight legs: one leg is the Advanced disk conductor and another is the Hollow Monolithic one. The FENIX facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can provide a magnetic field up to 13T on a sample conductor of over 40cm-length. The performance test of the JA-sample was carried out in Autumn 1992. The critical current, the current sharing temperature, and the stability margin of each conductor were measured in this test. These results are presented and discussed.

  19. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  20. 78 FR 57219 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form W-2G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form W-2G, Certain Gambling Winnings...@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Certain Gambling Winnings. OMB Number: 1545-0238. Form... certain gambling winnings to withhold tax and to report the winnings to the IRS. IRS uses the...

  1. 76 FR 36618 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form W-2G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form W-2G, Certain Gambling Winnings... through the Internet, at Allan.M.Hopkins@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Certain Gambling..., 3402(q), and 3406 require payers of certain gambling winnings to withhold tax and to report...

  2. Security enhancement mechanism based on contextual authentication and role analysis for 2G-RFID systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  3. The effect of a BRN 3.1 deletion on the temperature response to 2G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, D. M.; Erkman, L.; Rosenfeld, M. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers studied the effect of 2G exposure on body temperature in Wild type and BRN 3.1 Knockout mice to determine the feasibility to using BRN 3.1 Knockout mice as an animal model of the effects of altered gravitational fields on vestibular system physiology.

  4. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system. PMID:22163983

  5. 77 FR 45320 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi; 110(a)(2)(G) Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... revisions pertain to Clean Air Act (CAA) section 110(a)(2)(G) for the 1997 annual and 2006 24-hour fine... states to provide for authority to address activities causing imminent and substantial endangerment to... approve a SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the Act and applicable federal...

  6. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  7. Alterations of Body Mass Gain of Neonates (P7&P14) During Certrifugation AT 2G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has shown animal body mass to be significantly affected by centrifugation. At the onset of centrifugation, animals have a selective loss of fat, causing an initial body mass loss. Body mass gain will resume at the same rate as uncentrifuged animals, but this subsequent gain will be lower. For this study, two different ages of Sprague Hawley neonate families were observed during centrifugation. Eight litters (dam with eight neonates) of postnatal day (PN) seven and four litters (dam with ten neonates) of PN 14 were separated into two separate groups each, centrifuge (+2G(sub z)) and environmental controls (EC) and placed into either the centrifuge or an animal holding unit in the centrifuge rotunda for a total of 16 days. P7: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 138.90 g/end = 311.0 g EC litter = 150.85 g/end = 516.9 g. P14: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 287.70 g/end = 762.5g; EC litter = 245 g/end = 942.9 g. An initial body mass loss was observed in both groups of +2G(sub z) animals for two days after the onset of centrifugation, but then an increase began to occur. Literature suggests adult animals at +2G(sub z), will have an initial loss, but will resume similar growth rates over time as compared to control animals. The P7 +2G(sub z) animals began to gain body mass, but showed a significantly slower growth rate than their EC animals for the duration of the test (pace). The P14 +2G(sub z) animals began to show similar growth rates to their EC after day nine. At day 16, both groups of +2Gz animals were significantly smaller than the EC animals (pace). At +2Gz, animals experience an initial body mass loss. Older animals are able to resume similar growth rates as their controls, but younger animals showed growth rates to be significantly reduced.

  8. Development and testing of a Bi-2212 textured powder conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damborsky, Kyle Cameron

    Superconducting wires based on the high field superconductor Bi 2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+x are an enabling technology for the development of very high field (>18 T) magnets. While these conductors have the potential to serve as the conductors for magnets operating in excess of 45 T, the achieved current carrying capacity of these materials is too low for economical implementation in high field operation. This is in part due to low density of the superconductors within the cores, the presence of current occluding non-superconducting phases, and a non-optimum alignment of the superconducting particles that form the conductor. The body of work reported in this dissertation aims to develop methods to align (texture) the superconducting particles within the conductors, to enhance the density of the superconducting filaments, to examine a heat treatment that does not form parasitic phases, and to demonstrate that long lengths of superconducting wire can be fabricated with these properties. Three general experimental thrusts are carried out within the work. First, methods for texturing Bi-2212 loose powders were developed and the products of these developments were characterized via x-ray diffraction and microscopy to qualify the degree of imparted texture. The second thrust focused on the development of a monocore wire based on a high density textured Bi-2212 precursor. Multiple wires were extruded and drawn through traditional processes and the products were characterized microscopically to ascertain the quality of the products. The third and final thrust was the development of a non-melt heat treatment that was shown to grow grains of Bi-2212 powder and densify composites. Measurements of the transport critical currents for the heat treated conductors were carried out in boiling liquid helium and background magnetic fields of up to 5 T. These results were correlated to microstructural observations. Ultimately, it was found that the connections between grains in the sintered

  9. Hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, W R

    1988-01-01

    Four coating techniques were evaluated to determine which is most suitable for producing a dense, highly adherent coating onto metallic and ceramic implant materials. Two of the selected coating methods have serious limitations for use in this particular application, and did not meet the specified criteria for satisfactory coating as defined in the initial stages of the study. For example, the dip coating-sintering technique was judged to be unsatisfactory because of the adverse effect of the high-temperature sintering cycle on the mechanical properties of the metallic substrate materials. These materials could not be used in load-bearing applications because of the excessive grain growth and loss of the wrought structure of both the commercially pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates, and the loss of ductility in the cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Another area of concern was that bond strength between the HA coating and the substrate was not high enough to insure that interfacial failure would not occur during the lifetime of the implant. The immersion-coating technique, in which the metal substrate is immersed into the molten ceramic, was shown in a previous study to be the best method of coating a bioreactive glass onto a Co-Cr-Mo implant. Heating HA above its melting temperature, however, caused undesired compositional and structural changes, and upon solidification very limited adherence between the modified ceramic and substrate material occurred under the conditions of this study. The HIP technique, in which the Ti powder substrate and the HA powder coating are sintered together in a high-pressure autoclave, shows great promise for the fabrication of high-quality composite implants. Initial studies have indicated that high-density Ti substrates with a small grain size that are well bonded to a dense HA coating can be produced under optimum conditions. Sintering and densification additives, such as SiO2 powder, do not appear to be necessary. The main drawback to this

  10. Mesoporous titanium dioxide coating for metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hoess, Andreas; Ballo, Ahmed; Cai, Yanling; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    A bioactive mesoporous titanium dioxide (MT) coating for surface drug delivery has been investigated to develop a multifunctional implant coating, offering quick bone bonding and biological stability. An evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method was used to prepare a mesoporous titanium dioxide coating of the anatase phase with BET surface area of 172 m(2)/g and average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. Adhesion tests using the scratch method and an in situ screw-in/screw-out technique confirm that the MT coating bonds tightly with the metallic substrate, even after removal from bone. Because of its high surface area, the bioactivity of the MT coating is much better than that of a dense TiO(2) coating of the same composition. Quick formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro can be related to enhance bonding with bone. The uptake of antibiotics by the MT coating reached 13.4 mg/cm(3) within a 24 h loading process. A sustained release behavior has been obtained with a weak initial burst. By using Cephalothin as a model drug, drug loaded MT coating exhibits a sufficient antibacterial effect on the material surface, and within millimeters from material surface, against E.coli. Additionally, the coated and drug loaded surfaces showed no cytotoxic effect on cell cultures of the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. In conclusion, this study describes a novel, biocompatiblemesoporous implant coating, which has the ability to induce HA formation and could be used as a surface drug-delivery system.

  11. Analysis of the hematopoietic tissue in Pleurodeles waltl newts exposed to 2 g hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, Elena; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Yousuf, Rukhsana; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.

    2012-07-01

    Gravity is an important factor in creating biologically-relevant mechanical loads, and in spaceflight living organisms encounter both microgravity as well as hypergravity conditions. Here we studied the influence of hypergravity on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts in parallel with tissue regeneration experiments of the newt lens and tail. At day 9 post-surgery one group of newts was subjected to centrifugation at 2 g (2G, 12 days), while another was kept at 1 g. In addition, a basal control in wet mats, at 1g, (BC, 1G), and an aquarium control, neutrally buoyant, (AC, low G), were also performed. Differential blood counts and histological analysis of the spleen and liver were carried out in experimental and control groups of animals. At day 21 post-surgery in all groups (AC, 1G, and 2G), the number of neutrophils in the blood was significantly lower than in BC indicating a decrease in the inflammation induced by surgery. The 2G group however, showed numbers of neutrophils significantly higher than AC (neutrally buoyant) animals. This result suggests that post-operative inflammation can persist longer at 2 g that under unloaded aquarium conditions. In contrast we did not observe any significant differences in lymphocyte numbers between any experimental and control groups. Histological examination of the liver and spleen also did not show any significant morphological alterations due to hypergravity. These results indicate that 12 day exposure to hypergravity at 2 g, had only partial influence on newt hematopoiesis, possibly extending the duration of surgery-related inflammatory responses. Data obtained with newts in our previous experiments on Foton-M2 and Foton-M3 flights in microgravity also showed only slight effect on blood cells. Furthermore microgravity also did not cause any morphological changes in the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, and did not impair the proliferative capacity of newt hematopoietic cells. In sum these results indicate the

  12. The HABP2 G534E Variant Is an Unlikely Cause of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Stultz, Jacob; Williamson, John; Lott, Paul; Estrada, Ana; Bohorquez, Mabel; Palles, Claire; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe; Jaeger, Emma; Martin, Lynn; Echeverry, Maria Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Context: A recent study reported the nonsynonymous G534E (rs7080536, allele A) variant in the HABP2 gene as causal in familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC). Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the causality of HABP2 G534E in the TCUKIN study, a multicenter population-based study of NMTC cases from the British Isles. Design and Setting: A case-control analysis of rs7080536 genotypes was performed using 2105 TCUKIN cases and 5172 UK controls. Participants: Cases comprised 2105 NMTC cases. Patient subgroups with papillary (n = 1056), follicular (n = 691), and Hürthle cell (n = 86) thyroid cancer cases were studied separately. Controls comprised 5172 individuals from the 1958 Birth Cohort and the National Blood Donor Service study. The controls had previously been genotyped using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study. Outcome Measures: Association between HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) and NMTC risk was evaluated using logistic regression. Results: The frequency of the HABP2 G534E was 4.2% in cases and 4.6% in controls. We did not detect an association between this variant and NMTC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.896; 95% confidence interval, 0.746–1.071; P = .233). We also failed to detect an association between the HABP2 G534E and cases with papillary (1056 cases; G534E frequency = 3.5%; OR = 0.74; P = .017), follicular (691 cases; G534E frequency = 4.7%; OR = 1.00; P = 1.000), or Hürthle cell (86 cases; G534E frequency = 6.3%; OR = 1.40; P = .279) histology. Conclusions: We found that HABP2 G534E is a low-to-moderate frequency variant in the British Isles and failed to detect an association with NMTC risk, independent of histological type. Hence, our study does not implicate HABP2 G534E or a correlated polymorphism in familial NMTC, and additional data are required before using this variant in NMTC risk assessment. PMID:26691890

  13. Semiclassical Transport Theory For Quantum Barrier-Conductor Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, Juha A. T.

    1988-08-01

    A simple semiclassical treatment of the vertical transport in barrier-conductor structures is presented. The distribution function is constructed by fitting the solutions of the Boltzmann equation for the conductor parts with the barrier reflection and transmission probabilities. This semiclassical theory describes multiple reflection in a random phase approximation leaving out the fine structure associated with the quantum interference. As an application we analyze single and double barrier structures in detail. We study the high frequency behaviour of various diode structures. For the hot electron transistors (HET) we derive simple formulas for the base transport factor, transconductance and other elements of the ac-small signal equivalent circuit. The transistor model is also valid for the resonant hot electron transistor (RHET).

  14. Physical and Electronic Isolation of Carbon Nanotube Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeeffe, James; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-walled nanotubes are proposed as a method to electrically and physically isolate nanoscale conductors from their surroundings. We use tight binding (TB) and density functional theory (DFT) to simulate the effects of an external electric field on multi-wall nanotubes. Two categories of multi-wall nanotube are investigated, those with metallic and semiconducting outer shells. In the metallic case, simulations show that the outer wall effectively screens the inner core from an applied electric field. This offers the ability to reduce crosstalk between nanotube conductors. A semiconducting outer shell is found not to perturb an electric field incident on the inner core, thereby providing physical isolation while allowing the tube to remain electrically coupled to its surroundings.

  15. Non-stripe charge order in dimerized organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates charge order is important in dimerized β - and κ -phase organic conductors similar to the uniform θ - and α -phase conductors. Here the magnitude of the dimerization represents the deviation from the ideal triangular lattice in analogy with the anisotropy in the θ phase. Since the ratio of the intradimer transfer integral to the interdimer transfer integral is as large as ˜2.6 , these dimerized phases lead to a dimer Mott insulator, whereas the Coulomb repulsion is closer to the triangular lattice because the ratio of the intradimer Coulomb repulsion to the interdimer Coulomb repulsion is comparatively small (˜1.7 ). Accordingly, in the static-limit calculation, non-stripe charge order with threefold periodicity appears between the uniform and the stripe phases, and the analogy with the θ phase suggests the first-order nature of the metal-insulator transition.

  16. Sprayable Elastic Conductors Based on Block Copolymer Silver Nanoparticle Composites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% strain. Stretchable elastic conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a strain sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates. PMID:25491507

  17. Photogalvanic effect in a quantum ring with attached conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'kin, A. A.; Dunaevskii, S. M.; Pyataev, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The electric current induced by the circularly polarized radiation in a quantum ring with two arbitrarily attached one-dimensional conductors has been investigated. Contacts between the ring and conductors are modeled using the theory of zero-range potentials. The expression for the electron transmission coefficient is derived taking into account the inelastic interaction with the radiation. It is shown that two mechanisms of photocurrent generation occur in this system. The first one is caused by the difference in amplitudes of the zero-range potential in contact points, while the second one is caused by the asymmetry in the arrangement of contacts on the ring. The dependence of the photocurrent on the chemical potential of electrons, radiation frequency, arrangement of contacts, amplitudes of the zero-range potential, and magnetic flux through the ring is investigated.

  18. Vacuum-surface flashover switch with cantilever conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2001-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  19. Thermoelectric effects in organic conductors in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kirichenko, O. V.; Peschanskii, V. G. Hasan, R. A.

    2007-07-15

    The linear response of the electron system of a layered conductor to the temperature gradient in this system in a strong magnetic field is investigated theoretically. Thermoelectric emf is studied as a function of the magnitude and orientation of a strong external magnetic field; the experimental investigation of this function, combined with the study of the electric and thermal resistance, allows one to completely determine the structure of the energy spectrum of charge carriers.

  20. Study, selection, and preparation of solid cationic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, W. L.; Mitoff, S. P.; King, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Crystal chemical principles and transport theory were used to predict structures and specific compounds which might find application as solid electrolytes in rechargeable high energy and high power density batteries operating at temperatures less than 200 C. More than twenty compounds were synthesized or obtained and screened by nuclear magnetic resonance and conductivity. Many were densified by sintering or hot pressing. Encouraging results were obtained for nine of these materials but none have yet been good ionic conductors at low temperature.

  1. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Koschny, Thomas; Tassin, Philippe; Shen, Nian-Hai; Dastmalchi, Babak

    2015-04-01

    We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  2. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics.

    PubMed

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar; Khan, Zia Ullah; Andreasen, Jens W; Liu, Xianjie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Yulong; Brill, Joseph W; Engquist, Isak; Fahlman, Mats; Wågberg, Lars; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    A mixed ionic-electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio-phene):-poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

  3. Effects of particle size distribution in thick film conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of particle size distribution in thick film conductors are discussed. The distribution of particle sizes does have an effect on fired film density but the effect is not always positive. A proper distribution of sizes is necessary, and while the theoretical models can serve as guides to selecting this proper distribution, improved densities can be achieved by empirical variations from the predictions of the models.

  4. Fallen conductor accidents: The challenge to improve safety

    SciTech Connect

    Aucoin, B.M.; Russell, B.D.

    1992-02-01

    What is the worst nightmare of an electric utility manager or engineer Many respond that it is an electrocution resulting from a fallen conductor accident. Few subjects in the operation of an electric utility are more emotional and sobering than this. Traditionally, a utility could do little to prevent such accidents, but some answers from research are emerging, calling for a new look at this old problem.

  5. New solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Kautz, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 structure types for solid conductors of Na(+) and K(+) ions are surveyed. Five compounds in three structure types are discovered to be good solid conductors of alkali metal ions, capable of ion transport with conductivities in the vicinity of 0.00001/ohm-cm at 25 C. These compounds are a bcc form of NaSbO3, an orthorhombic layer structure of the composition 2M2O.3Nb2O5 with M equal to Na or K, and the Na pyrochlores NaTa2O5F and NaTaWO6. Ion exchange is required to produce each of these Na compounds. Only the 2K2O.3Nb2O5 can so far be synthesized directly from the oxides and thus is the only one which can be sintered readily. The niobate is about as good a conductor of K(+) ion as is K-beta alumina. The NaSbO3 compares well with Na beta at 280 C. A number of phase diagrams are developed.

  6. Strain evolution in Al conductor lines during electromigration.

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, H.; Cargill G. S.; Ge, Y.; Maniatty, A. M.; Liu, W.; Lehigh Univ.; Rensselear Polytechnic Inst.

    2008-01-01

    Monochromatic and white beam synchrotron x rays were used to study the deviatoric strains and full elastic strains in passivated Al conductor lines with near-bamboo structures during electromigration (EM) at 190 C. A strong strain gradient formed in the upstream part of the Al lines. Strains along the downstream part of the lines were smaller and more scattered. Numerical analysis using the Eshelby model and finite element method (FEM) calculations suggest that the moving of atoms during EM in these near-bamboo Al lines is dominated by top and/or bottom interface diffusion, which differs from the reported results for nonbamboo, polycrystalline Al conductor lines, where EM is mainly along the grain boundaries. Local strain measurements and FEM calculations indicate that the EM flux is also nonuniform across the width of the conductor line because of stronger mechanical constraint by the passivation layer near the edges of the line. Plastic deformation is observed during EM by changes in the Laue diffraction patterns. The effective valence |Z*| = 1.8 {+-} 0.4 is determined from the measured strain gradient.

  7. Homogeneous bilayer graphene film based flexible transparent conductor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2012-01-21

    Graphene is considered as a promising candidate to replace conventional transparent conductors due to its low opacity, high carrier mobility and flexible structure. Multi-layer graphene or stacked single layer graphenes have been investigated in the past but both have their drawbacks. The uniformity of multi-layer graphene is still questionable, and single layer graphene stacks require many transfer processes to achieve sufficiently low sheet resistance. In this work, bilayer graphene film grown with low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a transparent conductor for the first time. The technique was demonstrated to be highly efficient in fabricating a conductive and uniform transparent conductor compared to multi-layer or single layer graphene. Four transfers of bilayer graphene yielded a transparent conducting film with a sheet resistance of 180 Ω(□) at a transmittance of 83%. In addition, bilayer graphene films transferred onto the plastic substrate showed remarkable robustness against bending, with sheet resistance change less than 15% at 2.14% strain, a 20-fold improvement over commercial indium oxide films.

  8. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  9. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions.

  10. The BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism increases granulomatous disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiang; Ma, Yao; Niu, Xundong; Yan, Zhipeng; Liu, Sitong; Peng, Bo; Peng, Shifeng; Fan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) G16071A gene polymorphism has been implicated in the susceptibility to granulomatous diseases, but the results were inconclusive. The objective of the current study was to precisely explore the relationship between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility by the meta-analysis including false-positive report probability (FPRP) test. Methods: A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases, China National Knowledge Internet, and commercial Internet search engines was conducted to identify studies published up to April 1, 2016. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the effect size. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software and FPRP test sheet. Results: In total, all 4324 cases and 4386 controls from 14 eligible studies were included in the current meta-analysis. By the overall meta-analysis, we found a significant association between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07–1.45, P = 0.005). The meta-regression analyses showed that a large proportion of the between-study heterogeneity was significantly attributed to the ethnicity (A vs G, P = 0.013) and the types of granulomatous diseases (A vs G, P = 0.002). By the subgroup meta-analysis, the BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism was associated with granulomatous disease susceptibility in Caucasians (A vs G: OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18–1.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant relationship between the BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and sarcoidosis susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.39–1.66, P < 0.001) was found. However, to avoid the “false-positive report,” we further investigated the significant associations observed in the present meta-analysis by the FPRP test. Interestingly, the results of FPRP test indicated that the BTNL2

  11. Conductors for commercial MRI magnets beyond NbTi: requirements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizh, Michael; Lvovsky, Yuri; Sumption, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a powerful medical diagnostic tool, is the largest commercial application of superconductivity. The superconducting magnet is the largest and most expensive component of an MRI system. The magnet configuration is determined by competing requirements including optimized functional performance, patient comfort, ease of siting in a hospital environment, minimum acquisition and lifecycle cost including service. In this paper, we analyze conductor requirements for commercial MRI magnets beyond traditional NbTi conductors, while avoiding links to a particular magnet configuration or design decisions. Potential conductor candidates include MgB2, ReBCO and BSCCO options. The analysis shows that no MRI-ready non-NbTi conductor is commercially available at the moment. For some conductors, MRI specifications will be difficult to achieve in principle. For others, cost is a key barrier. In some cases, the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed. The key needs include the development of, or significant improvements in: (a) conductors specifically designed for MRI applications, with form-fit-and-function readily integratable into the present MRI magnet technology with minimum modifications. Preferably, similar conductors should be available from multiple vendors; (b) conductors with improved quench characteristics, i.e. the ability to carry significant current without damage while in the resistive state; (c) insulation which is compatible with manufacturing and refrigeration technologies; (d) dramatic increases in production and long-length quality control, including large-volume conductor manufacturing technology. In-situ MgB2 is, perhaps, the closest to meeting commercial and technical requirements to become suitable for commercial MRI. Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS/MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets. These

  12. Regulatory Aspects of Coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a history of the development and uses of edible coating regulations, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The chapter also...

  13. The Noninvasive Carbon Dioxide Gradient (NICO2G) during Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    and PaCO2 was less linear early after lung injury and during rapid changes in lung function (20). Based on these findings, we decided to further...as functions of time during hemorrhage. For tPCO2, etCO2, and PaCO2, means during each hemorrhage step are depicted. For NICO2G, vertical bars...et al.: Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and

  14. Missile Electronic Equipment Career Ladder, AFSC 411XOA (Formerly AFSC 316X2G).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Plan of Instruction ........ ........ 31 Analysis of Equipment Used at the Technicai School....... 36 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY...two courses at Chanute AFB IL: Electronics Principles Course AQR31020-0O2, Blocks I through IX, followed by one of two separate airman basic resident...Blocks I through IV of Electronics Principles Course AQR31020- 002 before advancing to the ABR courses. Secondly, the former 316X2G ABR courses were

  15. Clinical evaluation of QuantiFERON TB-2G test for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Y; Mouri, K; Obase, Y; Fukuda, M; Miyashita, N; Oka, M

    2007-11-01

    The usefulness of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-TB) test were compared in immunocompromised patients. The subjects consisted of 252 immunocompromised patients who were clinically suspected of tuberculosis (TB) infection between April 2005 and December 2006. Regarding the underlying diseases, 74 subjects had malignant diseases, 72 were undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, 52 had diabetes mellitus, 50 had chronic renal failure and four had HIV infection. While the positive rate of the QFT-TB test for the diagnosis of TB infection (TB disease or latent TB infection) was 78.1%, that of TST for TB infection was 50.0%. The QFT-TB test was significantly better than TST. However, 32 (13%) patients had an indeterminate QFT-TB result. Indeterminate findings were significantly more frequent in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment (28%), especially with lymphocytopaenia in the peripheral blood, than in those who had other underlying diseases. While TST-positive and QFT-TB test-negative results were recognised in immunocompromised patients with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination or nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, TST-negative and QFT-TB test-positive results were recognised in immunocompromised patients with a past history of TB infection. It was concluded that the QuantiFERON TB-2G test is a more useful diagnostic method for tuberculosis infection than tuberculin skin test for immunocompromised patients suspected of tuberculosis disease. However, because the results of the QuantiFERON TB-2G test show an indeterminate response for patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment, especially for those with lymphocytopaenia due to severe underlying diseases, care must be taken in the interpretation of the QuantiFERON TB-2G test for these patients.

  16. PLA2G6 mutations and other rare causes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Alisdair

    2012-08-01

    There is a wide variety of genetic and sporadic causes for neurodegenerative disorders with apparent brain iron accumulation on magnetic resonance imaging. Rare recessive causes include PLA2G6 mutations (infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy), and mutations of ATP13A2 (Kufor Rakeb syndrome) and FA2H. A variety of sporadic neurological disorders can present brain iron accumulation on imaging, including multiple sclerosis and neurological manifestations of HIV infection. The relevant clinical and imaging features will be discussed.

  17. MnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite with highly enhanced supercapacitor performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xueting; Zhai, Xinxin; Sun, Shibin; Gu, Danxia; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2017-03-01

    A novel sandwich-like MnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite (NC) based on the integration of high-density MnO2 nanorods (NRs) onto the surfaces of two-dimensional (2D) g-C3N4 sheets has been successfully fabricated through a facile soft chemical route at low temperature. The MnO2/g-C3N4 NC electrode enhanced the supercapacitor (SC) performance, benchmarked against both the bare MnO2 NRs electrode and the MnO2/graphene oxide (GO) NC electrode, exhibiting high specific capacitance of 211 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g, with good rate capacity and cycling stability. The sandwich-like hybrid structure, the unique 2D structure of the g-C3N4 sheets and the presence of nitrogen in the g-C3N4 all contributed to the promising SC performance of the MnO2/g-C3N4 NC. This work demonstrated the advantages of the g-C3N4 sheets over the commonly-used GO sheets in the design of novel hybrid composite for enhanced capacitance performance of MnO2-based electrochemical SCs, and the results could be extended to other electrode materials for SCs.

  18. Novel TCAP Mutation c.32C>A Causing Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2G

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Amirtharaj; Sunitha, Balaraju; Vinodh, Kandavalli; Polavarapu, Kiran; Katkam, Shiva Krishna; Modi, Sailesh; Bharath, M. M. Srinivas; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Nalini, Atchayaram; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2014-01-01

    TCAP encoded telethonin is a 19 kDa protein, which plays an important role in anchoring titin in Z disc of the sarcomere, and is known to cause LGMD2G, a rare muscle disorder characterised by proximal and distal lower limb weakness, calf hypertrophy and loss of ambulation. A total of 300 individuals with ARLGMD were recruited for this study. Among these we identified 8 clinically well characterised LGMD2G cases from 7 unrelated Dravidian families. Clinical examination revealed predominantly proximo - distal form of weakness, scapular winging, muscle atrophy, calf hypertrophy and foot drop, immunoblot showed either complete absence or severe reduction of telethonin. Genetic analysis revealed a novel nonsense homozygous mutation c.32C>A, p.(Ser11*) in three patients of a consanguineous family and an 8 bp homozygous duplication c.26_33dupAGGTGTCG, p.(Arg12fs31*) in another patient. Both mutations possibly lead to truncated protein or nonsense mediated decay. We could not find any functionally significant TCAP mutation in the remaining 6 samples, except for two other polymorphisms, c.453A>C, p.( = ) and c.-178G>T, which were found in cases and controls. This is the first report from India to demonstrate TCAP association with LGMD2G. PMID:25055047

  19. The architecture of the avian retina following exposure to chronic 2 G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, R. G.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rhode Island Red female chicks at 2 weeks posthatch were subjected, for 7 d, to either earth gravity of 1 G or a 2-G hypergravity environment by chronic whole-body centrifugation. Animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks posthatch and the eyes were enucleated, fixed in 10% BNF, doubly embedded, sectioned at 7-8 microns and routinely processed with H & E for histological examination. Compared to normogravity controls, animal exposure for 1 week to the chronic effects of 2-G resulted in a significantly decreased mean width of the photoreceptor, inner nuclear, and inner plexiform retinal layers. The outer nuclear, outer plexiform, and ganglion cell layers of the retina appeared minimally affected by the hypergravity state since the mean width of these layers showed no noticeable differences from earth gravity control animals. The present anatomic findings suggest a reduction in the detection of motion or rapid changes in illumination by the avian retina when the animal is exposed at a 2-G environment.

  20. MnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite with highly enhanced supercapacitor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xueting; Zhai, Xinxin; Sun, Shibin; Gu, Danxia; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2017-03-01

    A novel sandwich-like MnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite (NC) based on the integration of high-density MnO2 nanorods (NRs) onto the surfaces of two-dimensional (2D) g-C3N4 sheets has been successfully fabricated through a facile soft chemical route at low temperature. The MnO2/g-C3N4 NC electrode enhanced the supercapacitor (SC) performance, benchmarked against both the bare MnO2 NRs electrode and the MnO2/graphene oxide (GO) NC electrode, exhibiting high specific capacitance of 211 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g, with good rate capacity and cycling stability. The sandwich-like hybrid structure, the unique 2D structure of the g-C3N4 sheets and the presence of nitrogen in the g-C3N4 all contributed to the promising SC performance of the MnO2/g-C3N4 NC. This work demonstrated the advantages of the g-C3N4 sheets over the commonly-used GO sheets in the design of novel hybrid composite for enhanced capacitance performance of MnO2-based electrochemical SCs, and the results could be extended to other electrode materials for SCs.

  1. The Conductor-Dielectric Junctions in a Low Density Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale; deGroot, Wim; Thomson, Clint; Dennison, J. R.; Davies, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A conductor-dielectric junction exposed to the space environment is a frequent spacecraft design feature. Due to spacecraft charging and/or solar array operation, the conductor can acquire a high potential with respect to the surrounding plasma. If this potential is positive the insulators adjacent to exposed conductors can collect current as if they were conductors themselves. This phenomenon, called snapover, results in a substantial increase in current collection, and may even result in a glow discharge if the potential is high enough. If a conductor has a negative potential, arcing can occur at the site of a junction. Both of these phenomena negatively affect spacecraft operation. To prevent negative consequences, the physical mechanisms of snapover and arc inception require investigation. In this paper, results are presented of an experimental and theoretical study of snapover, glow discharge, and arc phenomena for different materials immersed in argon or xenon plasmas. The effect of snapover is investigated for several metal-dielectric junctions: copper-teflon, copper-Kapton, copper-glass, aluminum-teflon, aluminum-Kapton, steel-teflon, anodized aluminum with pinholes, and copper-ceramics. I-V curves are measured and snapover inception voltages, essential parameters (increase in current and collection area due to secondary electrons), and glow discharge inception thresholds are determined. Optical spectra are obtained for glow discharges in both argon and xenon plasmas. These spectra provide information regarding atomic species entrapped in the glow region. Some spectral lines can be used to estimate plasma parameters in the discharge area. A video-camera and linear array were used to confirm that snapover inception is accompanied by very low intensity visible light emission. This result seems to be important for the estimate of the light pollution around spacecraft. Optical spectra (wavelengths 380-650 nm) of arcs are also obtained on a negatively biased

  2. Nonmotor Symptoms in LRRK2 G2019S Associated Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Jon; Sierra, María; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Buongiorno, Mariateresa; Ezquerra, Mario; Martí, Maria José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Aguilar, Miquel; Calopa, Matilde; Hernandez-Vara, Jorge; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) and LRRK2-associated PD (LRRK2-PD) might be expected to differ clinically since the neuropathological substrate of LRRK2-PD is heterogeneous. The range and severity of extra-nigral nonmotor features associated with LRRK2 mutations is also not well-defined. Objective To evaluate the prevalence and time of onset of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in LRRK2-PD patients. Methods The presence of hyposmia and of neuropsychiatric, dysautonomic and sleep disturbances was assessed in 33 LRRK2-G2019S-PD patients by standardized questionnaires and validated scales. Thirty-three IPD patients, matched for age, gender, duration of parkinsonism and disease severity and 33 healthy subjects were also evaluated. Results University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) scores in LRRK2-G2019S-PD were higher than those in IPD (23.5±6.8 vs 18.4±6.0; p = 0.002), and hyposmia was less frequent in G2019S carriers than in IPD (39.4% vs 75.8%; p = 0.01). UPSIT scores were significantly higher in females than in males in LRRK2-PD patients (26.9±4.7 vs 19.4±6.8; p<0.01). The frequency of sleep and neuropsychiatric disturbances and of dysautonomic symptoms in LRRK2-G2019S-PD was not significantly different from that in IPD. Hyposmia, depression, constipation and excessive daytime sleepiness, were reported to occur before the onset of classical motor symptoms in more than 40% of LRRK2-PD patients in whom these symptoms were present at the time of examination. Conclusion Neuropsychiatric, dysautonomic and sleep disturbances occur as frequently in patients with LRRK2-G2019S-PD as in IPD but smell loss was less frequent in LRRK2-PD. Like in IPD, disturbances such as hyposmia, depression, constipation and excessive daytime sleepiness may antedate the onset of classical motor symptoms in LRRK2-G2019S-PD. PMID:25330404

  3. The noninvasive carbon dioxide gradient (NICO2G) during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Berry, John S; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Kendrick, Chonna; Necsoiu, Corina; Jordan, Bryan S; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2014-07-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a setting in which both pulmonary and cutaneous perfusion may be impaired. The goals of this study were to evaluate the relationship between end-tidal (etCO2), transcutaneous (tPCO2), arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and lactate during lethal HS and to assess the effect of progressive HS on those variables and on a new variable, the noninvasive CO2 gradient ([NICO2G] or the difference between tPCO2 and etCO2). Ten consciously sedated swine were hemorrhaged, by means of a computerized exponential protocol, of up to 80% estimated blood volume for 20 min. End-tidal carbon dioxide, tPCO2, PaCO2, and lactate measurements were taken at baseline and every 5 min thereafter, that is, after 25%, 44%, and 62% total blood volume hemorrhage (TBVH) and at cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurred on average at 67% TBVH. Data were analyzed by linear regression and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and are presented as means ± SD. Forty-nine paired measurements were made. There was no overall relationship between NICO2 variables and PaCO2: PaCO2 vs. tPCO2 (r2 = 0.002, P = 0.78); PaCO2 vs. etCO2 (r2 = 0.0002, P = 0.93). Rather, NICO2G increased at each level of blood loss: 4.0 ± 24.9 at baseline, 6.3 ± 35.7 at 25% TBVH, 25.0 ± 37.6 at 44% TBVH, 55.0 ± 33.9 at 62% TBVH, and 70.0 ± 33.2 at cardiac arrest (P < 0.05). Similarly, tPCO2 increased and etCO2 decreased at each level. Linear regression of NICO2G and lactate showed a better correlation than was observed for the other two variables: NICO2G, r2 = 0.58; tPCO2, r2 = 0.46; etCO2, r2 = 0.26. During HS, NICO2 monitors lose accuracy for approximating the PaCO2 but gain usefulness as hemodynamic monitors. Also, by combining data from two different organ systems, NICO2G demonstrated improved correlation with lactate than did either etCO2 or tPCO2 alone.

  4. Versatile Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A radome at Logan Airport and a large parabolic antenna at the Wang Building in Massachusetts are protected from weather, corrosion and ultraviolet radiation by a coating, specially designed for antennas and radomes, known as CRC Weathertite 6000. The CRC 6000 line that emerged from Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. is a solid dispersion of fluorocarbon polymer and polyurethane that yields a tough, durable film with superior ultraviolet resistance and the ability to repel water and ice over a long term. Additionally, it provides resistance to corrosion, abrasion, chemical attacks and impacts. Material can be used on a variety of substrates, such as fiberglass, wood, plastic and concrete in addition to steel and aluminum. In addition Boyd Coatings sees CRC 6000 applicability as an anti-icing system coated on the leading edge of aircraft wings.

  5. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  6. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  7. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  8. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

  9. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

  10. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  11. The Effects of Grain Boundaries on the Current Transport Properties in YBCO-Coated Conductors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xia, Yudong; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Tao, Bowan; Xiong, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We report a detailed study of the grain orientations and grain boundary (GB) networks in Y2O3 films grown on Ni-5 at.%W substrates. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) exhibited different GB misorientation angle distributions, strongly decided by Y2O3 films with different textures. The subsequent yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) barrier and CeO2 cap layer were deposited on Y2O3 layers by radio frequency sputtering, and YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. For explicating the effects of the grain boundaries on the current carry capacity of YBCO films, a percolation model was proposed to calculate the critical current density (J c) which depended on different GB misorientation angle distributions. The significantly higher J c for the sample with sharper texture is believed to be attributed to improved GB misorientation angle distributions.

  12. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Feng Lu, Hongyuan; Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping; Huang, Rongxia

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  13. New Approach to Depositing Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Buffer Layers for Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO COPY © 2003 Materials Research Society AIR... additional layer in the buffer layer stack—a transient nickel layer deposited directly on the substrate. Regardless of the substrate and protective layers...Ridge Na- tional Laboratory ( ORNL ), Oak Ridge, TN, were precleaned in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, chloro- form) using ultrasonic agitation

  14. Electrodeposited Ag-Stabilization Layer for High Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R. N.; Mann, J.; Qiao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2010-11-01

    We developed a non-aqueous based electrodepostion process of Ag-stabilization layer on YBCO superconductor tapes. The non-aqueous electroplating solution is non-reactive to the HTS layer thus does not detoriate the critical current capability of the superconductor layer when plated directly on the HTS tape. The superconducting current capabilities of these tapes were measured by non-contact magnetic measurements.

  15. Materials, Processing and Quality Control for High Performance Coated High Temperature Superconducting Conductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    cases, the enhancements are small. In some cases (e.g. the Ho- doped one in Fig. 6), the Jc is even two times lower than that of YBCO films. Previously...Nd substitution. Fig. 6. The effect of Ho substitution. ToX JW%%J’emoMwwrW0 thin Nmr ITIM Fig. 7. The J, of an undoped YBCO film (a), and that doped ...with Sm (b). C. Healing Weak-Links through Ca-Substituted Over-layers It was first pointed out by Mannhart et al. that a thin over-layer of Ca- doped

  16. Use of Second Generation Coated Conductors for Efficient Shielding of dc Magnetic Fields (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-15

    Similar to Ref. 15, along the center line of each 150 mm long section a 1 mm wide, 124 mm long slit was milled leaving a superconducting film in the form of...layer of superconducting film, can attenuate an external magnetic field of up to 5 mT by more than an order of magnitude. For comparison purposes...appears to be especially promising for the realization of large scale high-Tc superconducting screens. 15. SUBJECT TERMS magnetic screens, current

  17. Creation of high-pinning microstructures in post production YBCO coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Welp, Ulrich; Miller, Dean J.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Rupich, Martin W.; Fleshler, Steven; Malozemoff, Alexis P.

    2017-01-10

    A method comprising irradiating a polycrystalline rare earth metal-alkaline earth metal-transition metal-oxide superconductor layer with protons having an energy of 1 to 6 MeV. The irradiating process produces an irradiated layer that comprises randomly dispersed defects with an average diameter in the range of 1-10 nm.

  18. Quench and recovery characteristics of a racetrack double pancake coil wound with YBCO-coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Lee, J. D.; Song, J. B.; Lee, H. G.

    2009-02-01

    The reliability of high temperature superconducting (HTS) racetrack coils is one of the most important factors for the development of large-scale rotating machines. However, it is necessary to investigate the stability and normal zone propagation characteristics of racetrack coils for large-scale applications such as ship propulsion motors and power generators. In this study, the quench/recovery characteristics of a racetrack-type, double pancake (DP) coil, which could be applied to HTS rotating machines, were investigated using the voltage and temperature profiles in a cryogenic conduction cooling system. The minimum quench heating flux and quench propagation velocity of the racetrack DP coil are also discussed.

  19. Scanning hall probe microscopy of AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Rafael; Daniels, George; Larbalestier, David; Gibbons, Brady; Matias, Vladimir; Moler, Kathryn; Beasley, Malcolm

    2005-03-01

    Magnetic imaging of current-induced vortex movement in superconducting films yields detailed information about dissipation and the path of an applied current. In our large-area scanning hall probe microscope, a flow cryostat cools a sample while a micro-Hall probe is rastered near its surface using a 3-axis stepper-motor-based stage with submicron resolution and centimeter scan range. Hall probe time traces taken at each point are assembled into movies of the flux penetration as a function of time over a cycle of AC sample current. YBCO films grown on several substrates are examined, including bicrystal substrates that induce a single grain boundary across the current path and metal tapes that give rise to a grain boundary network. An extended Bean model allows us to extract pinning forces and critical currents of the intragrain film and its grain boundaries.

  20. Radar Cross Section Prediction for Coated Perfect Conductors with Arbitrary Geometries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents as the desired unknowns. Triangular patch modelling is ap- plied to the boundary surfaces. The method of...matrix inversion for the unknown surface current coefficients. Huygens’ principle is again applied to calculate the scattered electric field produced...differential equations with the equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents as the desired unknowns. Triangular patch modelling is ap- plied to the

  1. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.

  2. Self-fields in thin superconducting tapes: Implications for the thickness effect in coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Del-Valle, Nuria; Chen, Du-Xing; Clem, John R.

    2010-02-18

    A large decrease in transport current density has been observed in high-temperature superconducting films for increasing film thickness. In this work we theoretically explain the nature and the ubiquitous presence of this so-called thickness effect by analyzing the self-field created by the transport currents in the superconductor, assuming a realistic field-dependent critical-current density J{sub c}. This knowledge can help in finding ways to improve transport current in superconducting films.

  3. High rate buffer layer for IBAD MgO coated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.

    2007-08-21

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an oriented material thereon, and, a layer of hafnium oxide upon the layer of an oriented material. The layer of hafnium oxide can further include a secondary oxide such as cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, lanthanum oxide, scandium oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of hafnium oxide or layer of hafnium oxide and secondary oxide.

  4. The Normal Zone in YBa2Cu3O6+x-Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-21

    2ρ2 d2 ∼ 0.4 cm2. Here we took d2 = 75 μm and ρ2 ∼ 20–30 μ cm (Ni–5%W at 77 K ) [12]. The resistivity of the buffer material, ρb ∼ R̄2 d2 ∼ 2 × 104...77 K [17, 18]. Therefore, according to equation (40), dint = R̄1 ρc ∼ 50 n cm 2 0.1 cm ∼ 5 nm. In YBCO the size of the unit cell in the c...potential difference, characteristic of electric discharges in insulators: jz = − (V1 − Vs)|V1 − Vs| k R̄1U k , (41) 1106 6 Approved for public release

  5. Parkinson disease phenotype in Ashkenazi Jews with and without LRRK2 G2019S mutations.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Roy N; Mirelman, Anat; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Tang, Ming-X; Mejia Santana, Helen; Raymond, Deborah; Roos, Ernest; Orbe-Reilly, Martha; Gurevich, Tanya; Bar Shira, Anat; Gana Weisz, Mali; Yasinovsky, Kira; Zalis, Maayan; Thaler, Avner; Deik, Andres; Barrett, Matthew James; Cabassa, Jose; Groves, Mark; Hunt, Ann L; Lubarr, Naomi; San Luciano, Marta; Miravite, Joan; Palmese, Christina; Sachdev, Rivka; Sarva, Harini; Severt, Lawrence; Shanker, Vicki; Swan, Matthew Carrington; Soto-Valencia, Jeannie; Johannes, Brooke; Ortega, Robert; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien; Waters, Cheryl; Mazzoni, Pietro; Ford, Blair; Louis, Elan; Levy, Oren; Rosado, Llency; Ruiz, Diana; Dorovski, Tsvyatko; Pauciulo, Michael; Nichols, William; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ozelius, Laurie; Clark, Lorraine; Giladi, Nir; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen S

    2013-12-01

    The phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with and without leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S mutations reportedly is similar; however, large, uniformly evaluated series are lacking. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) PD carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. We studied 553 AJ PD patients, including 65 patients who were previously reported, from three sites (two in New York and one in Tel-Aviv). Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers were excluded. Evaluations included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS) questionnaire. Regression models were constructed to test the association between clinical and demographic features and LRRK2 status (outcome) in 488 newly recruited participants. LRRK2 G2019S carriers (n = 97) and non-carriers (n = 391) were similar in age and age at onset of PD. Carriers had longer disease duration (8.6 years vs. 6.1 years; P < 0.001), were more likely to be women (51.5% vs. 37.9%; P = 0.015), and more often reported first symptoms in the lower extremities (40.0% vs. 19.2%; P < 0.001). In logistic models that were adjusted for age, disease duration, sex, education, and site, carriers were more likely to have lower extremity onset (P < 0.001), postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) (P = 0.043), and a persistent levodopa response for >5 years (P = 0.042). Performance on the UPDRS, MoCA, GDS, and NMS did not differ by mutation status. PD in AJ LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers is similar to idiopathic PD but is characterized by more frequent lower extremity involvement at onset and PIGD without the associated cognitive impairment.

  6. Method for Determining Local Current Density in 2G HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludova, A. I.

    Practically important problem is to determine the density and direction of 2G HTS induced currents at each point on the tape in order to examine its local deviations. This problem is resolved indirectly by spatial measurement of generated magnetic field with a scanning Hall sensor at a given height above the tape surface. Current density is subsequently determined by the Biot-Savart law inversion in Fourier domain. Tikhonov regularization is used in order to increase precision. Method is verified with the model current density reconstruction. Optimal calculation parameters and resulting precision are described.

  7. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  8. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  9. High temperature superconducting composite conductor and method for manufacturing the same

    DOEpatents

    Holesinger, Terry G.; Bingert, John F.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting composite conductor is provided including a high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, the high temperature superconducting composite conductor characterized as having a fill factor of greater than about 40. Additionally, the conductor can be further characterized as containing multiple cores of high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, said multiple cores characterized as having substantially uniform geometry in the cross-sectional dimensions. Processes of forming such a high temperature superconducting composite conductor are also provided.

  10. Stretchable nanoparticle conductors with self-organized conductive pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonseob; Zhu, Jian; Yeom, Bongjun; di Prima, Matthew; Su, Xianli; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jo; Uher, Ctirad; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2013-08-01

    Research in stretchable conductors is fuelled by diverse technological needs. Flexible electronics, neuroprosthetic and cardiostimulating implants, soft robotics and other curvilinear systems require materials with high conductivity over a tensile strain of 100 per cent (refs 1, 2, 3). Furthermore, implantable devices or stretchable displays need materials with conductivities a thousand times higher while retaining a strain of 100 per cent. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate during material deformation and stiffening make stretchability and conductivity fundamentally difficult properties to combine. The macroscale stretching of solids elongates chemical bonds, leading to the reduced overlap and delocalization of electronic orbitals. This conductivity-stretchability dilemma can be exemplified by liquid metals, in which conduction pathways are retained on large deformation but weak interatomic bonds lead to compromised strength. The best-known stretchable conductors use polymer matrices containing percolated networks of high-aspect-ratio nanometre-scale tubes or nanowires to address this dilemma to some extent. Further improvements have been achieved by using fillers (the conductive component) with increased aspect ratio, of all-metallic composition, or with specific alignment (the way the fillers are arranged in the matrix). However, the synthesis and separation of high-aspect-ratio fillers is challenging, stiffness increases with the volume content of metallic filler, and anisotropy increases with alignment. Pre-strained substrates, buckled microwires and three-dimensional microfluidic polymer networks have also been explored. Here we demonstrate stretchable conductors of polyurethane containing spherical nanoparticles deposited by either layer-by-layer assembly or vacuum-assisted flocculation. High conductivity and stretchability were observed in both composites despite the minimal aspect ratio of the nanoparticles. These materials also demonstrate the

  11. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability...Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security Phase-II (SPIDERS-II) • Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and V2G Power services 2. Tactical

  12. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Karthikeyan, Annamalai; Hengdong, Cui

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  13. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  14. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol doped with nickel chloride hexahydrate as conductor polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limon, B.; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Silva-Andrade, F.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2004-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a viscous solution, with blue clear appearance, not has odor, when is deposited, as a film dry the appearance is clear transparent and has high flexibility. This polymer no has double link and don not has p orbital that permit the conductivity. However, can be doped with salts as ammonium dichromate and nickel chloride hexahydrate NiCl26H2O constructing a good conductor polymer with a resistivity around 300 ohms cm. Conserving the high flexibility opened new possibilities and applications.

  16. Magnetophonon oscillations caused by acoustic phonons in bulk conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons under a magnetic field leads to a remarkable kind of magnetophonon oscillation of transport coefficients, recently discovered in two-dimensional electron systems. The present study shows that similar oscillations exist in bulk conductors and provides a theory of this phenomenon for the case of spherical Fermi surfaces. The resonance peaks occur when the product of the Fermi surface diameter by the sound velocity is a multiple of the cyclotron frequency. Theoretical predictions may facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon.

  17. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  18. Effects of 2 G on adiposity, leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and uncoupling protein-1 in lean and obese Zucker rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Hamilton, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Male Zucker rats were exposed to 2 G for 8 wk to test the hypothesis that the leptin regulatory pathway contributes to recovery from effects of 2 G on feeding, growth, and nutrient partitioning. After initial hypophagia, body mass-independent food intake of the lean rats exposed to 2 G surpassed that of the lean rats maintained at 1 G, but food intake of the obese rats exposed to 2 G remained low. After 8 wk at 2 G, body mass and carcass fat were less in both genotypes. Leptin and percent fat were lower in lean rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G but did not differ in obese rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G. Although exposure to 2 G did not alter uncoupling protein-1 levels, it did elicit white fat pad-specific changes in lipoprotein lipase activity in obese but not lean rats. We conclude that 2 G affects both genotypes but that the lean Zucker rats recover their food intake and growth rate and retain "normal" lipoprotein lipase activity to a greater degree than do the obese rats, emphasizing the importance of a functional leptin regulatory pathway in this acclimation.

  19. Nanostructured Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, J.-P.

    In many branches of technology where surfaces are playing a growing role, the use of coatings is often the only way to provide surfaces with specific functional properties. For example, the austenitic stainless steels or titanium alloys exhibit poor resistance to wear and low hardness values, which limits the field of applications. The idea then is to develop new solutions which would improve the mechanical performance and durability of objects used in contact and subjected to mechanical forces in hostile gaseous or liquid environments. Hard coatings are generally much sought after to enhance the resistance to wear and corrosion. They are of particular importance because they constitute a class of protective coatings which is already widely used on an industrial scale to improve the hardness and lifetime of cutting tools.

  20. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.