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Sample records for 2h nmr spectra

  1. Site-resolved 2H relaxation experiments in solid materials by global line-shape analysis of MAS NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.

  2. Synthesis and complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 6-substituted and 2,6-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Vila, Noemi; Chessa, Carla; Terán, Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Several pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized starting from alkyl furans using oxidation with singlet oxygen to give 4-methoxy or 4-hydroxybutenolides, key intermediates of the synthetic strategy followed. For all pyridazinones reported, a complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, which included NOE, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments, was accomplished. Correlations between the chemical shifts of the heterocyclic ring atoms and substituents at N-2 and C-6 were analyzed.

  3. 2H NMR studies of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, R.; Nowaczyk, A.; Geil, B.; Bohmer, R.

    2007-11-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid, deuterated at the methyl group, was investigated using 2H-NMR in its supercooled and glassy states. Just above the glass transition temperature the molecular reorientations were studied using stimulated-echo spectroscopy and demonstrated a large degree of similarity with other glass formers. Deep in the glassy phase the NMR spectra look similar to those reported for the crystal [A. Detken, P. Focke, H. Zimmermann, U. Haeberlen, Z. Olejniczak, Z. T. Lalowicz, Z. Naturforsch. A 50 (1995) 95] and below 20 K they are indicative for rotational tunneling with a relatively large tunneling frequency. Measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation times for temperatures below 150 K reveal a broad distribution of correlation times in the glass. The dominant energy barrier characterizing the slow-down of the methyl group is significantly smaller than the well defined barrier in the crystal.

  4. Synthesis, experimental spectra (IR & Raman and NMR), vibrational analysis and theoretical DFT investigations of N-(5-(4-methylbenzoyl)-2-oxo-4-(4-methylphenyl)pyrimidine-1(2H)-yl)-4-methylbenzamide.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Lütfiye; Şahan, Emine; Önal, Zülbiye; Özpozan, Talat

    2014-08-14

    The title molecule, N-(5-(4-methylbenzoyl)-2-oxo-4-(4-methylphenyl)pyrimidine-1(2H)-yl)-4-methylbenzamide (C27H23N3O3), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, Raman, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data. To determine conformational flexibility, potential energy surfaces of the title compound were obtained by DFT regarding the selected degree of torsional freedom, which was varied from 0° to 360° in 6° and 20° steps. The ten conformers of the title compound were determined and it was found that the conformer 1 basis the most stable one. All conformers were also optimized by using the density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets in the ground state. Potential energy distribution was calculated with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational spectra were recorded in solid phase IR and Raman spectra were compared based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The formation of hydrogen bonds was explained using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and spectroscopic analysis. NMR analysis and frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) were also investigated by DFT.

  5. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-09

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  6. Computer Simulation of NMR Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a PASCAL computer program which provides interactive analysis and display of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra from spin one-half nuclei using a hard-copy or monitor. Includes general and theoretical program descriptions, program capability, and examples of its use. (Source for program/documentation is included.)…

  7. 2H-DNP-enhanced 2H–13C solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    Perdeuteration of biological macromolecules for magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy can yield high-resolution 2H–13C correlation spectra and the method is therefore of great interest for the structural biology community. Here we demonstrate that the combination of sample deuteration and dynamic nuclear polarization yields resolved 2H–13C correlation spectra with a signal enhancement of ε ≥ 700 compared to a spectrum recorded with microwaves off and otherwise identical conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 2H-DNP has been employed to enhance MAS-NMR spectra of a biologically relevant system. The DNP process is studied using several polarizing agents and the technique is applied to obtain 2H–13C correlation spectra of U-[2H, 13C] proline. PMID:20458422

  8. A 2H and 14N NMR study of molecular motion in polycrystalline choline salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratum, T. K.; Klein, M. P.

    2H and 14N solid-state NMR spectra of polycrystalline choline chloride, bromide, and iodide indicate that 180° cation flipping motion occurs in all three salts. From the temperature dependence of these spectra, the activation energy for this motion is determined to be 5.8 ± I kcal/mol in the iodide salt and 11 ± 1.5 kcal/mol in the chloride salt. In the bromide salt the reorientation rate is too rapid to be determined from the NMR lineshape, but the temperature dependence of the 2H quadrupole coupling parameters is indicative of a second-order phase transition at approximately 273 K. The spectral distortions in the 14N NMR spectra of the chloride and iodide salts are adequately explained using the motional model derived from the 2H NMR results, while the 14N spectra of the bromide salt show no motional effects. The axis of reorientation which is inferred from these data appears to be consistent with that indicated in a previous X-ray crystallographic study.

  9. Sensitivity of 2H NMR spectroscopy to motional models: Proteins and highly viscous liquids as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Korpala, A.; Kozlowski, A.; Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J.

    2012-06-01

    In order to study to what extent mechanisms of molecular motion can be unambiguously revealed by 2H NMR spectroscopy, 2H spectra for proteins (chicken villin protein headpiece HP36, selectively methyl-deuterated at leucine-69, Cδ D3) and binary systems of high viscosity (benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate) have been carefully analyzed as illustrative examples (the spectra are taken from the literature). In the first case, a model of restricted diffusion mediated by jumps between rotameric orientations has been tested against jump- and free diffusion models which describe rotational motion combined with jump dynamics. It has been found that the set of 2H spectra of methyl-deuterated at leucine-69 chicken villin protein headpiece HP36 can be consistently explained by different motional models as well as by a Gaussian distribution of correlation times assuming isotropic rotation (simple Brownian diffusion model). The last finding shows that when the possible distribution of correlation times is not very broad one might not be able to distinguish between heterogeneous and homogenous (but more complex) dynamics by analyzing 2H lineshapes. For benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate, the dynamics is heterogeneous and it has been demonstrated that a Gaussian distribution of correlation times reproduces well the experimental lineshapes, while for a Cole-Davidson distribution the agreement is somewhat worse. For inquires into the sensitivity of quadrupolar NMR spectral analysis (by "quadrupolar NMR spectroscopy we understand NMR spectroscopy of nuclei possessing quadrupole moment), the recently presented theoretical approach [Kruk et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224511 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3664783 has been used as it allows simulating quadrupolar spectra for arbitrary motional conditions by employing the stochastic Liouville equation.

  10. NMR resonance splitting of urea in stretched hydrogels: proton exchange and (1)H/(2)H isotopologues.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, Philip W; Naumann, Christoph; Chapman, Bogdan E; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Håkansson, Pär; Bacskay, George; Hush, Noel S

    2014-10-01

    Urea at ∼12 M in concentrated gelatin gel, that was stretched, gave (1)H and (2)H NMR spectral splitting patterns that varied in a predictable way with changes in the relative proportions of (1)H2O and (2)H2O in the medium. This required consideration of the combinatorics of the two amide groups in urea that have a total of four protonation/deuteration sites giving rise to 16 different isotopologues, if all the atoms were separately identifiable. The rate constant that characterized the exchange of the protons with water was estimated by back-transformation analysis of 2D-EXSY spectra. There was no (1)H NMR spectral evidence that the chiral gelatin medium had caused in-equivalence in the protons bonded to each amide nitrogen atom. The spectral splitting patterns in (1)H and (2)H NMR spectra were accounted for by intra-molecular scalar and dipolar interactions, and quadrupolar interactions with the electric field gradients of the gelatin matrix, respectively.

  11. Probing Perturbation of Bovine Lung Surfactant Extracts by Albumin using DSC and 2H-NMR

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Kaushik; Keough, Kevin M. W.; Morrow, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Lung surfactant (LS), a lipid-protein mixture, forms films at the lung air-water interface and prevents alveolar collapse at end expiration. In lung disease and injury, the surface activity of LS is inhibited by leakage of serum proteins such as albumin into the alveolar hypophase. Multilamellar vesicular dispersions of a clinically used replacement, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), to which (2% by weight) chain-perdeuterated dipalmitoylphosphatidycholine (DPPG mixtures-d62) had been added, were studied using deuterium-NMR spectroscopy (2H-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC scans of BLES showed a broad gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition between 10–35°C, with a temperature of maximum heat flow (Tmax) around 27°C. Incorporation of the DPPC-d62 into BLES-reconstituted vesicles did not alter the Tmax or the transition range as observed by DSC or the hydrocarbon stretching modes of the lipids observed using infrared spectroscopy. Transition enthalpy change and 2H-NMR order parameter profiles were not significantly altered by addition of calcium and cholesterol to BLES. 2H-NMR spectra of the DPPC-d62 probes in these samples were characteristic of a single average lipid environment at all temperatures. This suggested either continuous ordering of the bilayer through the transition during cooling or averaging of the DPPC-d62 environment by rapid diffusion between small domains on a short timescale relative to that characteristic of the 2H-NMR experiment. Addition of 10% by weight of soluble bovine serum albumin (1:0.1, BLES/albumin, dry wt/wt) broadened the transition slightly and resulted in the superposition of 2H-NMR spectral features characteristic of coexisting fluid and ordered phases. This suggests the persistence of phase-separated domains throughout the transition regime (5–35°C) of BLES with albumin. The study suggests albumin can cause segregation of protein bound-lipid domains in surfactant at NMR timescales (10−5 s

  12. Local structure and molecular motions in imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal as studied by 2H and 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, M.; Chizuwa, M.; Umiyama, T.; Kumagai, Y.; Miyatou, T.; Ohashi, R.; Ida, T.; Tansho, M.; Shimizu, T.

    2015-04-01

    The local structure and molecular motion of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal were investigated using solid-state 2H and 13C NMR. The imidazolium ion undergoes isotropic rotation, which is correlated with a defect in the crystal, as observed by 2H NMR broadline spectra above 263 K. A 180∘ flip of the imidazolium ion in the regular site was observed from 2H NMR quadrupole Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra. The Grotthuss mechanism was accompanied by a 180∘ flip of the imidazolium ion in regular sites. Moreover, the proton transfer associated with the imidazolium ion of the defective crystal is important for proton conductivity of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal.

  13. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices.

    PubMed

    Herbers, C R; Sauer, D; Vogel, M

    2012-03-28

    We use (2)H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids.

  14. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbers, C. R.; Sauer, D.; Vogel, M.

    2012-03-01

    We use 2H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids.

  15. Solid-State NMR Study of Paramagnetic Bis(alaninato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) and Bis(1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) Complexes: Reflection of Stereoisomerism and Molecular Mobility in (13)C and (2)H Fast Magic Angle Spinning Spectra.

    PubMed

    Szalontai, Gábor; Csonka, Róbert; Speier, Gábor; Kaizer, József; Sabolović, Jasmina

    2015-05-18

    Solid-state stereochemistry and mobility of paramagnetic copper(II) complexes formed by aliphatic amino acids (l-alanine, d,l-alanine, 1-amino-2-methyl-alanine) and 1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylic acids (alkane = propane, butane, pentane, hexane) as bidentate ligands has been studied by (13)C and (2)H solid-state fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. We examined the prospective method to characterize solid-state paramagnetic compounds in a routine way. Both (13)C and (2)H MAS spectra can distinguish d,l and l,l diastereomers of natural and polydeuterated bis([Dn]alaninato)copper(II) (n = 0, 2, 8) complexes with axial and/or equatorial methyl positions (conformations) primarily due to different Fermi-contact (FC) contributions. The three-bond hyperfine couplings clearly show Karplus-like dependence on the torsional angles which turned out to be a useful assignment aid. Density functional theory calculations of the FC term and crystal structures were also used to aid the final assignments. The correlations obtained for bis(alaninato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) complexes were successfully used to characterize other complexes. The usefulness of the (2)H MAS spectra of the deuterated complexes was underlined. Even the spectra of the easily exchangeable amine protons contained essential stereochemical information. In the case of a dimer structure of bis(1-aminohexane-1-carboxylato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) both the (13)C and (2)H resolutions were good enough to confirm the presence of the cis and trans forms in the asymmetric unit. With regard to the internal solid-state motions in the crystal lattice, the obtained quadrupolar tensor parameters were similar for the d,l- and l,l-alaninato isomers and also for the cis-trans forms suggesting similar crystal packing effects, static amine deuterons involved in hydrogen bonding, and fast rotating methyl groups.

  16. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in cat brain using intracarotid 2H2O and 2H NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Detre, J.A.; Subramanian, V.H.; Mitchell, M.D.; Smith, D.S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zaman, A.; Leigh, J.S. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in cat brain in vivo at 2.7 T using 2H NMR to monitor the washout of deuterated saline injected into both carotid arteries via the lingual arteries. In anesthetized cats, global CBF varied directly with PaCO{sub 2} over a range of 20-50 mm Hg, and the corresponding global CBF values ranged from 25 to 125 ml.100 g-1.min-1. Regional CBF was measured in a 1-cm axial section of cat brain using intracarotid deuterated saline and gradient-echo 2H NMR imaging. Blood flow images with a maximum pixel resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.0 cm were generated from the deuterium signal washout at each pixel. Image derived values for CBF agreed well with other determinations, and decreased significantly with hypocapnia.

  17. Raftlike Mixtures of Sphingomyelin and Cholesterol Investigated by Solid-State 2H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Tim; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingomyelin is a lipid that is abundant in the nervous systems of mammals, where it is associated with putative microdomains in cellular membranes and undergoes alterations due to aging or neurodegeneration. We investigated the effect of varying the concentration of cholesterol in binary and ternary mixtures with N-palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2H NMR) spectroscopy in both macroscopically aligned and unoriented multilamellar dispersions. In our experiments, we used PSM and POPC perdeuterated on the N-acyl and sn-1 acyl chains, respectively. By measuring solid-state 2H NMR spectra of the two lipids separately in mixtures with the same compositions as a function of cholesterol mole fraction and temperature, we obtained clear evidence for the coexistence of two liquid-crystalline domains in distinct regions of the phase diagram. According to our analysis of the first moments M1 and the observed 2H NMR spectra, one of the domains appears to be a liquid-ordered phase. We applied a mean-torque potential model as an additional tool to calculate the average hydrocarbon thickness, the area per lipid, and structural parameters such as chain extension and thermal expansion coefficient in order to further define the two coexisting phases. Our data imply that phase separation takes place in raftlike ternary PSM/POPC/cholesterol mixtures over a broad temperature range but vanishes at cholesterol concentrations equal to or greater than a mole fraction of 0.33. Cholesterol interacts preferentially with sphingomyelin only at smaller mole fractions, above which a homogeneous liquid-ordered phase is present. The reasons for these phase separation phenomena seem to be differences in the effects of cholesterol on the configurational order of the palmitoyl chains in PSM-d31 and POPC-d31 and a difference in the affinity of cholesterol for sphingomyelin observed at low temperatures

  18. Double and zero quantum filtered 2H NMR analysis of D2O in intervertebral disc tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooms, Kristopher J.; Vega, Alexander J.; Polenova, Tatyana; Cannella, Marco; Marcolongo, Michele

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of double and zero quantum filtered 2H NMR spectra obtained from D2O perfused in the nucleus pulposus of human intervertebral disc tissue samples is reported. Fitting the spectra with a three-site model allows for residual quadrupolar couplings and T2 relaxation times to be measured. The analysis reveals changes in both the couplings and relaxation times as the tissue begins to show signs of degradation. The full analysis demonstrates that information about tissue hydration, water collagen interactions, and sample heterogeneity can be obtained and used to better understand the biochemical differences between healthy and degraded tissue.

  19. Phase Transitions, Hydrogen Bond and Crystal Dynamics of p-Methylbenzyl Alcohol as Studied by Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction and 2H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Masao; Harada, Michiko; Mizunoa, Motohiro; Hamada, Masanori; Ida, Tomonori; Suhara, Masahiko

    2002-07-01

    The title compound (pMBA) was found to undergo a first-order phase transition at 211 K (Tc1). Another transition with subtle enthalpy change appeared at 172 K (Tc2). Crystal structure determinations at various temperatures revealed that the transition at Tc1 was accompanied by remarkable changes in the molecular conformations around the CH2-C and O-CH2 bonds and a reversal of the direction of the O-H O hydrogen bond. Experiments of 2H NMR were carried out on pMBA-d where the hydroxyl hydrogen of pMBA was selectively deuterated. Analyses of the 2H NMR spectra and the temperature dependence of T1 of the 2H NMR indicated occurrence of jumping motions of 2H between asymmetric potential wells at temperatures lower than Tc1

  20. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Romani, P. N.; Abbas, M.; LeClair, A.; Strobel, D.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are important tracers in Jupiter's atmosphere, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of the vertical and meridional variations of their abundances has remained sparse. During the flyby of the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument was used to map the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm(sup -1) (1000-7 microns). In this paper we analyze a zonally-averaged set of CIRS spectra taken at the highest (0.5 cm(sup -1)) resolution, to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 band of CH4, and in the troposphere at 150-400 mbar, via the H2 absorption at 600-800 cm(sup -1). Simultaneously, we retrieve the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIRS resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, such that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot both be found without additional constraints. Assuming profile gradients from photochemical calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 decreases sharply towards the poles by a factor approximately 4, while C2H6 is unchanged in the north and increasing in the south, by a factor approximately 1.8. An explanation for the meridional trends is proposed in terms of a combination of photochemistry and dynamics. Poleward, the decreasing UV flux is predicted to decrease the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 by factors 2.7 and 3.5 respectively at a latitude 70 deg. However, the lifetime of C2H6 in the stratosphere (5 x 10(exp 9)) is much longer than the dynamical timescale for meridional motions inferred from SL-9 debris (5 x 10(exp 8 s)), and therefore the constant or rising abundance towards high latitudes likely indicates that meridional mixing dominates over photochemical effects. For C2H2, the opposite

  1. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Abbas, M.; LeClaire, A.; Romani, P. N.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The abundances of hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) in Jupiter's atmosphere are important physical quantities, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of these quantities and their vertical and latitudinal variations has remained sparse. The flyby of the Cassini spacecraft with Jupiter at the end of 2000 provided an excellent opportunity to observe the infrared spectrum with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument, mapping the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm-1. CIRS spectra taken at the highest resolution (0.5 cm-1) in early December 2000 have been analysed to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 of CH4, and in the troposphere at 100-400 mbar, via the hydrogen collision-induced continuum absorption at 600-800 cm. Simultaneously, we have searched for meridional abundance variations in C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIM resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, which means that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot be simultaneously found without additional constraints. If we assume the profile shapes from photochemical model calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 must decrease sharply towards the poles, while C2H6 is constant or slightly increasing. The relevance of these results to current photochemical and dynamical knowledge of Jupiter's atmosphere is discussed.

  2. Effects of various types of molecular dynamics on 1D and 2D (2)H NMR studied by random walk simulations

    PubMed

    Vogel; Rossler

    2000-11-01

    By carrying out random walk simulations we systematically study the effects of various types of complex molecular dynamics on (2)H NMR experiments in solids. More precisely, we calculate one-dimensional (1D) (2)H NMR spectra and the results of two dimensional (2D) (2)H NMR experiments in time domain, taking into account isotropic as well as highly restricted motions which involve rotational jumps about different finite angles. Although the dynamical models are chosen to mimic the primary and secondary relaxation in supercooled liquids and glasses, we do not intend to describe experimental results quantitatively but rather to show general effects appearing for complex reorientations. We carefully investigate whether 2D (2)H NMR in time domain, which was originally designed to measure correlation times of ultraslow motions (tau >/= 1 ms), can be used to obtain shorter tau, too. It is demonstrated that an extension of the time window to tau >/= 10 &mgr;s is possible when dealing with exponential relaxation, but that it will fail if there is a distribution of correlation times G(lgtau). Vice versa, we show that 1D (2)H NMR spectra, usually recorded to look at dynamics with tau in the microsecond regime, are also applicable for studying ultraslow motions provided that the loss of correlation is achieved step by step. Therefore, it is useful to carry out 1D and 2D NMR experiments simultaneously in order to reveal the mechanism of complex molecular motions. In addition, we demonstrate that highly restricted dynamics can be clearly observed in 1D spectra and in 2D NMR in time domain if long solid-echo delays and large evolution times are applied, respectively. Finally, unexpected observations are described which appear in the latter experiment when considering very broad distributions G(lgtau). Because of these effects, time scale and geometry of a considered motion cannot be extracted from a straightforward analysis of experimental results. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Quantifying unfrozen water in frozen soil by high-field 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Sparrman, Tobias; Oquist, Mats; Klemedtsson, Leif; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats

    2004-10-15

    To understand wintertime controls of biogeochemical processes in high latitude soils it is essential to distinguish between direct temperature effects and the effects of changes in water availability mediated by freezing. Efforts to separate these controls are hampered by a lack of adequate methods to determine the proportion of unfrozen water. In this study we present a high-field 2H2O NMR method for quantifying unfrozen water content in frozen soil. The experimental material consisted of the humic layer of a boreal spruce forest soil mixed with varying proportions of quartz sand and humidified with deuterium-enriched water. The relative standard deviation of unfrozen water content (measured as NMR signal integral) was less than 2% for repeated measurements on a given sample and 3.5% among all samples, based on a total of 16 measurements. As compared to 1H NMR, this 2H NMR method was found to be superior for several reasons: it is less sensitive to field inhomogeneity and paramagnetic impurities, it gives a bigger line shape difference between the ice and liquid signal, it shows a sharper response to water fusion, and it excludes the possibility of hydrogen in the organic material interfering with the measurement.

  4. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state.

  5. Synthesis of (R)-[2-2H]isopentenyl diphosphate and determination of its enantiopurity by 2H NMR spectroscopy in a lyotropic medium.

    PubMed

    Leyes, A E; Poulter, C D

    1999-10-07

    [formula: see text] The synthesis of (R)-[2-2H]isopentenyl diphosphate from D-mannitol 1,2:5,6-bis-acetonide in 10 steps is reported. Stereospecific incorporation of the label is achieved by a BF3-catalyzed NaCNBD3 reduction of the enantiomerically pure (S)-isopropylidene oxirane intermediate. The enantiomeric excess of the penultimate precursor [2-2H]isopentenyl tosylate (> 95% ee) was determined by 2H NMR spectroscopy in a poly-gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate/CH2Cl2 liquid crystal at -50 degrees C.

  6. Characterization of the myristoyl lipid modification of membrane-bound GCAP-2 by 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Alexander; Schröder, Thomas; Lange, Christian; Huster, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Guanylate cyclase-activating protein-2 (GCAP-2) is a retinal Ca2+ sensor protein. It is responsible for the regulation of both isoforms of the transmembrane photoreceptor guanylate cyclase, a key enzyme of vertebrate phototransduction. GCAP-2 is N-terminally myristoylated and full activation of its target proteins requires the presence of this lipid modification. The structural role of the myristoyl moiety in the interaction of GCAP-2 with the guanylate cyclases and the lipid membrane is currently not well understood. In the present work, we studied the binding of Ca2+-free myristoylated and non-myristoylated GCAP-2 to phospholipid vesicles consisting of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine or of a lipid mixture resembling the physiological membrane composition by a biochemical binding assay and 2H solid-state NMR. The NMR results clearly demonstrate the full-length insertion of the aliphatic chain of the myristoyl group into the membrane. Very similar geometrical parameters were determined from the 2H NMR spectra of the myristoyl group of GCAP-2 and the acyl chains of the host membranes, respectively. The myristoyl chain shows a moderate mobility within the lipid environment, comparable to the acyl chains of the host membrane lipids. This is in marked contrast to the behavior of other lipid-modified model proteins. Strikingly, the contribution of the myristoyl group to the free energy of membrane binding of GCAP-2 is only on the order of -0.5 kJ/mol, and the electrostatic contribution is slightly unfavorable, which implies that the main driving forces for membrane localization arises through other, mainly hydrophobic, protein side chain-lipid interactions. These results suggest a role of the myristoyl group in the direct interaction of GCAP-2 with its target proteins, the retinal guanylate cyclases.

  7. Identification of acetylene /C2H2/ in infrared atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Gillis, J. R.; Bonomo, F. S.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared atmospheric absorption spectra at 0.02/cm resolution were obtained during a balloon flight on March 23, 1981 from the Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The absorption features, attributed to C2H2, were used to derive a preliminary mixing ratio of about 25 pptv near 9 km, accurate to + or - 40%. This mixing ratio falls into the range of values calculated for the upper troposphere C2H2 in a photochemical/transport model. However, previous measurements from aircraft grab sampling (Cronn and Robinson, 1979) show four to twelve times this C2H2 concentration 1.5 km below the tropopause.

  8. Slow recrystallization of tripalmitoylglycerol from MCT oil observed by 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin W; Smith, Paul R; Furó, István; Pettersson, Erik Thyboll; Cain, Fred W; Favre, Loek; Talbot, Geoff

    2007-10-17

    The crystallization and recrystallization of fats have a significant impact on the properties and quality of many food products. While crystallization has been the subject of a number of studies using pure triacylglycerols (TAG), recrystallization in similarly pure systems is rarely studied. In this work, perdeuterated tripalmitoylglycerol ( (2)H-PPP) was dissolved in medium chain triacylglycerol oil (MCT) to yield a saturated solution. The solution was heated to cause partial melting of the solid and dissolution of the molten fraction of (2)H-PPP in MCT and was then cooled to the original temperature to induce recrystallization from the supersaturated solution. (2)H NMR was used to monitor the disappearance of (2)H-PPP from the solution and showed that recrystallization occurred in two steps. The first step was rapid, taking place over a few minutes, and accounted for more than two-thirds of the total recrystallization. The second step was much slower, taking place over a remarkably long timescale of hours to days. It is proposed that dissolution occurs from all parts of the crystals, leaving an etched and pitted surface. The first step of crystallization is the infilling of these pits, while the second step is the continued growth on the smoothed crystal faces.

  9. Mobility of Core Water in Bacillus subtilis Spores by 2H NMR

    PubMed Central

    Kaieda, Shuji; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Halle, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial spores in a metabolically dormant state can survive long periods without nutrients under extreme environmental conditions. The molecular basis of spore dormancy is not well understood, but the distribution and physical state of water within the spore is thought to play an important role. Two scenarios have been proposed for the spore’s core region, containing the DNA and most enzymes. In the gel scenario, the core is a structured macromolecular framework permeated by mobile water. In the glass scenario, the entire core, including the water, is an amorphous solid and the quenched molecular diffusion accounts for the spore’s dormancy and thermal stability. Here, we use 2H magnetic relaxation dispersion to selectively monitor water mobility in the core of Bacillus subtilis spores in the presence and absence of core Mn2+ ions. We also report and analyze the solid-state 2H NMR spectrum from these spores. Our NMR data clearly support the gel scenario with highly mobile core water (∼25 ps average rotational correlation time). Furthermore, we find that the large depot of manganese in the core is nearly anhydrous, with merely 1.7% on average of the maximum sixfold water coordination. PMID:24209846

  10. Laboratory Spectra of Mixtures of CH4, C2H6, and CH3OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrapa, Rachel; Berry, Matthew T.; Sandford, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is commonly used as a tool for identifying the composition of objects in the Solar System and beyond. Using laboratory spectra, optical constants can be calculated and used to create model spectra for comparison to spectra obtained from infrared telescopes. In this study, the optical constants of mixtures of simple organics, including CH4, C2H6, and CH3OH were calculated from 15 to 70 K, in the frequency range of 9000-500 cm(sup -1) (1.1-20 micrometers), at a spectral resolution of 1 cm(sup -1).

  11. 2Q NMR of 2H2O ordering at solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivokhizhina, Tatiana V.; Wittebort, R. J.

    2014-06-01

    Solvent ordering at an interface can be studied by multiple-quantum NMR. Quantitative studies of 2H2O ordering require clean double-quantum (2Q) filtration and an analysis of 2Q buildup curves that accounts for relaxation and, if randomly oriented samples are used, the distribution of residual couplings. A pulse sequence with absorption mode detection is extended for separating coherences by order and measuring relaxation times such as the 2Q filtered T2. Coherence separation is used to verify 2Q filtration and the 2Q filtered T2 is required to extract the coupling from the 2Q buildup curve when it is unresolved. With our analysis, the coupling extracted from the buildup curve in 2H2O hydrated collagen was equivalent to the resolved coupling measured in the usual 1D experiment and the 2Q to 1Q signal ratio was in accord with theory. Application to buildup curves from 2H2O hydrated elastin, which has an unresolved coupling, revealed a large increase in the 2Q signal upon mechanical stretch that is due to an increase in the ordered water fraction while changes in the residual coupling and T2 are small.

  12. TCA Cycle Turnover And Serum Glucose Sources By Automated Bayesian Analysis Of NMR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Matthew E.; Burgess, Shawn; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2004-04-01

    Changes in sources of serum glucose are indicative of a variety of pathological metabolic states. It is possible to measure the sources of serum glucose by the administration of deuterated water to a subject followed by analysis of the 2H enrichment levels in glucose extracted from plasma from a single blood draw by 2H NMR. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior probability densities may then be used to evaluate the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and the Kreb's cycle to serum glucose. Experiments with simulated NMR spectra show that in spectra with a S/N of 20 to 1, the resulting metabolic information may be evaluated with an accuracy of about 4 percent.

  13. A method for direct in vivo measurement of drug concentrations from a single 2H NMR spectrum.

    PubMed

    Evelhoch, J L; McCoy, C L; Giri, B P

    1989-03-01

    The use of 2H-labeled drugs provides a measure of drug concentration in situ directly from a single 2H NMR spectrum obtained with any antenna by correcting only for differential saturation effects. The limit of detection for a drug labeled with three equivalent deuterons is roughly 0.5 mM.

  14. Identification of acetylene (C2H2) in infrared atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Gillis, J. R.; Bonomo, F. S.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-12-01

    Infrared atmospheric absorption spectra at ˜0.02 cm-1 resolution obtained during a balloon flight made on March 23, 1981, show absorption features attributable to C2H2. These features are used to derive a preliminary mixing ratio of ˜25 pptv near 9 km. This mixing ratio falls into the range of values we calculate for upper tropospheric C2H2 in a photochemical/transport model but well below values measured previously in samples collected by other researchers.

  15. Comparative analysis of the orientation of transmembrane peptides using solid-state (2)H- and (15)N-NMR: mobility matters.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Esteban-Martín, Santiago; Salgado, Jesús; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    Many solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches for membrane proteins rely on orientation-dependent parameters, from which the alignment of peptide segments in the lipid bilayer can be calculated. Molecules embedded in liquid-crystalline membranes, such as monomeric helices, are highly mobile, leading to partial averaging of the measured NMR parameters. These dynamic effects need to be taken into account to avoid misinterpretation of NMR data. Here, we compare two common NMR approaches: (2)H-NMR quadrupolar waves, and separated local field (15)N-(1)H polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle (PISEMA) spectra, in order to identify their strengths and drawbacks for correctly determining the orientation and mobility of α-helical transmembrane peptides. We first analyzed the model peptide WLP23 in oriented dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes and then contrasted it with published data on GWALP23 in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). We only obtained consistent tilt angles from the two methods when taking dynamics into account. Interestingly, the two related peptides differ fundamentally in their mobility. Although both helices adopt the same tilt in their respective bilayers (~20°), WLP23 undergoes extensive fluctuations in its azimuthal rotation angle, whereas GWALP23 is much less dynamic. Both alternative NMR methods are suitable for characterizing orientation and dynamics, yet they can be optimally used to address different aspects. PISEMA spectra immediately reveal the presence of large-amplitude rotational fluctuations, which are not directly seen by (2)H-NMR. On the other hand, PISEMA was unable to define the azimuthal rotation angle in the case of the highly dynamic WLP23, though the helix tilt could still be determined, irrespective of any dynamics parameters.

  16. Chain orientation in natural rubber, Part II: 2H-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Rault, J; Marchal, J; Judeinstein, P; Albouy, P A

    2006-11-01

    Stress-induced crystallisation (SIC) and stress-induced melting (SIM) in natural rubbers (NR), unfilled and filled with carbon black (CB) have been studied by (2)H-NMR measurements. Various materials have been swollen with small amount (< 2%) of deuterated alkane chains. The orientation of the amorphous chains, then the local deformation of the amorphous chains during deformation cycles and during stress relaxation, permits to clarify the SIC and SIM processes during hardening and recovery. By mechanical, WAXS and NMR measurements one determines the same critical draw ratio for appearance lambda(A) and disappearance lambda(E) of the crystallites. It is demonstrated that the hysteresis observed by the different techniques (stress sigma, crystallinity chi, NMR splitting Deltanu) are due to the supercooling effect ( lambda(A) > lambda(E), at constant temperature). During hardening at constant strain rate it is found that the local draw ratio remains constant and equal to lambda(A), whereas the crystallinity increases linearly with the macroscopic draw ratio lambda. The hardening sigma approximately (lambda - lambda(A))(2) is then interpreted as a reinforcement effect due to the crystallites, which act as new crosslinks. This confirms the prediction of Flory. In filled rubber the same effects are observed, and the stress amplification factor is determined as a function of the CB content. It is found that the fillers act as nucleation centres for the NR crystallites. The reinforcement of such materials is due principally to this nucleation effect and to the presence of a super network formed by both the NR crystallites and the CB fillers.

  17. Measurements of intracellular volumes by 59Co and 2H/1H NMR and their physiological applications.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Nadir; Navon, Gil

    2005-04-01

    Determination of the intracellular water volumes using NMR spectroscopy was performed using the NMR-visible nuclei: 59Co and 2H or 1H. Accurate measurement of intracellular water in cell suspensions and perfused organs is an important physiological parameter in the context of electrolyte homeostasis and energy metabolism, in particular when these parameters are monitored by non-invasive NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, repeated or continuous monitoring of intracellular water provided significant insights into the physiology of cardiac muscle and sarcolemmal membrane permeability and integrity.

  18. Order and dynamics in mixtures of membrane glucolipids from Acholeplasma laidlawii studied by sup 2 H NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, P.O.; Rilfors, L.; Lundberg, A.; Lindblom, G.; Wieslander, A. )

    1991-05-21

    The two dominant glucolipids in Acholeplasma laidlawii, viz., 1,2-diacyl-3-O-({alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (MGlcDG) and 1,2-diacyl-3-O-({alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-O-{alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (DGlcDG), have markedly different phase behavior. MGlcDG has an ability to form nonlamellar phases, whereas DGlcDG only forms lamellar phases. For maintenance of a stable lipid bilayer, the polar headgroup composition in A. laidlawii is metabolically regulated in vivo, in response to changes in the growth conditions. To investigate the mechanism behind the lipid regulation the authors have here studied bilayers of mixtures of unsaturated MGlcDG and DGlcDG, containing a small fraction of biosynthetically incorporated per-deuterated palmitic acid, with {sup 2}H NMR. The order-parameter profile of the acyl chains and an apparent transverse spin relaxation rate (R{sub 2}) were determined from dePaked quadrupole-echo spectra. The variation of order with lipid composition is rationalized from simple packing constraints. The relaxation data indicate the presence of slow reorientational motions, such as collective bilayer fluctuations and/or lipid lateral diffusion over a curved bilayer surface. The variation of acyl-chain order and bilayer curvature and/or fluctuations with sample composition are discussed in relation to the tendency of MGlcDG to form nonlamellar phases in vitro and in relation to the lipid regulation in vivo.

  19. NMR quadruopole spectra of PZT from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dandan; Walter, Eric J.; Krakauer, Henry

    2006-03-01

    High performance piezoelectric materials are disordered alloys, so it can be difficult to determine the local atomic geometry. Recently, high field NMR measurements have shown great promise as a microscopic probe of ABO3 perovskite-based alloys by their ability to resolve line-splittings due to nuclear quadrupolar coupling with the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus. We report first-principles LDA calculations of the EFG's in monoclinic and tetragonal Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 systems using the linear augmented planewave (LAPW) method, and we compute NMR static powder spectra for ^91Zr, ^47Ti, and ^17O atoms as a function of applied strain. With decreasing c/a ratio PZT converts from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry. We observe that the calculated NMR spectra show dramatic deviations with decreasing c/a from that in tetragonal P4mm well before the electric polarization begins to rotate away from the [001] direction. This indicates that NMR measurements can be a very accurate probe of local structural changes in perovskite piezoelectrics. G. L. Hoatson, D. H. Zhou, F. Fayon, D. Massiot, and R. L. Vold, Phys. Rev. B, 66, 224103 (2002).

  20. Microwave Spectra and Geometries of C2H2\\cdots AuI and C2H4\\cdots AuI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Susanna Louise; Mullaney, John Connor; Sprawling, Matt John; Tew, David Peter; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer has been used to measure the microwave spectra of both C2H2\\cdots AuI and C2H4\\cdots AuI. These complexes are generated via laser ablation at 532 nm of a gold surface in the presence of CF3I and either C2H2 or C2H4 and argon and are stabilized by a supersonic expansion. Rotational (A0, B0, C0) and centrifugal distortion constants (ΔJ, ΔJK and δJ) of each molecule have been determined as well the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants of gold and iodine atoms (χaa(Au}, χbb-χcc(Au), χaa(I) and χbb-χcc(I)). The spectrum of each molecule is consistent with a C2v structure in which the metal atom interacts with the π-orbital of the ethene or ethyne molecule. Isotopic substitutions of atoms within the C2H2 or C2H4 subunits are in progress and in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations will allow for accurate determination of the geometry of each molecule.

  1. Use of rotary echoes in 2H magic-angle spinning NMR for the quantitative study of molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Naomi H. M.; Boulton, Paul J. T.; Zorin, Vadim E.; Harris, Robin K.; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2009-06-01

    The interaction of sample spinning and chemical dynamics is analysed in the context of 2H magic-angle spinning NMR. We develop previous analyses and show that a metric based on the intensity of rotational echoes allows kinetic information to be derived without the need for full modelling of the NMR response. This approach is illustrated on the conformational exchange of 1,4-dioxane included in the channel solvate hydrate formed with finasteride. An activation barrier in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical estimates is obtained, without the need for modelling which would be very challenging due to the anisotropic tumbling of the solvent molecules.

  2. /sup 2/H-NMR studies of hypocotyl cell walls of germinating beams supplied with perdeuterated myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Wallace, J.C.; MacKay, A.L.; Balza, F.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1987-04-01

    When myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol (MI) was supplied to bean seeds by imbibition, only uronic acid, arabinose and xylose residues of cell wall polysaccharides were labeled. To study the structural mobility of the uronic acid- and/or pentose-rich polysaccharides in cell wall using /sup 2/H-NMR, the authors supplied perdeuterated MI with (2-/sup 3/H) MI to germinating bean seeds. Perdeuterated MI was prepared by the /sup 1/H-/sup 2/H exchange reaction of MI in deuterium oxide with Raney nickel. During the exchange reaction, extensive epimerization occurred and at least 6 inositol epimers in addition to MI were identified in the reaction mixture of GC/MS. The perdeuterated MI was completely resolved from other inositol epimers and purified by anion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 1 (borate form) and by crystallization. The /sup 2/H-NMR analysis resolved the /sup 2/H-labeled hypocotyl cell walls into two components (rigid and mobile components). They also report the distribution of /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H from perdeuterated and (2-/sup 3/H) MI in the cell wall sugar residues.

  3. Nanostructural effects on polymer and water dynamics in cellulose biocomposites: (2)h and (13)c NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Camilla; Prakobna, Kasinee; Berglund, Lars A; Furó, István

    2015-05-11

    Improved moisture stability is desired in cellulose biocomposites. In order to clarify nanostructural effects, a new approach is presented where water and polymer matrix mobilities are characterized separately. Nanocomposites from cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in the xyloglucan (XG) biopolymer matrix are investigated at different hydration states. Films of XG, CNF, and CNF/XG composites are subjected to detailed (2)H and (13)C NMR relaxation studies. Since the (2)H NMR signal arises from heavy water and the (13)C signal from the polysaccharides, molecular water and polymer dynamics is for the first time investigated separately. In the neat components, (2)H transverse relaxation (T2) data are consistent with water clustering at the CNF fibril surfaces, but bulk spread of moisture in XG. The new method results in a description of water interaction with the nanoscale phases. At low hydration, water molecules at the CNF/XG interface exhibit higher water mobility than in neat CNF or XG, due to locally high water concentration. At the same time, CNF-associated interphase segments of XG show slower NMR-dynamics than that in neat XG.

  4. MICROWAVE SPECTRA AND GEOMETRIES OF C2H_{2\\cdots AgI} and C2H_{4\\cdots AgI}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Susanna L.; Tew, David Peter; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer has been used to measure the microwave spectra of both C2H_{2\\cdots AgI} and C2H_{4\\cdots AgI}. These complexes are generated via laser ablation at 532 nm of a silver surface in the presence of CF3I and either C2H_{2} or C2H_{4} and argon and are stabilized by a supersonic expansion. Rotational (A0, B0, C0) and centrifugal distortion constants (ΔJ and ΔJK) of each molecule have been determined as well the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants the iodine atom (χaa(I) and χbb-χcc(I)). The spectrum of each molecule is consistent with a C2v structure in which the metal atom interacts with the π-orbital of the ethene or ethyne molecule. Isotopic substitutions of atoms within the C2H_{2} or C2H_{4} subunits are in progress and in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations will allow for accurate determination of the geometry of each molecule. These to complexes are put in the context of the recently studied H2S\\cdots AgI, OC\\cdotsAgI, H3N\\cdots AgI and (CH3)_{3N\\cdots AgI}. S.Z. Riaz, S.L. Stephens, W. Mizukami, D.P. Tew, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, Chem. Phys. Let., 531, 1-12 (2012) S.L. Stephens, W. Mizukami, D.P. Tew, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, J. Chem. Phys., 136(6), 064306 (2012) D.M. Bittner, D.P. Zaleski, S.L. Stephens, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, Study in progress.

  5. Evaluation of algorithms for automated phase correction of NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Hans

    2009-12-01

    In our attempt to fully automate the data acquisition and processing of NMR analysis of dissolved synthetic polymers, phase correction was found to be the most challenging aspect. Several approaches in literature were evaluated but none of these was found to be capable of phasing NMR spectra with sufficient robustness and high enough accuracy to fully eliminate intervention by a human operator. Step by step, aspects from the process of manual/visual phase correction were translated into mathematical concepts and evaluated. This included area minimization, peak height maximization, negative peak minimization and baseline correction. It was found that not one single approach would lead to acceptable results but that a combination of aspects was required, in line again with the process of manual phase correction. The combination of baseline correction, area minimization and negative area penalization was found to give the desired results. The robustness was found to be 100% which means that the correct zeroth order and first order phasing parameters are returned independent of the position of the starting point of the search in this parameter space. When applied to high signal-to-noise proton spectra, the accuracy was such that the returned phasing parameters were within a distance of 0.1-0.4 degrees in the two dimensional parameter space which resulted in an average error of 0.1% in calculated properties such as copolymer composition and end groups.

  6. Flexibility of Ras Lipid Modifications Studied by 2H Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alexander; Tan, Kui-Thong; Waldmann, Herbert; Feller, Scott E.; Brown, Michael F.; Huster, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Human posttranslationally modified N-ras oncogenes are known to be implicated in numerous human cancers. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and computational techniques to determine structural and dynamical details of the lipid chain modifications of an N-ras heptapeptide in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes. Experimentally, 2H NMR spectroscopy was used to study oriented membranes that incorporated ras heptapeptides with two covalently attached perdeuterated hexadecyl chains. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the same system were carried out over 100 ns including 60 DMPC and 4 ras molecules. Several structural and dynamical experimental parameters could be directly compared to the simulation. Experimental and simulated 2H NMR order parameters for the methylene groups of the ras lipid chains exhibited a systematic difference attributable to the absence of collective motions in the simulation and to geometrical effects. In contrast, experimental 2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates for Zeeman order were well reproduced in the simulation. The lack of slower collective motions in the simulation did not appreciably influence the relaxation rates at a Larmor frequency of 115.1 MHz. The experimental angular dependence of the 2H NMR relaxation rates with respect to the external magnetic field was also relatively well simulated. These relaxation rates showed a weak angular dependence, suggesting that the lipid modifications of ras are very flexible and highly mobile in agreement with the low order parameters. To quantify these results, the angular dependence of the 2H relaxation rates was calculated by an analytical model considering both molecular and collective motions. Peptide dynamics in the membrane could be modeled by an anisotropic diffusion tensor with principal values of D‖ = 2.1 × 109 s−1 and D⊥ = 4.5 × 105 s−1. A viscoelastic fitting parameter describing the membrane elasticity, viscosity, and temperature

  7. sup 2 H NMR study of molecular dynamics and organization in the system C sub 12 E sub 4 -water

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksson, U. ); Jonstroemer, M.; Olsson, U.; Soederman, O. ); Klose, G. )

    1991-05-02

    A sample containing 20 wt % of the nonionic surfactant tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}), specifically deuterated in the {alpha}-position, was investigated with {sup 2}H NMR relaxation in H{sub 2}O. From the frequency dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate in the Larmor frequency range 2-55 MHz, it was concluded that the solution contains rodlike micelles. A slow motion in the microsecond time scale, as determined from the transverse relaxation rate, was interpreted taking the flexibility of the rodlike micelles explicitly into account.

  8. 1H-2H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel (1H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from 1H (I = 1/2) to 2H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the 1H-2H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak 2H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1 ⟩ ,|0 ⟩ ,|-1 ⟩ } mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal 2H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  9. Hydration properties of regioselectively etherified celluloses monitored by 2H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Flemming H; Schöbitz, Michael; Schaller, Jens

    2012-06-20

    The hydration properties of 2,3-O-hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and 2,3-O-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were analyzed by multi-nuclear solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. By 13C single-pulse (SP) MAS and cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, differences between the immobile regions and all parts of the polysaccharides were detected as a function of hydration. Complementary information about the water environments was observed by 2H MAS NMR. By this approach it was demonstrated that side chains in 2,3-O-HPC and 2,3-O-HEC were easier to hydrate than the cellulose backbone. Furthermore the motion of water was more restricted (slower) in 2,3-O-HPC than in 2,3-O-HEC. For both polysaccharides the hydration could be explained by a two-step process: in step one increased ordering of the immobile regions occurs after which the entire polymer is hydrated in step two.

  10. Metabolism of excess methionine in the liver of intact rat: an in vivo /sup 2/H NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.E.; Gabel, S.A.; Funk, A.

    1987-11-03

    L-Methionine is the most toxic amino acid if supplied in excess, and the metabolic basis for this toxicity has been extensively studied, with varying conclusions. It is demonstrated here that in vivo /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy provides a useful approach to the study of the hepatic metabolism of methionine in the anesthetized rat. Resonances corresponding to administered L-(methyl-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)methionine, and to the transmethylation product sarcosine, are observed during the first 10-min period after an intravenous injection of the labeled methionine, and the time dependence has been followed for a period of 5 h. A third resonance, assigned to the N-trimethyl groups of carnitine, phosphorylcholine, and other metabolites, becomes observable several hours after administration of the deuteriated methionine. In addition, there is a small increase in the intensity of the HDO resonance over the period of the study, which is interpreted to reflect the ultimate oxidation of the labeled sarcosine methyl group via mitochondrial sarcosine dehydrogenase. Additional small /sup 2/H resonances assigned to N/sup 1/-methylhistidine and creatine could be observed in perchloric acid extracts of the livers of rats treated with the deuteriated methionine. Inhibition of the flux through the transmethylation pathway is observed in the rat pretreated with the S-ethyl analogue of methionine, ethionine. These data provide strong support for the importance of glycine transmethylation in the catabolism of excess methionine.

  11. Probing the role of the ceramide acyl chain length and sphingosine unsaturation in model skin barrier lipid mixtures by (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stahlberg, Sören; Školová, Barbora; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K; Vogel, Alexander; Vávrová, Kateřina; Huster, Daniel

    2015-05-05

    We investigated equimolar mixtures of ceramides with lignoceric acid and cholesterol as models for the human stratum corneum by differential scanning calorimetry and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our reference system consisted of lignoceroyl sphingosine (Cer[NS24]), which represents one of the ceramides in the human stratum corneum. Furthermore, the effect of ceramide acyl chain truncation to 16 carbons as in Cer[NS16] and the loss of the C4 trans double bond as in dihydroceramide Cer[NDS24] were studied. Fully relaxed (2)H NMR spectra were acquired for each deuterated component of each mixture separately, allowing the quantitative determination of the individual lipid phases. At skin temperature, the reference system containing Cer[NS24] is characterized by large portions of each component of the mixture in a crystalline phase, which largely restricts the permeability of the skin lipid barrier. The loss of the C4 trans double bond in Cer[NDS24] leads to the replacement of more than 25% of the crystalline phase by an isotropic phase of the dihydroceramide that shows the importance of dihydroceramide desaturation in the formation of the skin lipid barrier. The truncated Cer[NS16] is mostly found in the gel phase at skin temperature, which may explain its negative effect on the transepidermal water loss in atopic dermatitis patients. These significant alterations in the phase behavior of all lipids are further reflected at elevated temperatures. The molecular insights of our study may help us to understand the importance of the structural parameters of ceramides in healthy and compromised skin barriers.

  12. 2H and 13C NMR studies on the temperature-dependent water and protein dynamics in hydrated elastin, myoglobin and collagen.

    PubMed

    Lusceac, Sorin A; Vogel, Michael R; Herbers, Claudia R

    2010-01-01

    (2)H NMR spin-lattice relaxation and line-shape analyses are performed to study the temperature-dependent dynamics of water in the hydration shells of myoglobin, elastin, and collagen. The results show that the dynamical behaviors of the hydration waters are similar for these proteins when using comparable hydration levels of h=0.25-0.43. Since water dynamics is characterized by strongly nonexponential correlation functions, we use a Cole-Cole spectral density for spin-lattice relaxation analysis, leading to correlation times, which are in nice agreement with results for the main dielectric relaxation process observed for various proteins in the literature. The temperature dependence can roughly be described by an Arrhenius law, with the possibility of a weak crossover in the vicinity of 220 K. Near ambient temperatures, the results substantially depend on the exact shape of the spectral density so that deviations from an Arrhenius behavior cannot be excluded in the high-temperature regime. However, for the studied proteins, the data give no evidence for the existence of a sharp fragile-to-strong transition reported for lysozyme at about 220 K. Line-shape analysis reveals that the mechanism for the rotational motion of hydration waters changes in the vicinity of 220 K. For myoglobin, we observe an isotropic motion at high temperatures and an anisotropic large-amplitude motion at low temperatures. Both mechanisms coexist in the vicinity of 220 K. (13)C CP MAS spectra show that hydration results in enhanced elastin dynamics at ambient temperatures, where the enhancement varies among different amino acids. Upon cooling, the enhanced mobility decreases. Comparison of (2)H and (13)C NMR data reveals that the observed protein dynamics is slower than the water dynamics.

  13. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    -state NMR experiments, most notably in the spectral region corresponding to glycogen H and C, respectively. Interestingly, whereas in both experiments the predominant site of incorporation was in the membrane lipids, the line width of the aliphatic-D resonance in the D2O enriched experiment is 67 % wider than that observed in the D-glucose enriched experiment. This difference could be due to greater residual 1H-2H dipolar coupling in membrane lipids synthesized with 10 % D2O due to D being incorporated during NADP(D) reduction of the fatty acid precursor during synthesis and the H-glucose being the source of carbon and hydrogen starting with acetyl-CoA. In the case of the D-glucose experiment, the narrower absorption line may be consistent with individual FA's being more homogeneously deuterated. Analysis of the membrane lipids is currently being performed via GCMS in order to gain potentially more insight to guide interpretation of the 2H solid state NMR spectra.

  14. Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    LeMaster, D.M.

    1994-12-01

    Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.

  15. sup 31 P and sup 2 H NMR studies of structure and motion in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R. )

    1988-10-04

    The structural and motional properties of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) have been examined by using wide-line {sup 31}P, {sup 14}N, and {sup 2H} NMR. {sup 2}H and {sup 14}N NMR data showed that in mixed bilayers containing both PC and PE the conformations of the head-group moieties are essentially identical with those observed for bilayers containing a single phospholipid species. Equimolar amounts of cholesterol induce also only a small change in head-group conformation. For all phospholipid mixtures studied, the {sup 31}P T{sub 1} relaxation was homogeneous over the whole powder spectrum and could be fitted to a single-exponential decay. The {sup 31}P vs temperature profiles were analyzed by a simple correlation model. The presence of equimolar amounts of PE containing either the same (POPE) or a different (Escherichia coli PE) fatty acid composition had essentially no effect on the rate of rotational diffusion of the phosphate groups, with the correlation time being found to be 0.68 ns at 20{degree}C. The presence of equimolar amounts of cholesterol decreased the correlation time to 0.65 ns, and also the activation energy was reduced to 22.6 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}. The authors interpret the decrease in activation energy as being due to the spacing effect of cholesterol which reduces the H-bonding interactions between head-groups, allowing them to rotate more freely. For all cases examined, the rotational diffusion of the phosphate moieties was slower than that observed for the rigid glycerol backbone of the molecule, the latter probably corresponding to overall phospholipid rotation.

  16. Fluxionality and Isomerism of the Bis(dihydrogen) Complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2): INS, NMR, and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Venancio; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane; Chaudret, Bruno; Thoburn, John; Ulrich, Stefan; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Eckert, Juergen; Barthelat, Jean-Claude; Hussein, Khansaa; Marsden, Colin J.

    1998-07-13

    To study the fluxionality of the bis(dihydrogen) complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (1), NMR spectra were recorded in Freons (mixture of CDCl(3), CDFCl(2), and CDF(2)Cl). 1 was found to remain fluxional at all temperatures, but the presence of CDCl(3) necessary for its solubilization induces its transformation into, first, RuHCl(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (3) and the new ruthenium(IV) dihydride RuH(2)Cl(2)(PCy(3))(2) (4). 4 is produced selectively in pure CDCl(3) but reacts further to give a mixture of chloro complexes. 4 was isolated from the reaction of 1 with aqueous HCl in Et(2)O and shows a fluxional process attributed to the interconversion between two symmetrical isomers. The activation parameters of this process were obtained by (1)H NMR line shape analysis, as well as those corresponding to the exchange between 3 and free dihydrogen. The fluxionality of the dihydrogen-hydride system is also evident at a much faster time scale than that of NMR studies in the inelastic neutron scattering observations of the rotation of the dihydrogen ligands. The geometries and relative energies of several isomers of complexes 1, 3, and 4 were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods, together with a few coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) calculations. In contrast to what might have been expected, the two hydrides and the two H(2) units of 1 lie in the same plane, due to the attractive "cis effect" created by the hydrides. The two H(2) ligands adopt cis positions in the lowest-energy isomer. Rotation of the two dihydrogen ligands has been analyzed using DFT calculations. A slight preference for a C(2) conrotatory pathway has been found with a calculated barrier in good agreement with the experimental INS value. Two low-energy isomers of 4 have been characterized computationally, both of which have C(2)(v)() symmetry, consistent with the solution NMR spectra.

  17. Critical behaviour in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol mixtures: static (2)H NMR line shapes near the critical point.

    PubMed

    Davis, James H; Schmidt, Miranda L

    2014-05-06

    Static (2)H NMR spectroscopy is used to study the critical behavior of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol in molar proportion 37.5:37.5:25 using either chain perdeuterated DPPC-d62 or chain methyl deuterated DPPC-d6. The temperature dependence of the first moment of the (2)H spectrum of the sample made with DPPC-d62 and of the quadrupolar splittings of the chain-methyl-labeled DPPC-d6 sample are directly related to the temperature dependence of the critical order parameter η, which scales as [Formula: see text] near the critical temperature. Analysis of the data reveals that for the chain perdeuterated sample, the value of Tc is 301.51 ± 0.1 K, and that of the critical exponent, βc = 0.391 ± 0.02. The line shape analysis of the methyl labeled (d6) sample gives Tc = 303.74 ± 0.07 K and βc = 0.338 ± 0.009. These values obtained for βc are in good agreement with the predictions of a three-dimensional Ising model. The difference in critical temperature between the two samples having nominally the same molar composition arises because of the lowering of the phase transition temperature that occurs due to the perdeuteration of the DPPC.

  18. Access to experimentally infeasible spectra by pure-shift NMR covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Parella, Teodor

    2016-09-01

    Covariance processing is a versatile processing tool to generate synthetic NMR spectral representations without the need to acquire time-consuming experimental datasets. Here we show that even experimentally prohibited NMR spectra can be reconstructed by introducing key features of a reference 1D CHn-edited spectrum into standard 2D spectra. This general procedure is illustrated with the calculation of experimentally infeasible multiplicity-edited pure-shift NMR spectra of some very popular homonuclear (ME-psCOSY and ME-psTOCSY) and heteronuclear (ME-psHSQC-TOCSY and ME-psHMBC) experiments.

  19. A study of dipolar interactions and dynamic processes of water molecules in tendon by 1H and 2H homonuclear and heteronuclear multiple-quantum-filtered NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eliav, U; Navon, G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of proton exchange on the measurement of 1H-1H, 1H-2H, and 2H-2H residual dipolar interactions in water molecules in bovine Achilles tendons was investigated using double-quantum-filtered (DQF) NMR and new pulse sequences based on heteronuclear and homonuclear multiple-quantum filtering (MQF). Derivation of theoretical expressions for these techniques allowed evaluation of the 1H-1H and 1H-2H residual dipolar interactions and the proton exchange rate at a temperature of 24 degrees C and above, where no dipolar splitting is evident. The values obtained for these parameters at 24 degrees C were 300 and 50 Hz and 3000 s-1, respectively. The results for the residual dipolar interactions were verified by repeating the above measurements at a temperature of 1.5 degrees C, where the spectra of the H2O molecules were well resolved, so that the 1H-1H dipolar interaction could be determined directly from the observed splitting. Analysis of the MQF experiments at 1.5 degrees C, where the proton exchange was in the intermediate regime for the 1H-2H dipolar interaction, confirmed the result obtained at 24 degrees C for this interaction. A strong dependence of the intensities of the MQF signals on the proton exchange rate, in the intermediate and the fast exchange regimes, was observed and theoretically interpreted. This leads to the conclusion that the MQF techniques are mostly useful for tissues where the residual dipolar interaction is not significantly smaller than the proton exchange rate. Dependence of the relaxation times and signal intensities of the MQF experiments on the orientation of the tendon with respect to the magnetic field was observed and analyzed. One of the results of the theoretical analysis is that, in the fast exchange regime, the signal decay rates in the MQF experiments as well as in the spin echo or CPMG pulse sequences (T2) depend on the orientation as the square of the second-rank Legendre polynomial.

  20. Global Modeling of High Resolution IR Spectra of 12C_2H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amyay, B.; Herman, M.; Fayt, A.

    2010-06-01

    A global approach has been developed to calculate vibration-rotation spectra of acetylene in its ground electronic state, now including Coriolis interaction. The acetylene spectroscopic data base has been recently extended and the most recent set of effective Hamiltonian parameters resulting from the fit of experimental line positions gathered from literature up to 9000 cm-1 will be presented. This global model is essential to perform assignments and intensity simulations of high resolution spectra of acetylene, of astrophysical interest. Recent results will be highlighted concerning the FIR, MIR and NIR ranges. M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 105, 2217 (2007). B. Amyay, S. Robert, M. Herman, A. Fayt, B. Raghavendra, A. Moudens, J. Thiévin, B. Rowe, and R. Georges, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 114301 (2009).

  1. Reorientational dynamics and solid-phase transformation of ammonium dicyanamide into dicyandiamide: a (2)H solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Lotsch, Bettina V; Schnick, Wolfgang; Naumann, Ernst; Senker, Jürgen

    2007-10-11

    The reorientational dynamics of ammonium dicyanamide ND4[N(C[triple bond]N)2] and the kinetics as well as the mechanism of the solid-state isomerization reaction from ammonium dicyanamide into dicyandiamide (N[triple bond]C-N==C(NH2)2) was studied by means of 2H and 14N solid-state NMR spectroscopy in a temperature range between 38 and 390 K. Whereas in previous investigations the mechanism of the solid-state transformation was investigated by means of vibrational and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as neutron diffraction, we here present a comprehensive 2H study of the ammonium ion dynamics prior to and during the course of the reaction, thereby highlighting possible cross correlations between dynamics and reactivity involving the ammonium ion. The ND4+ group was found to undergo thermally activated random jumps in a tetrahedral potential, which is increasingly distorted with increasing temperature, giving rise to an asymmetrically compressed or elongated tetrahedron with deviations from the tetrahedral angle of up to 6 degrees . The correlation time follows an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of Ea = 25.8(2) kJ mol(-1) and an attempt frequency of tau0(-1) = 440(80) THz. The spin-lattice relaxation times were fitted according to a simple Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound type model with a T1 minimum of 4 ms at 230 K. Temperature-dependent librational amplitudes were extracted by line-shape simulations between 38 and 390 K and contrasted with those obtained by neutron diffraction, their values ranging between 5 and 28 degrees . The onset and progress of the solid-phase transformation were followed in situ at temperatures above 372 K and could be classified as a strongly temperature-dependent, heterogeneous two-step reaction proceeding with rapid evolution of ammonia and comparatively slow subsequent reintegration into the solid. On the microscopic level, this correlates with a rapid proton transfer -- possibly triggered by a coupling

  2. Proton NMR Spectra: Deceptively Simple and Deceptively Complex Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurst, J. E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes relatively simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments that demonstrate unexpected results of the deceptively simple and deceptively complex types. Background information, experimental procedures, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  3. A new method for the identification of the origin of natural products. Quantitative /sup 2/H NMR at the natural abundance level applied to the characterization of anetholes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.J.; Martin, M.L.; Mabon, F.; Bricont, J.

    1982-05-05

    We have shown by high-field /sup 2/H NMR spectrometry at the natural abundance level that very spectacular differences exist in the interal distribution of /sup 2/H in organic molecules. This phenomenon has been exemplified in particular by the case of ethyl and vinyl derivatives. We show in this study of various anethole samples the potential of this new method as a very powerful tool for the characterization and identification of natural products from different origins.

  4. Phase transition behavior of hydrogen bonded liquid crystal (6BA)2-(BPy) x as studied by 2H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, M.; Tabota, K.; Oigawa, T.; Miyatou, T.; Kumagai, Y.; Ohashi, R.; Ida, T.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal properties and the orientational order of hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals (6BA)2-(BPy)0.4 and (6BA)2-(BPy)0.3 (6BA: 4- n-hexylbenzoicacid, BPy: 4,4'-bipyridine) were investigated by DSC and 2H NMR. On cooling, isotropic liquid - liquid crystal phase transition temperatures were T C= 409 and 405 K for (6BA)2-(BPy)0.4 and (6BA)2-(BPy)0.3, respectively. Thermal anomalies in the liquid crystal phase were observed at T LC1= 402 and T LC2= 375 K for (6BA)2-(BPy)0.4 and at T LC1= 398 and T LC2= 375 K for (6BA)2-(BPy)0.3. For (6BA)2-(BPy)0.4, only the smectic component was created above T LC1. In addition, the nematic component was created below T LC1. The nematic component gradually changed to the smectic component with decreasing temperature and only the smectic component was observed below T LC2. For (6BA)2-(BPy)0.3, only the nematic component was created above T LC2. The phase transition from the nematic phase to the smectic phase took place at around T LC2.

  5. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of BaH 4I 2O 10·2H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuseler, H.; Wagener, M.

    2008-12-01

    By crystallization from strongly acidic aqueous solutions barium-tetrahydrogen-decaoxodiperiodate-dihydrate, BaH 4I 2O 10·2H 2O has been obtained (S.G. C2/ c, No. 15) with the lattice constants a = 12.728(3), b = 7.987(2), c = 9.459(2), and β = 94.07(3). IR and Raman spectra are given and analysed with respect to the internal vibrations of the HIO102- ion and the hydrogen bond system. According to high temperature Raman spectra and DTA and TG measurements, the compound decomposes via unknown salts with the anion IO4- above 230 °C to the corresponding iodate which above 575 °C starts to disproportionate to the periodate Ba 5(IO 6) 2.

  6. Pulse Electron Double Resonance Detected Multinuclear NMR Spectra of Distant and Low Sensitivity Nuclei and Its Application to the Structure of Mn(II) Centers in Organisms.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Eduardo M; Warner, Melissa T; Thomine, Sébastien; Tabares, Leandro C; Un, Sun

    2015-10-29

    The ability to characterize the structure of metal centers beyond their primary ligands is important to understanding their chemistry. High-magnetic-field pulsed electron double resonance detected NMR (ELDOR-NMR) is shown to be a very sensitive approach to measuring the multinuclear NMR spectra of the nuclei surrounding Mn(II) ions. Resolved spectra of intact organisms with resonances arising from (55)Mn, (31)P, (1)H, (39)K, (35)Cl, (23)Na, and (14)N nuclei surrounding Mn(2+) centers were obtained. Naturally abundant cellular (13)C could be routinely measured as well. The amplitudes of the (14)N and (2)H ELDOR-NMR spectra were found to be linearly dependent on the number of nuclei in the ligand sphere. The evolution of the Mn(II) ELDOR-NMR spectra as a function of excitation time was found to be best described by a saturation phenomenon rather than a coherently driven process. Mn(II) ELDOR-NMR revealed details about not only the immediate ligands to the Mn(II) ions but also more distant nuclei, providing a view of their extended structures. This will be important for understanding the speciation and chemistry of the manganese complexes as well as other metals found in organisms.

  7. Self-similarity in NMR Spectra: An Application in Assessing the Level of Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Young; Park, Youngja; Jones, Dean P.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Vidakovic, Brani

    2011-01-01

    High resolution of NMR spectroscopic data of biosamples are a rich source of information on the metabolic response to physiological variation or pathological events. There are many advantages of NMR techniques such as the sample preparation is fast, simple and non-invasive. Statistical analysis of NMR spectra usually focuses on differential expression of large resonance intensity corresponding to abundant metabolites and involves several data preprocessing steps. In this paper we estimate functional components of spectra and test their significance using multiscale techniques. We also explore scaling in NMR spectra and use the systematic variability of scaling descriptors to predict the level of cysteine, an important precursor of glutathione, a control antioxidant in human body. This is motivated by high cost (in time and resources) of traditional methods for assessing cysteine level by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). PMID:21572901

  8. NMR Spectra through the Eyes of a Student: Eye Tracking Applied to NMR Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Topczewski, Anna M.; Tang, Hui; Kendhammer, Lisa K.; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) plays a key role in introductory organic chemistry, spanning theory, concepts, and experimentation. Therefore, it is imperative that the instruction methods for NMR are both efficient and effective. By utilizing eye tracking equipment, the researchers were able to monitor how second-semester organic…

  9. Structure and Dynamics of the Myristoyl Lipid Modification of Src Peptides Determined by 2H Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Holger A.; Huster, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Lipid modifications of proteins are widespread in nature and play an important role in numerous biological processes. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src is equipped with an N-terminal myristoyl chain and a cluster of basic amino acids for the stable membrane association of the protein. We used 2H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the structure and dynamics of the myristoyl chain of myr-Src(2–19), and compare them with the hydrocarbon chains of the surrounding phospholipids in bilayers of varying surface potentials and chain lengths. The myristoyl chain of Src was well inserted in all bilayers investigated. In zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membranes, the myristoyl chain of Src was significantly longer and appears “stiffer” than the phospholipid chains. This can be explained by an equilibrium between the attraction attributable to the insertion of the myristoyl chain and the Born repulsion. In a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine] membrane, where attractive electrostatic interactions come into play, the differences between the peptide and the phospholipid chain lengths were attenuated, and the molecular dynamics of all lipid chains were similar. In a much thicker 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine]/cholesterol membrane, the length of the myristoyl chain of Src was elongated nearly to its maximum, and the order parameters of the Src chain were comparable to those of the surrounding membrane. PMID:19413971

  10. Structure and dynamics of the myristoyl lipid modification of SRC peptides determined by 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Holger A; Huster, Daniel

    2009-05-06

    Lipid modifications of proteins are widespread in nature and play an important role in numerous biological processes. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src is equipped with an N-terminal myristoyl chain and a cluster of basic amino acids for the stable membrane association of the protein. We used (2)H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the structure and dynamics of the myristoyl chain of myr-Src(2-19), and compare them with the hydrocarbon chains of the surrounding phospholipids in bilayers of varying surface potentials and chain lengths. The myristoyl chain of Src was well inserted in all bilayers investigated. In zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membranes, the myristoyl chain of Src was significantly longer and appears "stiffer" than the phospholipid chains. This can be explained by an equilibrium between the attraction attributable to the insertion of the myristoyl chain and the Born repulsion. In a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine] membrane, where attractive electrostatic interactions come into play, the differences between the peptide and the phospholipid chain lengths were attenuated, and the molecular dynamics of all lipid chains were similar. In a much thicker 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine]/cholesterol membrane, the length of the myristoyl chain of Src was elongated nearly to its maximum, and the order parameters of the Src chain were comparable to those of the surrounding membrane.

  11. Quadrupolar magic angle spinning NMR spectra fitted using the Pearson IV function.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, Roman M; Belskaya, Olga B; Talsi, Valentin P; Likholobov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The Pearson IV function was used to fit the asymmetric solid-state (27)Al NMR spectra of alumina based catalysts. A high convergence (correlation coefficient is no less than 0.997) between experimental and simulated spectra was achieved. The decomposition of the (27)Al NMR spectra of zinc/aluminum mixed oxides with different Zn/Al molar ratio revealed an increased fraction (6-9%) of pentacoordinated aluminum atoms in these oxides as compared to γ-Al2O3. As the Zn/Al ratio is raised, the fraction of [AlO6] octahedral units decreases, while the fraction of [AlO4] tetrahedra increases.

  12. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra.

    PubMed

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-26

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  13. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis. PMID:25619991

  14. (1)H NMR spectra dataset and solid-state NMR data of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena M A; Teofilo, Elizita M; Larsen, Flemming H; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-04-01

    In this article the NMR data from chemical shifts, coupling constants, and structures of all the characterized compounds were provided, beyond a complementary PCA evaluation for the corresponding manuscript (E.G. Alves Filho, L.M.A. Silva, E.M. Teofilo, F.H. Larsen, E.S. de Brito, 2017) [3]. In addition, a complementary assessment from solid-state NMR data was provided. For further chemometric analysis, numerical matrices from the raw (1)H NMR data were made available in Microsoft Excel workbook format (.xls).

  15. 2H and 27Al solid-state NMR study of the local environments in Al-doped 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jongsik; Ilott, Andrew J.; Middlemiss, Derek S.; ...

    2015-05-13

    Although substitution of aluminum into iron oxides and oxyhydroxides has been extensively studied, it is difficult to obtain accurate incorporation levels. Assessing the distribution of dopants within these materials has proven especially challenging because bulk analytical techniques cannot typically determine whether dopants are substituted directly into the bulk iron oxide or oxyhydroxide phase or if they form separate, minor phase impurities. These differences have important implications for the chemistry of these iron-containing materials, which are ubiquitous in the environment. In this work, 27Al and 2H NMR experiments are performed on series of Al-substituted goethite, lepidocrocite, and 2-line ferrihydrite in ordermore » to develop an NMR method to track Al substitution. The extent of Al substitution into the structural frameworks of each compound is quantified by comparing quantitative 27Al MAS NMR results with those from elemental analysis. Magnetic measurements are performed for the goethite series to compare with NMR measurements. Static 27Al spin–echo mapping experiments are used to probe the local environments around the Al substituents, providing clear evidence that they are incorporated into the bulk iron phases. As a result, predictions of the 2H and 27Al NMR hyperfine contact shifts in Al-doped goethite and lepidocrocite, obtained from a combined first-principles and empirical magnetic scaling approach, give further insight into the distribution of the dopants within these phases.« less

  16. Detection of HCN and C2H2 in ISO Spectra of Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Chiar, Jean; Goorvitch, David; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Cool oxygen-rich AGB stars were not expected to have organic molecules like HCN in either their photospheres or circumstellar envelopes (CSEs). The discovery of HCN and CS microwave emission from the shallowest CSE layers of these stars was a considerable surprise and much theoretical effort has been expended in explaining the presence of such organics. To further explore this problem, we have undertaken a systematic search of oxygen-rich AGB stellar spectra in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data archive. Our purposes are to find evidence regarding critical molecular species that could be of value in choosing among the proposed theoretical models, to locate spectral features which might give clues to conditions deeper in the CSEs, and to lay the groundwork for future SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) observations. Using carefully reduced observations, we have detected weak absorption features arising from HCN and possibly C2H2 in a small number of oxygen-rich AGB stars. The most compelling case is NML Cyg which shows both HCN (14 microns) and CO2 (15 microns). VY CMa, a similar star, shows evidence for HCN, but not CO2. Two S-type stars show evidence for the C-H bending transitions: W Aql at 14 microns (HCN) and both W Aql and S Cas at 13.7 microns (C2H2). Both W Aql and S Cas as well as S Lyr, a SC-type star, show 3 micron absorption which may arise from the C-H stretch of HCN and C2H2. In the case of NML Cyg, we show that the HCN and CO2 spectral features are formed in the CSE at temperatures well above those of the outermost CSE layers and derive approximate column densities. In the case of the S-stars, we discuss the evidence for the organic features and their photospheric origin.

  17. Quantitative analysis of Earth's field NMR spectra of strongly-coupled heteronuclear systems.

    PubMed

    Halse, Meghan E; Callaghan, Paul T; Feland, Brett C; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2009-09-01

    In the Earth's magnetic field, it is possible to observe spin systems consisting of unlike spins that exhibit strongly coupled second-order NMR spectra. Such spectra result when the J-coupling between two unlike spins is of the same order of magnitude as the difference in their Larmor precession frequencies. Although the analysis of second-order spectra involving only spin-(1/2) nuclei has been discussed since the early days of NMR spectroscopy, NMR spectra involving spin-(1/2) nuclei and quadrupolar (I>(1/2)) nuclei have rarely been treated. Two examples are presented here, the tetrahydroborate anion, BH4-, and the ammonium cation, NH4+. For the tetrahydroborate anion, (1)J((11)B,(1)H)=80.9Hz, and in an Earth's field of 53.3microT, nu((1)H)=2269Hz and nu((11)B)=728Hz. The (1)H NMR spectra exhibit features that both first- and second-order perturbation theory are unable to reproduce. On the other hand, second-order perturbation theory adequately describes (1)H NMR spectra of the ammonium anion, (14)NH4+, where (1)J((14)N,(1)H)=52.75Hz when nu((1)H)=2269Hz and nu((14)N)=164Hz. Contrary to an early report, we find that the (1)H NMR spectra are independent of the sign of (1)J((14)N,(1)H). Exact analysis of two-spin systems consisting of quadrupolar nuclei and spin-(1/2) nuclei are also discussed.

  18. Rototranslational absorption spectra of H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ pairs in the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Frommhold, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    1989-03-01

    For the computation of the induced dipole moments, the collisional H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ complex is treated as a molecule in the self-consistent field and size-consistent, coupled electron pair approximations. The basis set accounts for 95% of the correlation energies and separates correctly at distant range. The average of the induced dipole components is obtained for the case of both H/sub 2/ molecules in the vibrational groundstate (v = v' = 0) and recast in a simple but accurate analytical form. The analytical dipole expression is used for computations of the spectral moments (sum rules) and line shapes of the collision-induced rototranslational absorption spectra of molecular hydrogen in the far infrared, over a range of frequencies from 0 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, and for temperatures from 77 to 300 K, using a quantum formalism. Proven isotropic potential models are input. Numerical consistency of the line-shape calculations with the sum rules is observed at the 1% level. The comparison of the computational results with the available measurements shows agreement within the estimated uncertainties of the measurements of typically better than 10%. This fact suggests that the theory is capable of predicting these spectra reliably at temperatures for which no measurements exist.

  19. Influence of the penetration enhancer isopropyl myristate on stratum corneum lipid model membranes revealed by neutron diffraction and (2)H NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Adina; Stahlberg, Sören; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Lange, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E; Hauß, Thomas; Schroeter, Annett; Huster, Daniel; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2017-05-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) provides the main barrier properties in native skin. The barrier function is attributed to the intercellular lipids, forming continuous multilamellar membranes. In this study, SC lipid membranes in model ratios were enriched with deuterated lipids in order to investigate structural and dynamical properties by neutron diffraction and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Further, the effect of the penetration enhancer isopropyl myristate (IPM) on the structure of a well-known SC lipid model membrane containing synthetically derived methyl-branched ceramide [EOS], ceramide [AP], behenic acid and cholesterol (23/10/33/33wt%) was investigated. IPM supported the formation of a single short-periodicity phase (SPP), in which we determined the molecular organization of CER[AP] and CER[EOS]-br for the first time. Furthermore, the thermotropic phase behavior of the lipid system was analyzed by additional neutron diffraction studies as well as by (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy, covering temperatures of 32°C (physiological skin temperature), 50°C, and 70°C with a subsequent cooldown back to skin temperature. Both techniques revealed a phase transition and a hysteresis effect. During the cooldown, Bragg peaks corresponding to a long-periodicity phase (LPP) appeared. Additionally, (2)H NMR revealed that the IPM molecules are isotopic mobile at all temperatures.

  20. Modeling of collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the fundamental band at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. [Planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The 20-300 K free-free rotovibrational collision-induced absorption (RV CIA) spectra of H2-H2 pairs are presently obtained by a numerical method which, in addition to closely matching known CIA spectra of H2-H2, can reproduce the results of the quantum-mechanical computations to within a few percent. Since the spectral lineshape parameters are derivable by these means from the lowest three quantum-mechanical spectral moments, these outer-planet atmosphere-pertinent model spectra may be computed on even small computers. 35 refs.

  1. Factor analysis of 27Al MAS NMR spectra for identifying nanocrystalline phases in amorphous geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, Martina; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured materials offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of the large interfacial area. Typically, geopolymers with specifically synthesized nanosized zeolites are a promising material for the sorption of pollutants. The structural characterization of these aluminosilicates, however, continues to be a challenge. To circumvent complications resulting from the amorphous character of the aluminosilicate matrix and from the low concentrations of nanosized crystallites, we have proposed a procedure based on factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra. The capability of the proposed method was tested on geopolymers that exhibited various tendencies to crystallize (i) completely amorphous systems, (ii) X-ray amorphous systems with nanocrystalline phases, and (iii) highly crystalline systems. Although the recorded (27)Al MAS NMR spectra did not show visible differences between the amorphous systems (i) and the geopolymers with the nanocrystalline phase (ii), the applied factor analysis unambiguously distinguished these materials. The samples were separated into the well-defined clusters, and the systems with the evolving crystalline phase were identified even before any crystalline fraction was detected by X-ray powder diffraction. Reliability of the proposed procedure was verified by comparing it with (29)Si MAS NMR spectra. Factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra thus has the ability to reveal spectroscopic features corresponding to the nanocrystalline phases. Because the measurement time of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra is significantly shorter than that of (29)Si MAS NMR data, the proposed procedure is particularly suitable for the analysis of large sets of specifically synthesized geopolymers in which the formation of the limited fractions of nanocrystalline phases is desired.

  2. NMR-based metabolic profiling of rice wines by F(2)-selective total correlation spectra.

    PubMed

    Koda, Masanori; Furihata, Kazuo; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-05-16

    In this study, we performed NMR-based metabolic profiling of major rice wines (Japanese sake, Chinese Shaoxing wine, and Korean makgeolli). In the (1)H NMR spectra, the rice wines showed broad resonances in the region of about 7.9-9.0 ppm. These resonances showed many and complex correlations with approximately 0.5-4.5 ppm in the F(2)-selective TOCSY (total correlation spectroscopy) spectra, and these correlations were attributed mainly to peptides. These spectral patterns were characteristic of individual rice wines, and the combination of F(2)-selective TOCSY spectra and principal component analysis enabled us to classify the rice wine species. Furthermore, it also provided information about raw materials, namely, what type of koji (rice koji or wheat koji) was used. These spectra may be useful as a new "fingerprint" for quality control or food authentication.

  3. 13C-NMR spectra and contact time experiment for Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The T(CP) and T(1p) time constants for Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids were determined to be short with T(CP) values ranging from 0.14 ms to 0.53 ms and T(1p) values ranging from 3.3 ms to 5.9 ms. T(CP) or T(1p) time constants at a contact time of 1 ms are favorable for quantification of 13C-NMR spectra. Because of the short T(CP) values, correction factors for signal intensity for various regions of the 13C-NMR spectra would be necessary at contact times greater than 1.1 ms or less than 0.9 ms. T(CP) and T(1p) values have a limited non-homogeneity within Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids. A pulse delay or repeat time of 700 ms is more than adequate for quantification of these 13C-NMR spectra. Paramagnetic effects in these humic substances are precluded due to low inorganic ash contents, low contents of Fe, Mn, and Co, and low organic free-radical contents. The observed T(CP) values suggest that all the carbon types in Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids are fully cross-polarized before significant proton relaxation occurs. The 13C-NMR spectra for Skjervatjern fulvic acid is similar to most aquatic fulvic acids as it is predominantly aliphatic, low in aromaticity (fa1 = 24), low in phenolic content, high in carboxyl content, and has no resolution of a methoxyl peak. The 13C-NMR spectra for Skjervatjern humic acid is also similar to most other aquatic humic acids in that it is also predominantly aliphatic, high in aromaticity (fa1 = 38), moderate in phenolic content, moderate in carboxyl content, and has a clear resolution of a methoxyl carbon region. After the consideration of the necessary 13C-NMR experimental conditions, these spectra are considered to be quantitative. With careful consideration of the previously determined 13C-NMR experimental conditions, quantitative spectra can be obtained for humic substances in the future from the HUMEX site. Possible changes in humic substances due to acidification should be determined from 13C-NMR data.

  4. Molecular Structures from [superscript 1]H NMR Spectra: Education Aided by Internet Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debska, Barbara; Guzowska-Swider, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The article presents the way in which freeware Internet programs can be applied to teach [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy. The computer programs described in this article are part of the educational curriculum that explores spectroscopy and spectra interpretation. (Contains 6 figures.)

  5. NMR spectra and translational diffusion of protons in crystals with hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhin, V. M.; Garmash, V. M.; Tarasov, V. P.

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of proton transport in hydrogen-bond crystals at low temperatures is currently one of important problems in the semiconductor physics. With the use of the NMR spectra of wide-band-gap hydrogen-bond crystals grown in H2O and D2O solutions, we have succeeded in finding a direct proof of the presence of protons in the mobile phase, determined their activation energy in good agreement with the spectra of thermally stimulated depolarization currents and with the infrared spectra, and, as a result, clarified the mechanism of proton transport and tunneling.

  6. Probing stereoselectivity and pro-chirality of hydride transfer during short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase activity: a combined quantitative 2H NMR and computational approach.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Renata A; Ayadi, Farouk; Nemmaoui, Youssef; Silvestre, Virginie; Zhang, Ben-Li; Robins, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Different members of the alcohol oxidoreductase family can transfer the hydride of NAD(P)H to either the re- or the si-face of the substrate. The enantioselectivity of transfer is very variable, even for a range of substrates reduced by the same enzyme. Exploiting quantitative isotopic (2)H NMR to measure the transfer of (2)H from NAD(P)(2)H to ethanol, a range of enantiomeric excess between 0.38 and 0.98, depending on the origin of the enzyme and the nature of the cofactor, has been determined. Critically, in no case was only (R)-[1-(2)H]ethanol or (S)-[1-(2)H]ethanol obtained. By calculating the relative energies of the active site models for hydride transfer to the re- or si-face of short-chain aldehydes by alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus brevis, it is shown that the differences in the energy of the systems when the substrate is positioned with the alkyl group in one or the other pocket of the active site could play a role in determining stereoselectivity. These experiments help to provide insight into structural features that influence the potential catalytic flexibility of different alcohol dehydrogenase activities.

  7. A Newly Developed Fluorescence Model for C2H6 v5 and Application to Cometary Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; A?Hearn, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate rotational temperatures are essential for extracting production rates for parent volatiles in comets. Two strong bands of ethane (v7 at 2985.39/cm and v5 at 2895.67/cm) are seen in infrared cometary spectra, but the Q-branches of v7 are not resolved by current instruments and cannot provide an accurate rotational temperature with current models.We developed a fluorescence model for the C2H6 v5 band that can be used to derive a rotational temperature.We applied our C2H6 5 model to high-resolution infrared spectra of the comets C/2004 Q2 Machholz and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), acquired with the Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We demonstrate agreement among the rotational temperatures derived from C2H6 v5 and other species, and between mixing ratios derived from C2H6 v5 and C2H6 v7. As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is observed only in the infrared, and it is now the fifth molecule (along with H2O, HCN, CO, and H2CO) for which we can derive a reliable rotational temperature from cometary infrared spectra.

  8. A Newly Developed Fluorescence Model for C2H6 ν5 and Application to Cometary Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate rotational temperatures are essential for extracting production rates for parent volatiles in comets. Two strong bands of ethane (ν7 at 2985.39 cm-1 and ν5 at 2895.67 cm-1) are seen in infrared cometary spectra, but the Q-branches of ν7 are not resolved by current instruments and cannot provide an accurate rotational temperature with current models. We developed a fluorescence model for the C2H6 ν5 band that can be used to derive a rotational temperature. We applied our C2H6 ν5 model to high-resolution infrared spectra of the comets C/2004 Q2 Machholz and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), acquired with the Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We demonstrate agreement among the rotational temperatures derived from C2H6 ν5 and other species, and between mixing ratios derived from C2H6 ν5 and C2H6 ν7. As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is observed only in the infrared, and it is now the fifth molecule (along with H2O, HCN, CO, and H2CO) for which we can derive a reliable rotational temperature from cometary infrared spectra.

  9. Vanishing amplitude of backbone dynamics causes a true protein dynamical transition: 2H NMR studies on perdeuterated C-phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Kämpf, Kerstin; Kremmling, Beke; Vogel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Using a combination of H2 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, we study internal rotational dynamics of the perdeuterated protein C-phycocyanin (CPC) in dry and hydrated states over broad temperature and dynamic ranges with high angular resolution. Separating H2 NMR signals from methyl deuterons, we show that basically all backbone deuterons exhibit highly restricted motion occurring on time scales faster than microseconds. The amplitude of this motion increases when a hydration shell exists, while it decreases upon cooling and vanishes near 175 K. We conclude that the vanishing of the highly restricted motion marks a dynamical transition, which is independent of the time window and of a fundamental importance. This conclusion is supported by results from experimental and computational studies of the proteins myoglobin and elastin. In particular, we argue based on findings in molecular dynamics simulations that the behavior of the highly restricted motion of proteins at the dynamical transition resembles that of a characteristic secondary relaxation of liquids at the glass transition, namely the nearly constant loss. Furthermore, H2 NMR studies on perdeuterated CPC reveal that, in addition to highly restricted motion, small fractions of backbone segments exhibit weakly restricted dynamics when temperature and hydration are sufficiently high.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of STD-NMR Spectra of Reversibly Forming Ligand-Receptor Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. Rama; Jayalakshmi, V.

    We describe our work on the quantitative analysis of STD-NMR spectra of reversibly forming ligand-receptor complexes. This analysis is based on the theory of complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix analysis of saturation transfer (CORCEMA-ST) effects. As part of this work, we have developed two separate versions of the CORCEMA-ST program. The first version predicts the expected STD intensities for a given model of a ligand-protein complex, and compares them quantitatively with the experimental data. This version is very useful for rapidly determining if a model for a given ligand-protein complex is compatible with the STD-NMR data obtained in solution. It is also useful in determining the optimal experimental conditions for undertaking the STD-NMR measurements on a given complex by computer simulations. In the second version of the CORCEMA-ST program, we have implemented a torsion angle refinement feature for the bound ligand within the protein binding pocket. In this approach, the global minimum for the bound ligand conformation is obtained by a hybrid structure refinement protocol involving CORCEMA-ST calculation of intensities and simulated annealing refinement of torsion angles of the bound ligand using STD-NMR intensities as experimental constraints to minimize a pseudo-energy function. This procedure is useful in refining and improving the initial models based on crystallography, computer docking, or other procedures to generate models for the bound ligand within the protein binding pocket compatible with solution STD-NMR data. In this chapter we describe the properties of the STD-NMR spectra, including the dependence of the intensities on various parameters. We also describe the results of the CORCEMA-ST analyses of experimental STD-NMR data on some ligand-protein complexes to illustrate the quantitative analysis of the data using this method. This CORCEMA-ST program is likely to be useful in structure-based drug design efforts.

  11. Temperature effects on the 27Al NMR spectra of polymeric aluminum hydrolysis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, John J.; Johnson, Loren E.; Frye, James S.

    27Al NMR studies at 39.10 MHz of highly hydrolyzed, concentrated aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) solutions ( overlinen = [ OH]/[ Al] = 2.50 , "Al 2 (OH) 5Cl") from 2.5 to 0.2 M Al in various supporting electrolytes at room temperature (RT) and 82°C are reported. The complex 27Al NMR resonance features for ACH solutions, attributed to two unique polymeric species of unknown structure, are dependent upon concentration, temperature, and the nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte anion. Major differences are observed in the 27Al NMR of fresh and "aged" 1.0 M ACH solutions obtained at RT, at 82°C, and at RT following temperature elevation to 82°C. These latter NMR spectra exhibit dramatic and irreversible resonance changes in comparison with RT NMR data obtained for fresh ACH solutions prior to elevation to 82°C. These 27Al NMR results, together with gel filtration chromatography data, provide evidence for the irreversible depolymerization of large molecular weight polycationic species to intermediate sized molecular weight polymeric species following dilution, aging, or temperature elevation. This depolymerization reaction is concentration, temperature, and anion dependent and provides a clearer understanding of the kinetic processes occurring for the polymeric aluminum species in ACH solutions.

  12. The mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c strongly influences the order of the headgroup and acyl chains of phosphatidylserine dispersions. A sup 2 H and sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Jordi, W.; de Kroon, A.I.P.M.; Killian, A.; de Kruijff, B. )

    1990-03-06

    Deuterium and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study the interaction of the mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c with headgroup-deuterated (dioleoylphosphatidyl-L-(2-{sup 2}H{sub 1})serine) and acyl chain deuterated (1,2-(11,11-{sup 2}H{sub 2})dioleoylphosphatidylserine) dispersions. Binding of the protein to dioleoylphosphatidylserine liposomes results in phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectra typical of phospholipids undergoing fast axial rotation in extended liquid-crystalline bilayers with a reduced residual chemical shift anisotropy and an increased line width. {sup 2}H NMR spectra on headgroup-deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions showed a decrease in quadrupolar splitting and a broadening of the signal on interaction with apocytochrome c. Addition of increasing amounts of apocytochrome c to the acyl chain deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions results in the gradual appearance of a second component in the spectra with a 44% reduced quadrupolar splitting. Such large reduction of the quadrupolar splitting has never been observed for any protein studied yet. The induction of a new spectral component with a well-defined reduced quadrupolar splitting seems to be confined to the N-terminus since addition of a small hydrophilic amino-terminal peptide (residues 1-38) also induces a second component with a strongly reduced quadrupolar splitting. A chemically synthesized peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 2-17 of the presequence of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome oxidase subunit IV also has a large perturbing effect on the order of the acyl chains, indicating that the observed effects may be a property shared by many mitochondrial precursor proteins. Implications of these data for the import of apocytochrome c into mitochondria will be discussed.

  13. Theoretical and experimental IR, Raman and NMR spectra in studying the electronic structure of 2-nitrobenzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świsłocka, R.; Samsonowicz, M.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2007-05-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the 2-nitrobenzoic acid (2-NBA) was studied. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by HF, B3PW91, B3LYP methods using 6-311++G ∗∗ basis set. The theoretical IR and NMR spectra were obtained. The vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and NMR ( 1H and 13C) spectra for 2-nitrobenzoic acid salts of alkali metals were also recorded. The assignment of vibrational spectra was done. Characteristic shifts of band wavenumbers and changes in band intensities along the metal series were observed. Good correlation between the wavenumbers of the vibrational bands in the IR and Raman spectra for 2-nitrobenzoates (2-NB) and ionic potential, electronegativity, atomic mass and affinity of metals were found. The chemical shifts of protons and carbons ( 1H, 13C NMR) in the series of studied alkali metal 2-nitrobenzoates were observed too. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  14. Proton-coupled 15N NMR spectra of neutral and protonated ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Sierzputowska-Gracz, H; Wiewiórowski, M; Kozerski, L; von Philipsborn, W

    1984-01-01

    The 15N chemical shifts and 15N, 1H spin coupling constants were determined in the title compounds using the INEPT pulse sequence and assigned with the aid of selective proton decoupling. The delta/15N/ and J/N, H/ values are discussed in terms of involvement of the imidazole ring created by ethenobridging in the electronic structure of the whole molecule. Both spectral parameters indicate that the diligant nitrogen in this ring is the primary site of protonation in these modified nucleosides. It is concluded that 15N NMR of nucleoside bases can be largely a complementary method to 1H and 13C NMR studies and, in addition, can serve as a direct probe for studies of nitrogen environment in oligomeric fragments of nucleic acids even at moderately strong magnetic fields due to the higher spectral dispersion compared with 1H and 13C NMR spectra. PMID:6473107

  15. Magnetic susceptibility effects on 13C MAS NMR spectra of carbon materials and graphite.

    PubMed

    Freita, J C; Emmerich, F G; Cernicchiaro, G R; Sampaio, L C; Bonagamba, T J

    2001-01-01

    13C high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study carbon materials prepared through the thermal decomposition of four different organic precursors (rice hulls, endocarp of babassu coconut, peat, and PVC). For heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) above about 600 C, all materials presented 13C NMR spectra composed of a unique resonance line associated with carbon atoms in aromatic planes. With increasing HTT a continuous broadening of this resonance and a diamagnetic shift in its central frequency were verified for all samples. The evolution of the magnitude and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of the heat-treated carbon samples with HTT explains well these findings. It is shown that these results are better understood when a comparison is made with the features of the 13C NMR spectrum of polycrystalline graphite, for which the magnetic susceptibility effect is also present and is much more pronounced.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: N2H+, N2D+ and C17O spectra in Ophiuchus (Punanova+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanova, A.; Caselli, P.; Pon, A.; Belloche, A.; Andre, P.

    2016-01-01

    N2H+(1-0), N2D+, C17 dense cores in L1688 obtained with the IRAM 30m antenna. The files contain only spectra where lines were detected. The list of objects and observed lines is in Table A.1. of the paper. (6 data files).

  17. Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectra of famotidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barańska, M.; Czarniecki, K.; Proniewicz, L. M.

    2001-05-01

    Famotidine, 3-[[[2-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]- N-(aminosulfonyl), is a histamine H 2-receptor blocker that has been used mainly for the treatment of peptic ulcers and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Its NMR spectra in different solvents were reported earlier; however, detailed interpretation has not been done thus far. In this work, experimental 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectra of famotidine dissolved in DMSO-d 6 are shown. The assignment of observed chemical shifts is based on quantum chemical calculation at the Hartree-Fock/6-31G ∗ level. The geometry optimization of the famotidine molecule with two internal hydrogen bonds, i.e. [N(3)-H(23)⋯N(9) and N(3)⋯H(34)-N(20)], is done by using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G ∗ basis set.

  18. Sensitivity enhancement of MQMAS NMR spectra of spin 3/2 nuclei using hyperbolic secant pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Renée; Nakashima, Thomas T.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2005-02-01

    The use of hyperbolic secant (HS) pulses to enhance the intensity of the central transition in MQMAS experiments for spin 3/2 quadrupolar nuclei is investigated by examining 87Rb NMR spectra of a powder sample of RbNO 3. The application of HS pulses prior to the triple-quantum (3Q) excitation provides sensitivity enhancements in MQMAS spectra that are superior to those previously reported. For the conversion of 3Q to single-quantum (1Q) observables, the HS pulses have an efficiency similar to that reported for double frequency sweeps (DFS) but greater than that of the fast amplitude modulation (FAM) technique.

  19. NMR spectra and electrochemical behavior of catechol-bearing block copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Urara; Moriyama, Masaki; Uyama, Hiroshi; van der Vlies, André J.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the NMR spectra and AFM data for antioxidant micelles prepared from amphiphilic PAM-PDA block copolymers composed of a poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) and a redox-active catechol-bearing block with different catechol content. We also provide details of the electrochemical analysis that showed micelles higher catechol content had a similar redox potential with the small catechol compound dopamine, but slowed down the redox reaction (Hasegawa et al., Polymer (in press)). PMID:26217751

  20. Molecular dynamics of poly(L-lactide) biopolymer studied by wide-line solid-state 1H and 2H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nozirov, Farhod; Nazirov, Alovidin; Jurga, Stefan; Fu, Riqiang

    2006-06-01

    The molecular dynamics of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) biopolymer was characterized through analyses of 1H and 2H NMR line-shapes and spin-lattice relaxation times at different temperatures. At low temperatures (e.g. 90 K), the methyl group rotation is dominant leading to a significant reduction in the proton second moment. Fast methyl group reorientation occurs at ca. 130 K. In additional to the fast methyl group rotation, hydroxyl groups start to reorient as the temperature increases further, eventually leading to the breakdown of the segments of the biopolymer chains above its glass transition temperature Tg of 323 K. The analyses of the 2H NMR line-shapes indicate that both the methyl and hydroxyl reorientations can be described by the so-called cone model, in which the former has three equilibrium positions with theta(C-D) = 70.5 degrees and phi = 120 degrees while the latter one exhibits two equilibrium positions with theta(O-D) = 78 degrees and phi = 180 degrees .

  1. Investigations of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in three types of Schiff bases by 2H and 3H NMR isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Schilf, Wojciech; Bloxsidge, James P; Jones, John R; Lu, Shui-Yu

    2004-06-01

    Hydrogen bonding within the structures of three Schiff bases (1-3), obtained by condensation of 4-methoxy-, 5-methoxy- and 4,6-dimethoxysalicylaldehyde with methylamine, was investigated by measuring deuterium and tritium NMR isotope effects. The primary deuterium and tritium isotope effects (delta(XH)-delta(XD/T)) and secondary one-bond nitrogen deuterium effect appear to be very useful parameters for defining the character of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The tritium isotope effects were also determined for nitrogen-hydrogen one-bond coupling constants for both 4-methoxy and 4,6-dimethoxy derivatives. These parameters are seen to be highly sensitive to hydrogen bond characteristics and can be used to distinguish localized and tautomeric hydrogen bonds.

  2. Capturing Guest Dynamics in Metal-Organic Framework CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) by (2)H Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Sinelnikov, Regina; Huang, Yining

    2016-06-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising porous materials for gas separation and storage as well as sensing. In particular, a series of isostructural MOFs with coordinately unsaturated metal centers, namely, CPO-27-M or M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), have shown exceptional adsorption capacity and selectivity compared to those of classical MOFs that contain only fully coordinated metal sites. Although it is widely accepted that the interaction between guest molecules and exposed metal centers is responsible for good selectivity and large maximum uptake, the investigation of such guest-metal interaction is very challenging because adsorbed molecules are usually disordered in the pores and undergo rapid thermal motions. (2)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is one of the most extensively used techniques for capturing guest dynamics in porous materials. In this work, variable-temperature (2)H wide-line SSNMR experiments were performed on CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) loaded with four prototypical guest molecules: D2O, CD3CN, acetone-d6, and C6D6. The results indicate that different guest molecules possess distinct dynamic behaviors inside the channel of CPO-27-M. For a given guest molecule, its dynamic behavior also depends on the nature of the metal centers. The binding strength of guest molecules is discussed on the basis of the (2)H SSNMR data.

  3. Distinguishing Vaccinium species by chemical fingerprinting based on NMR spectra, validated with spectra collected in different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Markus, Michelle A; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Hicks, Joshua M; Killday, K Brian; Kirby, Christopher W; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K; Arnason, John T; Colson, Kimberly L

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R(2) = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product.

  4. Distinguishing Vaccinium Species by Chemical Fingerprinting Based on NMR Spectra, Validated with Spectra Collected in Different Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Michelle A.; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M.; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J.; Hicks, Joshua M.; Killday, K. Brian; Kirby, Christopher W.; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G.; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E.; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K.; Arnason, John T.; Colson, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product. PMID:24963620

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures and vibrational spectra of KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hoeppe, Henning A.

    2010-09-15

    The potassium lanthanide double sulphates KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of rare earth (III) sulphates and potassium thiocyanate at 298 K. X-ray single-crystal investigations show that KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy) crystallise monoclinically (Ln=Sm: P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4, a=10.047(1), b=8.4555(1), c=10.349(1) A, wR2=0.060, R1=0.024, 945 reflections, 125 parameters) while KLa(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O adopts space group P3{sub 2}21 (Z=3, a=7.1490(5), c=13.2439(12) A, wR2=0.038, R1=0.017, 695 reflections, 65 parameters). The coordination environment of the lanthanide ions in KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O is different in the case of the Nd/Sm/Gd and the Eu/Dy compounds, respectively. In the first case the Ln atoms are nine-fold coordinated in contrast to the latter where the Ln ions are eight-fold coordinated by oxygen atoms. The vibrational spectra of KLn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and the UV-vis reflection spectra of KEu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and KNd(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O are also reported. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanide potassium double sulphates exhibit an unexpected change in the coordination mode by a simple rotation of sulphate tetrahedron 2.

  6. Application of the filter diagonalization method to one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra

    PubMed

    Mandelshtam; Taylor; Shaka

    1998-08-01

    A new non-Fourier data processing algorithm, the filter diagonalization method (FDM), is presented and applied to phase-sensitive 1D and 2D NMR spectra. FDM extracts parameters (peak positions, linewidths, amplitudes, and phases) directly from the time-domain data by fitting the data to a sum of damped complex sinusoids. Grounded in a quantum-mechanical formalism, FDM shares some of the features of linear prediction and other linear algebraic approaches, but is numerically more efficient, scaling like the fast Fourier transform algorithm with respect to data size, and has the ability to correctly handle spectra with thousands or even millions of lines where the competing methods break down. Results obtained on complex spectra are promising. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  8. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  9. icoshift: A versatile tool for the rapid alignment of 1D NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Savorani, F; Tomasi, G; Engelsen, S B

    2010-02-01

    The increasing scientific and industrial interest towards metabonomics takes advantage from the high qualitative and quantitative information level of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. However, several chemical and physical factors can affect the absolute and the relative position of an NMR signal and it is not always possible or desirable to eliminate these effects a priori. To remove misalignment of NMR signals a posteriori, several algorithms have been proposed in the literature. The icoshift program presented here is an open source and highly efficient program designed for solving signal alignment problems in metabonomic NMR data analysis. The icoshift algorithm is based on correlation shifting of spectral intervals and employs an FFT engine that aligns all spectra simultaneously. The algorithm is demonstrated to be faster than similar methods found in the literature making full-resolution alignment of large datasets feasible and thus avoiding down-sampling steps such as binning. The algorithm uses missing values as a filling alternative in order to avoid spectral artifacts at the segment boundaries. The algorithm is made open source and the Matlab code including documentation can be downloaded from www.models.life.ku.dk.

  10. Investigation of structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of oxycodone and naltrexone: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakol, Hossein; Esfandyari, Maryam; Taheri, Salman; Heydari, Akbar

    2011-08-01

    In this work, two important opioid antagonists, naltrexone and oxycodone, were prepared from thebaine and were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, computational NMR and IR parameters were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Complete NMR and vibrational assignment were carried out using the observed and calculated spectra. The IR frequencies and NMR chemical shifts, determined experimentally, were compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT calculations, showed good agreements. The RMS errors observed between experimental and calculated data for the IR absorptions are 85 and 105 cm -1, for the 1H NMR peaks are 0.87 and 0.17 ppm and for those of 13C NMR are 5.6 and 5.3 ppm, respectively for naltrexone and oxycodone.

  11. Effect of Sterol Structure on Chain Ordering of an Unsaturated Phospholipid: A 2H-NMR Study of POPC/Sterol Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mehran; Thewalt, Jenifer; Zuckermann, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The physical properties of biological membranes are considerably altered by the presence of sterols. In particular, sterols help to maintain the integrity of the cell by adjusting the fluidity of the plasma membrane. Cholesterol is in addition an important component of lipid rafts which are hypothesized to compartmentalize the cell membrane surface thereby making it possible for certain proteins to function. Using 2H-NMR spectroscopy, we studied the effect of a series of different sterols on the chain ordering of POPC, an unsaturated phospholipid present in eukaryotic cell membranes. We were able to assigned specific roles to the structural differences between the sterols by comparing the manner in which they affect the average lipid chain conformation of POPC.

  12. Deuterium dynamics in the icosahedral and amorphous phases of the Ti40Zr40Ni20 hydrogen-absorbing alloy studied by 2H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradišek, A.; Kocjan, A.; McGuiness, P. J.; Apih, T.; Kim, Hae Jin; Dolinšek, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Ti40Zr40Ni20 hydrogen-absorbing alloy was prepared in the icosahedral and amorphous phases by controlling the rotation speed of the melt-spinning method of sample preparation, and the deuterium dynamics was investigated by 2H NMR dynamic lineshape and spin-lattice relaxation. The results were analysed by the lineshape and relaxation models that assume deuterium thermally activated hopping within a manifold of different chemical environments. The observed 8% larger activation energy for the deuterium hopping over the interstitial sites and the 10% larger static spectrum width of the amorphous phase, as compared to the icosahedral phase, can be accounted for by the larger deuterium content of the investigated amorphous sample. From the deuterium dynamics point of view, the icosahedral phase is not special with respect to the amorphous modification of the same material.

  13. Formation of Al2H7- anions--indirect evidence of volatile AlH3 on sodium alanate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Zibrowius, Bodo

    2011-10-14

    After more than a decade of intense research on NaAlH(4) doped with transition metals as hydrogen storage material, the actual mechanism of the decomposition and rehydrogenation reaction is still unclear. Early on, monomeric AlH(3) was named as a possible transport shuttle for aluminium, but never observed experimentally. Here we report for the first time the trapping of volatile AlH(3) produced during the decomposition of undoped NaAlH(4) by an adduct of sodium alanate and crown ether. The resulting Al(2)H(7)(-) anion was identified by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy. Based on this indirect evidence of volatile alane, we present a simple description of the processes occurring during the reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4).

  14. Ionic motion and Disordered Structure in the Rotator Phase of Butylammonium Chloride Studied by Temperature Dependences of 35Cl and 2H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Mineyuki; Onoda, Yoshito; Erata, Tomoki; Smith, M. E.; Hattori, Masakazu; Ohki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    1994-02-01

    Temperature dependences of 35Cl and 2H quadrupole coupling constants and 35Cl NMR spin-lat­tice relaxation times in polycrystalline samples were measured in the rotator phase of the butylammonium chlorides C4H9NH3C1 and C4H9ND3C1, obtainable above the phase transition temperature of 241 K. A rapid decrease o f the quadrupole coupling constants of both nuclei upon heating is attributed to increasing dynamic disorder formed around the polar head. The presence of self-diffussion of Cl- ions was revealed from the spin-spin relaxation time and resonance line-width in single crystals, and confirmed by measuring the dc electrical conductivity.

  15. The molecular structure and vibrational, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A

    2016-01-05

    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G(∗∗) calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21ppm, respectively.

  16. Automation of peak-tracking analysis of stepwise perturbed NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Banelli, Tommaso; Vuano, Marco; Fogolari, Federico; Fusiello, Andrea; Esposito, Gennaro; Corazza, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    We describe a new algorithmic approach able to automatically pick and track the NMR resonances of a large number of 2D NMR spectra acquired during a stepwise variation of a physical parameter. The method has been named Trace in Track (TINT), referring to the idea that a gaussian decomposition traces peaks within the tracks recognised through 3D mathematical morphology. It is capable of determining the evolution of the chemical shifts, intensity and linewidths of each tracked peak.The performances obtained in term of track reconstruction and correct assignment on realistic synthetic spectra were high above 90% when a noise level similar to that of experimental data were considered. TINT was applied successfully to several protein systems during a temperature ramp in isotope exchange experiments. A comparison with a state-of-the-art algorithm showed promising results for great numbers of spectra and low signal to noise ratios, when the graduality of the perturbation is appropriate. TINT can be applied to different kinds of high throughput chemical shift mapping experiments, with quasi-continuous variations, in which a quantitative automated recognition is crucial.

  17. Computational study of the rovibrational spectra of CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, Geoff; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Dawes, Richard; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-12-01

    An intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational transition frequencies are computed for CO2-C2H2. An interpolating moving least squares method is used to fit ab initio points at the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster level. The rovibrational Schrödinger equation is solved with a symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm. The computed disrotatory and torsion vibrational levels of both CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2 differ from those obtained by experimentalists by less than 0.5 cm-1. CO2-C2H2 has two equivalent minima with the monomers perpendicular to the inter-monomer axis. In contrast to many other Van der Waals dimers there is no disrotatory path that connects the minima. The tunnelling path follows the torsional coordinate over a high barrier and the splitting is therefore tiny. Using vibrational parent analysis we are able to fit and thus obtain rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants. Calculated rotational constants differ from their experimental counterparts by less than 0.001 cm-1.

  18. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes.

    PubMed

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Yamashina, Ryo; Komatsu, Keiko; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Sakata, Kenji; Kikuchi, Jun; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2016-10-19

    Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D₂O) and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl₃) experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N-oxide.

  19. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Yamashina, Ryo; Komatsu, Keiko; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Sakata, Kenji; Kikuchi, Jun; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D2O) and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl3) experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N-oxide. PMID:27775560

  20. Gas phase NMR spectra of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine. Environmental effects on kinetic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, J. Paul; Leung, Doris Y.; True, Nancy S.

    1984-04-01

    Gas phase 1H NMR spectra of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine are consistent with first order chemical exchange rate constants which are ca. 25 times faster than those observed in neat liquids at corresponding temperatures. The associated kinetic parameters: Eact(∞), 20.5(1.1) kcal mol -1, Δ H‡, 19.7(1.0) kcal mol -1 and Δ G‡, 21.1(0.4) kcal mol -1 are approximately 2.5 kcal mol -1 lower than the most recently reported values for the neat liquid. The observed phase dependence is consistent with a process proceeding via a freely rotating transition state.

  1. Spectral investigations of 2,5-difluoroaniline by using mass, electronic absorption, NMR, and vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Etem; Karabacak, Mehmet; Bardak, Fehmi; Atac, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    One of the most significant aromatic amines is aniline, a primary aromatic amine replacing one hydrogen atom of a benzene molecule with an amino group (NH2). This study reports experimental and theoretical investigation of 2,5-difluoroaniline molecule (2,5-DFA) by using mass, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared and Raman (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra, and supported with theoretical calculations. Mass spectrum (MS) of 2,5-DFA is presented with their stabilities. The UV-vis spectra of the molecule are recorded in the range of 190-400 nm in water and ethanol solvents. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts are recorded in CDCl3 solution. The vibrational spectra are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 (FT-IR) and 4000-10 cm-1 (FT-Raman), respectively. Theoretical studies are underpinned the experimental results as described below; 2,5-DFA molecule is optimized by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The mass spectrum is evaluated and possible fragmentations are proposed based on the stable structure. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), HOMO and LUMO energies, are determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The electrostatic potential surface (ESPs), density of state (DOS) diagrams are also prepared and evaluated. In addition to these, reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis is performed, and thermodynamic features are carried out theoretically. The NMR spectra (1H and 13C) are calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of 2,5-DFA molecule are obtained by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Fundamental vibrations are assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The nonlinear optical properties (NLO) are also investigated. The theoretical and experimental results give a detailed description of

  2. Infrared measurements of atmospheric ethane (C2H6) from aircraft and ground-based solar absorption spectra in the 3000/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. M.; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of prominent Q-branches of the nu-7 band of C2H6 have been identified near 3000/cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  3. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  4. Quantification of Human Brain Metabolites from in Vivo1H NMR Magnitude Spectra Using Automated Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Yrjö; Kaartinen, Jouni; Pulkkinen, Juhani; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Lundbom, Nina; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2002-01-01

    Long echo time (TE=270 ms) in vivo proton NMR spectra resembling human brain metabolite patterns were simulated for lineshape fitting (LF) and quantitative artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. A set of experimental in vivo1H NMR spectra were first analyzed by the LF method to match the signal-to-noise ratios and linewidths of simulated spectra to those in the experimental data. The performance of constructed ANNs was compared for the peak area determinations of choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) signals using both manually phase-corrected and magnitude spectra as inputs. The peak area data from ANN and LF analyses for simulated spectra yielded high correlation coefficients demonstrating that the peak areas quantified with ANN gave similar results as LF analysis. Thus, a fully automated ANN method based on magnitude spectra has demonstrated potential for quantification of in vivo metabolites from long echo time spectroscopic imaging.

  5. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  6. Hierarchical alignment and full resolution pattern recognition of 2D NMR spectra: application to nematode chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Steven L; Ajredini, Ramadan; Rasheed, Hasan; Zeinomar, Abdulrahman; Schroeder, Frank C; Dossey, Aaron T; Edison, Arthur S

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the most widely used nondestructive technique in analytical chemistry. In recent years, it has been applied to metabolic profiling due to its high reproducibility, capacity for relative and absolute quantification, atomic resolution, and ability to detect a broad range of compounds in an untargeted manner. While one-dimensional (1D) (1)H NMR experiments are popular in metabolic profiling due to their simplicity and fast acquisition times, two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra offer increased spectral resolution as well as atomic correlations, which aid in the assignment of known small molecules and the structural elucidation of novel compounds. Given the small number of statistical analysis methods for 2D NMR spectra, we developed a new approach for the analysis, information recovery, and display of 2D NMR spectral data. We present a native 2D peak alignment algorithm we term HATS, for hierarchical alignment of two-dimensional spectra, enabling pattern recognition (PR) using full-resolution spectra. Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression of full resolution total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) spectra greatly aid the assignment and interpretation of statistical pattern recognition results by producing back-scaled loading plots that look like traditional TOCSY spectra but incorporate qualitative and quantitative biological information of the resonances. The HATS-PR methodology is demonstrated here using multiple 2D TOCSY spectra of the exudates from two nematode species: Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus. We show the utility of this integrated approach with the rapid, semiautomated assignment of small molecules differentiating the two species and the identification of spectral regions suggesting the presence of species-specific compounds. These results demonstrate that the combination of 2D NMR spectra with full-resolution statistical analysis provides a platform for chemical and

  7. Robust algorithms for automated chemical shift calibration of 1D 1H NMR spectra of blood serum.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jake T M; Athersuch, Toby J; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Lindon, John C; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Keun, Hector C

    2008-09-15

    In biofluid NMR spectroscopy, the frequency of each resonance is typically calibrated by addition of a reference compound such as 3-(trimethylsilyl)-propionic acid- d 4 (TSP) to the sample. However biofluids such as serum cannot be referenced to TSP, due to shifts resonance caused by binding to macromolecules in solution. In order to overcome this limitation we have developed algorithms, based on analysis of derivative spectra, to locate and calibrate (1)H NMR spectra to the alpha-glucose anomeric doublet. We successfully used these algorithms to calibrate 77 serum (1)H NMR spectra and demonstrate the greater reproducibility of the calculated chemical-shift corrections ( r = 0.97) than those generated by manual alignment ( r = 0.8-0.88). Hence we show that these algorithms provide robust and reproducible methods of calibrating (1)H NMR of serum, plasma, or any biofluid in which glucose is abundant. Precise automated calibration of complex biofluid NMR spectra is an important tool in large-scale metabonomic or metabolomic studies, where hundreds or even thousands of spectra may be analyzed in high-resolution by pattern recognition analysis.

  8. A Newly Developed Model for Fluorescence of C2H6 ν5 in Comets and Application to Infrared Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the compositional diversity of cometary nuclei is key to understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System, and the origin of water and prebiotic organics on the Earth. For most polyatomic gases, a production rate can be obtained from measured ro-vibrational intensities if an accurate rotational temperature is available, and the comparison of temperatures displayed by individual molecular species can reveal additional insights into physics in the cometary inner coma. Until now, accurate temperatures could be derived for HCN, CO, and H2O, but not for ethane (C2H6). As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is uniquely sampled in the infrared, but the fine rotational structure of the ν7 Q-branches at 3.3 μm cannot be resolved by current infrared spectrometers, ultimately limiting the retrievals of rotational temperatures from these lines. However, the complex ro-vibrational structure (P- and R-branches) of the ν5 band at 3.5 μm is resolved by the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope (NIRSPEC). We developed a fluorescence model for the infrared ν5 band of C2H6, and applied it to interpret high-resolution infrared spectra acquired with NIRSPEC. We present rotational temperatures and production rates for C2H6 in multiple comets. We compare the extracted rotational temperatures for ethane with those obtained from simultaneous measurements of other species (H2O and HCN). We also compare mixing ratios derived from the C2H6 ν5 band with those derived from the previously analyzed (by NASA GSFC team members) ν7 band. This work now establishes a robust method for quantifying additional physical parameters for ethane in comets.

  9. Thermal hysteresis in the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG]3 revealed by 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxin; Boutis, Gregory S

    2012-01-12

    We report on experimental measurements of the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG](3) by (2)H NMR echo spectroscopy and 2D T(1)-T(2) correlation relaxometry. The T(1) and T(2) relaxation times of the Gly α-deuterons and Val α-, β-, and γ-deuterons of a hydrated sample reveal a thermal hysteresis when the temperature is raised from -10 to 45 °C and then subsequently cooled back to -10 °C. In addition, near 30 °C we observe a reduction in the slope of the T(1)(T) and T(2)(T) heating curves, indicating a structural change that appears to be correlated well to the known inverse temperature transition of this peptide. The thermal dependence of the correlation times of the Gly α-deuterons are well fit by an Arrhenius Law, from which we measured E(act) = (20.0 ± 3.1) kJ/mol when the sample is heated and E(act) = (10.9 ± 2.8) kJ/mol when cooled. Molecular dynamics simulations support the notion that the measured activation energy is determined largely by the extent of localized water, which is observed to decrease with increasing temperature from approximately 25 to 42 °C.

  10. Concurrent quantification of tissue metabolism and blood flow via 2H/31P NMR in vivo. III. Alterations of muscle blood flow and metabolism during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Song, S K; Hotchkiss, R S; Karl, I E; Ackerman, J J

    1992-05-01

    In the conclusion of this series of reports, the application of 31P/2H NMR to investigate the pathophysiology of sepsis in rat hindlimb muscle is demonstrated. Sepsis decreased muscle [PCr] by 18%, 18 +/- 4 SD vs 22 +/- 4 SD mmol/kg tissue wet wt (P = 0.01) in control rats but [ATP] was unchanged, 6 mmol/kg tissue wet wt (P = 0.2). The derived free cytosolic [ADP] in the two groups was similar, [ADP]septic = 0.023 +/- 0.004 SD and [ADP]control = 0.021 +/- 0.003 SD mmol/kg tissue wet wt, and not statistically different (P = 0.14). Likewise [Pi] in the septic and control groups was not statistically different, [Pi]septic = 1.1 +/- 0.5 SD and [Pi]control = 1.2 +/- 0.4 SD mmol/kg tissue wet wt (P = 0.2). Septic rats presented the symptom of respiratory alkalosis evidenced by elevated blood pH. Sepsis decreased muscle blood flow by 33%, P = 0.003, but examination of individual subjects did not demonstrate a correlation with the reduction in [PCr]. Thus, a metabolic energy deficit caused by cellular ischemia/hypoxia is not a likely cause of cellular abnormality in rat hindlimb muscle during sepsis.

  11. Velocity autocorrelation spectra in molten polymers measured by NMR modulated gradient spin-echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepišnik, Janez; Mohorič, Aleš; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried; Serša, Igor

    2014-04-01

    The segmental dynamics in molten linear polymers is studied by the NMR method of modulated gradient spin-echo, which directly probes a spectrum of molecular velocity autocorrelation function. Diffusion spectra of mono-disperse poly(isoprene-1.4) with different molecular masses, measured in the frequency range 0.1-10 kHz at a temperature of 26\\ ^{\\circ}\\text{C} , have a form similar to the spectrum of Rouse chain dynamics, which implicates the tube-Rouse motion as the dominant dynamic process in this frequency range. The scaling of the center-of-mass diffusion coefficient, given from the fitting parameters, changes from N^{-1} into N^{-2.4} at around N \\approx 3\\text{-}5 Kuhn steps, which is less than predicted by theory and simulations, while the correlation times of the tube-Rouse mode do not follow the anticipated scaling.

  12. Non-linear signal detection improvement by radiation damping in single-pulse NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Schlagnitweit, Judith; Morgan, Steven W; Nausner, Martin; Müller, Norbert; Desvaux, Hervé

    2012-02-01

    When NMR lines overlap and at least one of them is affected by radiation damping, the resonance line shapes of all lines are no longer Lorentzian. We report the appearance of narrow signal distortions, which resemble hole-burnt spectra. This new experimental phenomenon facilitates the detection of tiny signals hidden below the main resonance. Theoretical analysis based on modified Maxwell-Bloch equations shows that the presence of strong transverse magnetization creates a feedback through the coil, which influences the magnetization of all spins with overlapping resonance lines. In the time domain this leads to cross-precession terms between magnetization densities, which ultimately cause non-linear behavior. Numerical simulations corroborate this interpretation.

  13. Fractional volume integration in two-dimensional NMR spectra: CAKE, a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Rocco; Paris, Debora; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Motta, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative information from multi-dimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. Here we describe a simple method, called CAKE, for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Tests on simulated and experimental peaks, with different degrees of overlap and signal-to-noise ratios, show that CAKE results in improved volume estimates. A main advantage of CAKE is that the volume fraction can be flexibly chosen so as to minimize the effect of overlap, frequently observed in two-dimensional spectra.

  14. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of tetrasodium dimagnesium dihydrogen diphosphate octahydrate Na 4Mg 2(H 2P 2O 7) 4·8H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harcharras, M.; Ennaciri, A.; Assaaoudi, H.; Mattei, G.; D'Orazio, V.; Moliterni, A. G. G.; Capitelli, F.

    2003-04-01

    A tetrasodium dimagnesium dihydrogen diphosphate octahydrate Na 4Mg 2(H 2P 2O 7) 4·8H 2O was synthesized. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2 1/ m (no. 11), Z=4, and its unit-cell parameters are: a=8.0445(3) Å, b=11.5244(5) Å, c=9.0825(4) Å, β=113.1401(2)°, V=774.28(6) Å 3. The structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry and refined to a R index of 0.0294 (w R=0.0727) for 1878 independent reflections with I>2 σ( I). The framework is made by the alternance of layers of MgO 6/NaO 6 octahedra and double tetrahedra PO 4 along b-axis. Such layers are characterized by the presence of strong hydrogen bonds. (H 2P 2O 7) 2- anions exhibit bent eclipsed conformation. Besides, the crystal was analyzed by FT-IR and micro-Raman vibrational spectroscopy. No coincidences of the majority of the Raman and infrared spectra bands of Na 4Mg 2(H 2P 2O 7) 4·8H 2O confirms a centrosymmetric structure of this material. The vibrational spectra confirm the bent POP configuration in this compound.

  15. Infrared absorption spectra of the CO(2)/H(2)O complex in a cryogenic nitrogen matrix--detection of a new bending frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Sander, Stanley P

    2011-09-08

    Infrared absorption spectra have been measured for the mixture of CO(2) and H(2)O in a cryogenic nitrogen matrix. The 1:1 CO(2)/H(2)O complex has been observed. Each structure of this complex should have two bending frequencies corresponding to the CO(2) fundamental bending mode (ν(2)). In this work, three bending frequencies corresponding to the CO(2) fundamental bending mode (ν(2)) have been detected; one of them at 660.3 cm(-1) is reported here for the first time. This finding helps confirm the existence of two structures for this complex. A new feature attributed to a CO(2) and H(2)O complex is observed at 3604.4 cm(-1) and is tentatively assigned to the CO(2)/H(2)O complex band corresponding to the CO(2) combination mode (ν(3) + 2ν(2)). In addition, a band that belongs to a CO(2) and H(2)O complex is detected at 3623.8 cm(-1) for the first time and is tentatively assigned to the (CO(2))(2)/H(2)O complex band corresponding to the symmetric stretching mode (ν(1)) of H(2)O.

  16. Integrated Computational Protocol for Analyzing Quadrupolar Splittings from Natural Abundance Deuterium NMR Spectra in (Chiral) Oriented Media.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Vazquez, Armando; Berdagué, Philippe; Lesot, Philippe Georges Julien

    2017-03-03

    Despite its low natural abundance, deuterium NMR in weakly oriented (chiral) solvents gives easy access to deuterium residual quadrupolar couplings (2H-RQCs), which are formally equivalent to one-bond 1DCH (13C-1H)-RDCs for calculation of the Saupe order matrix, furnishing similar information to study molecular structure and orientational behavior. In addition, the quadrupolar interaction is one order of magnitude larger than the dipolar interaction, making 2H-RQC analysis much more sensitive tool for structural analysis. Subtle structural differences as well as tiny differences in the molecular alignment of different enantiomers in chiral aligning media can be detected. In order to promote this approach towards organic chemists interested in exploiting the analytical advantages of anisotropic, natural abundance deuterium NMR (NAD NMR), we describe a 2H-RQC/DFT-based integrated computational protocol for the evaluation of the order parameters of aligned solutes via singular value decomposition. Examples of 2H-RQC-assisted analysis of chiral and prochiral molecules dissolved in various polypeptide lyotropic chiral liquid crystals are reported. They illustrate the power of this hyphenated approach and in particular to understand the alignment processes and the role of molecular shape in the ordering mechanism through the determination of inter-tensor angles between alignment tensors and inertia tensors.

  17. Indirect detection of infinite-speed MAS solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P.; Goh, Tian Wei; Huang, Wenyu; Rossini, Aaron J.; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic 1H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic ;infinite-MAS; spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides. For these nuclides, the combination of fast MAS and 1H detection provides a high sensitivity, which rivals the DNP-enhanced ultra-wideline SSNMR. The new pulse sequences were used to determine the Pt coordination environments in a complex mixture of decomposition products of transplatin and in a metal-organic framework with Pt ions coordinated to the linker ligands.

  18. Spatially localized sup 1 H NMR spectra of metabolites in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanstock, C.C. ); Rothman, D.L.; Jue, T.; Shulman, R.G. ); Prichard, J.W. )

    1988-03-01

    Using a surface coil, the authors have obtained {sup 1}H NMR spectra from metabolites in the human brain. Localization was achieved by combining depth pulses with image-selected in vivo spectroscopy magnetic field gradient methods. {sup 1}H spectra in which total creatine (3.03 ppm) has a signal/noise ratio of 95:1 were obtained in 4 min from 14 ml of brain. A resonance at 2.02 ppm consisting predominantly of N-acetylaspartate was measured relative to the creatine peak in gray and white matter, and the ratio was lower in the white matter. The spin-spin relaxation times of N-acetylaspartate and creatine were measured in white and gray matter and while creatine relaxation times were the same in both, the N-acetylaspartate relaxation time was longer in white matter. Lactate was detected in the normoxic brain and the average of three measurements was {approx}0.5 mM from comparison with the creatine plus phosphocreatine peak, which was assumed to be 10.5 mM.

  19. Vibrational spectra, NMR and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 9-fluorenone-2-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, M.; Velraj, G.; Kalaichelvan, S.

    2013-03-01

    The present work deals with the vibrational spectroscopic studies of 9-fluorenone-2-carboxylic acid (9F2CA) by means of quantum chemical calculations. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectral analysis of 9F2CA have been carried out by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The equilibrium molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared and Raman intensities of 9F2CA have been calculated. Comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra with the experimental data provides reliable assignments of all observed bands in FTIR and FT-Raman spectra, including in the low frequency region. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method and compared with available experimental data. Complete NBO analysis was also carried out to find out the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilization energy. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies were found.

  20. 1H NMR spectra of humic and fulvic acids and their peracetic oxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Interesse, F. S.; Cassidei, L.; Sciacovelli, O.

    1980-04-01

    1H NMR spectra of humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids and their oxidative degradation products are reported. The HA shows the presence of -( CH2) n - CH3 ( n > 6) chemical fragments belonging to n-alkanes and/or n-fatty acids physically adsorbed onto the macromolecule structure. These fragments are absent in the FA fraction. Both humic fractions reveal the presence of similar amounts of aromatic protons which partly undergo exchange phenomena. The importance of this experimental observation is discussed. Oxidative degradation seems to cause partial cleavage of aromatic rings, more pronounced in the FA than in the HA. The degraded FA shows a higher total acidity and a higher phenolic OH content than the degraded HA. Both degraded fractions display some sharp singlet signals at 1.9 and 3.9 ppm arising from protons belonging to repetitive chemical fragments probably formed during the oxidation reaction. Tentative assignments of these signals are given. A general analysis of the HA and FA degraded spectra seems to indicate that the chemical fragments which undergo peracetic oxidation are substantially similar. The extent of oxidation of the two humic fractions is different. The HA degradation products reveal the presence of oligomeric structures, whereas the degraded FA appears less resistant to the oxidizing agent.

  1. Complete Separation of Intracellular and Extracellular Information in NMR Spectra of Perfused Cells by Diffusion-Weighted Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Moonen, Chrit T. W.; Faustino, Patrick; Pekar, James; Kaplan, Ofer; Cohen, Jack S.

    1991-04-01

    A method is outlined that completely separates intracellular and extracellular information in NMR spectra of perfused cells. The technique uses diffusion weighting to exploit differences in motional properties between intra- and extracellular constituents. This allows monitoring of intracellular metabolism, and of transport of small drugs and nutrients through the cell membrane, under controlled physiological conditions. As a first example, proton spectra of drug-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are studied, and uptake of phenylalanine is monitored.

  2. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: international collaborative study report.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per thousand, and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per thousand. As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (delta13C and delta18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and

  3. Crystal structure, NMR study, dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of a new compound [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, K.; Kamoun, S.; Ayedi, H. Ferid; Arous, M.

    2013-11-01

    The crystal structure, the 13C NMR spectroscopy and the complex impedance have been carried out on [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n. Crystal structure shows a 2D polymeric network built up of two crystallographically independent cadmium atoms with two different octahedral coordinations. This compound exhibits a phase transition at (T=355±2 K) which has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-rays powder diffraction, AC conductivity and dielectric measurements. Examination of 13C CP/MAS line shapes shows indirect spin-spin coupling (14N and 13C) with a dipolar coupling constant of 1339 Hz. The AC conductivity of this compound has been carried out in the temperature range 325-376 K and the frequency range from 10-2 Hz to 10 MHz. The impedance data were well fitted to two equivalent electrical circuits. The results of the modulus study reveal the presence of two distinct relaxation processes. One, at low frequency side, is thermally activated due to the ionic conduction of the crystal and the other, at higher frequency side, gradually disappears when temperature reaches 355 K which is attributed to the localized dipoles in the crystal. Moreover, the temperature dependence of DC-conductivity in both phases follows the Arrhenius law and the frequency dependence of σ(ω,T) follows Jonscher's universal law. The near values of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and impedance confirm that the transport is through the ion hopping mechanism.

  4. Auger-electron angular distributions calculated without the two-step approximation: Calculation of angle-resolved resonant Auger spectra of C2 H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, Renato; Embriaco, Davide; Massini, Michol; Simonucci, Stefano; Taioli, Simone

    2004-10-01

    Analytic expressions for the direct, resonant, and interference contributions to the differential cross section of a resonant Auger process, produced by the inner-shell photoionization of a linear molecule either “fixed in space” or belonging to a gas of randomly oriented molecules, have been derived following Dill’s procedures [ Dill , Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1393 (1980) ], but going beyond the two-step approximation. Angle-resolved Auger spectra of the C2H2 molecule measured on top of the C1s→π* resonance [ Kivimäki , J. Phys. B 30, 4279 (1997) ] have been calculated together with asymmetry parameters, analyzing also the different contributions to the electron angular distributions.

  5. Diagnosis of cerebral cryptococcoma using a computerized analysis of 1H NMR spectra in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Dzendrowskyj, Theresa E; Dolenko, Brion; Sorrell, Tania C; Somorjai, Rajmund L; Malik, Richard; Mountford, Carolyn E; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2005-06-01

    Viable cryptococci load in biopsy material from an animal model of cerebral cryptococcoma were correlated with 1H NMR spectra and metabolite profiles. A statistical classification strategy was applied to distinguish among high-resolution 1H NMR spectra acquired from cryptococcomas, glioblastomas, and normal brain tissue. The overall classification accuracy was 100% when a genetic-algorithm-based optimal region selection preceded the development of linear discriminant analysis-based classifiers. The method remained robust despite differences in the microbial load of the cryptococcoma group when harvested at different time points. These results indicate the feasibility of the method for diagnosis without isolation of the pathogenic microorganism and its potential for in vivo diagnosis based on computerized analysis of magnetic resonance spectra.

  6. Infrared spectra of the C2H2-(OCS)2 van der Waals complex: observation of a structure with C2 symmetry.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; McKellar, A R W; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N

    2011-09-29

    Infrared spectra of the C(2)H(2)-(OCS)(2) trimer are studied by means of direct infrared absorption spectroscopy. The van der Waals complexes are generated in a supersonic slit-jet apparatus and probed using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser in the region of the ν(1) fundamental vibration of the OCS monomer. Two infrared bands are analyzed for the lowest energy isomer of the trimer, which has C(2) symmetry and is experimentally observed here for the first time. A relatively strong band centered at 2068.93 cm(-1) is assigned as the out-of-phase vibrations of the pair of equivalent OCS monomers. This band is blue-shifted relative to the free OCS monomer but with a reduced shift as compared with the analogous vibration of the nonpolar OCS dimer. A weaker red-shifted band observed at 2049.64 cm(-1) establishes the nonplanarity of the OCS dimer subunit within the trimer. Spectra for three isotopologues in addition to the normal form are used to help define an experimental structure, which agrees well with past and present semiempirical calculations.

  7. Resolution Improvements in in Vivo1H NMR Spectra with Increased Magnetic Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetter, Rolf; Weisdorf, Sally A.; Rajanayagan, Vasantham; Terpstra, Melissa; Merkle, Hellmut; Truwit, Charles L.; Garwood, Michael; Nyberg, Scott L.; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    1998-11-01

    The measurement of cerebral metabolites using highly homologous localization techniques and similar shimming methods was performed in the human brain at 1.5 and 4 T as well as in the dog and rat brain at 9.4 T. In rat brain, improved resolution was achieved by shimming all first- and second-order shim coils using a fully adiabatic FASTMAP sequence. The spectra showed a clear improvement in spectral resolution for all metabolite resonances with increased field strength. Changes in cerebral glutamine content were clearly observed at 4 T compared to 1.5 T in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. At 9.4 T, glutamine H4 at 2.46 ppm was fully resolved from glutamate H4 at 2.37 ppm, as was the potential resonance from γ-amino-butyric acid at 2.30 ppm and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate at 2.05 ppm. Singlet linewidths were found to be as low as 6 Hz (0.015 ppm) at 9.4 T, indicating a substantial decrease in ppm linewidth with field strength. Furthermore, the methylene peak of creatine was partially resolved from phosphocreatine, indicating a close to 1:1 relationship in gray matter. We conclude that increasing the magnetic field strength increases spectral resolution also for1H NMR, which can lead to more than linear sensitivity gains.

  8. 14N overtone NMR spectra under magic angle spinning: Experiments and numerically exact simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Luke A.; Brinkmann, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    It was recently shown that high resolution 14N overtone NMR spectra can be obtained directly under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions [L. A. O'Dell and C. I. Ratcliffe, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 168 (2011)], 10.1016/j.cplett.2011.08.030. Preliminary experimental results showed narrowed powder pattern widths, a frequency shift that is dependent on the MAS rate, and an apparent absence of spinning sidebands, observations which appeared to be inconsistent with previous theoretical treatments. Herein, we reproduce these effects using numerically exact simulations that take into account the full nuclear spin Hamiltonian. Under sample spinning, the 14N overtone signal is split into five (0, ±1, ±2) overtone sidebands separated by the spinning frequency. For a powder sample spinning at the magic angle, the +2ωr sideband is dominant while the others show significantly lower signal intensities. The resultant MAS powder patterns show characteristic quadrupolar lineshapes from which the 14N quadrupolar parameters and isotropic chemical shift can be determined. Spinning the sample at other angles is shown to alter both the shapes and relative intensities of the five overtone sidebands, with MAS providing the benefit of averaging dipolar couplings and shielding anisotropy. To demonstrate the advantages of this experimental approach, we present the 14N overtone MAS spectrum obtained from L-histidine, in which powder patterns from all three nitrogen sites are clearly resolved.

  9. Computational interpretation of 23Na MQMAS NMR spectra: A comprehensive investigation of the Na environment in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Charpentier, Thibault; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Pedone, Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Molecular dynamics, density functional theory calculations and 23Na NMR experiments have been used to inspect the chemical and structural characteristics of the Na environment in soda-lime silicate (CSN) and aluminosilicate (CASN) glasses. The use of an improved 3QMAS pulse sequence has allowed a clear identification of different Na sites. Average coordination numbers have been extracted by fitting the 23Na 3QMAS spectra with the computed NMR parameters. The results show that the 23Na δiso values correlate with the average distances only when the different coordination numbers are explicitly taken into account.

  10. Nonclassical dynamics of the methyl group in 1,1,1-triphenylethane. Evidence from powder 1H NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osior, Agnieszka; Kalicki, Przemysław; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2017-03-01

    According to the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory, hindered rotation of methyl groups, evidenced in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shapes, is a nonclassical process. It comprises a number of quantum-rate processes measured by two different quantum-rate constants. The classical jump model employing only one rate constant is reproduced if these quantum constants happen to be equal. The values of their ratio, or the nonclassicallity coefficient, determined hitherto from NMR spectra of single crystals and solutions range from about 1.20 to 1.30 in the latter case to above 5.0 in the former, with the value of 1 corresponding to the jump model. Presently, first systematic investigations of the DQR effects in wide-line NMR spectra of a powder sample are reported. For 1,1,1-triphenylethane deuterated in the aromatic positions, the relevant line-shape effects were monitored in the range 99-121 K. The values of the nonclassicality coefficient dropping from 2.7 to 1.7 were evaluated in line shape fits to the experimental powder spectra from the range 99-108 K. At these temperatures, the fits with the conventional line-shape model are visibly inferior to the DQR fits. Using a theoretical model reported earlier, a semiquantitative interpretation of the DQR parameters evaluated from the spectra is given. It is shown that the DQR effects as such can be detected in wide-line NMR spectra of powdered samples, which are relatively facile to measure. However, a fully quantitative picture of these effects can only be obtained from the much more demanding experiments on single crystals.

  11. Magnetic field dependence of 23Na NMR spectra of rat skeletal muscle infused with shift reagent in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balschi, James A.; Kohler, Susan J.; Bittl, John A.; Springer, Charles S.; Ingwall, Joanne S.

    We obtained 23Na NMR spectra of the gastrocnemius muscle in the living rat before and after infusing the animal with the shift reagent for cations, triethylenetetraminehexaacetate dysprosium (III) (DyTTHA 3-), at field strengths of 8.4, 4.7, and 1.5 T. When plotted on a ppm scale, sodium linewidths both with and without shift reagent showed little field dependence. Thus the spectra obtained in the presence of shift reagent showed almost no change in resolution as the field strength increased. Since the absolute line-widths increased with increasing B0 our results also indicate that both the shifted and the unshifted sodium resonances are inhomogeneously broadened and that the observed linewidths are determined primarily by bulk magnetic susceptibility shifts. These results suggest that cation NMR in conjunction with shift reagent can be used to discriminate between intra- and extracellular sodium pools over a wide range of field strengths.

  12. Detection of Phosphomonoester Signals in Proton-Decoupled 31P NMR Spectra of the Myocardium of Patients with Myocardial Hypertrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wulf-Ingo; Sieverding, Ludger; Breuer, Johannes; Schmidt, Oliver; Widmaier, Stefan; Bunse, Michael; van Erckelens, Franz; Apitz, Jürgen; Dietze, Guenther J.; Lutz, Otto

    1998-07-01

    Proton-decoupled31P NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T of the anterior left ventricular myocardium was used to monitor myocardial phosphate metabolism in asymptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM,n= 14) and aortic stenosis (AS,n= 12). In addition to the well-known phosphorus signals a phosphomonoester (PME) signal was detected at about 6.9 ppm in 7 HCM and 2 AS patients. This signal was not observed in the spectra of normal controls (n= 11). We suggest that in spectra of patients with myocardial hypertrophy the presence of a PME signal reflects alterations in myocardial glucose metabolism.

  13. The composition of Saturn's atmosphere at northern temperate latitudes from Voyager IRIS spectra - NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, CH4, and the Saturnian D/H isotopic ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Bezard, B.; Hanel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The vertical distributions and mixing ratios of minor constituents in the northern hemisphere of Saturn are investigated. Results are obtained for NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, and CH4; the D/H ratio is obtained from the CH4 and CH3D abundances. The NH3 mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere is found to be compatible with the saturated partial pressure. The inferred PH3/H2 ratio of 1.4 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the -6th is higher than the value derived from the solar P/H ratio. The stratospheric C2H2/H2 and C2H6/H2 ratios are, respectively, 2.1 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the -7th and 3.0 + or - 1.1 x 10 to the -6th; the latter decreases sharply below the 20-50 mbar level. The results for CH3D/H2 and CH4/H2 imply an enrichment of Saturn's upper atmosphere in carbon by a factor of at least three over the solar abundance. The interpretation of two NH3 lines in the five-micron window suggests a NH3/H2 ratio at the two bar level below the solar value.

  14. Structure vs. composition: A solid-state 1H and 29Si NMR study of quenched glasses along the Na 2O-SiO 2-H 2O join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, George D.; Mysen, Bjorn O.; Lee, Sung Keun

    2005-05-01

    A suite of six hydrous (7 wt.% H 2O) sodium silicate glasses spanning sodium octasilicate to sodium disilicate in composition were analyzed using 29Si single pulse (SP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR, and fast MAS 1H-NMR. From the 29Si SPMAS data it is observed that at low sodium compositions dissolved water significantly depolymerizes the silicate network. At higher sodium contents, however, dissolved H 2O does not affect a significant increase in depolymerization over that predicted based on the Na/Si ratio alone. The fast MAS 1H-NMR data reveal considerable complexity in proton environments in each of the glasses studied. The fast MAS 1H-NMR spectra of the highest sodium concentration glasses do not exhibit evidence of signficantly greater fractions of dissolved water as molecular H 2O than the lower sodium concentration glasses requiring that the decrease in polymerization at high sodium contents involves a change in sodium solution mechanism. Variable contact time 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR data reveal an increase in the rotating frame spin lattice relaxation rate constant ( T1ρ*) for various Q n species with increasing sodium content that correlates with a reduction in the average 1H- 29Si coupling strength. At the highest sodium concentration, however, T1ρ* drops significantly, consistent with a change in the Na 2O solution mechanism.

  15. Singular spectrum analysis for an automated solvent artifact removal and baseline correction of 1D NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, Silvia; Malloni, Wilhelm M.; Kremer, Werner; Tomé, Ana M.; Lang, Elmar W.; Neidig, Klaus-Peter.; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2011-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy in biology and medicine is generally performed in aqueous solutions, thus in 1H NMR spectroscopy, the dominant signal often stems from the partly suppressed solvent and can be many orders of magnitude larger than the resonances of interest. Strong solvent signals lead to a disappearance of weak resonances of interest close to the solvent artifact and to base plane variations all over the spectrum. The AUREMOL-SSA/ALS approach for automated solvent artifact removal and baseline correction has been originally developed for multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the necessary adaptations for an automated application to one-dimensional NMR spectra. Its core algorithm is still based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) applied on time domain signals (FIDs) and it is still combined with an automated baseline correction (ALS) in the frequency domain. However, both steps (SSA and ALS) have been modified in order to achieve optimal results when dealing with one-dimensional spectra. The performance of the method has been tested on one-dimensional synthetic and experimental spectra including the back-calculated spectrum of HPr protein and an experimental spectrum of a human urine sample. The latter has been recorded with the typically used NOESY-type 1D pulse sequence including water pre-saturation. Furthermore, the fully automated AUREMOL-SSA/ALS procedure includes the managing of oversampled, digitally filtered and zero-filled data and the correction of the frequency domain phase shift caused by the group delay time shift from the digital finite response filtering.

  16. Singular spectrum analysis for an automated solvent artifact removal and baseline correction of 1D NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Silvia; Malloni, Wilhelm M; Kremer, Werner; Tomé, Ana M; Lang, Elmar W; Neidig, Klaus-Peter; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2011-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy in biology and medicine is generally performed in aqueous solutions, thus in (1)H NMR spectroscopy, the dominant signal often stems from the partly suppressed solvent and can be many orders of magnitude larger than the resonances of interest. Strong solvent signals lead to a disappearance of weak resonances of interest close to the solvent artifact and to base plane variations all over the spectrum. The AUREMOL-SSA/ALS approach for automated solvent artifact removal and baseline correction has been originally developed for multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the necessary adaptations for an automated application to one-dimensional NMR spectra. Its core algorithm is still based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) applied on time domain signals (FIDs) and it is still combined with an automated baseline correction (ALS) in the frequency domain. However, both steps (SSA and ALS) have been modified in order to achieve optimal results when dealing with one-dimensional spectra. The performance of the method has been tested on one-dimensional synthetic and experimental spectra including the back-calculated spectrum of HPr protein and an experimental spectrum of a human urine sample. The latter has been recorded with the typically used NOESY-type 1D pulse sequence including water pre-saturation. Furthermore, the fully automated AUREMOL-SSA/ALS procedure includes the managing of oversampled, digitally filtered and zero-filled data and the correction of the frequency domain phase shift caused by the group delay time shift from the digital finite response filtering.

  17. Near-silence of isothiocyanate carbon in (13)C NMR spectra: a case study of allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rainer; Hillebrand, Roman; Wycoff, Wei; Camasta, Cory; Gates, Kent S

    2015-05-01

    (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) were measured, and the exchange dynamics were studied to explain the near-silence of the ITC carbon in (13)C NMR spectra. The dihedral angles α = ∠(C1-C2-C3-N4) and β = ∠(C2-C3-N4-C5) describe the conformational dynamics (conformation change), and the bond angles γ = ∠(C3-N4-C5) and ε = ∠(N4-C5-S6) dominate the molecular dynamics (conformer flexibility). The conformation space of AITC contains three minima, Cs-M1 and enantiomers M2 and M2'; the exchange between conformers is very fast, and conformational effects on (13)C chemical shifts are small (νM1 - νM2 < 3 ppm). Isotropic chemical shifts, ICS(γ), were determined for sp, sp(x), and sp(2) N-hybridization, and the γ dependencies of δ(N4) and δ(C5) are very large (10-33 ppm). Atom-centered density matrix propagation trajectories show that every conformer can access a large region of the potential energy surface AITC(γ,ε,...) with 120° < γ < 180° and 155° < ε < 180°. Because the extreme broadening of the (13)C NMR signal of the ITC carbon is caused by the structural flexibility of every conformer of AITC, the analysis provides a general explanation for the near-silence of the ITC carbon in (13)C NMR spectra of organic isothiocyanates.

  18. Analysis of the electronic, IR, and 1H NMR spectra of conjugated oligomers based on 4,4'-triphenylamine vinylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, G. V.; Minaeva, V. A.; Minaev, B. F.; Sun, V.-H.; Grigoras, M.

    2016-09-01

    Two types of conjugated oligomers based on 4,4'-triphenylamine vinylene have been synthesized and characterized by the methods of IR, UV-visible, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The corresponding spectra have also been simulated theoretically at the density functional theory level with application of the B3LYP and BMK hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. A comparative analysis of the experimental and theoretical spectra of polymers and oligomers has revealed regularities of the manifestation of spectral signals depending on the conjugation chain length and the presence of a substituent in the triphenylamine core. It has been established, in particular, that the absolute intensity of IR bands satisfies a linear dependence with increase in the degree of polymerization; however, no frequency shift is observed at the same time. The position of the main peak in electron absorption spectra demonstrates the bathochromic shift with an increase in the oligomeric chain length due to the narrowing of the energy gap between the boundary molecular orbitals. Based on the theoretical estimation of the hydrogen atoms chemical shifts, the signals of various protons types in the strongly broadened experimental 1H NMR spectra of the bis-(4-iodine phenyl)-phenylamine and N,N-bis-(4-iodine phenyl)-4'-(phenylethynyl)-phenylamine polymerization products have also been identified.

  19. Quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of (1)H NMR spectra of complex mixtures and biofluids.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino

    2014-05-01

    The quantitative interpretation of (1)H NMR spectra of mixtures like the biofluids is a demanding task due to spectral complexity and overlap. Complications may arise also from water suppression, T2-editing, protein interactions, relaxation differences of the species, experimental artifacts and, furthermore, the spectra may contain unknown components and macromolecular background which cannot be easily separated from baseline. In this work, tools and strategies for quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of (1)H NMR spectra from complex mixtures were developed and systematically assessed. In the present approach, the signals of well-defined, stoichiometric components are described by a QM model, while the background is described by a multiterm baseline function and the unknown signals using optimizable and adjustable lines, regular multiplets or any spectral structures which can be composed from spectral lines. Any prior knowledge available from the spectrum can also be added to the model. Fitting strategies for weak and strongly overlapping spectral systems were developed and assessed using two basic model systems, the metabolite mixtures without and with macromolecular (serum) background. The analyses show that if the spectra are measured in high-throughput manner, the consistent absolute quantification demands some calibration to compensate the different response factors of the protons and compounds. On the other hand, the results show that also the T2-edited spectra can be measured so that they obey well the QM rules. In general, qQMSA exploits and interprets the spectral information in maximal way taking full advantage from the QM properties of the spectra and, at the same time, offers chemical confidence which means that individual components can be identified with high confidence on the basis of their accurate spectral parameters.

  20. An inversion method of 2D NMR relaxation spectra in low fields based on LSQR and L-curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guanqun; Zhou, Xiaolong; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2016-04-01

    The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) inversion method based on traditional least-squares QR decomposition (LSQR) always produces some oscillating spectra. Moreover, the solution obtained by traditional LSQR algorithm often cannot reflect the true distribution of all the components. Hence, a good solution requires some manual intervention, for especially low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. An approach based on the LSQR algorithm and L-curve is presented to solve this problem. The L-curve method is applied to obtain an improved initial optimal solution by balancing the residual and the complexity of the solutions instead of manually adjusting the smoothing parameters. First, the traditional LSQR algorithm is used on 2D NMR T1-T2 data to obtain its resultant spectra and corresponding residuals, whose norms are utilized to plot the L-curve. Second, the corner of the L-curve as the initial optimal solution for the non-negative constraint is located. Finally, a 2D map is corrected and calculated iteratively based on the initial optimal solution. The proposed approach is tested on both simulated and measured data. The results show that this algorithm is robust, accurate and promising for the NMR analysis.

  1. Interaction Study of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Cyclosporin A in Poly-Alpha-Cyclodextrin with Model Membranes by (1)H-, (2)H-, (31)P-NMR and Electron Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Crouzier, David; Bourbon, Fréderic; Lahiani-Skiba, Malika; Skiba, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The properties of an amorphous solid dispersion of cyclosporine A (ASD) prepared with the copolymer alpha cyclodextrin (POLYA) and cyclosporine A (CYSP) were investigated by (1)H-NMR in solution and its membrane interactions were studied by (1)H-NMR in small unilamellar vesicles and by (31)P (2)H NMR in phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) in comparison with those of POLYA and CYSP alone. (1)H-NMR chemical shift variations showed that CYSP really interacts with POLYA, with possible adduct formation, dispersion in the solid matrix of the POLYA, and also complex formation. A coarse approach to the latter mechanism was tested using the continuous variations method, indicating an apparent 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Calculations gave an apparent association constant of log Ka = 4.5. A study of the interactions with phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC showed that only limited interactions occurred at the polar head group level ((31)P). Conversely, by comparison with the expected chain rigidification induced by CYSP, POLYA induced an increase in the fluidity of the layer while ASD formation led to these effects almost being overcome at 298 K. At higher temperature, while the effect of CYSP seems to vanish, a resulting global increase in chain fluidity was found in the presence of ASD.

  2. 13C-NMR studies of the paramagnetic and charge-ordered states of the organic superconductor β''-(BEDT-TTF)3Cl2·2H2O under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Sanato; Ogura, Takashi; Kawamoto, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2011-07-01

    β''-(BEDT-TTF)3Cl2·2H2O [BEDT-TTF: b̲is-(e̲thylened̲it̲hio)t̲etrat̲hiaf̲ulvalene] is superconductive under pressures, whereas the salt exhibits metal-insulator (MI) transition under ambient pressure. The insulator phase in the salt was examined using the charge density wave (CDW) phase that was obtained from band calculation. The charge-ordered (CO) state was recently proposed as the insulator phase of the salt, and the mechanism of superconductivity intermediated by charge fluctuation was suggested. We accessed 13C-NMR on β''-(BEDT-TTF)3Cl2·2H2O at ambient pressure and under pressure up to 1.6 GPa. At ambient pressure, the NMR spectrum changed at approximately 100 K. Three isolated peaks appeared at low temperatures, suggesting that the CO state exists below 100 K, and spin-gap behavior was observed. By analyzing the chemical shift, the charges on the three sites were estimated as ˜+0.4e, ˜+0.6e, and ˜+1.0e. The ratio of peak intensity and unsymmetrical peak position suggest the CO state with some symmetry breaking. When pressure is applied, the splitting of the NMR peaks in the CO state is reduced. The salt finally exhibits superconductivity at 1.6 GPa, spin-gap behavior observed at (T1T)-1 below 1.3 GPa suddenly disappears, whereas the NMR spectrum predicts that charge disproportionation coexists with superconductivity. The suppression of the spin-singlet formation observed in (T1T)-1 at 1.6 GPa suggests the metallic state with the charge disproportionation and the CO instability with some symmetry breaking.

  3. Periodic ab initio calculation of nuclear quadrupole parameters as an assignment tool in solid-state NMR spectroscopy: applications to 23Na NMR spectra of crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Clive; Moore, Elaine A; Mortimer, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Periodic ab initio HF calculations using the CRYSTAL code have been used to calculate (23)Na NMR quadrupole parameters for a wide range of crystalline sodium compounds including Na(3)OCl. An approach is developed that can be used routinely as an alternative to point-charge modelling schemes for the assignment of distinct lines in (23)Na NMR spectra to specific crystallographic sodium sites. The calculations are based on standard 3-21 G and 6-21 G molecular basis sets and in each case the same modified basis set for sodium is used for all compounds. The general approach is extendable to other quadrupolar nuclei. For the 3-21 G calculations a 1:1 linear correlation between experimental and calculated values of C(Q)((23)Na) is obtained. The 6-21 G calculations, including the addition of d-polarisation functions, give better accuracy in the calculation of eta((23)Na). The sensitivity of eta((23)Na) to hydrogen atom location is shown to be useful in testing the reported hydrogen-bonded structure of Na(2)HPO(4).

  4. NMR assignments and X-ray diffraction spectra for two unusual kaurene diterpenes from Erythroxylum barbatum.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Claudio Costa; Sousa Lima, Mary Anne; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; de Simone, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2005-12-01

    The structural characterization of two new, unusual kaurene diterpenes isolated from roots of Erythroxylum barbatum is described. 1D NMR and several 2D shift-correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) were used for structure elucidation and the unambiguous 1H and 13C chemical shifts assignments. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was also used to confirm the final relative configuration of the compounds possessing the C-20 methyl and the CH2-15 methylene groups in cis-orientation.

  5. Constraining 17O and 27Al NMR spectra of high-pressure crystals and glasses: New data for jadeite, pyrope, grossular, and mullite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, K.E.; Stebbins, J.F.; Du, L.-S.; Hankins, B.

    2007-01-01

    The 17O NMR spectra of glasses quenched from melts at high pressure are often difficult to interpret due to overlapping peaks and lack of crystalline model compounds. High-pressure aluminosilicate glasses often contain significant amounts of [5]Al and [6]Al, thus these high-pressure glasses must contain oxygen bonded to high-coordinated aluminum. The 17O NMR parameters for the minerals jadeite, pyrope, grossular, and mullite are presented to assist interpretation of glass spectra and to help test quantum chemical calculations. The 17O NMR parameters for jadeite and grossular support previous peak assignments of oxygen bonded to Si and high-coordinated Al in high-pressure glasses as well as quantum chemical calculations. The oxygen tricluster in mullite is very similar to the previously observed tricluster in grossite (CaAl4 O7) and suspected triclusters in glasses. We also present 27Al NMR spectra for pyrope, grossular, and mullite.

  6. Modelling of Collision Induced Absorption Spectra Of H2-H2 Pairs for the Planetary Atmospheres Structure: The Second Overtone Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Borysow, Jacek I.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the proposal was to model the collision induced, second overtone band of gaseous hydrogen at low temperatures. The aim of this work is to assist planetary scientists in their investigation of planetary atmospheres, mainly those of Uranus and Neptune. The recently completed extended database of collision induced dipole moments of hydrogen pairs allowed us, for the first time, to obtain dipole moment matrix elements responsible for the roto-vibrational collision induced absorption spectra of H2-H2 in the second overtone band. Despite our numerous attempts to publish those data, the enormous volume of the database did not allow us to do this. Instead, we deposited the data on a www site. The final part of this work has been partially supported by NASA, Division for Planetary Atmospheres. In order to use our new data for modelling purpose, we first needed to test how well we can reproduce the existing experimental data from theory, when using our new input data. Two papers resulted from this work. The obtained agreement between theoretical results and the measurements appeared to be within 10-30%. The obviously poorer agreement than observed for the first H2 overtone, the fundamental, and the rototranslational bands can be attributed to the fact that dipole moments responsible for the second overtone are much weaker, therefore susceptible to larger numerical uncertainties. At the same time, the intensity of the second overtone band is much weaker and therefore it is much harder to be measured accurately in the laboratory. We need to point out that until now, no dependable model of the 2nd overtone band was available for modelling of the planetary atmospheres. The only one, often referred to in previous works on Uranian and Neptune's atmospheres, uses only one lineshape, with one (or two) parameter(s) deduced at the effective temperature of Uranus (by fitting the planetary observation). After that, the parameter(s) was(were) made temperature

  7. HiFSA Fingerprinting Applied to Isomers with Near-Identical NMR Spectra: The Silybin/Isosilybin Case

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, José G.; Lankin, David C.; Graf, Tyler N.; Friesen, J. Brent; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates how regio- and diastereo-isomers with near-identical NMR spectra can be distinguished and unambiguously assigned using quantum mechanical driven, 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA). The method is illustrated with four natural products, the flavonolignans silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B, which exhibit extremely similar coupling patterns and chemical shift differences well below the commonly reported level of accuracy of 0.01 ppm. The HiFSA approach generated highly reproducible 1H NMR fingerprints that enable distinction of all four isomers at 1H frequencies from 300 to 900 MHz. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the underlying numeric 1H NMR profiles, combined with iterative computational analysis, allow parallel quantification of all four isomers, even in difficult to characterize reference materials and mixtures. The results shed new light on the historical challenges to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these therapeutically relevant flavonolignans and open new opportunities to explore hidden diversity in the chemical space of organic molecules. PMID:23461697

  8. A Global Approach to Accurate and Automatic Quantitative Analysis of NMR Spectra by Complex Least-Squares Curve Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. L.

    The performance of quantitative analysis of 1D NMR spectra depends greatly on the choice of the NMR signal model. Complex least-squares analysis is well suited for optimizing the quantitative determination of spectra containing a limited number of signals (<30) obtained under satisfactory conditions of signal-to-noise ratio (>20). From a general point of view it is concluded, on the basis of mathematical considerations and numerical simulations, that, in the absence of truncation of the free-induction decay, complex least-squares curve fitting either in the time or in the frequency domain and linear-prediction methods are in fact nearly equivalent and give identical results. However, in the situation considered, complex least-squares analysis in the frequency domain is more flexible since it enables the quality of convergence to be appraised at every resonance position. An efficient data-processing strategy has been developed which makes use of an approximate conjugate-gradient algorithm. All spectral parameters (frequency, damping factors, amplitudes, phases, initial delay associated with intensity, and phase parameters of a baseline correction) are simultaneously managed in an integrated approach which is fully automatable. The behavior of the error as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio is theoretically estimated, and the influence of apodization is discussed. The least-squares curve fitting is theoretically proved to be the most accurate approach for quantitative analysis of 1D NMR data acquired with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. The method enables complex spectral residuals to be sorted out. These residuals, which can be cumulated thanks to the possibility of correcting for frequency shifts and phase errors, extract systematic components, such as isotopic satellite lines, and characterize the shape and the intensity of the spectral distortion with respect to the Lorentzian model. This distortion is shown to be nearly independent of the chemical species

  9. Ethanol perturbs lipid organization in models of stratum corneum membranes: An investigation combining differential scanning calorimetry, infrared and (2)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sungjong; Brief, Elana; Langlais, Denis; Kitson, Neil; Lafleur, Michel; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2012-05-01

    Ethanol is used in a variety of topical products. It is known to enhance the permeability of the skin by altering the ability of the stratum corneum (SC) intercellular membranes to form an effective barrier. In addition, ethanol and other alcohols are key components of antiseptic gels currently used for hand wash. Using infrared and deuterium NMR spectroscopy as well as calorimetry, we have investigated the effect of ethanol on a model membrane composed of lipids representing the three classes of SC lipids, an equimolar mixture of N-palmitoylsphingosine (ceramide), palmitic acid and cholesterol. Ethanol is found to influence the membrane in a dose dependent manner, disrupting packing and increasing lipid motion at low concentrations and selectively extracting lipids at moderate concentrations.

  10. Vibrational spectra, UV and NMR, first order hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Jayavarthanan, T; Sundaraganesan, N; Karabacak, M; Cinar, M; Kurt, M

    2012-11-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (2A4Cl6MP) have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4,000 cm(-1), respectively. The spectra have been interpreted interms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule has been optimized and the structural characteristics have been determined by density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared and Raman spectra have also been predicted from the calculated intensities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Nonlinear optical and thermodynamic properties were interpreted. All the calculated results were compared with the available experimental data of the title molecule.

  11. Tendencies of 31P chemical shifts changes in NMR spectra of nucleotide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, A V; Rezvukhin, A I

    1984-01-01

    31P NMR chemical shifts of the selected mono- and oligonucleotide derivatives, including the compounds with P-N, P-C, P-S bonds and phosphite nucleotide analogues have been presented. The influence of substituents upon 31P chemical shifts has been discussed. The concrete examples of 31P chemical shifts data application in the field of nucleotide chemistry have been considered. PMID:6087290

  12. Magnetism, optical absorbance, and 19F NMR spectra of nafion films with self-assembling paramagnetic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, E. M.; Chen, Q.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2012-01-15

    Magnetization, optical absorbance, and {sup 19}F NMR spectra of Nafion transparent films as received and doped with Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} ions with and without treatment in 1H-1,2,4-triazole (trz) have been studied. Doping of Nafion with Fe{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} and their bridging to nitrogen of triazole yields a hybrid self-assembling paramagnetic system that exhibits interesting magnetic and optical properties. These include spin crossover phenomena between high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states in Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz and Nafion-Co{sup 2+}-trz accompanied by thermochromic effects in the visible range induced by temperature. A large shift of the magnetization curve induced by a magnetic field in the vicinity of the HS {leftrightarrow} LS, {approx}220 K, observed for Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz has a rate of {approx}6 K/kOe, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that in bulk spin crossover Fe{sup 2+} materials. Selective response of {sup 19}F NMR signals on doping with paramagnetic ions demonstrates that NMR can be used as spatially resolved method to study Nafion film with paramagnetic network. Both chemical shift and width of {sup 19}F NMR signals show that SO groups of Nafion, Fe or Co ions, and nitrogen of triazole are bonded whereas they form a spin crossover system. Based on a model of nanosize cylinders proposed for Nafion [K. Schmidt-Rohr and Q. Chen, Nat Mater (2008), 75], we suggest that paramagnetic ions are located inside these cylinders, forming self-assembling magnetically and optically active nanoscale networks.

  13. Synthesis of stereospecifically deuterated desoxypodophyllotoxins and 1H-nmr assignment of desoxypodophyllotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullockaran, A. J.; Kingston, D. G.; Lewis, N. G.

    1989-01-01

    [4 beta- 2H1]Desoxypodophyllotoxin [3], [4 alpha- 2H1]desoxypodophyllotoxin [4], and [4, 4- 2 H2]desoxypodophyllotoxin [9] were prepared from podophyllotoxin [1] via its chloride [5]. A complete assignment of the 1H-nmr spectrum of desoxypodophyllotoxin [2] was made on the basis of the spectra of the deuterated compounds [3] and [4].

  14. QUEST-QUadrupolar Exact SofTware: a fast graphical program for the exact simulation of NMR and NQR spectra for quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Perras, Frédéric A; Widdifield, Cory M; Bryce, David L

    2012-01-01

    We present a new program for the exact simulation of solid-state NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei in stationary powdered samples which employs diagonalization of the combined Zeeman-quadrupolar Hamiltonian. The program, which we call QUEST (QUadrupolar Exact SofTware), can simulate NMR spectra over the full regime of Larmor and quadrupolar frequency ratios, which encompasses scenarios ranging from high-field NMR to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR, where the Larmor frequency is zero) and does not make use of approximations when treating the quadrupolar interaction. With the use of the fast powder averaging scheme of Alderman, Solum, and Grant, exact NMR spectral simulations are only marginally slower than the second-order perturbation theory counterpart. The program, which uses a graphical user interface, also incorporates chemical shift anisotropy and non-coincident chemical shift and quadrupolar tensor frames. The program is validated against newly-acquired experimental data through several examples including: the low-field (79/81)Br NMR spectra of CaBr(2), the (14)N overtone NMR spectrum of glycine, the (187)Re NQR spectra of Re(2)(CO)(10), and lastly the (127)I overtone NQR spectrum of SrI(2), which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first direct acquisition of an overtone NQR spectrum for a powdered sample.

  15. A novel tridentate Schiff base dioxo-molybdenum(VI) complex: synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies on its crystal structure, FTIR, UV-visible, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Saheb, Vahid; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2012-09-01

    A new dioxo-molybdenum(VI) complex [MoO(2)(L)(H(2)O)] has been synthesized, using 5-methoxy 2-[(2-hydroxypropylimino)methyl]phenol as tridentate ONO donor Schiff base ligand (H(2)L) and MoO(2)(acac)(2). The yellow crystals of the compound are used for single-crystal X-ray analysis and measuring Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-visible, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. Electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP and PW91PW91 levels of theory are performed to optimize the molecular geometry and to calculate the UV-visible, FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra of the compound. Vibrational assignments and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are performed. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method is used to calculate the electronic transitions of the complex. All theoretical methods can well reproduce the structure of the compound. The (1)H NMR shielding tensors computed at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory is in agreement with experimental (1)H NMR spectra. However, the (13)C NMR shielding tensors computed at the B3LYP level, employing a combined basis set of DGDZVP for Mo and 6-31+G(2df,p) for other atoms, are in better agreement with experimental (13)C NMR spectra. The electronic transitions calculated at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level by using TD-DFT method is in accordance with the observed UV-visible spectrum of the compound.

  16. A new Schiff base compound N,N'-(2,2-dimetylpropane)-bis(dihydroxylacetophenone): synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies on its crystal structure, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Saheb, Vahid; Sheikhshoaie, Iran

    2011-10-15

    The Schiff base compound, N,N'-(2,2-dimetylpropane)-bis(dihydroxylacetophenone) (NDHA) is synthesized through the condensation of 2-hydroxylacetophenone and 2,2-dimethyl 1,3-amino propane in methanol at ambient temperature. The yellow crystalline precipitate is used for X-ray single-crystal determination and measuring Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. Electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP, PBEPBE and PW91PW91 levels of theory are performed to optimize the molecular geometry and to calculate the FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra of the compound. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method is used to calculate the UV-visible spectrum of NDHA. Vibrational frequencies are determined experimentally and compared with those obtained theoretically. Vibrational assignments and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are also performed. All theoretical methods can well reproduce the structure of the compound. The (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts calculated by all DFT methods are consistent with the experimental data. However, the NMR shielding tensors computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory are in better agreement with experimental (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The electronic absorption spectrum calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level by using TD-DFT method is in accordance with the observed UV-visible spectrum of NDHA. In addition, some quantum descriptors of the molecule are calculated and conformational analysis is performed and the results were compared with the crystallographic data.

  17. Twist, tilt, and orientational order at the nematic to twist-bend nematic phase transition of 1″,9″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl) nonane: A dielectric, (2)H NMR, and calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; Sebastián, Nerea; de la Fuente, M Rosario; López, David O; Diez-Berart, Sergio; Salud, Josep; Ros, M Blanca; Dunmur, David A; Luckhurst, Geoffrey R; Timimi, Bakir A

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the nematic-nematic phase transition in the liquid crystal dimer 1″,9″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl) nonane (CB9CB) has been investigated using techniques of calorimetry, dynamic dielectric response measurements, and (2)H NMR spectroscopy. The experimental results for CB9CB show that, like the shorter homologue CB7CB, the studied material exhibits a normal nematic phase, which on cooling undergoes a transition to the twist-bend nematic phase (N(TB)), a uniaxial nematic phase, promoted by the average bent molecular shape, in which the director tilts and precesses describing a conical helix. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry has been used to analyze the nature of the N(TB)-N phase transition, which is found to be weakly first order, but close to tricritical. Additionally broadband dielectric spectroscopy and (2)H magnetic resonance studies have revealed information on the structural characteristics of the recently discovered twist-bend nematic phase. Analysis of the dynamic dielectric response in both nematic phases has provided an estimate of the conical angle of the heliconical structure for the N(TB) phase. Capacitance measurements of the electric-field realignment of the director in initially planar aligned cells have yielded values for the splay and bend elastic constants in the high temperature nematic phase. The bend elastic constant is small and decreases with decreasing temperature as the twist-bend phase is approached. This behavior is expected theoretically and has been observed in materials that form the twist-bend nematic phase. (2)H NMR measurements characterize the chiral helical twist identified in the twist-bend nematic phase and also allow the determination of the temperature dependence of the conical angle and the orientational order parameter with respect to the director.

  18. Twist, tilt, and orientational order at the nematic to twist-bend nematic phase transition of 1″,9″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl) nonane: A dielectric, 2H NMR, and calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; Sebastián, Nerea; de la Fuente, M. Rosario; López, David O.; Diez-Berart, Sergio; Salud, Josep; Ros, M. Blanca; Dunmur, David A.; Luckhurst, Geoffrey R.; Timimi, Bakir A.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the nematic-nematic phase transition in the liquid crystal dimer 1″,9″-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl) nonane (CB9CB) has been investigated using techniques of calorimetry, dynamic dielectric response measurements, and 2H NMR spectroscopy. The experimental results for CB9CB show that, like the shorter homologue CB7CB, the studied material exhibits a normal nematic phase, which on cooling undergoes a transition to the twist-bend nematic phase (NTB), a uniaxial nematic phase, promoted by the average bent molecular shape, in which the director tilts and precesses describing a conical helix. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry has been used to analyze the nature of the NTB-N phase transition, which is found to be weakly first order, but close to tricritical. Additionally broadband dielectric spectroscopy and 2H magnetic resonance studies have revealed information on the structural characteristics of the recently discovered twist-bend nematic phase. Analysis of the dynamic dielectric response in both nematic phases has provided an estimate of the conical angle of the heliconical structure for the NTB phase. Capacitance measurements of the electric-field realignment of the director in initially planar aligned cells have yielded values for the splay and bend elastic constants in the high temperature nematic phase. The bend elastic constant is small and decreases with decreasing temperature as the twist-bend phase is approached. This behavior is expected theoretically and has been observed in materials that form the twist-bend nematic phase. 2H NMR measurements characterize the chiral helical twist identified in the twist-bend nematic phase and also allow the determination of the temperature dependence of the conical angle and the orientational order parameter with respect to the director.

  19. A new salen base 5-(phenylazo)-N-(2-amino pyridine) salicyliden Schiff base ligand: synthesis, experimental and density functional studies on its crystal structure, FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Saheb, Vahid

    2010-12-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand 5-(phenylazo)-N-(2-amino pyridine) salicyliden is prepared through the condensation of 5-(phenylazo) salicylaldehyde and 2-amino pyridine in methanol at room temperature. The orange crystalline precipitate is used for X-ray crystallography and measuring Fourier transform (FTIR), 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP, MPWB1K and B3PW91 levels of theory is used to optimize the geometry and calculate the FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the compound. The vibrational frequencies determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically and a vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound is performed. We found that the MPWB1K method predicts low vibrational frequencies better than the commonly used B3LYP method. Although the B3PW91 method overestimates the 1H NMR chemical shifts, the values computed at the B3LYP level of theory are in accordance with experimental 1H NMR spectrum. However, both B3LYP and B3PW91 methods tend to overestimate 13C NMR chemical shifts. In addition, a few quantum descriptors of the molecule are calculated and conformational analysis is performed and the result was compared with crystallographic data.

  20. Solvent effect on infrared spectra of methyl methacrylate in CCl4/C6H14, CHCl3/C6H14 and C2H5OH/C6H14 binary solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianping; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Danjun

    2004-11-01

    Research of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in three kinds of binary solvent systems (CCl4/C6H14, CHCl3/C6H14 and C2H5OH/C6H14) on the infrared (IR) spectra was reported. Two types of carbonyl stretching vibration bands for MMA in CHCl3/C6H14 or C2H5OH/C6H14 mixtures were found with the changing of the mole fraction of CHCl3 (XCHCl3) or C2H5OH (XC2H5OH). The carbonyl stretching vibration bands at lower frequencies in the above two mixtures were attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonding between MMA and CHCl3 or C2H5OH. While in CCl4/C6H14 mixtures there was only one type of carbonyl stretching vibration band of MMA. Good linear correlations between the frequencies of C=O or C=C stretching vibration band of MMA and XCCl4, XCHCl3 or XC2H5OH were found, respectively. The solute-solvent interactions in the three different binary solvent systems were discussed in detail.

  1. Modified Prony Method to Resolve and Quantify in Vivo31P NMR Spectra of Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, P.; Guidoni, L.; Ragona, R.; Viti, V.; Furman, E.; Degani, H.

    Prony's method, successfully used in processing NMR signals, performs poorly at low signal-to-noise ratios. To overcome this problem, a statistical approach has been adopted by using Prony's method as a sampling device from the distribution associated with the true spectrum. Specifically, Prony's method is applied for each regression order p and number of data points n, both considered in a suitable range, and the estimates of frequencies, amplitudes, and decay factors are pooled separately. A histogram of the pooled frequencies is computed and, looking at the histogram, a lower and an upper frequency bound for each line of interest is determined. All frequency estimates in each of the determined intervals as well as associated decay factors and amplitudes are considered to be independent normal variates. A mean value and a corresponding 95% confidence interval are computed for each parameter. 31P NMR signals from MCF7 human breast cancer cells, inoculated into athymic mice and which developed into tumors, have been processed with traditional methods and with this modified Prony's method. The main components of the phosphomonoester peak, namely those deriving from phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine, are always well resolved with this new approach and their relative amplitudes can be consequently evaluated. Peak intensities of these two signals show different behavior during treatment of tumors with the antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen. The results of this new approach are compared with those obtainable with traditional techniques.

  2. Automated NMR structure determination of stereo-array isotope labeled ubiquitin from minimal sets of spectra using the SAIL-FLYA system.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, Teppei; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) has been combined with the fully automated NMR structure determination algorithm FLYA to determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein ubiquitin from different sets of input NMR spectra. SAIL provides a complete stereo- and regio-specific pattern of stable isotopes that results in sharper resonance lines and reduced signal overlap, without information loss. Here we show that as a result of the superior quality of the SAIL NMR spectra, reliable, fully automated analyses of the NMR spectra and structure calculations are possible using fewer input spectra than with conventional uniformly 13C/15N-labeled proteins. FLYA calculations with SAIL ubiquitin, using a single three-dimensional "through-bond" spectrum (and 2D HSQC spectra) in addition to the 13C-edited and 15N-edited NOESY spectra for conformational restraints, yielded structures with an accuracy of 0.83-1.15 A for the backbone RMSD to the conventionally determined solution structure of SAIL ubiquitin. NMR structures can thus be determined almost exclusively from the NOESY spectra that yield the conformational restraints, without the need to record many spectra only for determining intermediate, auxiliary data of the chemical shift assignments. The FLYA calculations for this report resulted in 252 ubiquitin structure bundles, obtained with different input data but identical structure calculation and refinement methods. These structures cover the entire range from highly accurate structures to seriously, but not trivially, wrong structures, and thus constitute a valuable database for the substantiation of structure validation methods.

  3. Deuterium isotope effects in 13C NMR spectra of trans-azobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikić-Topić, Draz̆en; Novak, Predrag; Smrec̆ki, Vilko; Meić, Zlatko

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts have been determined in a series of deuteriated trans-azobenzene isotopomers. The longest effect observed is the one over ten bonds ( 10Δ) in 4- 2H-isotopomer at C-4' atom amounting to 3.3 ppb. The magnitude and the extent of isotope effects in trans-azobenzene are related to those observed in isoelectronic and conformationally similar trans-stilbene. The sign alternation pattern of the long-range isotope effects in trans-azobenzene parallels that in isoelectronic trans-stilbene, cis-stilbene and trans-N-benzylideneaniline.

  4. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils.

  5. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and DFT molecular orbital calculations (TD-DFT and NMR) of the antiproliferative drug Methotrexate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Aroulmoji, V.; Murano, E.; Sebastian, S.

    2010-09-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral studies of the Methotrexate (MTX) were carried out. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational frequencies of MTX have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) using 6-31G(d) as basis set. Detailed analysis of the vibrational spectra has been made with the aid of theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies. The vibrational analysis confirms the differently acting ring modes, steric repulsion, conjugation and back-donation. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complement with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occur within the molecule. Good correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts in DMSO solution and calculated GIAO shielding tensors were found.

  6. SIMQUADNMR: a program for simulation and interpretation of multiple quantum-filtered NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Nicola; Gaggelli, Elena; Molteni, Elena; Valensin, Gianni

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computer program which simulates NMR multiple quantum-filtered spectra of quadrupolar nuclei as a function of physical parameters, of the type of experiment and experimental conditions. The program works by solving relaxation theory equations for the given system, and it can be useful in order to plan the ideal conditions to set up specific experiments or to give a physical interpretation of experimental results. The program allows to independently follow the dependence of individual coherences and relaxation rates as a function of up to 50 parameters regarding the physical properties of the system under investigation, sample conditions and instrumental setup making it an helpful tool also for teaching purposes.

  7. The effect of sample hydration on 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fulvic acids, two of which have been well studied by a number of other groups (Armadale and Suwannee river fulvic acids) have been examined by high resolution solid-state 13C-NMR techniques to delineate the effect of absorbed water. Two main effects of absorbed water were observed: (1) changes in spin lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame and cross polarization times and (2) total loss of signal so that some fulvic acid is effectively in solution. These results suggest that discrepancies in the literature concerning observed relative signal intensities from different structural groups are due to absorbed water and emphasize the necessity for proper precautionary drying before spectroscopic analysis. ?? 1991.

  8. New insight into hydration and aging mechanisms of paper by the line shape analysis of proton NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, D.; Vasi, S.; Missori, M.; Corsaro, C.

    2016-05-01

    The action of water within biological systems is strictly linked either with their physical chemical properties and with their functions. Cellulose is one of the most studied biopolymers due to its biological importance and its wide use in manufactured products. Among them, paper is mainly constituted by an almost equimolar ratio of cellulose and water. Therefore the study of the behavior of water within pristine and aged paper samples can help to shed light on the degradation mechanisms that irremediably act over time and spoil paper. In this work we present Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on modern paper samples made of pure cellulose not aged and artificially aged as well as on ancient paper samples made in 1413 in Perpignan (France). The line shape parameters of the proton NMR spectra were studied as a function of the hydration content. Results indicate that water in aged samples is progressively involved in the hydration of the byproducts of cellulose degradation. This enhances the degradation process itself through the progressive consumption of the cellulose amorphous regions.

  9. Structure of dimethylphenyl betaine hydrochloride studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculation, NMR and FTIR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, M.; Katrusiak, A.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Kowalczyk, I.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of dimethylphenyl betaine hydrochloride (1) has been studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, NMR and FTIR spectra. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c. In the crystal, the Cl- anion is connected with protonated betaine through the O-H⋯Cl- hydrogen bond of 2.943(2) Å. The structures in the gas phase (2) and water solution (3) have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) approach and the geometrical results have been compared with the X-ray data of 1. The FTIR spectrum of the solid compound is consistent with the X-ray results. The probable assignments of the anharmonic experimental vibrational frequencies of the investigated chloride (1) based on the calculated harmonic frequencies in water solution (3) are proposed. The correlations between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts (δexp) of 1 in D2O and the magnetic isotropic shielding constants (σcalc) calculated by the GIAO/B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) approach, using the screening solvation model (COSMO), δexp = a + b σcalc, for optimized molecule 3 in water solution are linear and correctly reproduce the experimental chemical shifts.

  10. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectra, conformational stability and vibrational assignment of 7,8-Dihydroxy-4-Methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Erdogdu, Yusuf; Saglam, Semran

    2014-11-11

    We report a combined some (infrared, Raman and NMR) spectroscopic and quantum chemistry study on 7,8-Dihydroxy-4-Methylcoumarin molecule (78D4MC). The Raman and IR spectra of 78D4MC molecule were recorded and analyzed in the region 3500-50 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively. Potential energy scans were performed at the MMFF level of theory. All possible conformers, which are results at the MMFF level theory, were re-computed at the B3LYP functional with cc-pVDZ basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and NMR chemical shifts of the most stable conformer were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p), cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ level in the proximity of the isolated molecule. DFT calculations were combined with Pulay's scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQMFF) methodology in order to fit the theoretical wavenumbers to the experimental ones.

  11. On the Observation of Discrete Fluorine NMR Spectra for Uridine 5′-β,γ-Fluoromethylenetriphosphate Diastereomers at Basic pH

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Jakeman et al. recently reported the inability to distinguish the diastereomers of uridine 5′-β,γ-fluoromethylenetriphosphate (β,γ-CHF-UTP, 1) by 19F NMR under conditions we previously prescribed for the resolution of the corresponding β,γ-CHF-dGTP spectra, stating further that 1 decomposed under these basic conditions. Here we show that the 19F NMR spectra of 1 (∼1:1 diastereomer mixture prepared by coupling of UMP-morpholidate with fluoromethylenebis(phosphonic acid)) in D2O at pH 10 are indeed readily distinguishable. 1 in this solution was stable for 24 h at rt. PMID:24819695

  12. Analysis of the collision-induced absorption spectra in the second overtone region of H2-H2 at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, M.

    2015-02-01

    The collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectra of the second overtone band of normal hydrogen in a pure gas were recorded for a number of gas densities up to 750 amagat (1 amagat = 44.614981 mol/m3) with a two meter stainless steel absorption cell at 298 K. The profile analyses of these spectra were carried out using the Birnbaum-Cohen line shape function for the quadrupolar vibrational transitions and the Levine-Birnbaum line shape function for the overlap transitions.

  13. Kinetic isotope effects and tunneling in cyclic double and triple proton transfer between acetic acid and methanol in tetrahydrofuran studied by dynamic /sup 1/H and /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritzen, D.; Limbach, H.H.

    1984-02-22

    Previous studies of proton exchange and hydrogen bonding between acetic acid (A) and methanol (B) in tetrahydrofuran-d/sub 8/ have been extended to the study of the primary kinetic H/D isotope effects of the exchange. For this purpose a new combination of dynamic /sup 1/H and /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy has been used to perform an ''NMR proton inventory''. The following rate law was obtained at deuterium fractions D=0 and D=1 of the exchangeable protonic sites: NU=k/sup LL/ C/sub A/C/sub B/+k/sub LLL/C/sub A//sup 2/C/sub B/ (L=H,D). This was attributed to a superposition of cyclic double and triple proton exchange involving one and two molecules of acetic acid and one molecule of methanol. Additional experiments were carried out at intermediate deuterium fractions. Thus, the kinetic HH/HD/DD and HHH/HHD/DDD isotope effects of the exchange as a function of the temperature was measured successfully. This has been achieved for the first time for well-defined intermolecular multiple-proton-transfer reactions. The possibility of determining the number of protons transferred in a chemical reaction by performing an NMR proton inventory is discussed. The rule of the geometric mean (RGM) is fulfilled for the kinetic isotope effects of the LLL process, which are almost independent of temperature within the margin of error. By contrast, the RGM is not fullfilled for the LL process, and the kinetic isotope effects depend strongly on the temperature. The energies of activation and frequency factors fit Bell's criteria of tunneling. The kinetic results are in good agreement with predictions of transition-state theory but can be explained by an intermolecular tunneling model. The results are proof that acetic acid and methanol form cyclic hydrogen-bonded 1:1 and 2:1 complexes which have very low concentration in tetrahydrofuran.

  14. Rotational spectra and structure of the Ar2-H2S complex: pulsed nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectroscopic and ab initio studies.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pankaj K; Ramdass, Dharmender J; Arunan, E

    2005-07-21

    This paper reports the rotational spectrum and structure of the Ar2-H2S complex and its HDS and D2S isotopomers. The ground state structure has heavy-atom C2v symmetry with the two Ar atoms indistinguishable and H2S freely rotating as evinced by the fact that asymmetric top energy levels with Kp=odd levels are missing. The rotational constants for the parent isotopomer are: A=1733.115(1) MHz, B=1617.6160(5) MHz and C=830.2951(2) MHz. Unlike the Ar-H2S complex, the Ar2-H2S does not show an anomalous isotopic shift in rotational constants on deuterium substitution. However, the intermolecular potential is still quite floppy, leading to very different centrifugal distortion constants for the three isotopomers. The Ar-Ar and Ar-c.m.(H2S) distances are determined to be 3.820 A and 4.105 A, respectively. The A rotational constants for Ar2-H2S/HDS/D2S isotopomers are very close to each other and to the B constant of free Ar2, indicating that H2S does not contribute to the moment of inertia about the a-axis. Ab initio calculations at MP2 level with aug-cc-pVQZ basis set lead to an equilibrium C2v minimum structure with the Ar-Ar line perpendicular to the H-H line and the S away from Ar2. The centrifugal distortion constants, calculated using the ab initio force field, are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. However, they do not show the variation observed for different isotopmers. The binding energy of Ar2-H2S has been determined to be 507 cm-1(6.0 kJ mol-1) by CBS extrapolation after correcting for basis set superposition error. Potential energy scans point out that the barrier for internal rotation of H2S about its b axis is only 10 cm-1 and it is below the zero point energy (13.5 cm-1) in this torsional degree of freedom. Internal rotation of H2S about its a- and c-axes also have small barriers of about 50 cm-1 only, suggesting that H2S is extremely floppy within the complex.

  15. Towards high resolution ^1H NMR spectra of tannin colloidal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, M.; Glories, Y.; Pianet, I.; Dufourc, E. J.

    1999-10-01

    The time dependent colloidal formation of tannins in hydro-alcoholic medium has been studied by 1H-NMR. Line broadening observed with time can be cancelled by making use of magic angle sample spinning (MASS) thus yielding sharp lines that allow structural studies. We used as an example catechin, a constitutive monomer of Bordeaux young red wine tannins. Chemical shift variations of polyphenol protons allow monitoring the time course of aggregation. La formation de tanins colloïdaux au cours du temps, en milieu hydroalcoolique, a été suivie par RMN-^1H. Un élargissement marqué des résonances est observé et peut être supprimé par la rotation de l'échantillon à l'angle magique ce qui ouvre tout un champ d'études structurales sur ces composés colloïdaux. L'exemple proposé est celui de la catéchine, monomère constitutif de tannins présents en grande quantité dans les vins rouges jeunes de Bordeaux. Des variations du déplacement chimique de certains protons polyphénoliques permettent de suivre l'évolution temporelle de l'agrégation.

  16. Relativistic force field: parametric computations of proton-proton coupling constants in (1)H NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2014-09-05

    Spin-spin coupling constants in (1)H NMR carry a wealth of structural information and offer a powerful tool for deciphering molecular structures. However, accurate ab initio or DFT calculations of spin-spin coupling constants have been very challenging and expensive. Scaling of (easy) Fermi contacts, fc, especially in the context of recent findings by Bally and Rablen (Bally, T.; Rablen, P. R. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 4818), offers a framework for achieving practical evaluation of spin-spin coupling constants. We report a faster and more precise parametrization approach utilizing a new basis set for hydrogen atoms optimized in conjunction with (i) inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) molecular geometries, (ii) inexpensive 4-31G basis set for carbon atoms in fc calculations, and (iii) individual parametrization for different atom types/hybridizations, not unlike a force field in molecular mechanics, but designed for the fc's. With the training set of 608 experimental constants we achieved rmsd <0.19 Hz. The methodology performs very well as we illustrate with a set of complex organic natural products, including strychnine (rmsd 0.19 Hz), morphine (rmsd 0.24 Hz), etc. This precision is achieved with much shorter computational times: accurate spin-spin coupling constants for the two conformers of strychnine were computed in parallel on two 16-core nodes of a Linux cluster within 10 min.

  17. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    SciTech Connect

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2014-04-22

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  18. ;Click; analytics for ;click; chemistry - A simple method for calibration-free evaluation of online NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik-Onichimowska, Aleksandra; Kern, Simon; Riedel, Jens; Panne, Ulrich; King, Rudibert; Maiwald, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Driven mostly by the search for chemical syntheses under biocompatible conditions, so called ;click; chemistry rapidly became a growing field of research. The resulting simple one-pot reactions are so far only scarcely accompanied by an adequate optimization via comparably straightforward and robust analysis techniques possessing short set-up times. Here, we report on a fast and reliable calibration-free online NMR monitoring approach for technical mixtures. It combines a versatile fluidic system, continuous-flow measurement of 1H spectra with a time interval of 20 s per spectrum, and a robust, fully automated algorithm to interpret the obtained data. As a proof-of-concept, the thiol-ene coupling between N-boc cysteine methyl ester and allyl alcohol was conducted in a variety of non-deuterated solvents while its time-resolved behaviour was characterized with step tracer experiments. Overlapping signals in online spectra during thiol-ene coupling could be deconvoluted with a spectral model using indirect hard modeling and were subsequently converted to either molar ratios (using a calibration-free approach) or absolute concentrations (using 1-point calibration). For various solvents the kinetic constant k for pseudo-first order reaction was estimated to be 3.9 h-1 at 25 °C. The obtained results were compared with direct integration of non-overlapping signals and showed good agreement with the implemented mass balance.

  19. "Click" analytics for "click" chemistry - A simple method for calibration-free evaluation of online NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Michalik-Onichimowska, Aleksandra; Kern, Simon; Riedel, Jens; Panne, Ulrich; King, Rudibert; Maiwald, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Driven mostly by the search for chemical syntheses under biocompatible conditions, so called "click" chemistry rapidly became a growing field of research. The resulting simple one-pot reactions are so far only scarcely accompanied by an adequate optimization via comparably straightforward and robust analysis techniques possessing short set-up times. Here, we report on a fast and reliable calibration-free online NMR monitoring approach for technical mixtures. It combines a versatile fluidic system, continuous-flow measurement of (1)H spectra with a time interval of 20s per spectrum, and a robust, fully automated algorithm to interpret the obtained data. As a proof-of-concept, the thiol-ene coupling between N-boc cysteine methyl ester and allyl alcohol was conducted in a variety of non-deuterated solvents while its time-resolved behaviour was characterized with step tracer experiments. Overlapping signals in online spectra during thiol-ene coupling could be deconvoluted with a spectral model using indirect hard modeling and were subsequently converted to either molar ratios (using a calibration-free approach) or absolute concentrations (using 1-point calibration). For various solvents the kinetic constant k for pseudo-first order reaction was estimated to be 3.9h(-1) at 25°C. The obtained results were compared with direct integration of non-overlapping signals and showed good agreement with the implemented mass balance.

  20. Communication: Permanent dipoles contribute to electric polarization in chiral NMR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A. David

    2014-01-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is blind to chirality because the spectra of a molecule and its mirror image are identical unless the environment is chiral. However, precessing nuclear magnetic moments in chiral molecules in a strong magnetic field induce an electric polarization through the nuclear magnetic shielding polarizability. This effect is equal and opposite for a molecule and its mirror image but is small and has not yet been observed. It is shown that the permanent electric dipole moment of a chiral molecule is partially oriented through the antisymmetric part of the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor, causing the electric dipole to precess with the nuclear magnetic moment and producing a much larger temperature-dependent electric polarization with better prospects of detection.

  1. A Discovery-Based Hydrochlorination of Carvone Utilizing a Guided-Inquiry Approach to Determine the Product Structure from [superscript 13]C NMR Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelter, Michael W.; Walker, Natalie M.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment describes a discovery-based method for the regio- and stereoselective hydrochlorination of carvone, appropriate for a 3-h second-semester organic chemistry laboratory. The product is identified through interpretation of the [superscript 13]C NMR and DEPT spectra are obtained on an Anasazi EFT-60 at 15 MHz as neat samples. A…

  2. Quantitative analysis of ³¹P NMR spectra of soil extracts--dealing with overlap of broad and sharp signals.

    PubMed

    Doolette, Ashlea L; Smernik, Ronald J

    2015-09-01

    Solution (31)P NMR analysis following extraction with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is the most widely used method for detailed characterization of soil organic P. However, quantitative analysis of the (31)P NMR spectra is complicated by severe spectral overlap in the monoester region. Various deconvolution procedures have been developed for the task, yet none of these are widely accepted or implemented. In this mini-review, we first describe and compare these varying approaches. We then review approaches to similar issues of spectral overlap in biomedical science applications including NMR-based metabolic profiling and analyzing (31)P magnetic resonance spectra of ex vivo and in vivo intact tissues. The greater maturity and resourcing of this biomedical research means that a wider variety of approaches has been developed. Of particular relevance are approaches to dealing with overlap of broad and sharp signals. Although the existence of this problem is still debated in the context of soil analyses, not only is it well-recognized in biomedical applications, but multiple approaches have been developed to deal with it, including T2 editing and time-domain fitting. Perhaps the most transferable concept is the incorporation of 'prior knowledge' in the fitting of spectra. This is well established in biomedical applications but barely touched in soil analyses. We argue that shortcuts to dealing with overlap in the monoester region (31)P NMR soil spectra are likely to be found in the biomedical literature, although some degree of adaptation will be necessary.

  3. Infrared and NMR spectra, tautomerism, vibrational assignment, normal coordinate analysis, and quantum mechanical calculations of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Mahmoud S.; Farag, Rabei S.; Shaaban, Ibrahim A.; Wilson, Lee D.; Zoghaib, Wajdi M.; Mohamed, Tarek A.

    2013-07-01

    The infrared (4000-200 cm-1) spectrum for 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC, C5H4N4) was acquired in the solid phase. In addition, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of APC were obtained in DMSO-d6 along with its mass spectrum. Initially, six isomers were hypothesized and then investigated by means of DFT/B3LYP and MP2(full) quantum mechanical calculations using a 6-31G(d) basis set. Moreover, the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were predicted using a GIAO approximation at the 6-311+G(d,p) basis set and the B3LYP method with (and without) solvent effects using PCM method. The correlation coefficients showed good agreement between the experimental/theoretical chemical shift values of amino tautomers (1 and 2) rather than the eliminated imino tautomers (3-6), in agreement with the current quantum mechanical calculations. Structures 3-6 are less stable than the amino tautomers (1 and 2) by about 5206-8673 cm-1 (62.3-103.7 kJ/mol). The MP2(full)/6-31G(d) computational results favor the amino structure 1 with a pyramidal NH2 moiety and calculated real vibrational frequencies, however; structure 2 is considered a transition state owing to the calculated imaginary frequency. It is worth mentioning that, the calculated structural parameters suggest a strong conjugation between the amino nitrogen and pyrimidine ring. Aided by frequency calculations, normal coordinate analysis, force constants and potential energy distributions (PEDs), a complete vibrational assignment for the observed bands is proposed herein. Finally, NH2 internal rotation barriers for the stable non-planar isomer (1) were carried out using MP2(full)/6-31G(d) optimized structural parameters. Our results are discussed herein and compared to structural parameters for similar molecules whenever appropriate.

  4. C-13 NMR chemical shifts and visible absorption spectra of unsymmetrical fluoran dye by MO calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, T.; Ida, T.; Mizuno, M.; Otsuka, T.; Takaoka, K.; Endo, K.

    2002-01-01

    An unsymmetrical fluoran dye, 3-diethylamino-6-methyl-7-chlorofluoran (DEAMCF) is one of the leuco dyes which shows the coloring-to-decoloring reversible reaction with acidity. We calculated the 13C chemical shieldings of the DEAMCF with the frame model compounds using ab initio gauge invariant atomic orbital methods, and compared it with the experimental shifts. The calculated values of the frame compounds are in good agreement with the experimental ones in the error range of -4.9-16.7 ppm. The calculated ones for the decolored-form of the DEAMCF reflected the observed ones, although the errors range from -13.4 to 23.1 ppm. Furthermore, we analyzed the UV-Visible absorption spectra of the decolored and colored forms of DEAMCF by a semiempirical ZINDO MO method. For the colored form, the observed absorption peaks at 550 and 510 nm correspond to the excitation from π-bonding HOMO (π-electrons which conjugated in xanthene ring) and π-bonding nearest HOMO (π-electrons concentrated in benzene-ring with methyl and Cl groups of xanthene) to π ∗-antibonding LUMO (π ∗-electrons of xanthene), respectively.

  5. Millimeter Wave Spectra of the Internal Rotation Excited States of (o)H_2-H_2O and (o)H_2-D_2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Iwasaki, Y.; Giesen, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-06-01

    H_2-H_2O is a weakly bound complex and it has a various states according to the internal rotation for both H_2 and H_2O moieties. In our previous study, we have reported the pure rotational transitions of the (o)H_2 complex in the ground H_2O rotational state, 0_{00}(Σ), for both H_2-H_2O and H_2-D_2O, where (o)H_2 (j_{ H2} =1) is rotating perpendicular to the intermolecular axis to give the projection of j_{ H2} to the axis k_{ H2} to be zero (i.e. Σ state). In the present study, we have observed the rotational transitions for the 0_{00} (Π) states in the millimeter-wave region up to 220 GHz, where the (o)H_2 is rotating around the intermolecular axis to give the projection k_{ H2} to be one (i.e. Π state). The center of mass bond lengths derived from the observed rotational constants for 0_{00} (Π) are longer by 5 % than those for 0_{00} (Σ), while force constants for the intermolecular stretching for 0_{00} (Π) derived from centrifugal distortion constants are smaller by 23 % than those for 0_{00} (Σ), suggesting the Π and Σ substates have quite different structures. The recent theoretical calculation indicates that for 0_{00}(Σ), (o)H_2 is bound to the oxygen site of H_2O, while for the 0_{00} (Π) state, (o)H_2 to the hydrogen site of H_2O, and the 0_{00}(Σ) state is by 14 cm^{-1} more stable than the 0_{00} (Π) state. Observed molecular constants for 0_{00}(Σ) and (Π) are consistent with the structures given by the theoretical calculation. We also observed the rotational spectrum in the 1_{01} (Σ) and (Π) states, where Σ and Π correspond to the rotation of H_2O perpendicular and parallel to the intermolecular axis and (o)H_2 is calculated to be bound to the oxygen site of H_2O. The energy difference between the 1_{01} (Σ) and (Π) states will be discussed due to the Criolis interaction between these substates. C. J. Whitham, K. Tanaka, and K. Harada, The 56th OSU Symposium, RD08 (2001). Ad. van der Avoid and D. J. Nesbit, J. Chem. Phys

  6. Automated Quantification of Human Brain Metabolites by Artificial Neural Network Analysis from in VivoSingle-Voxel 1H NMR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaartinen, Jouni; Mierisová, Šarka; Oja, Joni M. E.; Usenius, Jukka-Pekka; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Hiltunen, Yrjö

    1998-09-01

    A real-time automated way of quantifying metabolites fromin vivoNMR spectra using an artificial neural network (ANN) analysis is presented. The spectral training and test sets for ANN containing peaks at the chemical shift ranges resembling long echo time proton NMR spectra from human brain were simulated. The performance of the ANN constructed was compared with an established lineshape fitting (LF) analysis using both simulated and experimental spectral data as inputs. The correspondence between the ANN and LF analyses showed correlation coefficients of order of 0.915-0.997 for spectra with large variations in both signal-to-noise and peak areas. Water suppressed1H NMR spectra from 24 healthy subjects were collected and choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) were quantified with both methods. The ANN quantified these spectra with an accuracy similar to LF analysis (correlation coefficients of 0.915-0.951). These results show that LF and ANN are equally good quantifiers; however, the ANN analyses are more easily automated than LF analyses.

  7. Exploiting the phase of NMR signals to carry useful information. Application to the measurement of chemical shifts in aliased 2D spectra.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gualito, Karla; Jeannerat, Damien

    2015-11-01

    Taking advantage of the phase of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals to encode NMR information is not easy because of their low precision and their sensitivity to nearby signals. We nevertheless demonstrated that the phase in indirect dimension of (1) H-(13) C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) signals could provide carbon chemical shifts at low, but sufficient precision to resolve the ambiguities of the chemical shifts in aliased spectra. This approach, we called phase-encoding of the aliasing order Na (PHANA), only requires inserting a constant delay during the t1 evolution time to obtain spectra where signals with mixed phases can be decoded at the processing to reconstruct full spectra with a 15-fold increase in resolution.

  8. Study of molecular structure, vibrational, electronic and NMR spectra of oncocalyxone A using DFT and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Honorato, Sara Braga; Tandon, Poonam; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Oncocalyxone A (C17H18O5) is the major secondary metabolite isolated from ethanol extract from the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx Taub popularly known as “pau branco”. Oncocalyxone A (Onco A) has many pharmaceutical uses such as: antitumor, analgesic, antioxidant and causative of inhibition of platelet activation. We have performed the optimized geometry, total energy, conformational study, molecular electrostatic potential mapping, frontier orbital energy gap and vibrational frequencies of Onco A employing ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and/or charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in DMSO and MeOH solvent. The TD-DFT calculations have been performed to explore the influence of electronic absorption spectra in the gas phase, as well as in solution environment using IEF-PCM and 6-31G basis set. The 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated with the B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) basis set and compared with the experimental values. These methods have been used as tools for structural characterization of Onco A.

  9. Study of molecular structure, vibrational, electronic and NMR spectra of oncocalyxone A using DFT and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Honorato, Sara Braga; Tandon, Poonam; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Oncocalyxone A (C17H18O5) is the major secondary metabolite isolated from ethanol extract from the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx Taub popularly known as "pau branco". Oncocalyxone A (Onco A) has many pharmaceutical uses such as: antitumor, analgesic, antioxidant and causative of inhibition of platelet activation. We have performed the optimized geometry, total energy, conformational study, molecular electrostatic potential mapping, frontier orbital energy gap and vibrational frequencies of Onco A employing ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and/or charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in DMSO and MeOH solvent. The TD-DFT calculations have been performed to explore the influence of electronic absorption spectra in the gas phase, as well as in solution environment using IEF-PCM and 6-31G basis set. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated with the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental values. These methods have been used as tools for structural characterization of Onco A.

  10. The covariance of the differences between experimental and theoretical chemical shifts as an aid for assigning two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2014-07-01

    A robust method for the assignment of two-dimensional heteronuclear correlations in the solid-state NMR spectra is described. It statistically evaluates the differences between measured and theoretical (obtained from first-principles calculations of the NMR chemical shielding property of periodic materials) chemical shifts. The values of the covariance of these differences, and of the standard deviations of the respective linear correlations, are elucidative for the spectral assignment process. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated for three crystalline systems: L-tyrosine hydrochloride, L-tyrosine ansolvate, and the polymorphic form I of o-acetylsalicylic acid.

  11. X-ray crystallography characterization, vibrational spectroscopy, NMR spectra and quantum chemical DFT/HF study of N, N'-di(2-methoxyphenyl)formamidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofouei, M. K.; Sohrabi, N.; Shamsipur, M.; Fereyduni, E.; Ayyappan, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2010-07-01

    The title compound, N, N'-di(2-methoxyphenyl)formamidine (DMPF) was synthesized and characterized byFT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The results show that the compound crystallizes in anorthorhombic system, with space group of Pbca and eight molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 11.1118 (7) Å, b = 14.9878 (9) Å and c = 16.2851 (10) Å. The molecular geometry, the normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of DMPF at the ground state were performed by HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. It was observed that the bond lengths and angles in the molecule, obtained by X-ray at the level of theory, were in good agreement with those of the experiment. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of DMPF was reported. The 13C NMR and 1H NMR of DMPF have been calculated usingHF and B3LYP methods with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. Comparison between experimental and theoretical results showed that B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method is able to provide more satisfactory results for predicting IR, Raman, 1H NMR and 13C NMR properties.

  12. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the X-ray crystal structure, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectra, NLO behavior and antimicrobial activity of 2-hydroxyacetophenone benzoylhydrazone.

    PubMed

    Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Ebrahimipour, S Yousef; Sheikhshoaie, Mahdeyeh; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Khaleghi, Moj; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2014-04-24

    A Schiff base ligand, 2-hydroxyacetophenone benzoylhydrazone (HL) was synthesized and fully characterized with FT-IR, elemental analyses, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. DFT calculations using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and PW91/DZP are performed to optimize the molecular geometry. Optimized structures are used to calculate FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra of the compound. Also the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) have been determined. The results obtained from the optimization and spectral analyses are in good agreement with the experimental data. To investigate non-linear optical properties, the electric dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and molecular first hyperpolarizability (β) were computed. The linear polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the compound can be a good candidate of nonlinear optical materials. In addition, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this compound against Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans was determined.

  13. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Aaron J.; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance 1H-2H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance 2H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2 h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the 2H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of 1H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  14. An approach to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of metabolites in table wines by (1)H NMR self-constructed three-dimensional spectra.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao Qiong; Xu, Min Li; Wang, Xue; Zhai, Hong Lin; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jin Jin

    2017-02-01

    Wine consists of several hundred components with different concentrations, including water, ethanol, glycerol, organic acids and sugars. Accurate quantification of target compounds in such complex samples is a difficult task based on conventional (1)H NMR spectra due to some challenges. In this paper, the three-dimensional spectrum was constructed firstly by simply repeating (1)H NMR spectrum itself so as to extract the features of target compounds by Tchebichef moment method. A proof-of-concept model system, the determination of five metabolites in wines was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy. The results indicate that the proposed approach can provide accurate and reliable concentration predictions, probably the best results ever achieved using PLS and interval-PLS methods. Our novel strategy has not only good performance but also does not require laborious multi-step and subjective pretreatments. Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method could extend the application of conventional (1)H NMR.

  15. A study of the molecular conformations and the vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the anticancer drug tamoxifen and triphenylethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Khan, Ibrahim

    2016-08-01

    The structural stability and the vibrational spectra of the anticancer drug tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were investigated by the DFT B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) calculations. Tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were predicted to exist predominantly as non-planar structures. The vibrational frequencies and the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the low energy structures of tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were computed at the DFT B3LYP level of theory. Complete vibrational assignments were provided by combined theoretical and experimental data of tamoxifen and triphenylethylene. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of both molecules were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the two molecules. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for tamoxifen is 0.29 and 4.72 ppm, whereas for triphenylethylene, it is 0.16 and 2.70 ppm, respectively.

  16. High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences with efficient acquisition schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meijin; Huang, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution 2D NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields can be achieved by the use of intermolecular multiple-quantum coherences and shearing reconstruction of 3D data. However, the long acquisition time of 3D spectral data is generally unbearable for invivo applications. To overcome this problem, two pulse sequences dubbed as iDH-COSY and iDH-JRES were proposed in this paper. Although 3D acquisition is still required for the new sequences, the high-resolution 2D spectra can be obtained with a relatively short scanning time utilizing the manipulation of indirect evolution period and sparse sampling. The intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment combined with the raising and lowering operators was applied to derive analytical signal expressions for the new sequences. And the experimental observations agree with the theoretical predictions. Our results show that the new sequences possess bright perspective in the applications on invivo localized NMR spectroscopy.

  17. 1H NMR z-spectra of acetate methyl in stretched hydrogels: Quantum-mechanical description and Markov chain Monte Carlo relaxation-parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Chapman, Bogdan E.; Naumann, Christoph; Mamone, Salvatore; Kuchel, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    The 1H NMR signal of the methyl group of sodium acetate is shown to be a triplet in the anisotropic environment of stretched gelatin gel. The multiplet structure of the signal is due to the intra-methyl residual dipolar couplings. The relaxation properties of the spin system were probed by recording steady-state irradiation envelopes ('z-spectra'). A quantum-mechanical model based on irreducible spherical tensors formed by the three magnetically equivalent spins of the methyl group was used to simulate and fit experimental z-spectra. The multiple parameter values of the relaxation model were estimated by using a Bayesian-based Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm.

  18. Hydrophobic clustering in nonnative states of a protein: Interpretation of chemical shifts in NMR spectra of denatured states of lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, P.A.; Topping, K.D.; Woolfson, D.N.; Dobson, C.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Chemical shifts of resonances of specific protons in the 1H NMR spectrum of thermally denatured hen lysozyme have been determined by exchange correlation with assigned native state resonances in 2D NOESY spectra obtained under conditions where the two states are interconverting. There are subtle but widespread deviations of the measured shifts from the values which would be anticipated for a random coil; in the case of side chain protons these are virtually all net upfield shifts and it is shown that this may be the averaged effect of interactions with aromatic rings in a partially collapsed denatured state. In a very few cases, notably that of two sequential tryptophan residues, it is possible to interpret these effects in terms of specific, local interresidue interactions. Generally, however, there is no correlation with either native state shift perturbations or with sequence proximity to aromatic groups. Diminution of most of the residual shift perturbations on reduction of the disulfide cross-links confirms that they are not simply effects of residues adjacent in the sequence. Similar effects of chemical denaturants, with the disulfides intact, demonstrate that the shift perturbations reflect an enhanced tendency to side chain clustering in the thermally denatured state. The temperature dependences of the shift perturbations suggest that this clustering is noncooperative and is driven by small, favorable enthalpy changes. While the extent of conformational averaging is clearly much greater than that observed for a homologous protein, alpha-lactalbumin, in its partially folded molten globule state, the results clearly show that thermally denatured lysozyme differs substantially from a random coil, principally in that it is partially hydrophobically collapsed.

  19. Effect of organic matter application on CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectra of humic acids from a brown soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.

    2009-04-01

    OM application, which was consistent with other studies (Wang et al., 2001). The content of the WSS increased after the OM application indicating that the increase of labile organic carbon. The C/H mole ratio of the HS could reflect the degree of condensation (Dou et al., 1995). Effects on HA chemical and optical properties. The chemical and optical properties of HA were listed. The C/H ratios decreased after OM application, from 0.830 (CKbr) to 0.754 (O2). While △lgK increased, from 0.623 (CKbr) to 0.658 (O2). The HA structure tended to become simpler. The C/H ratio of the HA decreased after OM application. This indicates that OM application decreased the degree of condensation. The △lgK values can be used as the index of HA molecule complexity in the soil. If △lgK increased, the molecular structure becomes simpler. After OM application, △lgK increased indicating that the molecular structure became simpler. Effects on HA thermal properties. It could be seen that HA had exothermic peaks in moderate and high temperature regions. After OM application, heat (H2) of exothermic peak increased in moderate temperature region, while heat (H3) of exothermic peak decreased in high temperature region. The the heat ratio of exothermic peaks in high temperature region to moderate (H3/H2) decreased. From CKbr to O2, H3/H2 decreased from 4.31 to0.86. The HA had moderate and high temperature exothermic peaks. The heat of exothermic peaks in the moderate temperature region might show that aliphatic compounds decomposed and peripheral functional groups decarboxylated. The heat of the exothermic peaks in the high temperature region might show that the HA was oxidized completely and inter-aromatic structures in the molecule decomposed. The heat ratio of the high to moderate temperature exothermic regions (H3/H2) decreased significantly after PM application, indicating that the proportion of aromatic structure decreased and the HA molecular structure simplified. Effects on CP

  20. Synthesis and NMR Spectral Analysis of Amine Heterocycles: The Effect of Asymmetry on the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C NMR Spectra of N,O-Acetals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Shahrokh; Ciaccio, James A.; Espinal, Jennifer; Aman, Courtney E.

    2007-01-01

    The stereochemical investigation is conducted to give students the combined experience of chemical synthesis of amines and N-heterocycles and structural stereochemical analysis using NMR spectroscopy. Students are introduced to the concept of topicity-stereochemical relationships between ligands within a molecule by synthesizing N,O-acetals.

  1. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  2. Auger-electron angular distributions calculated without the two-step approximation: Calculation of angle-resolved resonant Auger spectra of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Colle, Renato; Embriaco, Davide; Massini, Michol; Simonucci, Stefano; Taioli, Simone

    2004-10-01

    Analytic expressions for the direct, resonant, and interference contributions to the differential cross section of a resonant Auger process, produced by the inner-shell photoionization of a linear molecule either 'fixed in space' or belonging to a gas of randomly oriented molecules, have been derived following Dill's procedures [Dill et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1393 (1980)], but going beyond the two-step approximation. Angle-resolved Auger spectra of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecule measured on top of the C 1s{yields}{pi}* resonance [Kivimaeki et al., J. Phys. B 30, 4279 (1997)] have been calculated together with asymmetry parameters, analyzing also the different contributions to the electron angular distributions.

  3. New hypodiphosphates of the alkali metals: Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectra of the hypodiphosphates(IV) M{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (M=Rb and Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Peng; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut

    2012-10-15

    The new hypodiphosphates(IV) Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (1) and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (2) were synthesized by soft chemistry reactions from aqueous solutions of hypophosphoric acid and the corresponding heavy alkali-metal carbonates. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize isotypic in the triclinic space group P-1 with one formula unit in the unit cell. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units in staggered conformation for the P{sub 2}O{sub 6} skeleton and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. In the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} ion the hydrogen atoms are in a 'trans-trans' conformation. O{center_dot}H-O hydrogen bonds between the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups consolidate the structures into a three-dimensional network. The FT-Raman and {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H and MAS NMR spectra of the title compounds have been recorded and interpreted, especially with respect to their assignment to the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups. Thermogravimetric data of 2 have been interpreted in terms of a thermal decomposition model. - Graphical Abstract: The layered compounds Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] have been synthesized and investigated. Both crystallize isotypic. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and single-crystal structure of new alkali hypodiphosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures are characterized by [(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})]{sup 2-} units and M{sup +} cations

  4. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  5. A NMR reverse diffusion filter for the simplification of spectra of complex mixtures and the study of drug receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Vega-Vázquez, M; Cobas, J C; Oliveira de Sousa, F F; Martin-Pastor, M

    2011-08-01

    A reverse diffusion filter NMR experiment (Drev) is proposed for the study of small molecules in binding with macromolecules. The filtering efficiency of Drev to eliminate the signals of the macromolecule is shown to be superior to conventional transverse relaxation filters at least for macromolecules containing a significant fraction of flexible residues. The Drev filter was also a useful complement for ligand-based NMR screening in combination with saturation transfer difference experiments.

  6. Orphan spin operators enable the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-05-01

    We propose a general method that enables the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D solid-state NMR spectra for U-13C, 15N-labeled proteins. This method, called MEIOSIS (Multiple ExperIments via Orphan SpIn operatorS), makes it possible to detect four coherence transfer pathways simultaneously, utilizing orphan (i.e., neglected) spin operators of nuclear spin polarization generated during 15N-13C cross polarization (CP). In the MEIOSIS experiments, two phase-encoded free-induction decays are decoded into independent nuclear polarization pathways using Hadamard transformations. As a proof of principle, we show the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra of U-13C, 15N-labeled microcrystalline ubiquitin. Hadamard decoding of CP coherences into multiple independent spin operators is a new concept in solid-state NMR and is extendable to many other multidimensional experiments. The MEIOSIS method will increase the throughput of solid-state NMR techniques for microcrystalline proteins, membrane proteins, and protein fibrils.

  7. Separation of small metabolites and lipids in spectra from biopsies by diffusion-weighted HR-MAS NMR: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Diserens, G; Vermathen, M; Precht, C; Broskey, N T; Boesch, C; Amati, F; Dufour, J-F; Vermathen, P

    2015-01-07

    High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR allows metabolic characterization of biopsies. HR-MAS spectra from tissues of most organs show strong lipid contributions that are overlapping metabolite regions, which hamper metabolite estimation. Metabolite quantification and analysis would benefit from a separation of lipids and small metabolites. Generally, a relaxation filter is used to reduce lipid contributions. However, the strong relaxation filter required to eliminate most of the lipids also reduces the signals for small metabolites. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate different diffusion editing techniques in order to employ diffusion differences for separating lipid and small metabolite contributions in the spectra from different organs for unbiased metabonomic analysis. Thus, 1D and 2D diffusion measurements were performed, and pure lipid spectra that were obtained at strong diffusion weighting (DW) were subtracted from those obtained at low DW, which include both small metabolites and lipids. This subtraction yielded almost lipid free small metabolite spectra from muscle tissue. Further improved separation was obtained by combining a 1D diffusion sequence with a T2-filter, with the subtraction method eliminating residual lipids from the spectra. Similar results obtained for biopsies of different organs suggest that this method is applicable in various tissue types. The elimination of lipids from HR-MAS spectra and the resulting less biased assessment of small metabolites have potential to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of metabonomic results. This is demonstrated in a reproducibility study on biopsies from human muscle.

  8. The conformational stability, solvation and the assignments of the experimental infrared, Raman, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A

    2015-05-05

    The structure, vibrational and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine were investigated by the B3LYP/6-311G(∗∗) calculations. The molecule was predicted to have the non-planar cis (NCCN∼0°) structures being about 2-6kcal/mol lower in energy than the corresponding trans (NCCN∼180°) forms. The calculated NCCN (9.6°) and CNCC (-132.2°) torsional angles were in a good qualitative agreement with the reported X-ray angles (3.1 and 13.0°, -102.67 and -77.9°, respectively, for H-bonded dimers). The Gibbs energy of solution of lidocaine in formamide, water, dimethylsulfoxide, acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol and chloroform solutions was estimated at the B3LYP level. The predicted affinity of lidocaine toward the alcohols, acetonitrile and chloroform solutions was in excellent agreement with the reported experimental solubility of the drug in organic solvents. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of lidocaine in only one conformation at room temperature. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the drug. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for lidocaine is 0.47 and 8.26ppm, respectively.

  9. The conformational stability, solvation and the assignments of the experimental infrared, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2015-05-01

    The structure, vibrational and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine were investigated by the B3LYP/6-311G∗∗ calculations. The molecule was predicted to have the non-planar cis (NCCN ∼ 0°) structures being about 2-6 kcal/mol lower in energy than the corresponding trans (NCCN ∼ 180°) forms. The calculated NCCN (9.6°) and CNCC (-132.2°) torsional angles were in a good qualitative agreement with the reported X-ray angles (3.1 and 13.0°, -102.67 and -77.9°, respectively, for H-bonded dimers). The Gibbs energy of solution of lidocaine in formamide, water, dimethylsulfoxide, acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol and chloroform solutions was estimated at the B3LYP level. The predicted affinity of lidocaine toward the alcohols, acetonitrile and chloroform solutions was in excellent agreement with the reported experimental solubility of the drug in organic solvents. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of lidocaine in only one conformation at room temperature. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the drug. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for lidocaine is 0.47 and 8.26 ppm, respectively.

  10. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Cox, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS 15N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by 15N NMR. Liquid state 15N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (1H-15N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  11. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2009-02-28

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS ¹⁵N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by ¹⁵N NMR. Liquid state ¹⁵N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (¹H–¹⁵N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  12. Toward an in Vivo Neurochemical Profile: Quantification of 18 Metabolites in Short-Echo-Time 1H NMR Spectra of the Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Josef; Tkáč , Ivan; Provencher, Stephen W.; Gruetter, Rolf

    1999-11-01

    Localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy was performed with 2-ms echo time in the rat brain at 9.4 T. Frequency domain analysis with LCModel showed that the in vivo spectra can be explained by 18 metabolite model solution spectra and a highly structured background, which was attributed to resonances with fivefold shorter in vivo T1 than metabolites. The high spectral resolution (full width at half maximum approximately 0.025 ppm) and sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio approximately 45 from a 63-μL volume, 512 scans) was used for the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of metabolites previously difficult to quantify in 1H spectra. The strongly represented signals of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, taurine, myo-inositol, creatine, phosphocreatine, glutamine, and lactate were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 4%. Choline groups, phosphorylethanolamine, glucose, glutathione, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, and alanine were below 13%, whereas aspartate and scyllo-inositol were below 22%. Intra-assay variation was assessed from a time series of 3-min spectra, and the coefficient of variation was similar to the calculated Cramér-Rao lower bounds. Interassay variation was determined from 31 pooled spectra, and the coefficient of variation for total creatine was 7%. Tissue concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with neurochemical data from the literature.

  13. Using a Problem Solving-Cooperative Learning Approach to Improve Students' Skills for Interpreting [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectra of Unknown Compounds in an Organic Spectroscopy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angawi, Rihab F.

    2014-01-01

    To address third- and fourth-year chemistry students' difficulties with the challenge of interpreting [superscript 1]H NMR spectra, a problem solving-cooperative learning technique was incorporated in a Spectra of Organic Compounds course. Using this approach helped students deepen their understanding of the basics of [superscript 1]H NMR…

  14. Combined experimental (FT-IR, UV-visible spectra, NMR) and theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces, reactivity descriptor and molecular docking of Phomarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Gangwar, Shashi; Misra, Neeraj; Mondal, Avijit; Brahmachari, Goutam

    2015-09-01

    Phomarin is an important natural product belonging to anthraquinone series of compounds. The equilibrium geometry of phomarin has been determined and analyzed at DFT method employing B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of computation. The reactivity of molecule using various descriptors such as Fukui functions, local softness, electrophilicity, electronegativity, Hardness, HOMO-LUMO gap are calculated and discussed. The infrared and UV-vis spectra of phomarin are calculated and compared with the experimentally observed ones. Moreover, 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method. We also notice that phomarin shows remarkable biological activities against malaria parasite. The study suggests further investigation on phomarin for their pharmacological importance.

  15. Improving the efficiency of branch-and-bound complete-search NMR assignment using the symmetry of molecules and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Andrés; Castillo, Andrés M.; González, Fabio; Patiny, Luc; Wist, Julien

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignment of small molecules is presented as a typical example of a combinatorial optimization problem in chemical physics. Three strategies that help improve the efficiency of solution search by the branch and bound method are presented: 1. reduction of the size of the solution space by resort to a condensed structure formula, wherein symmetric nuclei are grouped together; 2. partitioning of the solution space based on symmetry, that becomes the basis for an efficient branching procedure; and 3. a criterion of selection of input restrictions that leads to increased gaps between branches and thus faster pruning of non-viable solutions. Although the examples chosen to illustrate this work focus on small-molecule NMR assignment, the results are generic and might help solving other combinatorial optimization problems.

  16. Improving the efficiency of branch-and-bound complete-search NMR assignment using the symmetry of molecules and spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Andrés; Patiny, Luc; Castillo, Andrés M.; González, Fabio; Wist, Julien

    2015-02-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignment of small molecules is presented as a typical example of a combinatorial optimization problem in chemical physics. Three strategies that help improve the efficiency of solution search by the branch and bound method are presented: 1. reduction of the size of the solution space by resort to a condensed structure formula, wherein symmetric nuclei are grouped together; 2. partitioning of the solution space based on symmetry, that becomes the basis for an efficient branching procedure; and 3. a criterion of selection of input restrictions that leads to increased gaps between branches and thus faster pruning of non-viable solutions. Although the examples chosen to illustrate this work focus on small-molecule NMR assignment, the results are generic and might help solving other combinatorial optimization problems.

  17. A constraint-based assignment system for automating long side chain assignments in protein 2D NMR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Leishman, S.; Gray, P.; Fothergill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The sequential assignment of protein 2D NMR data has been tackled by many automated and semi-automated systems. One area that these systems have not tackled is the searching of the TOCSY spectrum looking for cross peaks and chemical shift values for hydrogen nuclei that are at the end of long side chains. This paper describes our system for solving this problem using constraint logic programming and compares our constraint satisfaction algorithm to a standard backtracking version.

  18. Structure and dynamics of retinal in rhodopsin elucidated by deuterium solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Gilmar Fernandes De Jesus

    Rhodopsin is a seven transmembrane helix GPCR found which mediates dim light vision, in which the binding pocket is occupied by the ligand 11- cis-retinal. A site-directed 2H-labeling approach utilizing solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure and dynamics of retinal within its binding pocket in the dark state of rhodopsin, and as well the MetaI and MetaII. 11-cis-[5-C 2H3]-, 11-cis-[9-C 2H3]-, and 11-cis-[13-C2H 3]-retinal were used to regenerate bleached rhodopsin. Recombinant membranes comprising purified rhodopsin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were prepared (1:50 molar ratio). Solid-state 2H NMR spectra were obtained for the aligned rhodopsin/POPC recombinant membranes at temperatures below the order-disorder phase transition temperature of POPC. The solid-state NMR studies of aligned samples, give the orientations of the 2H nuclear coupling tensor relative to the membrane frame, which involve both the conformation and orientation of the bound retinal chromophore. Theoretical simulations of the experimental 2H NMR spectra employed a new lineshape treatment for a semi-random distribution due to static uniaxial disorder. The analysis gives the orientation of the 2H-labeled C-C2H3 methyl bond axes relative to the membrane plane as well as the extent of three-dimensional alignment disorder (mosaic spread). These results clearly demonstrate the applicability of site-directed 2H NMR methods for investigating conformational changes and dynamics of ligands bound to rhodopsin and other GPCRs in relation to their characteristic mechanisms of action.

  19. Reparameterization of RNA chi Torsion Parameters for the AMBER Force Field and Comparison to NMR Spectra for Cytidine and Uridine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ilyas; Stern, Harry A; Kennedy, Scott D; Tubbs, Jason D; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-05-11

    A reparameterization of the torsional parameters for the glycosidic dihedral angle, chi, for the AMBER99 force field in RNA nucleosides is used to provide a modified force field, AMBER99chi. Molecular dynamics simulations of cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and guanosine in aqueous solution using the AMBER99 and AMBER99chi force fields are compared with NMR results. For each nucleoside and force field, 10 individual molecular dynamics simulations of 30 ns each were run. For cytidine with AMBER99chi force field, each molecular dynamics simulation time was extended to 120 ns for convergence purposes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, including one-dimensional (1D) (1)H, steady-state 1D (1)H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), and transient 1D (1)H NOE, was used to determine the sugar puckering and preferred base orientation with respect to the ribose of cytidine and uridine. The AMBER99 force field overestimates the population of syn conformations of the base orientation and of C2'-endo sugar puckering of the pyrimidines, while the AMBER99chi force field's predictions are more consistent with NMR results. Moreover, the AMBER99 force field prefers high anti conformations with glycosidic dihedral angles around 310 degrees for the base orientation of purines. The AMBER99chi force field prefers anti conformations around 185 degrees , which is more consistent with the quantum mechanical calculations and known 3D structures of folded ribonucleic acids (RNAs). Evidently, the AMBER99chi force field predicts the structural characteristics of ribonucleosides better than the AMBER99 force field and should improve structural and thermodynamic predictions of RNA structures.

  20. 1H NMR spectra of alcohols and diols in chloroform: DFT/GIAO calculation of chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Lomas, John S

    2014-12-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of aliphatic alcohols in chloroform have been computed on the basis of density functional theory, the solvent being included by the integral-equation-formalism polarisable continuum model of Gaussian 09. Relative energies of all conformers are calculated at the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE)0/6-311+G(d,p) level, and NMR shifts by the gauge-including atomic orbital method with the PBE0/6-311+G(d,p) geometry and the cc-pVTZ basis set. The 208 computed CH proton NMR shifts for 34 alcohols correlate very well with the experimental values, with a gradient of 1.00 ± 0.01 and intercept close to zero; the overall root mean square difference (RMSD) is 0.08 ppm. Shifts for CH protons of diols in chloroform are well correlated with the theoretical values for (isotropic) benzene, with similar gradient and intercept (1.02 ± 0.01, -0.13 ppm), but the overall RMSD is slightly higher, 0.12 ppm. This approach generally gives slightly better results than the CHARGE model of Abraham et al. The shifts of unsaturated alcohols in benzene have been re-examined with Gaussian 09, but the overall fit for CH protons is not improved, and OH proton shifts are worse. Shifts of vinyl protons in alkenols are systematically overestimated, and the correlation of computed shifts against the experimental data for unsaturated alcohols follows a quadratic equation. Splitting the 20 compounds studied into two sets, and applying empirical scaling based on the quadratic for the first set to the second set, gives an RMSD of 0.10 ppm. A multi-standard approach gives a similar result.

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the molecular structure, conformational stability, hyperpolarizability, electrostatic potential, thermodynamic properties and NMR spectra of pharmaceutical important molecule: 4‧-Methylpropiophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, V.; Balachandran, V.

    2014-07-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the structure and vibrational spectra (IR and Raman spectra) of 4‧-methylpropiophenone (MPP). The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4‧-methylpropiophenone (MPP) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of MPP are also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated by Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). The natural bond orbital (NBO), natural hybrid orbital (NHO) analysis and electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by DFT approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) of the novel molecular system and related properties (βtot, α0 and Δα) of MPP are calculated using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The Mulliken charges, the values of electric dipole moment (μ) of the molecule were computed using DFT calculations. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above method and basis set.

  2. Binding modes of phosphonic acid derivatives adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces: Assignments of experimental IR and NMR spectra based on DFT/PBC calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldof, D.; Tassi, M.; Carleer, R.; Adriaensens, P.; Roevens, A.; Meynen, V.; Blockhuys, F.

    2017-01-01

    A DFT study on the adsorption of a series of phosphonic acids (PAs) on the TiO2 anatase (101) and (001) surfaces was performed. The adsorption energies and geometries of the most stable binding modes were compared to literature data and the effect of the inclusion of dispersion forces in the energy calculations was gauged. As the (101) surface is the most exposed surface of TiO2 anatase, the calculated chemical shifts and vibrational frequencies of PAs adsorbed on this surface were compared to experimental 31P and 17O NMR and IR data in order to assign the two possible binding modes (mono- and bidentate) to peaks and bands in these spectra; due to the corrugated nature of anatase (101) tridentate binding is not possible on this surface. Analysis of the calculated and experimental 31P chemical shifts indicates that both monodentate and bidentate binding modes are present. For the reactive (001) surface, the results of the calculations indicate that both bi- and tridentate binding modes result in stable systems. Due to the particular sensitivity of 17O chemical shifts to hydrogen bonding and solvent effects, the model used is insufficient to assign these spectra at present. Comparison of calculated and experimental IR spectra leads to the conclusion that IR spectroscopy is not suitable for the characterization of the different binding modes of the adsorption complexes.

  3. Quantification of the Contribution of Extracellular Sodium to 23Na Multiple-Quantum-Filtered NMR Spectra of Suspensions of Human Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knubovets, Tatyana; Shinar, Hadassah; Navon, Gil

    1998-03-01

    23Na double-quantum-filtered (DQF) NMR enables the detection of anisotropic motion of sodium ions due to their interaction with ordered structures in biological tissues. Using the technique, anisotropic motion was found for sodium ions in mammalian red blood cell suspensions (RBC) and the effect was shown to correlate with the integrity of membrane cytoskeleton. In the present study relative contributions to the DQF and triple-quantum-filtered (TQF) spectra of sodium bound to anisotropic and isotropic binding sites in the intra- and extracellular sodium pools (Na content being 15 and 150 mM, respectively) of human RBC were quantified for different hematocrits. DQF spectra were measured by a modified Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence which enabled exclusive detection of anisotropically moving sodium ions. The relative contributions of the extracellular sodium to the TQF and DQF spectra decreased as the hematocrit increased, but their efficiency relative to the sodium content increased. The contribution of the extracellular sodium to the TQF signal was found to dominate the spectrum of the RBC suspension at all hematocrits studied. The contribution of the extracellular sodium to the DQF was significantly smaller than that to the TQF and was only 22% at a high hematocrit of about 90%.

  4. Solution structure of (Cr/sup III/(L)(O-O))/sup n/ complexes (L = nitrilotriacetate, N,N-. beta. -alaninediacetate; O-O = malonate, oxalate, acetylacetonate, 2H/sub 2/O) and characterization of (Cr(nta)(OH))/sub 2//sup 2 -/ by deuteron NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koine, N.; Bianchini, R.J.; Legg, J.I.

    1986-07-30

    The complexes (Cr/sup III/(L)(O-O))/sup n/ (L = nitrilotriacetate (nta), N,N-..beta..-alaninediacetate (..beta..-alada); O-O = malonate (mal), oxalate (ox), acetylacetonate (acac), 2H/sub 2/O) have been synthesized, chromatographically purified, and characterized by deuteron NMR, infrared and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The two possible isomers, symmetrical (sym) and unsymmetrical (unsym), for (Cr(..beta..-alada)(acac))/sup -/ and (Cr(..beta..-alada)(mal))/sup 2 -/ were isolated, but only the unsym isomer for (Cr(..beta..-alada)(ox))/sup 2 -/ was found. The starting materials for the synthesis of these complexes, (Cr(nta)(OH))/sub 2//sup 2 -/ and unsym-(Cr(..beta..-alada)(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/), were also characterized. Both species were shown to be in equilibrium with the corresponding monomer and dimer, respectively. The chemistry of the various species investigated differs, to some extent, from what has been previously reported. The recent availability of a readily applicable NMR technique for the study of Cr(III) chemistry (/sup 2/H NMR) has greatly facilitated these studies.

  5. Molecular dynamics and information on possible sites of interaction of intramyocellular metabolites in vivo from resolved dipolar couplings in localized 1H NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Proton NMR resonances of the endogenous metabolites creatine and phosphocreatine ((P)Cr), taurine (Tau), and carnosine (Cs, β-alanyl- L-histidine) were studied with regard to residual dipolar couplings and molecular mobility. We present an analysis of the direct 1H- 1H interaction that provides information on motional reorientation of subgroups in these molecules in vivo. For this purpose, localized 1H NMR experiments were performed on m. gastrocnemius of healthy volunteers using a 1.5-T clinical whole-body MR scanner. We evaluated the observable dipolar coupling strength SD0 ( S = order parameter) of the (P)Cr-methyl triplet and the Tau-methylene doublet by means of the apparent line splitting. These were compared to the dipolar coupling strength of the (P)Cr-methylene doublet. In contrast to the aliphatic protons of (P)Cr and Tau, the aromatic H2 ( δ = 8 ppm) and H4 ( δ = 7 ppm) protons of the imidazole ring of Cs exhibit second-order spectra at 1.5 T. This effect is the consequence of incomplete transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime and allows a determination of SD0 from H2 and H4 of Cs as an alternative to evaluating the multiplet splitting which can be measured directly in high-resolution 1H NMR spectra. Experimental data showed striking differences in the mobility of the metabolites when the dipolar coupling constant D0 (calculated with the internuclear distance known from molecular geometry in the case of complete absence of molecular dynamics and motion) is used for comparison. The aliphatic signals involve very small order parameters S ≈ (1.4 - 3) × 10 -4 indicating rapid reorientation of the corresponding subgroups in these metabolites. In contrast, analysis of the Cs resonances yielded S ≈ (113 - 137) × 10 -4. Thus, the immobilization of the Cs imidazole ring owing to an anisotropic cellular substructure in human m. gastrocnemius is much more effective than for (P)Cr and Tau subgroups. Furthermore, 1H NMR experiments on aqueous model

  6. (1)H NMR spectra of alcohols in hydrogen bonding solvents: DFT/GIAO calculations of chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Lomas, John S

    2016-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of aliphatic alcohols in hydrogen bonding solvents have been computed on the basis of density functional theory by applying the gauge-including atomic orbital method to geometry-optimized alcohol/solvent complexes. The OH proton shifts and hydrogen bond distances for methanol or ethanol complexed with pyridine depend very much on the functional employed and very little on the basis set, provided it is sufficiently large to give the correct quasi-linear hydrogen bond geometry. The CH proton shifts are insensitive to both the functional and the basis set. NMR shifts for all protons in several alcohol/pyridine complexes are calculated at the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof PBE0/cc-pVTZ//PBE0/6-311 + G(d,p) level in the gas phase. The results correlate with the shifts for the pyridine-complexed alcohols, determined by analysing data from the NMR titration of alcohols against pyridine. More pragmatically, computed shifts for a wider range of alcohols correlate with experimental shifts in neat pyridine. Shifts for alcohols in dimethylsulfoxide, based on the corresponding complexes in the gas phase, correlate well with the experimental values, but the overall root mean square difference is high (0.23 ppm), shifts for the OH, CHOH and other CH protons being systematically overestimated, by averages of 0.42, 0.21 and 0.06 ppm, respectively. If the computed shifts are corrected accordingly, a very good correlation is obtained with a gradient of 1.00 ± 0.01, an intercept of 0.00 ± 0.02 ppm and a root mean square difference of 0.09 ppm. This is a modest improvement on the result of applying the CHARGE programme to a slightly different set of alcohols. Some alcohol complexes with acetone and acetonitrile were investigated both in the gas phase and in a continuum of the relevant solvent.

  7. Indole-containing new types of dyes and their UV-vis and NMR spectra and electronic structures: Experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzu, Burak; Menges, Nurettin

    2016-06-01

    Indole containing dyes were synthesized via a simple method with high yield. These molecules have different colors and UV-vis spectra of them were recorded. Impact of solvents on absorbances was investigated and it was observed that basic solvent such as DMF and pyridine have blue shift. TD-DFT calculations were done and results were compared with experimental data. NMR data of molecules were analyzed and tautomeric forms of colorants and their ratio were determined. It was find out that two tautomers might be formed in solution, called indole and indolenine form. HOMO-LUMO and energy gaps were calculated and plotted. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potentials were simulated to find out electrophilic and nucleophilic regions.

  8. Determination of glucan phosphorylation using heteronuclear 1H, 13C double and 1H, 13C, 31P triple-resonance NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Peter; Nitschke, Felix; Steup, Martin; Mallow, Keven; Specker, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of starch and glycogen are important for their physicochemical properties and also their physiological functions. It is therefore desirable to reliably determine the phosphorylation sites. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR-spectroscopy is in principle a straightforward analytical approach even for complex carbohydrate molecules. With heterogeneous samples from natural sources, however, the task becomes more difficult because a full assignment of the resonances of the carbohydrates is impossible to obtain. Here, we show that the combination of heteronuclear (1) H,(13) C and (1) H,(13) C,(31) P techniques and information derived from spectra of a set of reference compounds can lead to an unambiguous determination of the phosphorylation sites even in heterogeneous samples.

  9. Peculiarities in the director reorientation and evolution of NMR spectra under the influence of crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical description is proposed for new modes of reorientation of the director field widehat n and the evolution of the NMR spectrum I(ν) of a nematic liquid crystal (LC) formed by molecules of deuterated 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl encapsulated in a rectangular LC cell under the action of crossed electric, E, and magnetic, B, fields directed at an angle of α to one another. Numerical calculations in the framework of the nonlinear generalization of the classical Ericksen-Leslie theory show that, under certain relations between the forces and moments acting upon a unit volume of the LC phase upon the reorientation of widehat n, transient periodic structures can arise if the corresponding distortion mode is characterized by the fastest response and thus suppresses all other modes, including uniform ones. It is shown that the rise of these periodic structures leads to a reduction in the time for the reorientation of the director field.

  10. Anisotropy effect of three-membered rings in (1)H NMR spectra: quantification by TSNMRS and assignment of the stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Erich; Krüger, Stefanie; Koch, Andreas

    2015-05-07

    The spatial magnetic properties (through space NMR shieldings, TSNMRSs) of cyclopropane; of the heteroanalogous oxirane, thiirane, and aziridine; and of various substituted mono-, dis-, and tris-cyclic analogues have been computed by the GIAO perturbation method employing the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) concept and visualized as iso-chemical-shielding surfaces (ICSSs) of various size and direction. The TSNMRS values, thus obtained, can be employed to visualize the anisotropy (ring current) effect of the cyclopropane ring moiety. This approach has been employed to qualify and quantify substituent influences and contributions of appropriate ring heteroatoms O, NH, and S on the anisotropy (ring current) effect of three-membered ring moieties, and to assign the stereochemistry of mono-, bis-, and tris-cyclic structures containing cyclopropane as a structural element. Characteristic examples are included.

  11. Facilitating quality control for spectra assignments of small organic molecules: nmrshiftdb2--a free in-house NMR database with integrated LIMS for academic service laboratories.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Stefan; Schlörer, Nils E

    2015-08-01

    nmrshiftdb2 supports with its laboratory information management system the integration of an electronic lab administration and management into academic NMR facilities. Also, it offers the setup of a local database, while full access to nmrshiftdb2's World Wide Web database is granted. This freely available system allows on the one hand the submission of orders for measurement, transfers recorded data automatically or manually, and enables download of spectra via web interface, as well as the integrated access to prediction, search, and assignment tools of the NMR database for lab users. On the other hand, for the staff and lab administration, flow of all orders can be supervised; administrative tools also include user and hardware management, a statistic functionality for accounting purposes, and a 'QuickCheck' function for assignment control, to facilitate quality control of assignments submitted to the (local) database. Laboratory information management system and database are based on a web interface as front end and are therefore independent of the operating system in use.

  12. Demystifying fluorine chemical shifts: electronic structure calculations address origins of seemingly anomalous (19)F-NMR spectra of fluorohistidine isomers and analogues.

    PubMed

    Kasireddy, Chandana; Bann, James G; Mitchell-Koch, Katie R

    2015-11-11

    Fluorine NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying biomolecular structure, dynamics, and ligand binding, yet the origins of (19)F chemical shifts are not well understood. Herein, we use electronic structure calculations to describe the changes in (19)F chemical shifts of 2F- and 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon acid titration. While the protonation of the 2F species results in a deshielded chemical shift, protonation of the 4F isomer results in an opposite, shielded chemical shift. The deshielding of 2F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon protonation can be rationalized by concomitant decreases in charge density on fluorine and a reduced dipole moment. These correlations do not hold for 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole, however. Molecular orbital calculations reveal that for the 4F species, there are no lone pair electrons on the fluorine until protonation. Analysis of a series of 4F-imidazole analogues, all with delocalized fluorine electron density, indicates that the deshielding of (19)F chemical shifts through substituent effects correlates with increased C-F bond polarity. In summary, the delocalization of fluorine electrons in the neutral 4F species, with gain of a lone pair upon protonation may help explain the difficulty in developing a predictive framework for fluorine chemical shifts. Ideas debated by chemists over 40 years ago, regarding fluorine's complex electronic effects, are shown to have relevance for understanding and predicting fluorine NMR spectra.

  13. Crystal structure and theoretical study of IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of cordatin, a natural product with antiulcerogenic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasil, Davi S. B.; Alves, Cláudio N.; Guilhon, Giselle M. S. P.; Muller, Adolfo H.; Secco, Ricardo De S.; Peris, Gabriel; Llusar, Rosa

    Cordatin is a furan diterpenoid with a clerodane skeleton isolated from Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). This natural product shows significant antiulcerogenic activity, similar to cimetidine (Tagamet®), a compound used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The crystal structure of cordatin was obtained by X-ray diffraction and its geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical calculations at the B3LYP theory level. The IR and NMR (1H and 13C chemical shifts and coupling constants) spectra were obtained and compared with the theoretical calculations. The B3LYP theory level, with the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis set, provided IR absorption values close to the experimental data. Moreover, theoretical NMR parameters obtained in both gas phase and chloroform solvent at the B3PW91/DGDZVP, B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p), and B3PW91/6-311+G(2d,p) levels showed good correlations with the experimental results.

  14. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-Vis spectra and DFT calculations of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (monomer and dimer structures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas, E. B.; Kose, E.; Kurt, M.; Karabacak, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (5Br2EPBA) are recorded in the solid phase in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1, respectively. The 1H, 13C and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of 5Br2EPBA is saved in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol and water. The following theoretical calculations for monomeric and dimeric structures are supported by experimental results. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state are calculated by using DFT methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. There are four conformers for the present molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 5Br2EPBA as Trans-Cis (TC) form. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method in parallel quantum solutions (PQS) program. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of 5Br2EPBA molecule are calculated by using the Gauge Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method in DMSO and gas phase for monomer and dimer structures of the most stable conformer. Moreover, electronic properties, such as the HOMO and LUMO energies (by TD-DFT and CIS methods) and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPs) are investigated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization is analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and thermodynamic features are presented. All calculated results are compared with the experimental data of the title molecule. The correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the title molecule.

  15. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-Vis spectra and DFT calculations of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (monomer and dimer structures).

    PubMed

    Sas, E B; Kose, E; Kurt, M; Karabacak, M

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenylboronic acid (5Br2EPBA) are recorded in the solid phase in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-10 cm(-1), respectively. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of 5Br2EPBA is saved in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol and water. The following theoretical calculations for monomeric and dimeric structures are supported by experimental results. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies in the ground state are calculated by using DFT methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. There are four conformers for the present molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of 5Br2EPBA as Trans-Cis (TC) form. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method in parallel quantum solutions (PQS) program. The (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5Br2EPBA molecule are calculated by using the Gauge Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method in DMSO and gas phase for monomer and dimer structures of the most stable conformer. Moreover, electronic properties, such as the HOMO and LUMO energies (by TD-DFT and CIS methods) and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPs) are investigated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization is analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and thermodynamic features are presented. All calculated results are compared with the experimental data of the title molecule. The correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the title molecule.

  16. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-12-25

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed.

  17. Using Bulk Magnetic Susceptibility to Resolve Internal and External Signals in the NMR Spectra of Plant Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachar-Hill, Yair; Befroy, Douglas E.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Ratcliffe, R. George

    1997-07-01

    Internal and external NMR signals from a variety of plant cells and plant tissues can be resolved by changing the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) of the perfusing medium with [Gd (EDTA)]-or Dy(DTPA-BMA). This separation is observed in samples consisting of cylindrical cells oriented along theB0field, and is consistent with established theoretical predictions about BMS effects. Evidence is presented that the shifted signals represent material outside the tissue as well as some contribution from intercellular spaces and cell walls, while intracellular signals are unshifted. The paramagnetic complexes used to separate the signals are shown to be nontoxic and to have no effect on a number of transport processes. The method has been applied to roots, shoots, and giant algal cells, facilitating the interpretation of thein vivospectra from a range of biologically important magnetic isotopes. The potential of the method for studies of transport is illustrated with experiments showing: (i)14N/15N isotopic exchange of nitrate in roots; (ii) the influx of HDO into root and shoot segments; and (iii) the use of saturation transfer to follow water movement into and out of plant cells.

  18. NMR of 133Cs+ in stretched hydrogels: One-dimensional, z- and NOESY spectra, and probing the ion's environment in erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchel, Philip W.; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Puckeridge, Max; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Naumann, Christoph; Chapman, Bogdan E.

    2015-12-01

    133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was conducted on 133Cs+ in gelatin hydrogels that were either relaxed or stretched. Stretching generated a septet from this spin-7/2 nucleus, and its nuclear magnetic relaxation was studied via z-spectra, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser (NOESY) spectroscopy. Various spectral features were well simulated by using Mathematica and the software package SpinDynamica. Spectra of CsCl in suspensions of human erythrocytes embedded in gelatin gel showed separation of the resonances from the cation inside and outside the cells. Upon stretching the sample, the extracellular 133Cs+ signal split into a septet, while the intracellular peak was unchanged, revealing different alignment/ordering properties of the environment inside and around the cells. Differential interference contrast light microscopy confirmed that the cells were stretched when the overall sample was elongated. Analysis of the various spectral features of 133Cs+ reported here opens up applications of this K+ congener for studies of cation-handling by metabolically-active cells and tissues in aligned states.

  19. Experimental FTIR, FT-IR (gas phase), FT-Raman and NMR spectra, hyperpolarizability studies and DFT calculations of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Sundaraganesan, N; Kavitha, E; Sebastian, S; Cornard, J P; Martel, M

    2009-10-15

    In the present study, structural properties of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-DMP) have been studied extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation. The Fourier transform infrared (solid phase and gas phase) and Fourier transform Raman spectra of 3,5-DMP were recorded. The Vibrational frequencies of 3,5-DMP in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) as basis sets. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3,5-DMP with calculated results show that 6-311++G(d,p) superior to other basis sets for molecular vibrational problems. Non linear optical NLO behavior of the examined molecule was investigated by the determination of the electric dipole moment mu, the polarizability alpha and the hyperpolarizability beta using the B3LYP/cc-pvdz method. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by (13)C and (1)H NMR analysis also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretically predicted FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed.

  20. Synthesis, structure, and /sup 31/P and /sup 183/W NMR spectra of P/sub 4/W/sub 14/O/sub 58//sup 12/minus//

    SciTech Connect

    Thouvenot, R.; Teze, A.; Contant, R.; Herve, G.

    1988-02-10

    The P/sub 4/W/sub 14/O/sub 58//sup 12/minus// anion was obtained from the reaction of sodium tungstate and sodium phosphate in acetic acid. The structure of K/sub 12/P/sub 4/W/sub 14/O/sub 58/ /times/ 21H/sub 2/O (monoclinic, C2/c; a = 22.145 (6) /angstrom/, b = 15.823 (2) /angstrom/, c = 21.860 (4) /angstrom/, /beta/ = 109.54 (2)/degree/; Z = 4) has been refined to final indices R and R/sub w/ of 0.048 and 0.055. The polyanion consists on two PW/sub 7/O/sub 29/ subunits linked by two phosphorus atoms. This dimeric structure is preserved in aqueous solution as shown by /sup 183/W and /sup 31/P NMR spectra. Unusual spin-spin coupling constants, i.e. /sup 2/J/sub W-P/ = 18, 10.2 Hz and /sup 2/J/sub W-W/ = 37 Hz, as well as a four-bond coupling (/sup 4/j/sub W-P/ of about 2 Hz) are discussed in relation to the structural parameters. Some characteristic features of the vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra are also discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Probing the influential factors of NMR T1-T2 spectra in the characterization of the kerogen by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Chen, Hua; Deng, Shaogui; Cao, Yingchang; Zahid, Muhammad Aleem

    2015-11-01

    The low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize the longitudinal and transversal relaxation (T1-T2) spectrum of unconventional resources such as shale gas and tight oil containing significant proportions of kerogen and bitumen. However, it requires exquisite design of the acquisition model and the inversion algorithm due to the fast relaxation nature of the kerogen and bitumen. A new direct two dimensional (2D) inversion algorithm combined the iterative truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) and the Akaiake Information Criterion (AIC) is presented to perform the data inversion efficiently. The fluid component decomposition (FCD) is applied to construct the forward T1-T2 model of the kerogen, and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate factors which may influence inversion results including echo spacing, recovery time series, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the maximal iteration time. Results show that the T2 component is heavily impaired by the echo spacing, whereas the T1 component is influenced by the recovery time series but with limited effects. The inversion precision is greatly affected by the quality of the data. The inversed spectrum deviates from the model seriously when the SNR of the artificial noise is lower than 50, and the T2 component is more sensitive to the noise than the T1 component. What's more, the maximal iteration time can also affect the inversion result, especially when the maximal iteration time is smaller than 500. Proper acquisition and inversion parameters for the characterization of the kerogen are obtained considering the precision and the computational cost.

  2. Probing the influential factors of NMR T1-T2 spectra in the characterization of the kerogen by numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Chen, Hua; Deng, Shaogui; Cao, Yingchang; Zahid, Muhammad Aleem

    2015-11-01

    The low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize the longitudinal and transversal relaxation (T1-T2) spectrum of unconventional resources such as shale gas and tight oil containing significant proportions of kerogen and bitumen. However, it requires exquisite design of the acquisition model and the inversion algorithm due to the fast relaxation nature of the kerogen and bitumen. A new direct two dimensional (2D) inversion algorithm combined the iterative truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) and the Akaiake Information Criterion (AIC) is presented to perform the data inversion efficiently. The fluid component decomposition (FCD) is applied to construct the forward T1-T2 model of the kerogen, and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate factors which may influence inversion results including echo spacing, recovery time series, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the maximal iteration time. Results show that the T2 component is heavily impaired by the echo spacing, whereas the T1 component is influenced by the recovery time series but with limited effects. The inversion precision is greatly affected by the quality of the data. The inversed spectrum deviates from the model seriously when the SNR of the artificial noise is lower than 50, and the T2 component is more sensitive to the noise than the T1 component. What's more, the maximal iteration time can also affect the inversion result, especially when the maximal iteration time is smaller than 500. Proper acquisition and inversion parameters for the characterization of the kerogen are obtained considering the precision and the computational cost.

  3. FTIR, FT-RAMAN, NMR, spectra, normal co-ordinate analysis, NBO, NLO and DFT calculation of N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide molecule.

    PubMed

    Muthu, S; Elamurugu Porchelvi, E

    2013-11-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of N,N-diethyl-4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxamide (NND4MC) have been recorded and analyzed. The structure of the compound was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with aid of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electronic dipole moment (μD) and the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecule were computed using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The calculated results also show that the NND4MC molecule may have microscopy nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. Mulliken atomic charges of NND4MC were calculated. The (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded. The theoretical electronic absorption spectra have been calculated by using CIS, TD-DFT methods. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were also performed.

  4. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectra, conformational stability, normal coordinate analysis and B3LYP calculations of 5-Amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat, Khaled; EL-Emary, Talaat

    2013-02-01

    FT Raman and IR spectra of the crystallized biologically active molecule, 5-Amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde (5-APHC, C11H11N3O) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational frequencies of 5-APHC have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQM) technique. The optimized geometry shows the co-planarity of the aldehyde group with pyrazole ring. Potential energy surface (PES) scan studies has also been carried out by ab initio calculations with B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The red shifting of NH2 stretching wavenumber indicates the formation of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Mulliken charges of the 5-APHC molecule was also calculated and interpreted.

  5. 13C NMR of tunnelling methyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detken, A.

    The dipolar interactions between the protons and the central 13C nucleus of a 13CH3 group are used to study rotational tunnelling and incoherent dynamics of such groups in molecular solids. Single-crystal 13C NMR spectra are derived for arbitrary values of the tunnel frequency upsilon t. Similarities to ESR and 2H NMR are pointed out. The method is applied to three different materials. In the hydroquinone/acetonitrile clathrate, the unique features in the 13C NMR spectra which arise from tunnelling with a tunnel frequency that is much larger than the dipolar coupling between the methyl protons and the 13C nucleus are demonstrated, and the effects of incoherent dynamics are studied. The broadening of the 13C resonances is related to the width of the quasi-elastic line in neutron scattering. Selective magnetization transfer experiments for studying slow incoherent dynamics are proposed. For the strongly hindered methyl groups of L-alanine, an upper limit for upsilon is derived from the 13C NMR spectrum. In aspirinTM (acetylsalicylic acid), incoherent reorientations dominate the spectra down to the lowest temperatures studied; their rate apparently increases with decreasing temperature below 25K.

  6. Structural characterization, solvent effects on nuclear magnetic shielding tensors, experimental and theoretical DFT studies on the vibrational and NMR spectra of 3-(acrylamido)phenylboronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Özgür; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih; Dikmen, Gökhan

    2015-12-01

    Structural elucidation of 3-(acrylamido)phenylboronic acid (C9H10BNO3) was carried out with 1H, 13C and HETCOR NMR techniques. Solvent effects on nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were examined with deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, methanol and water solvents. The correct order of appearance of carbon and hydrogen atoms on NMR scale from highest magnetic field region to the lowest one were investigated using different types of theoretical levels and the details of the levels were presented in this study. Stable structural conformers and vibrational band analysis of the title molecule (C9H10BNO3) were studied both experimental and theoretical viewpoints using FT-IR, Raman spectroscopic methods and density functional theory (DFT). FT-IR and Raman spectra were obtained in the region of 4000-400 cm-1, and 3700-10 cm-1, respectively. Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-31++G(d, p) basis set was included in the search for optimized structures and vibrational wavenumbers. Experimental and theoretical results show that after application of a suitable scaling factor density functional B3LYP method resulted in acceptable results for predicting vibrational wavenumbers except OH and NH stretching modes which is most likely arising from increasing unharmonicity in the high wave number region and possible intra and inter molecular interaction at OH edges those of which are not fully taken into consideration in theoretical processes. To make a more quantitative vibrational assignments, potential energy distribution (PED) values were calculated using VEDA 4 (Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis) program.

  7. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  8. Oxovanadium alkoxides: Structure, reactivity, and sup 51 V NMR characteristics. Crystal and molecular structures of VO(OCH sub 2 CH sub 2 Cl) sub 3 and VOCl sub 2 (THF) sub 2 H sub 2 O

    SciTech Connect

    Priebsch, W.; Rehder, D. )

    1990-08-08

    The vanadyl esters VO(OR){sub 3} (R = Me, Et, Pr, iPr, sBu, tBu, CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}F, CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl, CH{sub 2}CCl{sub 3}) have been prepared and their association properties in pentane investigated by {sup 51}V NMR. Limiting (low concentration) {delta}({sup 51}V) values depend on the bulk of R (highest {sup 51}V shielding for tBu). Shielding decreases with increasing concentration (more pronounced for small R groups), owing to the formation of oligomers, probably connected by {mu}-OR groups. The X-ray diffraction study of VO(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl){sub 3} reveals dimer association of molecules belonging to adjacent unit cells via long V-OR bonds (226.1 (2) pm), and a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry for each monomeric unit. From the reaction between VOCl{sub 3} and diols (glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,2-, 2,3-, 1,3-, and 1,4-butanediol), complexes are obtained that contain the {l brace}VOCl(OR){sub 2}{r brace} and {l brace}VOCl{sub 2}OR{r brace} moieties and the alcohol coordinated in the monofunctional or bifunctional (chelating and bridging) mode. The {sup 51}V NMR spectrum of VOCl{sub 2}OCH(Me)CH(Me)OH exhibits resolved {sup 51}V-{sup 35,37}Cl coupling: J({sup 51}V-{sup 35}Cl) = 100 Hz; J({sup 51}V-{sup 37}Cl) = 83 Hz. V{sup V}OCl{sub 2}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH) reacts with 1,4-butanediol to form V{sup IV}OCl{sub 2}(THF){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}). In the presence of COCL{sub 3}, THF undergoes ether splitting, chlorination, and coordination to vanadium to yield VOCl{sub 2}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Cl). 35 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. NMR relaxation rate studies of molecular motions in NaSn, the Laves-phase metal hydride C15-ZrCr(2)H(x) and carbon/epoxy composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, Ronald Dean

    Here I present studies of molecular motions in three very different systems: NaSn, which exhibits motion characteristic of both a superionic conductor and a rotor crystal; C15-ZrCrsb2Hsbx (x < 0.5), a metal hydride which exhibits unusual characteristics in its hydrogen motion; and, finally a study of the relationship between Tsb2 and the degree of cure of carbon/epoxy materials. NaSn is characterized by Nasp+ ions and stable (Snsb4)sp{4-} tetrahedra. At high temperatures NaSn displays a disordered solid phase (alpha-NaSn). The presence of Nasp+ ions suggests that alpha-NaSn may be a superionic conductor (translationally disordered) and the presence of stable Snsb4 tetrahedra suggests it may be a rotor crystal (organizationally disordered). The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the motions in alpha-NaSn by monitoring Na and Sn motion using sp{23}Na and sp{119}Sn NMR, respectively. C15-ZrCrsb2Hsbx (x < 0.5) is a Laves phase metal hydride which displays extremely rapid hydrogen motion and a Tsb1 peak which cannot be explained by a model employing a single correlation time for the motion. A model employing a Gaussian distribution of correlation times has been used to successfully fit Tsb1, but the origin of this distribution in a crystalline solid solution is not known. The purpose of this study is to better understand the low temperature hydrogen motions occurring in C15-ZrCrsb2Hsbx by extending the previous NMR measurements using Tsb1p and Tsb1D, experiments which effectively push the relaxation peak to lower temperatures. New techniques for manufacturing carbon/epoxy components are under development which require partial curing of the material. At present, no method for monitoring partial curing exists. Tsb2 is a promising monitor of degree of cure because of its sensitivity to changes rates of molecular motions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the sensitivity of Tsb2 to changes in molecular motion due to curing, and to find a

  10. Complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of cis and trans isonucleoside derivatives of purine with a tetrahydropyran ring.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Terán, Carmen

    2010-06-01

    (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of cis and trans isonucleoside analogues of purine in which the furanose moiety is substituted by a tetrahydropyran ring were completely assigned using one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments that include NOE, DEPT, COSY and HSQC. The significant (1)H and (13)C NMR signals differentiating between the cis and trans stereoisomers were compared.

  11. Facilitated Visual Interpretation of Scores in Principal Component Analysis by Bioactivity-Labeling of 1H-NMR Spectra-Metabolomics Investigation and Identification of a New α-Glucosidase Inhibitor in Radix Astragali.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueqiu; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2017-03-06

    Radix Astragali is a component of several traditional medicines used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. Radix Astragali is known to contain isoflavones, which inhibit α-glucosidase in the small intestines, and thus lowers the blood glucose levels. In this study, 21 samples obtained from different regions of China were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the IC50-values were determined, and the crude extracts were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A principal component analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra labeled with their IC50-values, that is, bioactivity-labeled 1H-NMR spectra, showed a clear correlation between spectral profiles and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The loading plot and LC-HRMS/NMR of microfractions indicated that previously unknown long chain ferulates could be partly responsible for the observed antidiabetic activity of Radix Astragali. Subsequent preparative scale isolation revealed a compound not previously reported, linoleyl ferulate (1), showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 0.5 mM) at a level comparable to the previously studied isoflavones. A closely related analogue, hexadecyl ferulate (2), did not show significant inhibitory activity, and the double bonds in the alcohol part of 1 seem to be important structural features for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This proof of concept study demonstrates that bioactivity-labeling of the 1H-NMR spectral data of crude extracts allows global and nonselective identification of individual constituents contributing to the crude extract's bioactivity.

  12. Infrared, Raman and NMR spectra, conformational stability, normal coordinate analysis and B3LYP calculations of 5-amino-4-cyano-3-(methylthio)-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Tarek A.; Hassan, Ali M.; Soliman, Usama A.; Zoghaib, Wajdi M.; Husband, John; Abdelall, Mahmoud M.

    2011-01-01

    The Raman and infrared spectra of solid 5-amino-4-cyano-3-(methylthio)-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (AMPC, C 6H 7N 5S 2) were measured in the spectral range of 3700-100 cm -1 and 4000-200 cm -1 with a resolution of 4 and 0.5 cm -1, respectively. Aided by normal coordinate analysis and potential energy distributions, a confident vibrational assignment of all fundamentals is proposed herein. As a result of internal rotation around C sbnd N and/or C sbnd S bonds, 32 rotational isomers are suggested for AMPC (C s symmetry). RHF and DFT/B3LYP quantum mechanical calculations including polarization and diffusion functions up to 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, predict that after complete relaxation of the 32 possible isomers, four structures lie within 1500 cm -1 of the lowest energy conformer. However, vibrational analysis reveals the lowest energy conformer to be the only structure giving all real frequencies. Thus, the only stable conformer of AMPC is shown to have a fully planar skeleton with the NH 2 groups trans to one another. The recorded IR and Raman spectral measurements favor the calculated structural parameters which are further supported by spectral simulation. Additional support is given by 1H and 13C NMR spectra recorded with the sample dissolved in DMSO-d 6 and by predicted chemical shifts at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level obtained using the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbitals (GIAO) method with and without inclusion of solvent using the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). Finally, CH 3, CH 3S, and NH 2 torsional barriers to internal rotation have been investigated using the optimized structural parameters from the B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The results are discussed herein and compared with similar molecules whenever appropriate.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the ferroelastic phase transition of order-disorder type in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Kim, Min Soo; Lim, Kye-Young

    2016-08-01

    This study uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine the detailed changes in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4 around its phase transition at the temperature TC = 284 K. The chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame (T1ρ) were determined from 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectra. The two sets of inequivalent 1H and 13C nuclei in CH3 and CH2 were distinguished. A ferroelastic phase transition was observed at TC, without structural symmetry change. The phase transition is mainly attributed to the orientational ordering of the [N(C2H5)4]+ cations, and the spectral splitting at low temperature is associated with different ferroelastic domains.

  14. Insight into Understanding Dielectric Behavior of a Zn-MOF Using Variable-Temperature Crystal Structures, Electrical Conductance, and Solid-State (13)C NMR Spectra.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuan-Bo; Liu, Shao-Xian; Zou, Yang; Xue, Chen; Duan, Hai-Bao; Liu, Jian-Lan; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2016-11-21

    A Zn-based metal-organic framework (MOF)/porous coordination polymer (PCP), (EMIM)[Zn(SIP)] (1) (SIP(3-) = 5-sulfoisophthalate, EMIM(+) = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium), was synthesized using the ionothermal reaction. The Zn(2+) ion adopts distorted square pyramid coordination geometry with five oxygen atoms from three carboxylates and one sulfo group. One of two carboxylates in SIP(3-) serves as a μ2-bridge ligand to link two Zn(2+) ions and form the dinuclear SBU, and such SBUs are connected by SIP(3-) ligands to build the three-dimensional framework with rutile (rtl) topology. The cations from the ion-liquid fill the channels. This MOF/PCP shows two-step dielectric anomalies together with two-step dielectric relaxations; the variable-temperature single-crystal structure analyses disclosed the dielectric anomaly occurring at ca. 280 K is caused by an isostructural phase transition. Another dielectric anomaly is related to the dynamic disorder of the cations in the channels. Electric modulus, conductance, and variable-temperature solid-state (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra analyses revealed that two-step dielectric relaxations result from the dynamic motion of the cations as well as the direct-current conduction and electrode effect, respectively.

  15. Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.

    PubMed

    Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    2001-07-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined.

  16. Nontarget analysis of Murchison soluble organic matter by high-field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hertkorn, N; Harir, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph

    2015-09-01

    High-field NMR spectra of Murchison meteorite methanolic extracts revealed primarily aliphatic extraterrestrial organic matter (EOM) with near statistical branching of commonly C(3-5) units separated by heteroatoms and aromatic units. The ratios of CCH, OCH and C(sp2)H units were 89 : 8 : 3, whereas carbon-based aliphatic chain termination was in the order methyl >  -COOH >  -CH(CH3)COOH. Aliphatic methine carbon was abundant, but its weak NMR signatures were primarily deduced from JRES (J-resolved) NMR spectra. Carbon NMR spectra were dominated by methylene and methyl carbon; strong apodization revealed methine carbon, of which about 20% was aromatic. Extrapolation provided 5-7% aromatic carbon present in Murchison soluble EOM. Compositional heterogeneity in Murchison methanolic extracts was visible in NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectra obtained from a few cubic millimeters of solid Murchison meteorite; increasing sample size enhanced uniformity of NMR spectra. Intrinsic chemical diversity and pH-dependent chemical shift variance contributed to the disparity of NMR spectra. FTICR mass spectra provided distinct clustering of CHO/CHOS and CHNO/CHNOS molecular series and confirmed the prevalence of aliphatic/alicyclic (73%) over single aromatic (21%) and polyaromatic (6%) molecular compositions, suggesting extensive aliphatic substitution of aromatic units as proposed by NMR. Murchison soluble EOM molecules feature a center with enhanced aromatic and heteroatom content, which provides rather diffuse and weak NMR signatures resulting from a huge overall chemical diversity. The periphery of Murchison EOM molecules comprises flexible branched aliphatic chains and aliphatic carboxylic acids. These project on narrow ranges of chemical shift, facilitating observation in one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectra. The conformational entropy provided by these flexible surface moieties facilitates the solubility of EOM.

  17. HOMO-LUMO, UV, NLO, NMR and vibrational analysis of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazole using FT-IR, FT-RAMAN FT-NMR spectra and HF-DFT computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carthigayan, K.; Xavier, S.; Periandy, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the spectral analysis of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazole is carried out using the FT-IR, FT Raman, FT NMR and UV-Vis spectra with the help of quantum mechanical computations using HF and density functional theories. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies are studied using B3LYP functional with 6-311+G (d, p) basis set and the most stable conformer with minimum energy was identified and the same conformer was used for further computations. The computed wave numbers from different methods are scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors are reported. All the modes of vibrations are assigned and the structure the molecule is analyzed in terms of parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle predicted by both HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311+G (d, p) and 6-311++G (d, p) basis sets. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule are reported, using which the non-linear property of the molecule is discussed. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. The isotropic chemical shifts predicted for 1H and 13C atoms using gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) theory show good agreement with experimental shifts. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the charge transfer between the localized bonds and lone pairs. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) at different temperatures are also calculated.

  18. Comparison of different theory models and basis sets in the calculations of structures and 13C NMR spectra of [Pt(en)(CBDCA-O, O')], an analogue of the antitumor drug carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongwei; Wei, Xiujuan; Liu, Xuting; Yan, Tingxia

    2010-03-25

    Comparisons of various density functional theory (DFT) methods at different basis sets in predicting the molecular structures and (13)C NMR spectra for [Pt(en)(CBDCA-O, O')], an analogue of the antitumor drug carboplatin, are reported. DFT methods including B3LYP, B3PW91, mPW1PW91, PBE1PBE, BPV86, PBEPBE, and LSDA are examined. Different basis sets including LANL2DZ, SDD, LANL2MB, CEP-4G, CEP-31G, and CEP-121G are also considered. It is remarkable that the LSDA/SDD level is clearly superior to all of the remaining density functional methods in predicting the structure of [Pt(en)(CBDCA-O, O')]. The results also indicate that the B3LYP/SDD level is the best to predict (13)C NMR spectra for [Pt(en)(CBDCA-O, O')] among all DFT methods.

  19. Ferroelastic phase transitions by 14N NMR spectra in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 and [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structural geometry of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 (B=Co and Zn) crystals near the phase transition temperatures were studied by analyzing the 14N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Two physically inequivalent a-N(1)(CH3)4 and b-N(2)(CH3)4 groups were observed in these spectra. Abrupt changes in the resonance frequency and splitting of 14N NMR signals near the phase transition temperatures were attributed to structural phase transitions, and the primary mechanism of these phase transitions exhibited ferroelastic characteristics. In addition, ferroelasticity of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 was identified at low temperatures using optical polarizing microscopy.

  20. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of ethidium, quinacrine, and daunomycin complexes with poly(adenylic acid)ter dot poly(uridylic acid) RNA duplex and calf thymus DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, D.G.; Lai, K. )

    1989-04-04

    {sup 31}P NMR provides a convenient monitor of the phosphate ester backbone conformational changes upon binding of the intercalating drugs ethidium, quinacrine, and daunomycin to sonicated poly(A){center dot}poly(U) and calf thymus DNA. {sup 31}P chemical shifts can also be used to assess differences in the duplex unwinding angles in the presence of the drug. Thus a new {sup 31}P signal, 1.8-2.2 ppm downfield from the double-stranded helix signals, is observed in the ethidium ion-poly(A){center dot}poly(U) complex. This signal arises from phosphates which are in perturbed environments due to intercalation of the drug. This is in keeping with the hypothesis that the P-O ester torsional angle in phosphates linking the intercalated base pairs is more trans-like. Similar though smaller deshielding of the {sup 31}P signals is observed in sonicated poly(A){center dot}poly(U)-quinacrine complexes as well as in the daunomycin complexes. The effect of added ethidium ion, quinacrine, and daunomycin on the {sup 31}P spectra of sonicated calf thymus DNA is consistent with Wilson and Jones' (1982) earlier study. In these drug-DNA complexes the drug produces a gradual downfield shift in the DNA {sup 31}P signal without the appearance of a separate downfield peak. These differences are attributed to differences in the rate of chemical exchange of the drug between free and bound duplex states. The previous correlation of {sup 31}P chemical shift with drug duplex unwinding angle is confirmed for both the RNA and DNA duplexes.

  1. Entire-Dataset Analysis of NMR Fast-Exchange Titration Spectra: A Mg(2+) Titration Analysis for HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Domain.

    PubMed

    Karki, Ichhuk; Christen, Martin T; Spiriti, Justin; Slack, Ryan L; Oda, Masayuki; Kanaori, Kenji; Zuckerman, Daniel M; Ishima, Rieko

    2016-12-15

    This article communicates our study to elucidate the molecular determinants of weak Mg(2+) interaction with the ribonuclease H (RNH) domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in solution. As the interaction is weak (a ligand-dissociation constant >1 mM), nonspecific Mg(2+) interaction with the protein or interaction of the protein with other solutes that are present in the buffer solution can confound the observed Mg(2+)-titration data. To investigate these indirect effects, we monitored changes in the chemical shifts of backbone amides of RNH by recording NMR (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectra upon titration of Mg(2+) into an RNH solution. We performed the titration under three different conditions: (1) in the absence of NaCl, (2) in the presence of 50 mM NaCl, and (3) at a constant 160 mM Cl(-) concentration. Careful analysis of these three sets of titration data, along with molecular dynamics simulation data of RNH with Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, demonstrates two characteristic phenomena distinct from the specific Mg(2+) interaction with the active site: (1) weak interaction of Mg(2+), as a salt, with the substrate-handle region of the protein and (2) overall apparent lower Mg(2+) affinity in the absence of NaCl compared to that in the presence of 50 mM NaCl. A possible explanation may be that the titrated MgCl2 is consumed as a salt and interacts with RNH in the absence of NaCl. In addition, our data suggest that Na(+) increases the kinetic rate of the specific Mg(2+) interaction at the active site of RNH. Taken together, our study provides biophysical insight into the mechanism of weak metal interaction on a protein.

  2. First theoretical global line lists of ethylene (12C2H4) spectra for the temperature range 50-700 K in the far-infrared for quantification of absorption and emission in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, M.; Delahaye, T.; Nikitin, A. V.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.

    2016-10-01

    We present the construction of complete and comprehensive ethylene line lists for the temperatures 50-700 K based on accurate ab initio potential and dipole moment surfaces and extensive first-principle calculations. Three lists spanning the [0-6400] cm-1 infrared region were built at T = 80, 160, and 296 K, and two lists in the range [0-5200] cm-1 were built at 500 and 700 K. For each of these five temperatures, we considered possible convergence problems to ensure reliable opacity calculations. Our final list at 700 K was computed up to J = 71 and contains almost 60 million lines for intensities I > 5 × 10-27 cm/molecule. Comparisons with experimental spectra carried out in this study showed that for the most active infrared bands, the accuracy of band centers in our theoretical lists is better on average than 0.3 cm-1, and the integrated absorbance errors in the intervals relevant for spectral analyses are about 1-3%. These lists can be applied to simulations of absorption and emission spectra, radiative and non-LTE processes, and opacity calculations for planetary and astrophysical applications. The lists are freely accessible through the TheoReTS information system at http://theorets.univ-reims.fr and http://theorets.tsu.ru

  3. Rapid Proton-Detected NMR Assignment for Proteins with Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using a set of six 1H-detected triple-resonance NMR experiments, we establish a method for sequence-specific backbone resonance assignment of magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 5–30 kDa proteins. The approach relies on perdeuteration, amide 2H/1H exchange, high magnetic fields, and high-spinning frequencies (ωr/2π ≥ 60 kHz) and yields high-quality NMR data, enabling the use of automated analysis. The method is validated with five examples of proteins in different condensed states, including two microcrystalline proteins, a sedimented virus capsid, and two membrane-embedded systems. In comparison to contemporary 13C/15N-based methods, this approach facilitates and accelerates the MAS NMR assignment process, shortening the spectral acquisition times and enabling the use of unsupervised state-of-the-art computational data analysis protocols originally developed for solution NMR. PMID:25102442

  4. Rapid proton-detected NMR assignment for proteins with fast magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Emeline; Pell, Andrew J; Retel, Joren S; Andreas, Loren B; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Franks, W Trent; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J; Hiller, Matthias; Higman, Victoria; Guerry, Paul; Bertarello, Andrea; Knight, Michael J; Felletti, Michele; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars; Stoppini, Monica; Bellotti, Vittorio; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano; Chou, James J; Griffin, Robert G; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon; Herrmann, Torsten; Pintacuda, Guido

    2014-09-03

    Using a set of six (1)H-detected triple-resonance NMR experiments, we establish a method for sequence-specific backbone resonance assignment of magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 5-30 kDa proteins. The approach relies on perdeuteration, amide (2)H/(1)H exchange, high magnetic fields, and high-spinning frequencies (ωr/2π ≥ 60 kHz) and yields high-quality NMR data, enabling the use of automated analysis. The method is validated with five examples of proteins in different condensed states, including two microcrystalline proteins, a sedimented virus capsid, and two membrane-embedded systems. In comparison to contemporary (13)C/(15)N-based methods, this approach facilitates and accelerates the MAS NMR assignment process, shortening the spectral acquisition times and enabling the use of unsupervised state-of-the-art computational data analysis protocols originally developed for solution NMR.

  5. Phase boundaries, structural characteristics, and NMR spectra of ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsions containing double chain surface active ionic liquid: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-07

    increasing temperature. The effect of water addition on IL-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions was also studied in detail. By far, this is the first report where the effect of water addition on microemulsions containing hydrophobic ILs is being reported and compared with microemulsions containing hydrophilic ILs. We observed that the added water has a prominent effect on the microstructure of the microemulsions. In all the cases, (1)H NMR spectra provide more detailed information about intra/intermolecular interactions thus affording a clear picture of locations of (i) the RTILs in RTILs/[C(4)mim][AOT]/benzene microemulsions and (ii) the added water molecules in microemulsions.

  6. Heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Natural abundance sup 13 C chemical shift editing of sup 1 H- sup 1 H COSY spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fesik, S.W.; Gampe, R.T. Jr.; Zuiderweg, E.R.P. )

    1989-01-18

    It has been demonstrated that heteronuclear 3D NMR spectroscopy can be effectively applied to small molecules with {sup 13}C at natural abundance. A 78mM solution of the aminoglycoside, kanamycin A was used for this experiment. The heteronuclear 3D NMR spectroscopy is shown to be a useful method for resolving spectral overlap in all frequency domains. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  7. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR spectra and molecular structure investigation of (E)-2-(3-chloropyrazin-2-yl)-1-(3-ethyl-2, 6-diphenyl piperidin-4-ylidene) hydrazine: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therasa Alphonsa, A.; Loganathan, C.; Athavan Alias Anand, S.; Kabilan, S.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of (E)-2-(3-chloropyrazin-2-yl)-1-(3-ethyl-2, 6-diphenyl piperidin-4-ylidene) hydrazine (HDE) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The structure was investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and NMR techniques. The geometrical parameters and energies have been obtained from Density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP (6-31G (d, p)) basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge-independent atomic orbital method (GIAO). The electronic properties such as excitation energies, wavelength, HOMO, LUMO energies performed by Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. NBO analysis has been performed for analyzing charge delocalization throughout the molecule. The calculation results were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. To provide information about the interactions between human cytochrome protein and the novel compound theoretically, docking studies were carried out using Schrödinger software.

  8. PIC microcontroller based external fast analog to digital converter to acquire wide-lined solid NMR spectra by BRUKER DRX and Avance-I spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Rohonczy, János

    2015-01-01

    Concerning many former liquid or hybrid liquid/solid NMR consoles, the built in Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) are incapable of digitizing the fids at sampling rates in the MHz range. Regarding both strong anisotropic interactions in the solid state and wide chemical shift dispersion nuclei in solution phase such as (195)Pt, (119)Sn, (207)Pb etc., the spectrum range of interest might be in the MHz range. As determining the informative tensor components of anisotropic NMR interactions requires nonlinear fitting over the whole spectrum including the asymptotic baseline, it is prohibited by low sampling rates of the ADCs. Wide spectrum width is also useful in solution NMR, since windowing of wide chemical shift ranges is avoidable. We built an external analog to digital converter with 10 MHz maximal sampling rate, which can work simultaneously with the built in ADC of the spectrometer. The ADC was tested on both Bruker DRX and Avance-I NMR consoles. In addition to the analog channels it only requires three external digital lines of the NMR console. The ADC sends data to PC via USB. The whole process is controlled by software written in JAVA which is implemented under TopSpin.

  9. Human- and computer-accessible 2D correlation data for a more reliable structure determination of organic compounds. Future roles of researchers, software developers, spectrometer managers, journal editors, reviewers, publisher and database managers toward artificial-intelligence analysis of NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Jeannerat, Damien

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of a universal data format to report the correlation data of 2D NMR spectra such as COSY, HSQC and HMBC spectra will have a large impact on the reliability of structure determination of small organic molecules. These lists of assigned cross peaks will bridge signals found in NMR 1D and 2D spectra and the assigned chemical structure. The record could be very compact, human and computer readable so that it can be included in the supplementary material of publications and easily transferred into databases of scientific literature and chemical compounds. The records will allow authors, reviewers and future users to test the consistency and, in favorable situations, the uniqueness of the assignment of the correlation data to the associated chemical structures. Ideally, the data format of the correlation data should include direct links to the NMR spectra to make it possible to validate their reliability and allow direct comparison of spectra. In order to take the full benefits of their potential, the correlation data and the NMR spectra should therefore follow any manuscript in the review process and be stored in open-access database after publication. Keeping all NMR spectra, correlation data and assigned structures together at all time will allow the future development of validation tools increasing the reliability of past and future NMR data. This will facilitate the development of artificial intelligence analysis of NMR spectra by providing a source of data than can be used efficiently because they have been validated or can be validated by future users. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman), electronic (UV-Vis), NMR (1H and 13C) spectra and reactivity analyses of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Ahmet; Karaca, Caglar; Gunnaz, Salih; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    The structure of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine (C8H12N2, DMPDA) was investigated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. The sterochemical structure was determined by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis were associated by using the B3LYP method with Gaussian09 package program. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-10 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational spectra were calculated by DFT method and the fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED), calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method with Parallel Quantum Solutions (PQS) program. The UV absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in ethanol solution were recorded in the range of 190-400 nm. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) of the DMPDA in terms of HOMOs and LUMOs were calculated and analyzed. Chemical shifts were reported in ppm relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) for 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The compound was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also, 1H and 13C chemical shifts calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Mullikan atomic charges and other thermo-dynamical parameters were investigated with the help of B3LYP (DFT) method using 6-311++G** basis set. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been carried out, revealing the correlations between heat capacity (C), entropy (S), enthalpy changes (H) and temperatures. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles, chemical shifts and vibrational wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman), electronic (UV-Vis), NMR (1H and 13C) spectra and reactivity analyses of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Atac, Ahmet; Karaca, Caglar; Gunnaz, Salih; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2014-09-15

    The structure of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine (C8H12N2, DMPDA) was investigated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. The sterochemical structure was determined by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis were associated by using the B3LYP method with Gaussian09 package program. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-10 cm(-1), respectively. The vibrational spectra were calculated by DFT method and the fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED), calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method with Parallel Quantum Solutions (PQS) program. The UV absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in ethanol solution were recorded in the range of 190-400 nm. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) of the DMPDA in terms of HOMOs and LUMOs were calculated and analyzed. Chemical shifts were reported in ppm relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) for 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The compound was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also, 1H and 13C chemical shifts calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Mullikan atomic charges and other thermo-dynamical parameters were investigated with the help of B3LYP (DFT) method using 6-311++G** basis set. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been carried out, revealing the correlations between heat capacity (C), entropy (S), enthalpy changes (H) and temperatures. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles, chemical shifts and vibrational wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Computation provides chemical insight into the diverse hydride NMR chemical shifts of [Ru(NHC)4(L)H](0/+) species (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene; L = vacant, H2, N2, CO, MeCN, O2, P4, SO2, H(-), F(-) and Cl(-)) and their [Ru(R2PCH2CH2PR2)2(L)H](+) congeners.

    PubMed

    Häller, L Jonas L; Mas-Marzá, Elena; Cybulski, Mateusz K; Sanguramath, Rajashekharayya A; Macgregor, Stuart A; Mahon, Mary F; Raynaud, Christophe; Russell, Christopher A; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2017-02-28

    Relativistic density functional theory calculations, both with and without the effects of spin-orbit coupling, have been employed to model hydride NMR chemical shifts for a series of [Ru(NHC)4(L)H](0/+) species (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene; L = vacant, H2, N2, CO, MeCN, O2, P4, SO2, H(-), F(-) and Cl(-)), as well as selected phosphine analogues [Ru(R2PCH2CH2PR2)2(L)H](+) (R = (i)Pr, Cy; L = vacant, O2). Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling provides good agreement with the experimental data. For the NHC systems large variations in hydride chemical shift are shown to arise from the paramagnetic term, with high net shielding (L = vacant, Cl(-), F(-)) being reinforced by the contribution from spin-orbit coupling. Natural chemical shift analysis highlights the major orbital contributions to the paramagnetic term and rationalizes trends via changes in the energies of the occupied Ru dπ orbitals and the unoccupied σ*Ru-H orbital. In [Ru(NHC)4(η(2)-O2)H](+) a δ-interaction with the O2 ligand results in a low-lying LUMO of dπ character. As a result this orbital can no longer contribute to the paramagnetic shielding, but instead provides additional deshielding via overlap with the remaining (occupied) dπ orbital under the Lz angular momentum operator. These two effects account for the unusual hydride chemical shift of +4.8 ppm observed experimentally for this species. Calculations reproduce hydride chemical shift data observed for [Ru((i)Pr2PCH2CH2P(i)Pr2)2(η(2)-O2)H](+) (δ = -6.2 ppm) and [Ru(R2PCH2CH2PR2)2H](+) (ca. -32 ppm, R = (i)Pr, Cy). For the latter, the presence of a weak agostic interaction trans to the hydride ligand is significant, as in its absence (R = Me) calculations predict a chemical shift of -41 ppm, similar to the [Ru(NHC)4H](+) analogues. Depending on the strength of the agostic interaction a variation of up to 18 ppm in hydride chemical shift is possible and this factor (that is not necessarily readily detected experimentally) can aid in the

  13. FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectra and the equilibrium structure of organic dye molecule disperse red 1 acrylate: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Mehmet; Coruh, Ali; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the characterization of disperse red 1 acrylate compound by spectral techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The spectroscopic properties were analyzed by FT-IR, UV-vis, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR techniques. FT-IR spectrum in solid state was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1). The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in methanol was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl(3) solution. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR spectrum. A satisfactory consistency between the experimental and theoretical spectra was obtained and it shows that the hybrid DFT method is very useful in predicting accurate vibrational structure, especially for high-frequency region. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Isotropic chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. A study on the electronic properties were performed by timedependent DFT (TD-DFT) and CIS(D) approach. To investigate non linear optical properties, the electric dipole moment μ, polarizability α, anisotropy of polarizability Δα and molecular first hyperpolarizability β were computed. The linear polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizabilities of the studied molecule indicate that the compound can be a good candidate of nonlinear optical materials.

  14. Impact of ⁷⁷Te on the structure and Se NMR spectra of Se-rich Ge-Te-Se glasses: a combined experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Bouëssel du Bourg, Lila; Roiland, Claire; le Pollès, Laurent; Deschamps, Michaël; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Pickard, Chris J; Furet, Eric

    2015-11-21

    Selenium-rich Ge-Te-Se glasses have been synthesized along the GeSe4-GeTe4 pseudo-composition line and acquired by (77)Se Hahn echo magic-angle spinning NMR. The comparison with the GeSe4 spectrum shows a drastic modification of the typical double-resonance lineshape even at low Te concentrations (<10%). In order to rationalize this feature and to understand the effect of Te on the structure of our glasses, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and gauge including projector augmented wave NMR parameter calculations have been performed. The distribution of the tellurium atoms in the selenium phase was shown to be mainly responsible for the (77)Se lineshape changes. Another possible factor related to the perturbation of the δiso value due to Te proximity appears to be much more limited in the bulk, while the results obtained using molecular models suggest shifts of several hundreds of ppm.

  15. Substitution of [4]Al in layer silicates: Calculation of the Al-Si configurational entropy according to 29Si NMR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, Victor L.

    1995-03-01

    A new constructive statistical method was used to simulate the Al-Si distributions in tetrahedral layer of mica according to short range and long range order restrictions and to calculate values of configurational entropy which correspond to simulated distributions. The simulations and the calculated entropy values were constrained by the existing 29Si NMR data for natural and synthetic mica samples. The results of simulation confirm previous conclusions on the importance of short range order restrictions such as Al-avoidance and homogeneous dispersion of charges (HDC) in the tetrahedral layer. The results suggest, however, that the Al-Si distribution in mica closely follows the HDC restriction only for the samples with the Al/(Si+Al) ratios in the range of 0.11 0.3. At higher values of the ratio (0.3 0.37) the degree of the HDC-type ordering decreases towards pure Al-avoidance. In the range of 0.37 0.5 two alternative models namely the HDC model and the model with partial long range order can be used to explain the observed NMR intensities.

  16. jsNMR: an embedded platform-independent NMR spectrum viewer.

    PubMed

    Vosegaard, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    jsNMR is a lightweight NMR spectrum viewer written in JavaScript/HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which provides a cross-platform spectrum visualizer that runs on all computer architectures including mobile devices. Experimental (and simulated) datasets are easily opened in jsNMR by (i) drag and drop on a jsNMR browser window, (ii) by preparing a jsNMR file from the jsNMR web site, or (iii) by mailing the raw data to the jsNMR web portal. jsNMR embeds the original data in the HTML file, so a jsNMR file is a self-transforming dataset that may be exported to various formats, e.g. comma-separated values. The main applications of jsNMR are to provide easy access to NMR data without the need for dedicated software installed and to provide the possibility to visualize NMR spectra on web sites.

  17. Elucidation of the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes of MIP-1α by application of an NMR spectra reconstruction method to the transferred cross-saturation experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Kofuku, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Okude, Junya; Kondo, Keita; Shiraishi, Yutaro; Shimada, Ichio

    2015-12-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) and CCR5 are involved in various inflammation and immune responses, and regulate the progression of the autoimmune diseases differently. However, the number of residues identified at the binding interface was not sufficient to clarify the differences in the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes to MIP-1α, because the NMR measurement time for CCR1 and CCR5 samples was limited to 24 h, due to their low stability. Here we applied a recently developed NMR spectra reconstruction method, Conservation of experimental data in ANAlysis of FOuRier, to the amide-directed transferred cross-saturation experiments of chemokine receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, embedded in lipid bilayers of the reconstituted high density lipoprotein, and MIP-1α. Our experiments revealed that the residues on the N-loop and β-sheets of MIP-1α are close to both CCR1 and CCR5, and those in the C-terminal helix region are close to CCR5. These results suggest that the genetic influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MIP-1α that accompany substitution of residues in the C-terminal helix region, E57 and V63, would provide clues toward elucidating how the CCR5-MIP-1α interaction affects the progress of autoimmune diseases.

  18. Hunting for hydrogen: random structure searching and prediction of NMR parameters of hydrous wadsleyite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further information on the structures generated by AIRSS, alternative structural models, supercell calculations, total enthalpies of all computed structures and further information on 1H/2H NMR parameters. Example input and all raw output files from AIRSS and CASTEP NMR calculations are also included. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp01529h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Robert F.; McKay, David; Pickard, Chris J.; Berry, Andrew J.; Griffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural chemistry of materials containing low levels of nonstoichiometric hydrogen is difficult to determine, and producing structural models is challenging where hydrogen has no fixed crystallographic site. Here we demonstrate a computational approach employing ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to generate a series of candidate structures for hydrous wadsleyite (β-Mg2SiO4 with 1.6 wt% H2O), a high-pressure mineral proposed as a repository for water in the Earth's transition zone. Aligning with previous experimental work, we solely consider models with Mg3 (over Mg1, Mg2 or Si) vacancies. We adapt the AIRSS method by starting with anhydrous wadsleyite, removing a single Mg2+ and randomly placing two H+ in a unit cell model, generating 819 candidate structures. 103 geometries were then subjected to more accurate optimisation under periodic DFT. Using this approach, we find the most favourable hydration mechanism involves protonation of two O1 sites around the Mg3 vacancy. The formation of silanol groups on O3 or O4 sites (with loss of stable O1–H hydroxyls) coincides with an increase in total enthalpy. Importantly, the approach we employ allows observables such as NMR parameters to be computed for each structure. We consider hydrous wadsleyite (∼1.6 wt%) to be dominated by protonated O1 sites, with O3/O4–H silanol groups present as defects, a model that maps well onto experimental studies at higher levels of hydration (J. M. Griffin et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 1523). The AIRSS approach adopted herein provides the crucial link between atomic-scale structure and experimental studies. PMID:27020937

  19. Deuterium NMR study of structural and dynamic properties of horseradish peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    La Mar, G.N.; Thanabal, V.; Johnson, R.D.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.

    1989-04-05

    High field deuterium NMR spectra have been recorded for various horseradish peroxidase complexes reconstituted with hemins possessing specific 2H labels. The line width of the 2H NMR signals of deuteroheme reconstituted-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its cyano complex for the immobilized skeletal 2-2H and 4-2H labels yield the overall protein rotational correlation time (22 ms at 55 degrees C), which is consistent with expectations based on molecular weight. Meso-2H4 labels yield broad (1.3 kHz) signals just upfield from the diamagnetic protein envelope for HRP, and in the central portion of the protein envelope for the CN- ligated resting state HRP. Meso-2H4-labeled mesohemin-reconstituted HRP exhibits a similar signal but shifted further upfield by approximately 10 ppm. The net upfield meso-H hyperfine shifts confirm a five-coordinate structure for resting state HRP. 2Ha resonances for essentially rotationally immobile vinyl groups were detected in both resting state HRP and CN- ligated resting state HRP. Heme methyl-2H-labeling yields relatively narrow lines (approximately 80 Hz) indicative of effective averaging of the quadrupolar relaxation by rapid methyl rotation. Thus the 2H line width of rapidly rotating methyls in hemoproteins can be used effectively to determine the overall protein tumbling rate. Preliminary 2H experiments in meso-2H4-labeled compound I do not support large pi spin density at these positions on the porphyrin cation radical, and argue for a a1u rather than a a2u orbital ground state.

  20. An investigations on the molecular structure, FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole by theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Erdogdu, Y; Saglam, S; Gulluoglu, M T

    2015-07-05

    Fourier-Transform-Infrared, Fourier-Transform-Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Rezonans spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have been recorded. In the powder form, vibrational spectra of 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrol molecule were investigated in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. The conformational analysis, geometrical structure, molecular electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO and vibrational spectroscopic properties of the isolated 1-(p-tolylsulfonyl) pyrrole molecule have also been carried out at the Molecular Mechanic and Density Functional Theory approaches. Density Functional Theory results have been associated with Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field for fitting between the theoretical and the experimental frequencies.

  1. NMR study of n-dodecane adsorbed on graphite.

    PubMed

    Alba, M D; Castro, M A; Clarke, S M; Perdigón, A C

    2003-05-01

    In this brief contribution we demonstrate that 1H and 2H NMR spectroscopy can be an effective method of investigating adsorption from liquids at the solid-liquid interface. The method is illustrated here with the adsorption of a simple alkane adsorbed on graphite, in particular the system n-dodecane and graphite at coverages of 1 and 5 monolayers. Static single-pulse proton nuclear magnetic resonance and static quadrupolar echo deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were recorded for both coverages. The experimental NMR results presented here show features clearly consistent with earlier calorimetric and neutron scattering work and demonstrate the formation of solid adsorbed layers that coexist with the bulk adsorbate with both isotopes. This ability to probe both deuterated and protonated materials simultaneously illustrates that this experimental approach can be readily extended to investigate the adsorption behaviour of multicomponent mixtures.

  2. A study of molecular structure, UV, IR, and 1H NMR spectra of a new dichroic dye on the basis of quinoline derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Almodarresiyeh, Hora Alhosseini; Kumar, Rakesh; Darroudi, Mahdieh

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the structure and some molecular properties of a new substance sodium 4-[(4E)-4-[(2E)-2-(2-chloro-3-{(E)-2-[1-(4-sulfonatobutyl)quinolinium-4-yl]ethenyl}-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene)ethylidene]quinolin-1(4H)-yl]butane-1-sulfonate (Q) with maximum absorption in near-IR region (λmax = 832 nm) was modeled using the Density Functional Theory method (DFT) and then synthesized. The electronic absorption spectrum of Q in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution was calculated. The UV, IR, and PMR spectra of Q were also presented.

  3. A sequential assignment procedure for proteins that have intermediate line widths in MAS NMR spectra: amyloid fibrils of human CA150.WW2.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johanna; Ferguson, Neil; Flinders, Jeremy; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Fersht, Alan R; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2008-08-11

    The second WW domain (WW2) of CA150, a human transcriptional activator, forms amyloid fibrils in vitro under physiological conditions. Based on experimental constraints from MAS NMR spectroscopy experiments, alanine scanning and electron microscopy, a structural model of CA150.WW2 amyloid fibrils was calculated earlier. Here, the assignment strategy is presented and suggested as a general approach for proteins that show intermediate line width. The (13)C,(13)C correlation experiments were recorded on fully or partially (13)C-labelled fibrils. The earlier (13)C assignment (26 residues) was extended to 34 of the 40 residues by direct (13)C-excitation experiments by using a deuterated sample that showed strongly improved line width. A 3D HNC-TEDOR (transferred-echo double-resonance) experiment with deuterated CA150.WW2 fibrils yielded 14 amide nitrogen and proton resonance assignments. The obtained chemical shifts were compared with the chemical shifts determined with the natively folded WW domain. TALOS (Torsion angle likelihood obtained from shift and sequence similarity) predictions confirmed that, under physiological conditions, the fibrillar form of CA150.WW2 adopts a significantly different beta structure than the native WW-domain fold.

  4. Structure, Vibrational Spectra and (11)B-NMR Chemical Shift of Na8[AlSiO4]6(B(OH)4)2: Comparison of Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander G; Schomborg, Lars; Ulpe, Anna C; Rüscher, Claus H; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-09-29

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level were performed to interpret experimental IR and Raman vibrational spectra, to assign (11)B-NMR chemical shifts, and to calculate the structure of the tetrahydroxyborate sodalite Na8[AlSiO4]6(B(OH)4)2. Full optimization of the intercalated compound gave the following structural parameters of B(OH)4(-): B-O-B (105.3-115.3°) and B-O-H (111.5-115.4°) angles, B-O (1.476 Å, 1.491 Å) and O-H (0.98 Å) distances. The calculated normal modes were assigned to experimental IR and Raman spectra. In general, close agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. The mean absolute deviation (MAD) is below 11 cm(-1). We also calculate the thermodynamical stability of Na8[AlSiO4]6(B(OH)4)2 with respect to Na8[AlSiO4]6(BH4)2 in the context of the tetrahydroborate hydration reaction.

  5. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR spectra, density functional computations of the vibrational assignments (for monomer and dimer) and molecular geometry of anticancer drug 7-amino-2-methylchromone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, G.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-04-01

    Vibrational assignments for the 7-amino-2-methylchromone (abbreviated as 7A2MC) molecule using a combination of experimental vibrational spectroscopic measurements and ab initio computational methods are reported. The optimized geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bonding, first order hyperpolarizability and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of 7A2MC have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory method. The calculated molecular geometry parameters, the theoretically computed vibrational frequencies for monomer and dimer and relative peak intensities were compared with experimental data. DFT calculations using the B3LYP method and 6-31 + G(d,p) basis set were found to yield results that are very comparable to experimental IR and Raman spectra. Detailed vibrational assignments were performed with DFT calculations and the potential energy distribution (PED) obtained from the Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) study revealed the characteristics of the electronic delocalization of the molecular structure. 13C and 1H NMR spectra have been recorded and 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Furthermore, All the possible calculated values are analyzed using correlation coefficients linear fitting equation and are shown strong correlation with the experimental data.

  6. Vibrational analysis using FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and HF-DFT methods and NBO, NLO, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, UV and electronic transitions studies on 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane.

    PubMed

    Suvitha, A; Periandy, S; Govindarajan, M; Gayathri, P

    2015-03-05

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using Raman and infrared spectroscopy in the range 100-4000cm(-1)and 50-4000cm(-1), respectively, for 2,2,4-Trimethyl Pentane, TMP (C8H18) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and geometrical parameter calculations based on Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The scaled B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) results shows the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer within the molecule. The physical reactions of single bond hydrocarbon TMP were investigated. The results of the calculations were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which shows the excellent agreement with observed spectra. Besides, Mulliken atomic charges, UV, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), MEP, NLO activity, Natural Bond-Orbital (NBO) analysis, NMR and thermodynamic properties of title molecule were also performed.

  7. Infrared and Raman spectra of Na{sub 2}Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}M(II)(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O with M(II) = Cu, Zn, and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, V.P.M.; Nayar, V.U.; Jordanovska, V.B.

    1997-11-01

    FTIR and Raman spectra of Na{sub 2}Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}M(II) (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O with M(II) = Cu, Zn, and Ni are recorded and analyzed. Bands are assigned on the basis of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and H{sub 2}O vibrations. The lifting of degeneracies of {nu}{sub 2}, {nu}{sub 3} and v{sub 4} modes and the appearance of {nu}{sub 1} and {nu}{sub 2} modes in the IR spectra confirm the lowering of symmetry of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion from T{sub d} to C{sub 1} in all of the title compounds. Bands obtained indicate that the distoration of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion in the four crystals are in the order, (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3})Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O > (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Ni(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O > (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O > Na{sub 2}Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O. The appearance of NH{sub 3} stretching modes at wavenumbers lower than the values obtained for the free ion indicates the presence of hydrogen bonds between NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups. The appearance of multiple bands in the blending and rocking mode regions and the broad nature of stretching modes show the existence of at least two symmetrically inequivalent water molecules in Na{sub 2}Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. The shifting of stretching modes to lower wavenumbers and bending modes to higher wavenumbers of water molecules confirms the existence of strong hydrogen bonds in the crystal which is in agreement with the X-ray data. Bands indicate the presence of strong hydrogen bonds involving water molecules in (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cu(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2} Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and of lesser strength in (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Ni(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of V2+(H2O) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.; Duncan, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    Doubly charged vanadium-water complexes are produced by laser vaporization in a pulsed supersonic expansion. Size-selected ions are studied with infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in the O-H stretch region using argon complex predissociation. Density functional theory calculations provide structures and vibrational spectra of these ions. The O-H stretches of V2+(H2O) appear at lower frequencies than those of the free water molecule or V+(H2O). The symmetric stretch is more intense than the asymmetric stretch in both V+(H2O) and V2+(H2O) complexes. Spectra of V2+(H2O)Arn (n = 2-7) show that the coordination of the V2+ is filled with six ligands, i.e. one water and five argon atoms.

  9. NBO, NMR, UV, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric structures) investigation of 4-Chloro-3,5-Xylenol: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, M; Gayathri, R

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a joint experimental (FTIR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT and ab initio) study on the structure and the vibrations of 4-Chloro-3,5-Xylenol (CXL) are compared and analyzed. CXL is a chlorinated phenolic antiseptic which is a bactericide against most gram-positive bacteria. The first hyperpolarizability (β0) of this novel molecular system and related non-linear properties of CXL are calculated using HF/6-311++G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The energy and oscillator strength calculated using absorption spectra (UV-Vis spectrum), this spectral analysis confirms the charge transfer of the molecule. The theoretical (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method, to analyze the molecular environment as well as the delocalization activities of electron clouds. The directly calculated ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), electronegativity (χ), chemical hardness (η), first electron excitation energy (τ) and electrophilicity index (ω) as well as local reactivity (S) analyzed using HOMO and LUMO energies; the energy band gap are also determined. NBO analysis shows that charge in electron density(ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) antibonding orbitals and E((2)) energies confirms the occurrence of ICT (Intramolecular Charge Transfer) within the molecule. Inter molecular hydrogen bonds exist between -OH group, give the evidence for the formation of dimer entities in the title molecule. The influences of chlorine atom, hydroxyl group and methyl group on the geometry of benzene and its normal modes of vibrations (monomer and dimer of CXL) have also been discussed. Finally the calculated results were applied to simulate Infrared and Raman spectra of the title molecule which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  10. Access to NMR Spectroscopy for Two-Year College Students: The NMR Site at Trinity University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nancy S.; Shanklin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Students at two-year colleges and small four-year colleges have often obtained their exposure to NMR spectroscopy through "canned" spectra because the cost of an NMR spectrometer, particularly a high-field spectrometer, is prohibitive in these environments. This article describes the design of a NMR site at Trinity University in which…

  11. Freezing point depression of water in phospholipid membranes: a solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kuk; Kwon, Byung Soo; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2008-12-02

    Lipid-water interaction plays an important role in the properties of lipid bilayers, cryoprotectants, and membrane-associated peptides and proteins. The temperature at which water bound to lipid bilayers freezes is lower than that of free water. Here, we report a solid-state NMR investigation on the freezing point depression of water in phospholipid bilayers in the presence and absence of cholesterol. Deuterium NMR spectra at different temperatures ranging from -75 to + 10 degrees C were obtained from fully (2)H2O-hydrated POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), prepared with and without cholesterol, to determine the freezing temperature of water and the effect of cholesterol on the freezing temperature of water in POPC bilayers. Our 2H NMR experiments reveal the motional behavior of unfrozen water molecules in POPC bilayers even at temperatures significantly below 0 degrees C and show that the presence of cholesterol further lowered the freezing temperature of water in POPC bilayers. These results suggest that in the presence of cholesterol the fluidity and dynamics of lipid bilayers can be retained even at very low temperatures as exist in the liquid crystalline phase of the lipid. Therefore, bilayer samples prepared with a cryoprotectant like cholesterol should enable the performance of multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments to investigate the structure, dynamics, and topology of membrane proteins at a very low temperature with enhanced sample stability and possibly a better sensitivity. Phosphorus-31 NMR data suggest that lipid bilayers can be aligned at low temperatures, while 15N NMR experiments demonstrate that such aligned samples can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of is 15N chemical shift spectra of a 37-residue human antimicrobial peptide, LL-37.

  12. NMR characterization of membrane protein-detergent micelle solutions by use of microcoil equipment.

    PubMed

    Stanczak, Pawel; Horst, Reto; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-30

    Using microcoil NMR technology, the uniformly (2)H,(15)N-labeled integral membrane protein OmpX, and the phosphocholine derivative detergent Fos-10 (n-decylphosphocholine), we investigated solutions of mixed protein-detergent micelles to determine the influence of the detergent concentration on the NMR spectra of the protein. In a first step, we identified key parameters that influence the composition of the micelle solutions, which resulted in a new protocol for the preparation of well-defined concentrated protein solutions. This led to the observation that high-quality 2D [(15)N,(1)H]-transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) spectra of OmpX reconstituted in mixed micelles with Fos-10 were obtained only in a limited range of detergent concentrations. Outside of this range from about 90-180 mM, we observed a significant decrease of the average peak intensity. Relaxation-optimized NMR measurements of the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of the OmpX/Fos-10 mixed micelles, D(r) and D(t), respectively, then showed that the stoichiometry and the effective hydrodynamic radius of the protein-containing micelles are not significantly affected by high Fos-10 concentrations and that the deterioration of NMR spectra is due to the increased viscosity at high detergent concentrations. The paper thus provides a basis for refined guidelines on the preparation of integral membrane proteins for structural studies.

  13. NMR conformational properties of an Anthrax Lethal Factor domain studied by multiple amino acid-selective labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vourtsis, Dionysios J.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Pairas, George; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • A polypeptide, N-ALF{sub 233}, was overexpressed in E. coli and successfully isolated. • We produced {sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C labeled protein samples. • Amino acid selective approaches were applied. • We acquired several heteronuclear NMR spectra, to complete the backbone assignment. • Prediction of the secondary structure was performed. - Abstract: NMR-based structural biology urgently needs cost- and time-effective methods to assist both in the process of acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra and their subsequent analysis. Especially for bigger proteins (>20 kDa) selective labeling is a frequently used means of sequence-specific assignment. In this work we present the successful overexpression of a polypeptide of 233 residues, corresponding to the structured part of the N-terminal domain of Anthrax Lethal Factor, using Escherichia coli expression system. The polypeptide was subsequently isolated in pure, soluble form and analyzed structurally by solution NMR spectroscopy. Due to the non-satisfying quality and resolution of the spectra of this 27 kDa protein, an almost complete backbone assignment became feasible only by the combination of uniform and novel amino acid-selective labeling schemes. Moreover, amino acid-type selective triple-resonance NMR experiments proved to be very helpful.

  14. An experimental and theoretical investigation of Acenaphthene-5-boronic acid: conformational study, NBO and NLO analysis, molecular structure and FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV spectra.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Sinha, Leena; Prasad, Onkar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Cinar, Mehmet

    2013-11-01

    The solid state Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of Acenaphthene-5-boronic acid (AN-5-BA), have been recorded in the range 4000-400cm(-1) and 4000-10cm(-1), respectively. Density functional theory (DFT), with the B3LYP functional was used for the optimization of the ground state geometry and simulation of the infrared and Raman spectra of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 09 set of quantum chemistry codes and the normal modes were assigned by a scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) force field approach. Hydrogen-bonded dimer of AN-5-BA, optimized by counterpoise correction, has also been studied by B3LYP at the 6-311++G(d,p) level and the effects of molecular association through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding have been discussed. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been applied to study stability of the molecule arising from charge delocalization. UV spectrum of the title compound was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals, and band gap energies were measured by TD-DFT approach. The first order hyperpolarizability 〈β〉, its components and associated properties such as average polarizability and anisotropy of the polarizability (α and Δα) of AN-5-BA was calculated using the finite-field approach.

  15. 1,2-Dimethyl-1,2-Disila-Closo-Dodecaborane(12), A silicon analog of an ortho-carborane: Synthesis; x ray crystal structure; NMR, vibrational and photoelectron spectra; bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyferth, Dietmar; Buechner, Klaus D.; Rees, William S., Jr.; Wesemann, Lars; Davis, William M.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction of (CH3)2Si(NMe2)2 with B1OH14 Yields a polymer, B1OH12 (dot) Me2NSi(CH3)2NMe2(sub n), whose pyrolysis in a stream of ammonia gives hexagonal boron nitride containing a little silicon nitride. In contrast, CH3(H)Si(NMe2)2 reacts with B1OH14 to give 1,2-dimethyl- 1,2-disila-closo- dodecaborane(12) (DMSB), an air-sensitive solid, the structure of whose 1:1 benzene solvate was determined by X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the space group P ccn (56) with a = 10.081(1) A, b = 10.666(8) A, c = 16.130(5) A, V = 1734(2) cu A, and Z = 4. The final R is equal to 0.044 and RW = 0.058. The H-1, C-13, Si-29, and B-11 NMR spectra and mass spectrum of DMSB are reported. Its vibrational spectrum (Raman, 5-3600 /cm; IR, 200-3600 /cm) was measured and compared with that of ortho-carborane. A study of its He(1) photoelectron spectrum led to the conclusion that DMSB is the most electron-rich cluster of type XYB1OH1O with two adjacent main group element centers known.

  16. Vibrational spectra, NBO analysis, first order hyperpolarizabilities, thermodynamic functions and NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 5-nitro-2-furoic acid by ab initio HF and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Rajeswari, S; Lalitha, S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded on the solid phase of 5-nitro-2-furoic acid (abbreviated as NFA) in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1) respectively. The geometrical parameters, vibrational assignments, HOMO-LUMO energies and NBO calculations are obtained for the monomer and dimer of NFA from HF and DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set calculations. Second order perturbation energies and electron density (ED) transfer from filled lone pairs of Lewis base to unfilled Lewis acid sites of NFA are discussed on the basis of NBO analysis. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds exist through COOH groups; give the evidence for the formation of dimer entities in the title molecule. The theoretically calculated harmonic frequencies are scaled by common scale factor. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The thermodynamic functions were obtained for the range of temperature 100-1000 K. The polarizability, first hyperpolarizability, anisotropy polarizability invariant has been computed using quantum chemical calculations. The chemical parameters were calculated from the HOMO and LUMO values. The NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters were also computed for the title molecule.

  17. Thermal decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O: Influence on structure, microstructure and hydrofluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Rivenet, M.; Berrier, E.; de Waele, I.; Arab, M.; Amaraggi, D.; Morel, B.; Abraham, F.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl peroxide tetrahydrate, (UO2)O2(H2O)2.2H2O, was studied by combining high temperature powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analyses and spectroscopic techniques (Raman, IR and 1H NMR). In situ analyses reveal that intermediates and final uranium oxides obtained upon heating are different from that obtained after cooling at room temperature and that the uranyl precursor used to synthesize (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O, sulfate or nitrate, has a strong influence on the peroxide thermal behavior and morphology. The decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O ex sulfate is pseudomorphic and leads to needle-like shaped particles of metastudtite, (UO2)O2(H2O)2, and UO3-x(OH)2x·zH2O, an amorphous phase found in air in the following of (UO2)O2(H2O)2 dehydration. (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O and the compounds resulting from its thermal decomposition are very reactive towards hydrofluorination as long as their needle-like morphology is kept.

  18. Hydration water dynamics in bovine serum albumin at low temperatures as studied by deuterium solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatou, Tatsuya; Araya, Takashi; Ohashi, Ryutaro; Ida, Tomonori; Mizuno, Motohiro

    2016-10-01

    Solid state 2H NMR was used to investigate changes in the structure and dynamics of hydration waters of bovine serum albumin (BSA) due to glass transitions. The 2H NMR spectra were separated into fast and slow components based on differences in spin-lattice relaxation time T1. The fast components corresponded to water molecules interacting with protein while the slow components were the water molecules similar to bulk water and deuterons of the protein backbone. Simulation analysis of the 2H NMR spectra of the fast components was used to assess the mode and rate of motions of hydration waters around the protein. At low temperatures, the water molecules underwent a 180° flip and slow reorientation in the tetrahedral sites. The distribution of the rate of the 180° flip and the D-O-D angle of water molecules were clarified. The distribution of the D-O-D angle of water molecules spread with decreasing temperature. The marked slowing down in the reorientation of water molecules was observed at a glass transition of around 200 K, which is linked to the disordered region of the protein. In contrast, the 180° flip of water molecules occurred frequently, even below 200 K. A freeze of the 180° flip of water molecules was observed around the glass transition temperature of 110 K, where primary hydrate water formed a direct hydrogen bond with the protein, making it perfectly immobile.

  19. NMR spectroscopy of some electrolyte solutions to 1.9 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Gerardo; Colla, Christopher A.; Klavins, Peter; Augustine, Matthew P.; Casey, William H.

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of CsCl and LaCl3 in D2O/H2O solutions were collected up to pressures of 1.9 GPa using a new NMR probe design that considerably extends the pressure range available for geochemical experiments. The longitudinal-relaxation times (T1) for 2H compare well with those reported in the previous studies of Lee et al. (1974), who examined lower pressures, and indicate that the probe functions properly. In some experiments, 133Cs and 1H NMR spectra could be taken on solutions to pressures well beyond the nominal freezing pressure of D2O or H2O to form Ice VI (near 0.9 GPa). Freezing to form the high-pressure ice is kinetically slow on an experimental time scale (minutes to hours). The data indicate that the electrolyte concentrations increase the freezing pressure of the solution. This result means that solution NMR spectra can be collected at pressures that are nearly twice the nominal freezing pressure of pure D2O or H2O. Pulsed-magnetic-field-gradient NMR methods are used to independently measure the self-diffusion coefficient of H2O in these solutions, which yields estimates of solution viscosity via the Stokes-Einstein relation. The increased viscosity accounts for the pressure variation of T1 values as rates of molecular tumbling are affected. Accounting for such changes is essential if NMR spectral line widths are used to infer pressure-enhanced rates of geochemical reactions, such as interconversion of aqueous complexes.

  20. A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Laura E.; Lisensky, George C.; Spencer, Brock

    1998-04-01

    We present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in our one-semester introductory course. Aspirin is synthesized by reacting salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy. Students compare IR and NMR spectra of their aspirin product to a series of reference spectra obtained by the class. Students are able to interpret the IR spectra of their aspirin using IR data from previous experiments. NMR is introduced by having students collect 1H NMR spectra of a series of reference compounds chosen to include some of the structural features of aspirin and compare spectra and structures of the reference compounds to develop a correlation chart for chemical shifts. This process is done in small groups using shared class data and is guided by a series of questions designed to relate the different kinds of hydrogen atoms to number and position of peaks in the NMR spectrum. Students then identify the peaks in the NMR spectrum of their aspirin product and relate percent purity by titration with spectral results and percent yield. This is an enjoyable project that combines the synthesis of a familiar material with a guided inquiry-based introduction to NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Solid state and solution 43Ca NMR of calcium peroxides involved in the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide by calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Trokiner, Arlette; Bessière, Aurélie; Thouvenot, René; Hau, Damien; Marko, Jean; Nardello, Véronique; Pierlot, Christel; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2004-06-01

    In order to get some insight into the mechanism of the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by calcium hydroxide, 43Ca NMR spectra of enriched samples of calcium peroxides and of their precursors have been studied in both solution and solid state. This study demonstrates that no well-defined peroxidized calcium species are formed in solution, showing that the catalytic role of calcium is likely restricted to the solid state. Most of the calcium compounds that could be involved in the catalytic process have been investigated with solid state NMR. The shift and quadrupolar parameters of Ca(OH)2, CaO2.8H2O and CaO2.2H2O2 are reported for the first time. These parameters are different enough to allow the quantitative analysis of a complex mixture of these compounds by NMR.

  2. An Integrated Laboratory Project in NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Pendley, Bradford D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an advanced NMR project that can be done with a 60-MHz continuous-wave proton spectrometer. Points out the main purposes are to give students experience in second-order NMR analysis, the simplification of spectra by raising the frequency, and the effect of non-hydrogen nuclei on proton resonances. (MVL)

  3. Microslot NMR probe for metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Krojanski, Hans Georg; Lambert, Jörg; Gerikalan, Yilmaz; Suter, Dieter; Hergenröder, Roland

    2008-11-15

    A NMR microprobe based on microstrip technology suitable for investigations of volume-limited samples in the low nanoliter range was designed. NMR spectra of sample quantities in the 100 pmol range can be obtained with this probe in a few seconds. The planar geometry of the probe is easily adaptable to the size and geometry requirements of the samples.

  4. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic studies of 2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene nicotinohydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M. S. C.; Del Amparo, R.; Pérez-Álvarez, D.; Nogueira, B. A.; Rodríguez-Argüelles, M. C.; Paixão, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of a new hydrazone, 2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene nicotinohydrazide, and its structural and spectroscopic characterization is reported. The obtained powder was recrystallized from DMSO and ethanol that afforded small crystals used for single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound was found to crystallize in two polymorphs, depending on the crystallization conditions. One of the polymorphs (form I) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric P21/c monoclinic space group, the other (form II) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric, but achiral, orthorhombic space group P212121. Conformation of the molecules is similar in both polymorphs, but the network of weak intermolecular interactions determining the crystal packing is different. In form II an additional C-H⋯O bond connects molecules related by the screw-axis running parallel to the a-axis. Crystals of both polymorphs were also screened by FT-IR and Raman microscopy; a detailed analysis of the spectra and comparison with those of the isolated molecule calculated by ab-initio HF/MP2 and DFT/B3LYP methods using a correlation consistent cc-pVDZ basis set is presented. In addition, UV-vis and NMR studies were performed in solution.

  5. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic studies of 2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene nicotinohydrazide.

    PubMed

    Henriques, M S C; Del Amparo, R; Pérez-Álvarez, D; Nogueira, B A; Rodríguez-Argüelles, M C; Paixão, J A

    2017-02-05

    The synthesis of a new hydrazone, 2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene nicotinohydrazide, and its structural and spectroscopic characterization is reported. The obtained powder was recrystallized from DMSO and ethanol that afforded small crystals used for single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound was found to crystallize in two polymorphs, depending on the crystallization conditions. One of the polymorphs (form I) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric P21/c monoclinic space group, the other (form II) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric, but achiral, orthorhombic space group P212121. Conformation of the molecules is similar in both polymorphs, but the network of weak intermolecular interactions determining the crystal packing is different. In form II an additional C-H⋯O bond connects molecules related by the screw-axis running parallel to the a-axis. Crystals of both polymorphs were also screened by FT-IR and Raman microscopy; a detailed analysis of the spectra and comparison with those of the isolated molecule calculated by ab-initio HF/MP2 and DFT/B3LYP methods using a correlation consistent cc-pVDZ basis set is presented. In addition, UV-vis and NMR studies were performed in solution.

  6. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented.

  7. Phase equilibria and molecular packing in the N,N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide/gramicidin D/water system studied by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Orädd, G; Lindblom, G; Arvidson, G; Gunnarsson, K

    1995-01-01

    A partial phase diagram of the system N,N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide (DDAO)/water/gramicidin D was determined by 2H-NMR. Both 2H2O and perdeuterated DDAO (DDAO-d31) were studied by solid state NMR techniques. Addition of gramicidin D to the micellar (L1), normal hexagonal (HI) and cubic (I) phases of DDAO induces phase separations, giving two-phase regions, which all contain a lamellar (L alpha) phase. The L alpha phase containing gramicidin is characterized by larger order parameters for DDAO-d31 compared with the corresponding order parameters in the L alpha and HI phases of DDAO-d31/H2O. The L alpha phase may stay in equilibrium with any other phase in the phase diagram. The DDAO exchange between the coexisting phases is slow on the NMR timescale, which is why the recorded NMR spectrum consists of superimposed spectra from the different phases occurring in the sample. Gramicidin D can be solubilized in appreciable quantities only in the lamellar phase of DDAO-d31. Increasing amounts of gramicidin in the liquid crystalline phases result in a continuous increase in the molecular ordering up to about 5 mol% gramicidin, where a plateau is reached. This is consistent with a recent theoretical model describing the influence on the ordering of lipids by a membrane protein with larger hydrophobic thickness than the lipid bilayer. The solvent used for dissolving gramicidin at the incorporation of the peptide in the lipid aggregates has no effect on the 2H-NMR lineshapes of DDAO-d31. It is concluded that gramicidin is solubilized in the L alpha phase and that it always adopts the channel conformation independent of a particular solvent. The channel conformation is also supported by CD studies. In some of the samples, macroscopic orientation of the lipid aggregates is observed. It is concluded that DDAO-d31 in the binary system favors an orientation with the long axis of the hydrocarbon chain perpendicular to the magnetic field, whereas when gramicidin D is present the

  8. Applications of Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffusion-ordered NMR (DOSY-NMR) is a powerful, but under-utilized, technique for the investigation of mixtures based on translational diffusion rates. DOSY spectra allow for determination by NMR of components that may differ in molecular weight, geometry or complexation. Typical applications coul...

  9. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  10. Acyl chain orientational order in large unilamellar vesicles: comparison with multilamellar liposomes: a 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, D B; Cullis, P R

    1993-01-01

    Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC-d31), with diameters of approximately 117 +/- 31 and 180 +/- 44 nm, were prepared by extrusion through polycarbonate filters with pore sizes of 0.1 and 0.2 microns, respectively. The 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra obtained at 21 degrees C contain two components: a broad component (approximately 17 kHz linewidth) corresponding to the methylene groups and a narrower component originating from the methyl groups. Spectra with increasing powder pattern characteristics were obtained by reducing the rate of phospholipid reorientations by addition of glycerol (to increase the solvent viscosity) and by lowering the temperature. Full powder spectra, characteristic of liquid-crystalline bilayers, were obtained for both LUV samples at 0 degrees C in the presence of 50 wt% glycerol. Individual quadrupolar splittings were not resolved in these spectra, due to broader linewidths in the LUVs, which have significantly shorter values for spin-spin relaxation time T2 measured from the decay of the quadrupolar echo (90 microseconds) than the multilmellar vesicles (MLVs; 540 microseconds). Smoothed order parameter profiles (OPPs) were obtained for these samples by integration of the dePaked spectra. The OPPs were very similar to the OPP of POPC-d31 MLVs in 50 wt% glycerol at the same temperature, indicating that orientational order in MLVs and LUVs with a diameter of > or = 100 nm is essentially the same. The presence of 80 wt% glycerol was found to have a disordering effect on the vesicles. PMID:8324185

  11. Low-temperature NMR studies of Zn tautomerism and hindered rotations in solid zincocene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Resa, Irene; Fernandez, Rafael; Carmona, Ernesto

    2008-04-24

    Using a combination of NMR methods we have detected and studied fluxional motions in the slip-sandwich structure of solid decamethylzincocene (I, [(eta5-C5Me5)Zn(eta1-C5Me5)]). For comparison, we have also studied the solid iminoacyl derivative [(eta5-C5Me5)Zn(eta1-C(NXyl)C5Me5)] (II). The variable temperature 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of I indicate fast rotations of both Cp* rings in the molecule down to 156 K as well as the presence of an order-disorder phase transition around 210 K. The disorder is shown to be dynamic arising from a fast combined Zn tautomerism and eta1/eta5 reorganization of the Cp* rings between two degenerate states A and B related by a molecular inversion. In the ordered phase, the degeneracy of A and B is lifted; that is, the two rings X and Y are inequivalent, where X exhibits a larger fraction of time in the eta5 state than Y. However, the interconversion is still fast and characterized by a reaction enthalpy of DeltaH = 2.4 kJ mol-1 and a reaction entropy of DeltaS = 4.9 J K-1 mol-1. In order to obtain quantitative kinetic information, variable temperature 2H NMR experiments were performed on static samples of I-d6 and II-d6 between 300 and 100 K, where in each ring one CH3 is replaced by one CD3 group. For II-d6, the 2H NMR line shapes indicate fast CD3 group rotations and a fast "eta5 rotation", corresponding to 72 degrees rotational jumps of the eta5 coordinated Cp* ring. The latter motion becomes slow around 130 K. By line shape analysis, an activation energy of the eta5 rotation of about 21 kJ mol-1 was obtained. 2H NMR line shapes analysis of I-d6 indicates fast CD3 group rotations at all temperatures. Moreover, between 100 and 150 K, a transition from the slow to the fast exchange regime is observed for the 5-fold rotational jumps of both Cp* rings, exhibiting an activation energy of 18 kJ mol-1. This value was corroborated by 2H NMR relaxometry from which additionally the activation energies 6.3 kJ mol-1 and 11.2 kJ mol-1 for the CD3

  12. Solid-state NMR of proteins sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico; Reif, Bernd; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Relatively large proteins in solution, spun in NMR rotors for solid samples at typical ultracentrifugation speeds, sediment at the rotor wall. The sedimented proteins provide high-quality solid-state-like NMR spectra suitable for structural investigation. The proteins fully revert to the native solution state when spinning is stopped, allowing one to study them in both conditions. Transiently sedimented proteins can be considered a novel phase as far as NMR is concerned. NMR of transiently sedimented molecules under fast magic angle spinning has the advantage of overcoming protein size limitations of solution NMR without the need of sample crystallization/precipitation required by solid-state NMR. PMID:21670262

  13. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the past reporting period. Four major areas of inquiry are being pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concerns how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coals model. Along the same lines the authors are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. The effects of very high MAS rates (>10 kHz) on cross polarization dynamics are also being investigated for similar reasons. The authors have been reinvestigating the prospects of using zero field NMR types of techniques for two dimensional NMR structural analysis of complex organic solids such as coals. Currently MAS spin rates are not sufficiently high to permit zero field in high field NMR for protons in typical organic solids, however they are compatible with {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C dipolar couplings. In collaboration with Dr. Robert Tycko of AT T Bell Laboratories, inventor of the zero field in high field NMR method, the authors have performed the first zero field in high field {sup 13}C NMR experiments. These results are described. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  14. NMR Studies of Peroxidases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitch, Nigel Charles

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Peroxidases are a haem-containing group of enzymes with a wide diversity of function within biological systems. While a common characteristic is the ability to catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water, it is the accompanying processes of hormone synthesis and degradation which have generated such a high level of interest. However, information at the molecular level is limited to a single well-resolved crystal structure, that of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. This thesis presents a strategy for the investigation of peroxidase structure and function based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a technique which has the ability to address aspects of both protein structure and protein dynamics in solution. The application of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques has been developed in the context of plant peroxidases, notably the isoenzyme HRP-C derived from the horseradish root. Characterisation of the proton NMR spectra of HRP -C in resting and ligated states provided new information enabling the structure of the binding site for aromatic donor molecules, such as indole-3-propionic, ferulic and benzhydroxamic acids, to be resolved. In order to overcome difficulties encountered with a protein of the complexity of peroxidase, additional information was obtained from chemical shift parameters and the use of peroxidase variants produced by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative study using NMR spectroscopy was undertaken for wild-type recombinant HRP-C expressed in Escherichia coli, and two protein variants with substitutions made to residues located on the distal side of the haem pocket, Phe41 to Val and Arg38 to Lys. NMR analyses of a plant peroxidase from barley grains and the fungal peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus were also successful using methods conceived with HRP-C. Examination of three specifically constructed recombinant protein variants of C. cinereus

  15. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the current reporting period. Four major areas of inquiry are being pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concerns how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coals model. Along the same lines we are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. This quarter we have focused on variable temperature spin lattice relaxation measurements for several of the Argonne coals. 5 figs.

  16. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the current reporting period. Four major areas of inquiry are being pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concerns how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coals model. Along the same lines we are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. This quarter we have focussed on spin lattice relaxation measurements for several of the Argonne coals. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. NMR study of a membrane protein in detergent-free aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zoonens, Manuela; Catoire, Laurent J; Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2005-06-21

    One of the major obstacles to membrane protein (MP) structural studies is the destabilizing effect of detergents. Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents to keep MPs water-soluble under mild conditions. In the present work, we have explored the feasibility of studying the structure of APol-complexed MPs by NMR. As a test MP, we chose the 171-residue transmembrane domain of outer MP A from Escherichia coli (tOmpA), whose x-ray and NMR structures in detergent are known. 2H,15N-labeled tOmpA was produced as inclusion bodies, refolded in detergent solution, trapped with APol A8-35, and the detergent removed by adsorption onto polystyrene beads. The resolution of transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy-heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectra of tOmpA/A8-35 complexes was found to be close to that of the best spectra obtained in detergent solutions. The dispersion of chemical shifts indicated that the protein had regained its native fold and retained it during the exchange of surfactants. MP-APol interactions were mapped by substituting hydrogenated for deuterated A8-35. The resulting dipolar broadening of amide proton linewidths was found to be limited to the beta-barrel region of tOmpA, indicating that A8-35 binds specifically to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of the protein. The potential of this approach to MP studies by solution NMR is discussed.

  18. Action of the multifunctional peptide BP100 on native biomembranes examined by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Misiewicz, Julia; Afonin, Sergii; Grage, Stephan L; van den Berg, Jonas; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-04-01

    Membrane composition is a key factor that regulates the destructive activity of antimicrobial peptides and the non-leaky permeation of cell penetrating peptides in vivo. Hence, the choice of model membrane is a crucial aspect in NMR studies and should reflect the biological situation as closely as possible. Here, we explore the structure and dynamics of the short multifunctional peptide BP100 using a multinuclear solid-state NMR approach. The membrane alignment and mobility of this 11 amino acid peptide was studied in various synthetic lipid bilayers with different net charge, fluidity, and thickness, as well as in native biomembranes harvested from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (19)F-NMR provided the high sensitivity and lack of natural abundance background that are necessary to observe a labelled peptide even in protoplast membranes from Micrococcus luteus and in erythrocyte ghosts. Six selectively (19)F-labeled BP100 analogues gave remarkably similar spectra in all of the macroscopically oriented membrane systems, which were studied under quasi-native conditions of ambient temperature and full hydration. This similarity suggests that BP100 has the same surface-bound helical structure and high mobility in the different biomembranes and model membranes alike, independent of charge, thickness or cholesterol content of the system. (31)P-NMR spectra of the phospholipid components did not indicate any bilayer perturbation, so the formation of toroidal wormholes or micellarization can be excluded as a mechanism of its antimicrobial or cell penetrating action. However, (2)H-NMR analysis of the acyl chain order parameter profiles showed that BP100 leads to considerable membrane thinning and thereby local destabilization.

  19. Stacking structure of confined 1-butanol in SBA-15 investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Chih; Chou, Hung-Lung; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2009-10-12

    Understanding the complex thermodynamic behavior of confined amphiphilic molecules in biological or mesoporous hosts requires detailed knowledge of the stacking structures. Here, we present detailed solid-state NMR spectroscopic investigations on 1-butanol molecules confined in the hydrophilic mesoporous SBA-15 host. A range of NMR spectroscopic measurements comprising of (1)H spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation, (13)C cross-polarization (CP), and (1)H,(1)H two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy ((1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY) with the magic angle spinning (MAS) technique as well as static wide-line (2)H NMR spectra have been used to investigate the dynamics and to observe the stacking structure of confined 1-butanol in SBA-15. The results suggest that not only the molecular reorientation but also the exchange motions of confined molecules of 1-butanol are extremely restricted in the confined space of the SBA-15 pores. The dynamics of the confined molecules of 1-butanol imply that the (1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY should be an appropriate technique to observe the stacking structure of confined amphiphilc molecules. This study is the first to observe that a significant part of confined 1-butanol molecules are orientated as tilted bilayered structures on the surface of the host SBA-15 pores in a time-average state by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with the (1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY technique.

  20. Studies of Molecular Dynamics by Solid State Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baiyi

    The rotational dynamics of molecules in a number of solid systems were followed by variable temperature deuterium (^2H), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy via changes in the spectral lineshapes and spin-lattice relaxation times (T _1). First the pure solid trimethylamine-borane adduct, (CH_3)_3NBH_3, was studied. For a methyl deuterated sample, T _1 measurements yielded two T_1 minima, 6.9 ms and 4.3 ms corresponding to the slowing of methyl and trimethyl rotation, respectively, with decreasing temperature. Activation energies for methyl and trimethyl rotation, obtained from fitting the T _1 curve as a function of temperature, were 32.8 and 15.0 kJ/mol, respectively; simulations of the spectral lineshapes gave 26.6 and 18.9 kT/mol, respectively. Fitting of the ^2H T_1 curve for the borane deuterated sample gave a BH _3 rotation activation energy of 14.1 kT/mol and a ^2H quadrupolar coupling constant, chi, of 101 kHz. The activation energy for BH_3 rotation obtained from the spectral lineshape simulations gave 12.6 kT/mol. A series of deuterated organic chalcogen cations: (CH_3)_3S^+, (CH_3)_3Se^+ and (CH_3)_3Te^+, were ion exchanged into the cavities of sodium Mordenite LZ-M5 and the dynamics of these guests within the hydrated zeolite were followed by ^2H NMR. All three undergo isotropic motion above about -80 to -90^circC. Below this temperature two superimposed ^2H powder spectra appear; the broad lineshape is consistent with only methyl rotation in a hindered, coordinated site, and the other narrow lineshape is due to both methyl and trimethyl rotation in a less hindered, uncoordinated site. As the temperature is lowered the population of the lower energy coordinated site increases. Relative peak areas yield adsorption enthalpies of 6.7, 7.8 and 10.0 kJ/mol for (CH_3)_3S^+, (CH_3)_3Se^+ and (CH_3)_3Te^+, respectively. The series of methyl deuterated ammonium and phosphonium cations: (CH_3)NH_3^+ , (CH_3)_2NH^+ , (CH_3)_3NH^+ and (CH_3)_4P^+ , were

  1. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    prevent dendrite formation. The in situ method was also applied to monitor (by (11)B NMR) electrochemical double-layer formation in supercapacitors in real time. Though this method is useful, it comes with challenges. The separation of the contributions from the different cell components in the NMR spectra is not trivial because of overlapping resonances. In addition, orientation-dependent NMR interactions, including the spatial- and orientation-dependent bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects, can lead to resonance broadening. Efforts to understand and mitigate these BMS effects are discussed in this Account. The in situ NMR investigation of fuel cells initially focused on the surface electrochemistry at the electrodes and the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and CO to CO2 on the Pt cathode. On the basis of the (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectra of the adsorbates and electrodes, CO adsorbed on Pt and other reaction intermediates and complete oxidation products were detected and their mode of binding to the electrodes investigated. Appropriate design and engineering of the NMR hardware has allowed researchers to integrate intact direct methanol fuel cells into NMR probes. Chemical transformations of the circulating methanol could be followed and reaction intermediates could be detected in real time by either (2)H or (13)C NMR spectroscopy. By use of the in situ NMR approach, factors that control fuel cell performance, such as methanol cross over and catalyst performance, were identified.

  2. THz spectroscopy of D2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Pearson, J. C.; Amano, T.; Matsushima, F.

    2017-01-01

    We extended the measurements of the rotational transitions of D2H+ up to 3 THz by using the JPL frequency multiplier chains and a TuFIR system at Toyama. D2H+ was generated in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. We observed five new THz lines. All the available rotational transition frequencies together with the combination differences derived from the three fundamental bands were subject to least square analysis to determine the molecular constants. New THz measurements are definitely useful for better characterization of spectroscopic properties. The improved molecular constants provide better predictions of other unobserved rotational transitions.

  3. Extending the scope of NMR spectroscopy with microcoil probes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Frank C; Gronquist, Matthew

    2006-11-06

    Capillary NMR (CapNMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a major breakthrough for increasing the mass-sensitivity of NMR spectroscopic analysis and enabling the combination of NMR spectroscopy with other analytical techniques. Not only is the acquisition of high-sensitivity spectra getting easier but the quality of CapNMR spectra obtained in many small-molecule applications exceeds what can be accomplished with conventional designs. This Minireview discusses current CapNMR technology and its applications for the characterization of mass-limited, small-molecule and protein samples, the rapid screening of small-molecule or protein libraries, as well as hyphenated techniques that combine CapNMR with other analytical methods.

  4. Review of NMR studies of nanoscale molecular magnets composed of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic triangles

    DOE PAGES

    Furukawa, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies performed on three nanoscale molecular magnets with different novel configurations of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic (AFM) triangles: (1) the isolated single AFM triangle K6[V15As6O42(H2O)]·8H2O (in short V15), (2) the spin ball [Mo72Fe30O252(Mo2O7(H2O))2(Mo2O8H2(H2O)) (CH3COO)12(H2O)91]·150H2O (in short Fe30 spin ball), and (3) the twisted triangular spin tube [(CuCl2tachH)3Cl]Cl2 (in short Cu3 spin tube). In V15t, from 51V NMR spectra, the local spin configurations were directly determined in both the nonfrustrated total spin ST = 3/2 state at higher magnetic fields (H ge; 2.7 T) and the two nearly degenerate ST =more » 1/2 ground states at lower magnetic fields (H ≤ 2.7 T). The dynamical magnetic properties of V15 were investigated by proton spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) measurements. In the ST = 3/2 state, 1/T1 shows thermally activated behaviour as a function of temperature. On the other hand, the temperature independent behaviour of 1/T1 at very low temperatures is observed in the frustrated ST = 1/2 ground state. Possible origins for the peculiar behaviour of 1/T1 will be discussed in terms of magnetic fluctuations due to spin frustrations. In Fe30, static and dynamical properties of Fe3+ (s = 5/2) have been investigated by proton NMR spectra and 1/T1 measurements. From the temperature dependence of 1/T1, the fluctuation frequency of the Fe3+ spins is found to decrease with decreasing temperature, indicating spin freezing at low temperatures. The spin freezing is also evidenced by the observation of a sudden broadening of 1H NMR spectra below 0.6 K. Finally, 1H NMR data in Cu3 will be described. An observation of magnetic broadening of 1H NMR spectra at low temperatures below 1 K directly revealed a gapless ground state. The 1/T1 measurements revealed a usual slow spin dynamics in the Cu3 spin tube.« less

  5. Assigning the NMR Spectrum of Glycidol: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Eric; Arpaia, Nicholas; Widener, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Various one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments have been found to be extremely useful for assigning the proton and carbon NMR spectra of glycidol. The technique provides extremely valuable information aiding in the complete assignment of the peaks.

  6. HYDROGEN AND DEUTERIUM NMR OF SOLIDS BY MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    motion. In the general case of large H{sub D}, isotropic spectra were obtained by dilution of {sup 1}H with {sup 2}H combined with magic angle rotation. The resolution obtained represents the practical limit for proton NMR of solids. Theoretical and technical aspects are described in the text with comments on the application of the principles to other nuclei of interest.

  7. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  8. First Observation of the nu(17)-nu(4) Difference Bands of Diborane (10)B(2)H(6) and (11)B(2)H(6).

    PubMed

    Flaud; Lafferty; Bürger; Pawelke; Domenech; Bermejo

    2000-10-01

    An analysis of the nu(17)-nu(4) difference bands near 800 cm(-1) of two isotopic species, (10)B(2)H(6) and (11)B(2)H(6), of diborane has been carried out using infrared spectra recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm(-1). In addition, the nu(17) band of (10)B(2)H(6) has been recorded and assigned. Since this band in (11)B(2)H(6) had already been studied (R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, S. W. Sharpe, J.-M. Flaud, and W. J. Lafferty, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 331-342 (1998)), it was possible to derive precise energy levels and Hamiltonian constants for the 4(1) vibrational states of both isotopic species. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Modern NMR spectroscopy: a guide for chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.K.M.; Hunter, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the authors of Modern NMR Spectroscopy is to bridge the communication gap between the chemist and the spectroscopist. The approach is nonmathematical, descriptive, and pictorial. To illustrate the ideas introduced in the text, the authors provide original spectra obtained specially for this purpose. Examples include spectroscopy of protons, carbon, and less receptive nuclei of interest to inorganic chemists. The authors succeed in making high-resolution NMR spectroscopy comprehensible for the average student or chemist.

  10. Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic-angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large specral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, ..beta../sub m/ = Arccos (3/sup -1/2/), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of ..beta... A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H/sub D/ was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal motion. In the general case of large H/sub D/, isotropic spectra were obtained by dilution of /sup 1/H with /sup 2/H combined with magic angle rotation. The resolution obtained represents the practical limit for proton NMR of solids.

  11. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project and summarizes the accomplishments for the project period. Four major areas of inquiry have been pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concerns how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coals model. Along the same lines the authors are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. The effects of very high MAS rates (>10 kHz) on cross polarization dynamics are also being investigated for similar reasons. The authors have concentrated on a theoretical treatment of pairs of tightly coupled spin {1/2} nuclei under magic angle spinning conditions. The average Hamiltonian theory developed here is required for a quantitative understanding of two dimensional NMR experiments of such spin pairs in solids. These experiments in turn provide a means of determining connectivities between resonances in solid state NMR spectra. Development of these techniques will allow us to establish connectivities between functional components in coals. The complete description of these spin dynamics has turned out to be complex, and is necessary to provide a foundation upon which such experiments may be quantitatively interpreted in complex mixtures such as coals. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project and summarizes the accomplishments for the project period. Four major areas of inquiry have been pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concern how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coals model. Along the same lines we are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. The effects of very high MAS rates (>10 kHz) on cross polarization dynamics are also being investigated for similar reasons. During the last quarter the authors have concentrated on improvements in cross polarization (CP) sequences with a goal of making the CP process insensitive to experimental conditions such as the magic angle spinning (MAS) rate. In order to be able to use fields the order of 7.0 T or higher, CP efficiency must be maintained at MAS rates of over 10 kHz. The standard sequences have severe limitations at these rates which lead to intensity distortions in {sup 13}C CPMAS spectra. Thus in order to be able to take advantage of the increases in sensitivity and resolution that accompany high field operation, improvements in the NMR methods are required. The new sequences the authors are developing will be especially important for quantitative analysis of coal structure by {sup 13}C solid state NMR at high field strengths. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Interaction between the marine sponge cyclic peptide theonellamide A and sterols in lipid bilayers as viewed by surface plasmon resonance and solid-state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Rafael Atillo; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio; Nishimura, Shinichi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Yoshida, Minoru

    2013-04-09

    Theonellamides (TNMs) are members of a distinctive family of antifungal and cytotoxic bicyclic dodecapeptides isolated from the marine sponge Theonella sp. Recently, it has been shown that TNMs recognize 3β-hydroxysterol-containing membranes, induce glucan overproduction, and damage cellular membranes. However, to date, the detailed mode of sterol binding at a molecular level has not been determined. In this study, to gain insight into the mechanism of sterol recognition of TNM in lipid bilayers, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR) measurements were performed on theonellamide A (TNM-A). SPR results revealed that the incorporation of 10 mol % cholesterol or ergosterol into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) membranes significantly enhances the affinity of the peptide for the membrane, particularly in the initial binding to the membrane surface. These findings, together with the fact that binding of TNM-A to epicholesterol (3α-cholesterol)-containing liposomes and pure POPC liposomes was comparably weak, confirmed the preference of the peptide for the 3β-hydroxysterol-containing membranes. To further establish the formation of the complex of TNM-A with 3β-hydroxysterols in lipid bilayers, solid-state (2)H NMR measurements were conducted using deuterium-labeled cholesterol, ergosterol, or epicholesterol. The (2)H NMR spectra showed that TNM-A significantly inhibits the fast rotational motion of cholesterol and ergosterol, but not epicholesterol, therefore verifying the direct complexation between TNM-A and 3β-hydroxysterols in lipid bilayers. This study demonstrates that TNM-A directly recognizes the 3β-OH moiety of sterols, which greatly facilitates its binding to bilayer membranes.

  14. Structural characterization of (C2H2)1-6+ cluster ions by vibrational predissociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relph, Rachael A.; Bopp, Joseph C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    Vibrational predissociation spectra are reported for the cationic acetylene clusters, (C2H2)n+, n =1-6, in the region of the C-H stretching fundamentals. For n =1 and 2, predissociation could only be observed for the Ar-tagged clusters. These were prepared by charge-transfer collisions of Ark+ with C2H2 to create C2H2+ṡArm clusters, which were then converted into larger members of the (C2H2)n+ṡAr series by sequential addition of acetylene molecules. The (C2H2)2+ṡAr spectrum indicates that this species is predominantly present as the cyclobutadiene cation. Although mobility measurements on the electron-impact-generated (C2H2)3+ ion indicated that it primarily occurs as the benzene cation, [P. O. Momoh, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12408 (2006)] photofragmentation of (C2H2)3+ṡAr in the C-H stretching region is dominated by the loss of C2H2 in addition to the weakly bound Ar atom. This suggests that the dominant n =3 species formed by sequential addition of C2H2 is based on a covalently bound C4H4+ core ion. Interestingly, the spectrum of this core C4H4+ species is different from that found for the cyclobutadiene cation, displaying instead a new band pattern that is retained in the higher (C2H2)3-6+ clusters. Multiple isomers are clearly involved, as yet another pattern of bands is recovered when the (C2H2)3+ṡAr action spectrum is recorded in the (minor) Ar loss fragmentation channel. One of these features does appear in the location of the single band characteristic of the Ar-tagged benzene cation reported earlier [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 24 (2002)], supporting a scenario where the benzene cation is one of the isomers present. We then compare the Ar predissociation results with (C2H2)n+ spectra obtained when the ions are prepared by electron impact ionization of neutral acetylene clusters. The photofragmentation behavior and vibrational spectra indicate that the dominant species formed in this way also occur with a covalently bound C4H4+ core. There are

  15. A microcoil NMR probe for coupling microscale HPLC with on-line NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kelley, W P; Floyd, P D; Tan, Z J; Webb, A G; Sweedler, J V

    1999-12-01

    An HPLC NMR system is presented that integrates a commercial microbore HPLC system using a 0.5-mm column with a 500-MHz proton NMR spectrometer using a custom NMR probe with an observe volume of 1.1 microL and a coil fill factor of 68%. Careful attention to capillary connections and NMR flow cell design allows on-line NMR detection with no significant loss in separation efficiency when compared with a UV chromatogram. HPLC NMR is performed on mixtures of amino acids and small peptides with analyte injection amounts as small as 750 ng; the separations are accomplished in less than 10 min and individual NMR spectra are acquired with 12 s time resolution. Stopped-flow NMR is achieved by diversion of the chromatographic flow after observation of the beginning of the analyte band within the NMR flow cell. Isolation of the compound of interest within the NMR detection cell allows multidimensional experiments to be performed. A stopped-flow COSY spectrum of the peptide Phe-Ala is acquired in 3.5 h with an injected amount of 5 micrograms.

  16. Experimental, DFT and molecular docking studies on 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    A new coumarin derivative 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol (COMSB) was synthesized and characterized with the help of 1H,13C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and mass spectrometry. All quantum calculations were performed at DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d,p) as basis set. The UV-Vis spectrum studied by TD-DFT theory, with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) in solvent phase gives similar pattern of bands, at energies and is consistent with that of experimental findings. The detailed analysis of vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra and their assignments has been done by computing Potential Energy Distribution (PED) using Gar2ped. Intra-molecular interactions were analyzed by 'Atoms in molecule' (AIM) approach. Computed first static hyperpolarizability (β0 = 8.583 × 10-30 esu) indicates non-linear optical (NLO) response of the molecule. Molecular docking studies show that the title molecule may act as potential acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor.

  17. Magnesium cinnamate complex, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n; structural, spectroscopic, thermal, biological and pharmacokinetical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszyńska-Tuszkanow, Mariola; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Grabowski, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Maciejewska, Gabriela; Adach, Anna; Kucharska-Ziembicka, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Cieślak-Golonka, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The composition and structure of the magnesium complex with cinnamic acid, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n(1), were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction data, IR, NMR spectroscopies, thermal and mass spectrometry analysis. Magnesium cinnamate complex, like the isostructural cobalt(II) species reported in the literature, appears to belong to the group of coordination polymers forming layered solids with pseudooctahedral coordination around the metal centre and Osbnd Csbnd O bridging units. The vibrational assignments of the experimental spectra of the complex (1) were performed on the basis of the DFT results obtained for the [Mg(cinn)4(H2O)2]2- ion, serving as a model. The complex was found to exhibit a very low cytotoxicity against neoplastic: A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), P388 (murine leukemia) and normal BALB3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In silico pharmacokinetical parameter calculations for (1) and seven known magnesium complexes with carboxylic acids: lactic, malic, glutamic, hydroaspartic and aspartic allowed for comparison of their potential bioavailability. Magnesium cinnamate complex appeared to exhibit a superior lipophilic property that suggests an optimal pharmacokinetics profile.

  18. In situ analysis of peptidyl DOPA in mussel byssus using rotational-echo double-resonance NMR.

    PubMed

    Klug, C A; Burzio, L A; Waite, J H; Schaefer, J

    1996-09-01

    Rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) 13C NMR spectra with 2H dephasing have been obtained from plaques and threads from the byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis labeled by sea-water exposure to L-[ring-4-(13)C]tyrosine and L-[ring-d4]tyrosine for 2 days. Specific isotopic enrichment of tyrosine in protein reached 25% in both 13C and 2H. Fifteen percent of the total 13C label was incorporated as diphenolic carbon. Based on REDOR dephasing, about one-tenth of tyrosine rings in both intact plaques and threads are within 4 A of each other or rings of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA). However, there is no direct evidence for the formation of covalent linkages between or among tyrosine and DOPA rings in either plaques or threads.

  19. Two dimensional NMR and NMR relaxation studies of coal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project and summarizes the accomplishments for the project period. Four major areas of inquiry have been pursued. Advanced solid state NMR methods are being developed to assay the distribution of the various important functional groups in coals that determine the reactivity of coals. Other methods are being developed which will also determine how these functional groups are linked together. A third area of investigation concerns how molecular mobility in coals impacts NMR relaxation times, which is important for interpretation of such data in terms of the mobile phase in coal models. Along the same lines the author are also using these studies to establish protocols for obtaining the best quantitative response from coals in solid state C-13 NMR spectra. The effects of very high MAS rates (>10 kHz) on cross polarization dynamics are also being investigated for similar reasons. During the last quarter the authors has concentrated on improvements in cross polarization (CP) sequences with a goal of making the CP process insensitive to experimental conditions such as the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. It has been found that the usual theories of CP are incorrect, and that the CP process is very heterogeneous in nature. This has significant implications on methods typically used in quantifying {sup 13}C CPMAS spectra of coals. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  20. NMR-Profiles of Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Bill; Serrano, Pedro; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Geralt, Michael; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    NMR-Profiles are quantitative one-dimensional presentations of two-dimensional [15N,1H]-correlation spectra used to monitor the quality of protein solutions prior to and during NMR structure determinations and functional studies. In our current use in structural genomics projects, a NMR-Profile is recorded at the outset of a structure determination, using a uniformly 15N-labeled micro-scale sample of the protein. We thus assess the extent to which polypeptide backbone resonance assignments can be achieved with given NMR techniques, for example, conventional triple resonance experiments or APSY-NMR. With the availability of sequence-specific polypeptide backbone resonance assignments in the course of the structure determination, an “Assigned NMR-Profile” is generated, which visualizes the variation of the 15N–1H correlation cross peak intensities along the sequence and thus maps the sequence locations of polypeptide segments for which the NMR line shapes are affected by conformational exchange or other processes. The Assigned NMR-Profile provides a guiding reference during later stages of the structure determination, and is of special interest for monitoring the protein during functional studies, where dynamic features may be modulated during physiological functions. PMID:23839514

  1. Observation of the pi...H hydrogen-bonded ternary complex, (C(2)H(4))(2)H(2)O, using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew G K; Lewars, Errol G; Parnis, J Mark

    2005-10-27

    FTIR absorption spectra of water-containing ethene:Ar matrices, with compositions of ethene up to 1:10 ethene:Ar, have been recorded. Systematically increasing the concentration of ethene reveals features in the spectra consistent with the known 1:1 ethene:water complex, which subsequently disappear on further increase in ethene concentration. At high concentrations of ethene, new features are observed at 3669 and 3585 cm(-1), which are red-shifted with respect to matrix-isolated nu(3) and nu(1) O-H stretching modes of water and the 1:1 ethene:water complex. These shifts are consistent with a pi...H interaction of a 2:1 ethene:water complex of the form (C(2)H(4)...H-O-H...C(2)H(4)). The analogous (C(2)D(4))(2)H(2)O complex shows little shifting from positions associated with (C(2)H(4))(2)H(2)O, while the (C(2)H(4))(2)D(2)O isotopomer shows large shifts to 2722.3 and 2617.2 cm(-1), having identical nu(3)(H(2)O)/nu(3)(D(2)O) and nu(1)(H(2)O)/nu(1)(D(2)O) values when compared with monomeric water isotopomers. Features at 3626.1 and 2666.2 cm(-1) are also observed and are attributed to (C(2)H(4))(2)HDO. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for each isotopomer are presented, and the predicted vibrational frequencies are directly compared with experimental values. The interaction energy for the formation of the 2:1 ethene:water complex from the 1:1 ethene:water complex is also presented.

  2. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  3. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  4. GEL-STATE NMR OF BALL-MILLED WHOLE CELL WALLS IN DMSO-d6 USING 2D SOLUTION-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls were used for obtaining 2D solution-state NMR spectra without actual solubilization or structural modification. Ball-milled whole cell walls were swelled directly in the NMR tube with DMSO-d6 where they formed a gel. There are relatively few gel-state NMR studies. Most have involved...

  5. MetaboQuant: a tool combining individual peak calibration and outlier detection for accurate metabolite quantification in 1D (1)H and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Oefner, Peter J; Gronwald, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used to analyze complex mixtures of organic compounds such as biological fluids and tissue extracts. Targeted profiling approaches with reliable compound quantitifcation are hampered, however, by signal overlap and other interferences. Here, we present a tool named MetaboQuant for automated compound quantification from pre-processed 1D and 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectral data and concomitant validation of results. Performance of MetaboQuant was tested on a urinary spike-in data set and compared with other quantification strategies. The use of individual calibration factors in combination with the validation algorithms of MetaboQuant raises the reliability of the quantification results. MetaboQuant can be downloaded at http://genomics.uni-regensburg.de/site/institute/software/metaboquant/ as stand-alone software for Windows or run on other operating systems from within Matlab. Separate software for peak fitting and integration is necessary in order to use MetaboQuant.

  6. Physical and spectroscopic properties of pure C2H4 and CH4:C2H4 ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molpeceres, Germán; Satorre, Miguel Angel; Ortigoso, Juan; Zanchet, Alexandre; Luna, Ramón; Millán, Carlos; Escribano, Rafael; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J.; Maté, Belén

    2017-04-01

    Physical and spectroscopic properties of ices of C2H4 and CH4:C2H4 mixtures with 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 ratios have been investigated at 30 K. Two laboratories are involved in this work. In one of them, the density and refractive index of the samples have been measured by using a cryogenic quartz microbalance and laser interferometric techniques. In the other one, IR spectra have been recorded in the near- and mid-infrared regions, and band shifts with respect to the pure species, band strengths of the main bands, and the optical constants in both regions have been determined. Previous data on ethylene and the mixtures studied here were scarce. For methane, both the wavenumbers and band strengths have been found to follow a regular pattern of decrease with increasing dilution, but no pattern has been detected for ethylene vibrations. The method employed for the preparation of the samples, by vapour deposition under vacuum, is thought to be adequate to mimic the structure of astrophysical ices. Possible astrophysical implications, especially by means of the optical constants reported here, have been discussed.

  7. Characterization of Surfactant Water Systems by X-Ray Scattering and 2H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Michael C.

    Aqueous solutions of surfactants not only have important applications as de- tergents, in food and cosmetic products, in oil recovery and drug delivery [1] but are now becoming important as a medium for the templating of nanostruc- tured materials [2-7]. Surfactants are molecules which possess two different moieties; a hydrophobic moiety and a hydrophilic moiety [8] and typically have dimensions in the range 1 to 10 nm. At very low concentrations in aque- ous solution they exist as individual molecules but above the critical micellar concentration and Krafft temperature they self assemble to form micelles. At such low concentrations interactions between the micelles are negligible and generally they will have a spherical shape whose radius is determined by the length of the hydrophobic tail. However as the concentration of surfactant is increased, micelles can become non-spherical (rod or disk shaped) and the in- teractions between them become significant. In fact within these systems there are two important interactions determining structure; inter-molecular inter- actions (both head and tail groups) which to a large extent determine the aggregate size and shape and inter-aggregate interactions which can influence aggregate size and shape but more importantly can determine phase structure. These interactions can easily become strong enough to promote macroscopic order and can lead to the formation of a sequence of ordered mesophases hav- ing length scales in the range 3 to 200 nm typically. One of the key properties of these mesophases is that they divide space into two regions; hydrophobic and hydrophilic, making them ideal for templating media.

  8. Development of a dual cell, flow-injection sample holder, and NMR probe for comparative ligand-binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardsen, Thorsten; Hofmann, Martin; Hollander, Johan G.; Loch, Caroline M. P.; Kiihne, Suzanne R.; Engelke, Frank; Siegal, Gregg

    2006-09-01

    NMR based ligand screening is becoming increasingly important for the very early stages of drug discovery. We have proposed a method that makes highly efficient use of a single sample of a scarce target, or one with poor or limited solubility, to screen an entire compound library. This comparative method is based on immobilizing the target for the screening procedure. In order to support the method, a dual cell, flow injection probe with a single receiver coil has been constructed. The flow injection probe has been mated to a single high performance pump and sample handling system to enable the automated analysis of large numbers of compound mixes for binding to the target. The probe, having an 8 mm 1H/ 2H dual tuned coil and triple axis gradients, is easily shimmed and yields NMR spectra of comparable quality to a standard 5 mm high-resolution probe. The lineshape in the presence of a solid support is identical to that in glass NMR tubes in a 5 mm probe. Control spectra of each cell are identical and well separated, while ligand binding in a complex mixture can be readily detected in 20-30 min, thus paving the way for use of the probe for actual drug discovery efforts.

  9. Tautomerism in o-hydroxyanilino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives: Structure, NMR, HPLC and density functional theoretic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhand, Sujit; Patil, Rishikesh; Shinde, Yogesh; Lande, Dipali N.; Rao, Soniya S.; Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-11-01

    Structure and spectral characteristics of 'Ortho' ((E)-4-hydroxy-2-(2‧-(4‧-R)-hydroxyphenyl)-imino)-naphthalen-1(2H)-one) and 'para' (2-(2‧-(4‧-R)-hydroxyphenyl)-amino)-1,4-naphthoquinone) tautomers of o-hydroxyanilino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (Rdbnd H, 1A; sbnd CH3, 2A; and -Cl, 3A) are investigated using the 1H, 13C, DEPT, gDQCOSY, gHSQCAD NMR, HPLC, cyclic voltammetry techniques combined with the density functional theory. The compound 2A crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c. wherein the polymer chain is facilitated via Osbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Marginal variations in bond distances in quinonoid and aminophenol moieties render structural flexibility to these compounds those in solution exist as exist in 'ortho - para' tautomers. 1H and 13C NMR spectra in DMSO-d6 showed two sets of peaks in all compounds; whereas only the para tautomer of for 1A and 2A, the para tautomer is predominant in CD3CN solution. Further the ortho-para interconversion is accompanied by a large up-field signals for C(3)sbnd H(3) in their 1H and 13C NMR spectra. These inferences are corroborated by the density functional theoretic calculations.

  10. Distinguishing Bicontinuous Lipid Cubic Phases from Isotropic Membrane Morphologies Using 31P Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Nonlamellar lipid membranes are frequently induced by proteins that fuse, bend, and cut membranes. Understanding the mechanism of action of these proteins requires the elucidation of the membrane morphologies that they induce. While hexagonal phases and lamellar phases are readily identified by their characteristic solid-state NMR lineshapes, bicontinuous lipid cubic phases are more difficult to discern, since the static NMR spectra of cubic-phase lipids consist of an isotropic 31P or 2H peak, indistinguishable from the spectra of isotropic membrane morphologies such as micelles and small vesicles. To date, small-angle X-ray scattering is the only method to identify bicontinuous lipid cubic phases. To explore unique NMR signatures of lipid cubic phases, we first describe the orientation distribution of lipid molecules in cubic phases and simulate the static 31P chemical shift lineshapes of oriented cubic-phase membranes in the limit of slow lateral diffusion. We then show that 31P T2 relaxation times differ significantly between isotropic micelles and cubic-phase membranes: the latter exhibit two-orders-of magnitude shorter T2 relaxation times. These differences are explained by the different timescales of lipid lateral diffusion on the cubic-phase surface versus the timescales of micelle tumbling. Using this relaxation NMR approach, we investigated a DOPE membrane containing the transmembrane domain (TMD) of a viral fusion protein. The static 31P spectrum of DOPE shows an isotropic peak, whose T2 relaxation times correspond to that of a cubic phase. Thus, the viral fusion protein TMD induces negative Gaussian curvature, which is an intrinsic characteristic of cubic phases, to the DOPE membrane. This curvature induction has important implications to the mechanism of virus-cell fusion. This study establishes a simple NMR diagnostic probe of lipid cubic phases, which is expected to be useful for studying many protein-induced membrane remodeling phenomena in biology

  11. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-06-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t/sub 0/; an evolution period, t/sub 1/; and a detection period, t/sub 2/.

  12. Magic angle spinning NMR of proteins: high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization and (1)H detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Yongchao; Andreas, Loren; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of amyloid and membrane proteins and large macromolecular complexes are an important new approach to structural biology. However, the applicability of these experiments, which are based on (13)C- and (15)N-detected spectra, would be enhanced if the sensitivity were improved. Here we discuss two advances that address this problem: high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and (1)H-detected MAS techniques. DNP is a sensitivity enhancement technique that transfers the high polarization of exogenous unpaired electrons to nuclear spins via microwave irradiation of electron-nuclear transitions. DNP boosts NMR signal intensities by factors of 10(2) to 10(3), thereby overcoming NMR's inherent low sensitivity. Alternatively, it permits structural investigations at the nanomolar scale. In addition, (1)H detection is feasible primarily because of the development of MAS rotors that spin at frequencies of 40 to 60 kHz or higher and the preparation of extensively (2)H-labeled proteins.

  13. Solid state 19F NMR parameters of fluorine-labeled amino acids. Part I: Aromatic substituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Ulrich H. N.; Grage, Stephan L.; Witter, Raiker; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2008-03-01

    Structural parameters of peptides and proteins in biomembranes can be directly measured by solid state NMR of selectively labeled amino acids. The 19F nucleus is a promising label to overcome the low sensitivity of 2H, 13C or 15N, and to serve as a background-free reporter group in biological compounds. To make the advantages of solid state 19F NMR fully available for structural studies of polypeptides, we have systematically measured the chemical shift anisotropies and relaxation properties of the most relevant aromatic and aliphatic 19F-labeled amino acids. In this first part of two consecutive contributions, six different 19F-substituents on representative aromatic side chains were characterized as polycrystalline powders by static and MAS experiments. The data are also compared with results on the same amino acids incorporated in synthetic peptides. The spectra show a wide variety of lineshapes, from which the principal values of the CSA tensors were extracted. In addition, temperature-dependent T1 and T2 relaxation times were determined by 19F NMR in the solid state, and isotropic chemical shifts and scalar couplings were obtained in solution.

  14. NMR studies of oriented molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, S.W.

    1981-11-01

    Deuterium and proton magnetic resonance are used in experiments on a number of compounds which either form liquid crystal mesophases themselves or are dissolved in a liquid crystal solvent. Proton multiple quantum NMR is used to simplify complicated spectra. The theory of nonselective multiple quantum NMR is briefly reviewed. Benzene dissolved in a liquid crystal are used to demonstrate several outcomes of the theory. Experimental studies include proton and deuterium single quantum (..delta..M = +-1) and proton multiple quantum spectra of several molecules which contain the biphenyl moiety. 4-Cyano-4'-n-pentyl-d/sub 11/-biphenyl (5CB-d/sub 11/) is studied as a pure compound in the nematic phase. The obtained chain order parameters and dipolar couplings agree closely with previous results. Models for the effective symmetry of the biphenyl group in 5CB-d/sub 11/ are tested against the experimental spectra. The dihedral angle, defined by the planes containing the rings of the biphenyl group, is found to be 30 +- 2/sup 0/ for 5DB-d/sub 11/. Experiments are also described for 4,4'-d/sub 2/-biphenyl, 4,4' - dibromo-biphenyl, and unsubstituted biphenyl.

  15. Increasing the quantitative bandwidth of NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Power, J E; Foroozandeh, M; Adams, R W; Nilsson, M; Coombes, S R; Phillips, A R; Morris, G A

    2016-02-18

    The frequency range of quantitative NMR is increased from tens to hundreds of kHz by a new pulse sequence, CHORUS. It uses chirp pulses to excite uniformly over very large bandwidths, yielding accurate integrals even for nuclei such as (19)F that have very wide spectra.

  16. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  17. Cometary implications of recent laboratory experiments on the photochemistry of the C2H and C3H2 radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.; Song, Xueyu; Gosine, Jai; Lu, Chi

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results on the photodissociation of the C2H and C3H2 radicals are described. These studies show that the C2 and C3 radicals are produced by the 193 nm photolysis of the C2H and C3H2 radicals, respectively. The quantum state distributions that were determined for the C2 radicals put certain constraints on the initial conditions for any models of the observed C2 cometary spectra. Experimental observations of C2 formed by the 212.8 nm photolysis of C2H are used to calculate a range of photochemical lifetimes for the C2H radical.

  18. Spectroscopic Line Parameters in the Infrared Bands of CH3CN and C2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, measurements of critical spectroscopic line parameters such as positions, absolute intensities and pressure broadened (self- and N2) half-width coefficients for transitions in the ν4 band of CH3CN (acetonitile, ethanenitrile, methyl cyanide) and the ν9 band of C2H6 (ethane) are presented. CH3CN has been measured by remote sensing in the earth's atmosphere, in comets and in interstellar molecular clouds. It is also a constituent in the atmospheres of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Likewise, C2H6 is also an important constituent in the atmosphere of earth, the giant planets and comets. The 12- μm(˜720-850 cm-1) emission features of this molecule have been observed in spectra from outer solar system bodies of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Titan. Because of their importance in remote sensing measurements, we recently recorded and analyzed a large number of laboratory infrared absorption spectra of pure and N2-broadened spectra of both these molecular bands. Spectra used in these analyses were recorded using either the Bruker IFS 125HR or the Bruker IFS 120HR FTS located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in Richland Washington. To retrieve the various spectral line parameters, a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm was employed and all spectra belonging to each band were fitted simultaneously. Using this fitting technique, the same spectral regions from multiple spectra were fit all at once to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The results obtained from present analyses are briefly discussed. In the case of C2H6 both room- and low temperature (˜210-296 K) spectra were recorded, but results from analyzing only room-temperature spectra will be discussed in this work.

  19. An optical NMR spectrometer for Larmor-beat detection and high-resolution POWER NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, J. G.; Marohn, J. A.; Carson, P. J.; Shykind, D. A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Miller, M. A.; Weitekamp, D. P.

    2008-06-01

    Optical nuclear magnetic resonance (ONMR) is a powerful probe of electronic properties in III-V semiconductors. Larmor-beat detection (LBD) is a sensitivity optimized, time-domain NMR version of optical detection based on the Hanle effect. Combining LBD ONMR with the line-narrowing method of POWER (perturbations observed with enhanced resolution) NMR further enables atomically detailed views of local electronic features in III-Vs. POWER NMR spectra display the distribution of resonance shifts or line splittings introduced by a perturbation, such as optical excitation or application of an electric field, that is synchronized with a NMR multiple-pulse time-suspension sequence. Meanwhile, ONMR provides the requisite sensitivity and spatial selectivity to isolate local signals within macroscopic samples. Optical NMR, LBD, and the POWER method each introduce unique demands on instrumentation. Here, we detail the design and implementation of our system, including cryogenic, optical, and radio-frequency components. The result is a flexible, low-cost system with important applications in semiconductor electronics and spin physics. We also demonstrate the performance of our systems with high-resolution ONMR spectra of an epitaxial AlGaAs /GaAs heterojunction. NMR linewidths down to 4.1Hz full width at half maximum were obtained, a 103-fold resolution enhancement relative any previous optically detected NMR experiment.

  20. On-line NMR detection of microgram quantities of heparin-derived oligosaccharides and their structure elucidation by microcoil NMR.

    PubMed

    Korir, Albert K; Larive, Cynthia K

    2007-08-01

    The isolation and purification of sufficient quantities of heparin-derived oligosaccharides for characterization by NMR is a tedious and time-consuming process. In addition, the structural complexity and microheterogeneity of heparin makes its characterization a challenging task. The improved mass-sensitivity of microcoil NMR probe technology makes this technique well suited for characterization of mass-limited heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Although microcoil probes have poorer concentration sensitivity than conventional NMR probes, this limitation can be overcome by coupling capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) with on-line microcoil NMR detection (cITP-NMR). Strategies to improve the sensitivity of on-line NMR detection through changes in probe design and in the cITP-NMR experimental protocol are discussed. These improvements in sensitivity allow acquisition of cITP-NMR survey spectra facilitating tentative identification of unknown oligosaccharides. Complete structure elucidation for microgram quantities of the purified material can be carried out through acquisition of 2D NMR spectra using a CapNMR microcoil probe.

  1. Hyperfine excitation of N2H+ by H2: towards a revision of N2H+ abundance in cold molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, François; Daniel, Fabien; Pagani, Laurent; Feautrier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of emission spectra of molecules seen in interstellar clouds requires the knowledge of collisional rate coefficients. Among the commonly observed species, N2H+ is of particular interest since it was shown to be a good probe of the physical conditions of cold molecular clouds. Thus, we have calculated hyperfine-structure-resolved excitation rate coefficients of N2H+(X1Σ+) by H2(j = 0), the most abundant collisional partner in the cold interstellar medium. The calculations are based on a new potential energy surface, obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations. State-to-state rate coefficients between the first hyperfine levels were calculated, for temperatures ranging from 5 to 70 K. By comparison with previously published N2H+-He rate coefficients, we found significant differences which cannot be reproduced by a simple scaling relationship. As a first application, we also performed radiative transfer calculations, for physical conditions typical of cold molecular clouds. We found that the simulated line intensities significantly increase when using the new H2 rate coefficients, by comparison with the predictions based on the He rate coefficients. In particular, we revisited the modelling of the N2H+ emission in the LDN 183 core, using the new collisional data, and found that all three of the density, gas kinetic temperature and N2H+ abundance had to be revised.

  2. NMR analysis of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is usually analyzed by the various methods called for in standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is not one of these methods. However, NMR, with 1H-NMR commonly applied, can be useful in a variety of applications related to biodiesel. These include monit...

  3. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic properties and DFT studies on some 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-(arylazo)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one and their complexes with some divalent transition metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Latif, Samir A.; Mohamed, Adel A.

    2017-04-01

    A novel 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-(p-tolylazo)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) (L1) and 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-(p-anisylazo)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) (L2) and their metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and mass spectra. The solid complexes have been also characterized by thermal analyses (TG and DTA), magnetic measurements, electronic transition, molar conductance; mass spectra, and electron spin resonance (ESR). The molecular orbital calculations of the complexes have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) method and the basis sets 6-31G* and 6-311G**. The computational results revealed that the proposed geometrical structures for the investigated metal complexes suggest trigonal bipyramid for 1:1 and tetrahedral geometry for 1:2 complexes. The 1:1 complexes contain coordinated and lattice held water molecules whereas 1:2 complexes contain only lattice water molecules. The complexes behave as non-electrolytes in dimethyl formamide (DMF).

  4. Synthesis of new oxadiazole, pyrazole and pyrazolin-5-one bearing 2-((4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)acetohydrazide analogs as potential antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, M; Bheemaraju, G; Manjunath, G; Venkata Ramana, P

    2016-01-01

    Two series of diversely substituted phenyldiazenyl(2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetyl)3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole 11a-g and phenyldiazenyl-1-(2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-4-chromen-7-yloxy)acetyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4)H-one 12a-j were synthesized. All these compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, mass spectra and elemental analyses. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and screened for antifungal activity against A. niger, U. maydis. The compounds showed moderate to very good antibacterial activities.

  5. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR spectra, molecular structure, ESP, NBO and HOMO-LUMO investigation of 2-methylpyridine 1-oxide: a combined experimental and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Shoba, D; Periandi, S; Boomadevi, S; Ramalingam, S; Fereyduni, E

    2014-01-24

    In this paper, the equilibrium geometry, bonding features, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C chemical shift values, molecular electrostatic potential maps, HOMO-LUMO energies and several thermodynamic parameters of title compound in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional method with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 2-methylpyridine 1-oxide was reported. Furthermore, natural bond orbitals were performed in this work. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental values.

  6. Phase separation in ceramide[NP] containing lipid model membranes: neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Annett; Stahlberg, Sören; Školová, Barbora; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Eichner, Adina; Huster, Daniel; Vávrová, Kateřina; Hauß, Thomas; Dobner, Bodo; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Vogel, Alexander

    2017-03-08

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin and protects the organism against external influences as well as water loss. It consists of corneocytes embedded in a mixture of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol in a molar ratio of roughly 1 : 1 : 1. The unique structural and compositional arrangement of these stratum corneum lipids is responsible for the skin barrier properties. Many studies investigated the organization of these barrier lipids and, in particular, the exact conformation of ceramides. However, so far no consensus has been reached. In this study, we investigate a model system comprised of N-(non-hydroxy-tetracosanoyl)-phytosphingosine/cholesterol/tetracosanoic acid (CER[NP]-C24/CHOL/TA) at a 1 : 1 : 1 molar ratio using neutron diffraction and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy at temperatures from 25 °C to 80 °C. Deuterated variants of all three lipid components of the model system were used to enable their separate investigation in the NMR spectra and quantification of the amount of molecules in each phase. Neutron scattering experiments show the coexistence of two lipid phases at low temperatures with repeat spacings of 54.2 Å and 43.0 Å at a physiological skin temperature of 32 °C. They appear to be indistinguishable in the (2)H NMR spectra as both phases are crystalline and ceramide molecules do not rotate around their long axis on a microsecond timescale. The evolution of these phases upon heating is followed and with increasing temperature fluid and even isotropically mobile molecules are observed. A model of the organization of the lamellar phases is proposed in which the thicker phase consists of CER[NP]-C24 in a hairpin conformation mixed with CHOL and TA, while the phase with a repeat spacing of 43.0 Å contains CER[NP]-C24 in a V-shape conformation.

  7. Deuterium incorporation in biomass cell wall components by NMR analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B; McGaughey, Joseph; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Evans, Barbara R; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2012-01-01

    A commercially available deuterated kale sample was analyzed for deuterium incorporation by ionic liquid solution 2H and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This protocol was found to effectively measure the percent deuterium incorporation at 33%, comparable to the 31% value determined by combustion. The solution NMR technique also suggested by a qualitative analysis that deuterium is preferentially incorporated into the carbohydrate components of the kale sample.

  8. Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that emphasizes the interpretation of both infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in the elucidation of the structure of an unknown compound was developed. The method helps students determine [to the first power]H- and [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR spectra from the structures of compounds and to…

  9. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D [Berkeley, CA; Budinger, Thomas F [Berkeley, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  10. a Study of Molecular Dynamics in Water-Cellulose Systems Using NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waana, Charles Musannyana

    This thesis presents the application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to the study of the water dynamics in water-cellulose systems. Both H_2O and D_2O were used in polycrystalline Sigmacell 50 cellulose and in cellulose acetate films. Both the spectral lineshapes and various spin relaxation times were studied as functions of temperature and moisture content of the samples. ^1H and ^2 H NMR spectra of rm H_2O and rm D_2O absorbed in cellulose acetate films were observed while changing the angle between the plane of the film and the static magnetic field. ^1H-NMR spectra show dipolar splittings that vary depending on the angle. The splitting has a maximum when the surface of the film is perpendicular to the magnetic field. From the angular dependence of the dipolar splittings, it is deduced that the motionally averaged axis of the dipole moments is perpendicular to the film surface. ^2H NMR spectra show quadrupolar splittings which indicate that the motionally averaged axis of the electric quadrupole interaction is oriented perpendicular to the film. A number of NMR parameters were determined as a function of moisture content at 20^circ C for water adsorbed on Sigmacell 50 cellulose. The NMR parameters indicate that the cellulose swells as the water is added. Ninety-two percent of the cellulose is in crystalline domains and undergoes very little swelling indicating that it is largely inaccessible to water, whereas the remaining 8% is in paracrystalline or amorphous domains which are accessible to water and undergo considerable swelling. A three state model is applied for the protons in these samples, consisting of cellulose protons, water in intimate contact with these cellulose portons, and water which is not in intimate contact. Exchange and/or cross relaxation occurs between the three different proton groups. All the data are consistent with this model. An NMR relaxation study of water dynamics in hydrated Sigmacell 50 cellulose and cellulose acetate films has

  11. Cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, V.; Kendrick, R.; Yannoni, C. S.

    A magic angle spinning (MAS) apparatus which can be used for high resolution solid state NMR at temperatures as low as 15 K is described. To demonstrate the utility of this apparatus, 13C spectra of molecules containing methyl groups have been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. The spectra, which are described in detail, provide direct evidence for the slowdown of methyl rotation.

  12. Inequality spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  13. Smoothed orientational order profile of lipid bilayers by 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, M; Fine, B; Sternin, E; Cullis, P R; Bloom, M

    1989-01-01

    A new method has been developed to determine the complete orientational order profile of lipid bilayers using 2H-NMR. The profile is obtained from a single powder spectrum of a lipid which has a saturated chain fully deuteriated. The smoothed order profile is determined directly from the normalized dePaked spectrum assuming a monotonic decrease of the order along the acyl chain. The oscillatory variations of the order at the beginning of the chain are not described by this method. However the smoothed order profile reveals in a straightforward way the crucial features of the anisotropic order of the bilayer. PMID:2605294

  14. NMR study of a membrane protein in detergent-free aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Zoonens, Manuela; Catoire, Laurent J.; Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to membrane protein (MP) structural studies is the destabilizing effect of detergents. Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents to keep MPs water-soluble under mild conditions. In the present work, we have explored the feasibility of studying the structure of APol-complexed MPs by NMR. As a test MP, we chose the 171-residue transmembrane domain of outer MP A from Escherichia coli (tOmpA), whose x-ray and NMR structures in detergent are known. 2H,15N-labeled tOmpA was produced as inclusion bodies, refolded in detergent solution, trapped with APol A8-35, and the detergent removed by adsorption onto polystyrene beads. The resolution of transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy–heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectra of tOmpA/A8-35 complexes was found to be close to that of the best spectra obtained in detergent solutions. The dispersion of chemical shifts indicated that the protein had regained its native fold and retained it during the exchange of surfactants. MP–APol interactions were mapped by substituting hydrogenated for deuterated A8-35. The resulting dipolar broadening of amide proton linewidths was found to be limited to the β-barrel region of tOmpA, indicating that A8-35 binds specifically to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of the protein. The potential of this approach to MP studies by solution NMR is discussed. PMID:15956183

  15. Association reactions at low pressure. III. The C2H2+/C2H2 system.

    PubMed

    Anicich, V G; Sen, A D; Huntress, W T; McEwan, M J

    1990-11-15

    The association reactions, C4H2(+) + C2H2 and C4H3(+) + C2H2 have been examined at pressures between 8 x 10(-8) and 1 x 10(-4) Torr at 298 K in an ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Association occurred via two different mechanisms. At pressures below approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, the association was bimolecular having rate coefficients k2 = 2.7 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 and 2.0 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively. At pressures above approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, termolecular association was observed with rate coefficients, k3 = 5.7 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 and 1.3 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively, when M = C2H2. The termolecular rate constants with N2, Ar, Ne, and He as the third body, M, are also reported. We propose that the low pressure bimolecular association process was the result of radiative stabilization of the complex and the termolecular association process was the result of collisional stabilization. Elementary rate coefficients were obtained and the lifetime of the collision complex was > or = 57 microseconds for (C6H4+)* and > or = 18 microseconds for (C6H5+)*. At pressures below 1 x 10(-6) Torr, approximately 11% of the (C6H4+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 89% reverted back to reactants, while approximately 24% of the (C6H5+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 76% reverted back to reactants. The ionic products of the C2H2(+) + C2H2 reaction, C4H2+ and C4H3+, were found to be formed with enough internal energy that they did not react by the radiative association channel until relaxed by several nonreactive collisions with the bath gas.

  16. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, M.; Kasuga, K.

    1980-06-01

    The NMR spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III) complexes (La, Nd, Sm, and Eu) have been examined. An effect of a macrocyclic-ring current and induced shift caused by lanthanide (III) ions were discussed.

  17. N2H(+) in the Orion ambient ridge - Cloud clumping versus rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The IRAM 30-m telescope is used to obtain spectra of the J = 1 yields 0 transition of N2H(+) over a 2 x 2 arcsec area toward the Orion-KL/IRc2 star-forming region with 26-arcsec angular resolution. The N2H(+) emission, which exclusively traces the ridge gas, exhibits multiple radial velocities which appear to arise from the presence of at least four clouds of quiescent material. It is argued that the velocity structure of N2H(+) does not uniformly change across OMC-1 and, consequently, is inconsistent with the presence of large-scale differential rotation of the extended ridge along the SW-NE axis about IRc2. The coincidence of the two larger clouds with star-forming activity in Orion-KL suggests that either the quiescent gas is being pushed apart or that the star formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud interaction.

  18. Application of chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-2H1)glucose to conformational studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deuterated sugars are widely used to elucidate mechanisms of biosynthesis and of chemical reactions, and to confirm assignments of complex NMR or mass spectra. To date, however, there are few reported syntheses for regio and stereospecifically deuterated pyranoses. Chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-**2...

  19. Portable microcoil NMR detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Joana; Adams, Kristl L; Klunder, Gregory L; Evans, Lee; Steele, Paul; Vogt, Carla; Herberg, Julie L

    2011-02-15

    High-efficiency separation techniques, such as capillary electrophoresis (CE), coupled to a nondestructive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer offer the ability to separate, chemically identify, and provide structural information on analytes in small sample volumes. Previous CE-NMR coupled systems utilized laboratory-scale NMR magnets and spectrometers, which require very long separation capillaries. New technological developments in electronics have reduced the size of the NMR system, and small 1-2 T permanent magnets provide the possibilities of a truly portable NMR. The microcoils used in portable and laboratory-scale NMR may offer the advantage of improved mass sensitivity because the limit of detection (LOD) is proportional to the coil diameter. In this work, CE is coupled with a portable, briefcase-sized NMR system that incorporates a microcoil probe and a 1.8 T permanent magnet to measure (19)F NMR spectra. Separations of fluorinated molecules are demonstrated with stopped- and continuous-flow NMR detection. The results demonstrate that coupling CE to a portable NMR instrument is feasible and can provide a low-cost method to obtain structural information on microliter samples. An LOD of 31.8 nmol for perfluorotributylamine with a resolution of 4 ppm has been achieved with this system.

  20. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-03-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference.

  1. Reactions of Fe+ and FeO+ with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6: temperature-dependent kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ard, Shaun G; Melko, Joshua J; Fournier, Joseph A; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A

    2013-10-10

    We present the first temperature-dependent rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of Fe(+) and FeO(+) with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 from 170 to 700 K. Fe(+) is observed to react only by association with the three hydrocarbons, with temperature dependencies of T(-2) to T(-3). FeO(+) reacts with C2H2 and C2H4 at the collision rate over the temperature range, and their respective product branchings show similar temperature dependences. In contrast, the reaction with ethane is collisional at 170 K but varies as T(-0.5), while the product branching remains essentially flat with temperature. These variations in reactivity are discussed in terms of the published reactive potential surfaces. The effectiveness of Fe(+) as an oxygen-transfer catalyst toward the three hydrocarbons is also discussed.

  2. Laboratory IR Studies and Astrophysical Implications of C2H2-Containing Binary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knez, C.; Moore, M.; Ferrante, R.; Hudson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of molecular hot cores and protostellar environments have shown that the observed abundance of gas-phase acetylene (C2H2) cannot be matched by chemical models without the inclusion of C2H2 molecules subliming from icy grain mantles. Searches for infrared (IR) spectral features of solid-phase acetylene are under way, but few laboratory reference spectra of C2H2 in icy mixtures, which are needed for spectral fits to observational data, have been published. Here, we report a systematic study of the IR spectra of condensed-phase pure acetylene and acetylene in ices dominated by carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water (H2O). We present new spectral data for these ices, including band positions and intrinsic band strengths. For each ice mixture and concentration, we also explore the dependence of acetylene's nu5-band position (743 cm-1, 13.46 micrometers) and FWHM on temperature. Our results show that the nu5 feature is much more cleanly resolved in ices dominated by non-polar and low-polarity molecules, specifically CO, CO2, and CH4, than in mixtures dominated by H2O-ice. We compare our laboratory ice spectra with observations of a quiescent region in Serpens.

  3. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  4. Rate constant for the reaction C2H5 + HBr → C2H6 + Br.

    PubMed

    Golden, David M; Peng, Jingping; Goumri, A; Yuan, J; Marshall, Paul

    2012-06-21

    RRKM theory has been employed to analyze the kinetics of the title reaction, in particular, the once-controversial negative activation energy. Stationary points along the reaction coordinate were characterized with coupled cluster theory combined with basis set extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. A shallow minimum, bound by 9.7 kJ mol(-1) relative to C(2)H(5) + HBr, was located, with a very small energy barrier to dissociation to Br + C(2)H(6). The transition state is tight compared to the adduct. The influence of vibrational anharmonicity on the kinetics and thermochemistry of the title reaction were explored quantitatively. With adjustment of the adduct binding energy by ∼4 kJ mol(-1), the computed rate constants may be brought into agreement with most experimental data in the literature, including new room-temperature results described here. There are indications that at temperatures above those studied experimentally, the activation energy may switch from negative to positive.

  5. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  6. Local composition and carrier concentration in Pb0.7Ge0.3Te and Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys from 125Te NMR and microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E. M.; Kramer, M. J.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2014-11-01

    Pb0.7Ge0.3Te and Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys, (i) quenched from 923 K or (ii) quenched and annealed at 573 K for 2 h, have been studied by 125Te NMR, X-ray diffraction, electron and optical microscopy, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy. Depending on the composition and thermal treatment history, 125Te NMR spectra exhibit different resonance frequencies and spin-lattice relaxation times, which can be assigned to different phases in the alloy. Quenched and annealed Pb0.7Ge0.3Te alloys can be considered as solid solutions but are shown by NMR to have components with various carrier concentrations. Quenched and annealed Pb0.5Ge0.5Te alloys contain GeTe- and PbTe-based phases with different compositions and charge carrier concentrations. Based on the analysis of non-exponential 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation, the fractions and carrier concentrations of the various phases have been estimated. Our data show that alloying of PbTe with Ge results in the formation of chemically and electronically inhomogeneous systems. 125Te NMR can be used as an efficient probe to detect the local composition in equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium states, and to determine the local carrier concentrations in complex multiphase tellurides.

  7. Synthesis of 2-Alkenyl-2H-indazoles from 2-(2-Carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huey; Liang, Kung-Yu; Tsai, Chang-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Chun; Hsiao, Hung-Chang; Li, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Chung-Hao; Wu, Hau-Chun

    2016-02-19

    A procedure has been developed for synthesis of 2-alkenyl-2H-indazoles starting from 2-(2-carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles, which are prepared by gallium/aluminium- and aluminium-mediated, direct, regioselective alkylation of indazoles with α-bromocarbonyl compounds. The structure of 3-(2H-indazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one was proven by X-ray crystallography. The styrene- and coumarin-2H-indazoles produced by using the new method were found to have interesting fluorescence properties.

  8. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled (2H3)-, (2H5)-, and (2H8)Methadone

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Hachey, D.L.; Kreek, M.J.; Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-(2H5)methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-(2H3)methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-(2H0)methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-(2H8)methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of (2H0)-, (2H3)-, and (2H5)methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form.

  9. Titan's ionic species: theoretical treatment of N2H+ and related ions.

    PubMed

    Brites, V; Hochlaf, M

    2009-10-22

    We use different ab initio methods to compute the three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the ground state of N(2)H(+). This includes the standard coupled cluster, the complete active space self-consistent field, the internally contacted multi reference configuration interaction, and the newly developed CCSD(T)-F12 methods. For the description of H and N atoms, several basis sets are tested. Then, we incorporate the 3D-PES analytical representations into variational calculations of the rovibrational spectrum of N(2)H(+)(X(1)Sigma(+)) up to 7200 cm(-1) above the zero point vibrational energy. Our data show that the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ approach represents a compromise for good description of the PES and computation cost. This technique is recommended for full dimensional PES generation of atmospheric and astrophysical relevant polyatomic systems. We applied this method to derive the rovibrational spectra of N(2)H(+)(X(1)Sigma(+)) and of N(2)H(++)(X(2)Sigma(+)). Finally, we discuss the existence of the N(2)H(++)(X(2)Sigma(+)) in Titan's atmosphere.

  10. The new face of isotopic NMR at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Joubert, Valentin; Giraudeau, Patrick; Remaud, Gérald S; Akoka, Serge

    2017-02-01

    The most widely used method for isotope analysis at natural abundance is isotope ratio monitoring by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) which provides bulk isotopic composition in (2) H, (13) C, (15) N, (18) O or (34) S. However, in the 1980s, the direct access to Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR(TM) ) was immediately recognized as a powerful technique to authenticate the origin of natural or synthetic products. The initial - and still most popular - application consisted in detecting the chaptalization of wines by irm-(2) H NMR. The approach has been extended to a wide range of methodologies over the last decade, paving the way to a wide range of applications, not only in the field of authentication but also to study metabolism. In particular, the emerging irm-(13) C NMR approach delivers direct access to position-specific (13) C isotope content at natural abundance. After highlighting the application scope of irm-NMR ((2) H and (13) C), this article describes the major improvements which made possible to reach the required accuracy of 1‰ (0.1%) in irm-(13) C NMR. The last part of the manuscript summarizes the different steps to perform isotope analysis as a function of the sample properties (concentration, peak overlap) and the kind of targeted isotopic information (authentication, affiliation). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation leading to heterocyclic structures with two heteroatoms: a highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-4-alkyl-2-alkyl(aryl)idene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines and (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines.

    PubMed

    Kundu, N G; Chaudhuri, G; Upadhyay, A

    2001-01-12

    A highly convenient method has been developed for the synthesis of (Z)-4-alkyl-2-alkyl(aryl)idene-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 9 and (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 34-38 through palladium-copper-catalyzed reactions. Aryl halides 7 reacted with 2-[N-alkyl(benzyl)-N-prop-2'-ynyl]aminophenyl tosylate 6 in the presence of (PPh3)2PdCl2 (3 mol %), CuI(5 mol %) in triethylamine at room temperature to yield 2-[N-alkyl(benzyl)-N-(3-aryl-prop-2'-ynyl)]-aminophenyl tosylates 8 in extremely good yields (72-96%). The latter could then be cyclized with KOH in ethanol-water to Z-9 in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner. Similarly, palladium-copper-catalyzed reaction of 2-(prop-2'-ynyloxy)aniline (21) with aryl iodides 7 led to 22-26 which after tosylation and cyclization with cuprous iodide in CH3CN in the presence of K2CO3 and Bu4-NBr led to the (Z)-3-alkyl(aryl)idene-4-tosyl 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 34-38 in good overall yields. The Z-stereochemistry of the products was established from 1H NMR spectra, 3JCH values (between vinylic proton and methylenic carbon of the heterocyclic ring), NOE experiments, and X-ray analysis. The method was also found to be suitable for the synthesis of bis(benzoxazinylated) derivatives 17, 39, and 2-alkyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines 18. Our method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazines is highly efficacious, using easily available starting materials under very mild conditions. Also the synthesis of some novel 5-substituted uracil derivatives 40 and 41 containing the benzoxazinyl moiety and of potential biological interest is being reported.

  12. Solid-state NMR studies of a diverged microsomal amino-proximate delta12 desaturase peptide reveal causes of stability in bilayer: tyrosine anchoring and arginine snorkeling.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, William J; Karp, Ethan S; Cellar, Nick A; Minto, Robert E; Lorigan, Gary A

    2006-02-15

    This study reports the solid-state NMR spectroscopic characterization of the amino-proximate transmembrane domain (TM-A) of a diverged microsomal delta12-desaturase (CREP-1) in a phospholipid bilayer. A series of TM-A peptides were synthesized with 2H-labeled side chains (Ala-53, -56, and -63, Leu-62, Val-50), and their dynamic properties were studied in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers at various temperatures. At 6 mol % peptide to lipid, 31P NMR spectra indicated that the peptides did not significantly disrupt the phospholipid bilayer in the L(alpha) phase. The 2H NMR spectra from Ala-53 and Ala-56 samples revealed broad Pake patterns with quadrupolar splittings of 16.9 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively, indicating restricted motion confined within the hydrocarbon core of the phospholipid bilayer. Conversely, the deuterated Ala-63 sample revealed a peak centered at 0 kHz with a linewidth of 1.9 kHz, indicating increased side-chain motion and solvent exposure relative to the spectra of the other Ala residues. Val-50 and Leu-62 showed Pake patterns, with quadrupolar splittings of 3.5 kHz and 3.7 kHz, respectively, intermediate to Ala-53/Ala-56 and Ala-63. This indicates partial motional averaging and supports a model with the Val and Leu residues embedded inside the lipid bilayer. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy performed on the 2H-labeled Ala-56 TM-A peptide incorporated into magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers indicated that the peptide is tilted 8 degrees with respect to the membrane normal of the lipid bilayer. Snorkeling and anchoring interactions of Arg-44 and Tyr-60, respectively, with the polar region or polar hydrophobic interface of the lipid bilayer are suggested as control elements for insertional depth and orientation of the helix in the lipid matrix. Thus, this study defines the location of key residues in TM-A with respect to the lipid bilayer, describes the conformation of TM-A in a biomembrane mimic, presents a

  13. 15N and13C NMR investigation of hydroxylamine-derivatized humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Arterburn, J.B.; Mikita, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Five fulvic and humic acid samples of diverse origins were derivatized with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and analyzed by liquid-phase 15N NMR spectrometry. The 15N NMR spectra indicated that hydroxylamine reacted similarly with all samples and could discriminate among carbonyl functional groups. Oximes were the major derivatives; resonances attributable to hydroxamic acids, the reaction products of hydroxylamine with esters, and resonances attributable to the tautomeric equilibrium position between the nitrosophenol and monoxime derivatives of quinones, the first direct spectroscopic evidence for quinones, also were evident. The 15N NMR spectra also suggested the presence of nitriles, oxazoles, oxazolines, isocyanides, amides, and lactams, which may all be explained in terms of Beckmann reactions of the initial oxime derivatives. INEPT and ACOUSTIC 15N NMR spectra provided complementary information on the derivatized samples. 13C NMR spectra of derivatized samples indicated that the ketone/quinone functionality is incompletely derivatized with hydroxylamine. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  14. Rotary echo nutation NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R.; Tijink, G. A. H.; Veeman, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional solid state NMR experiment which combines rotary echoes and nutation NMR is investigated and used to study different sodium sites in zeolite NaA. It is shown that with this technique sodium ions with different relaxation rates in the rotating frame can be distinguished.

  15. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, A.

    1988-08-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 32 refs., 56 figs.

  16. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, A.

    1986-09-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 55 figs.

  17. Conformation of the nootropic agents 1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinepropanoic acid (CI-933) and 4-hydroxymethyl-1-benzyl-pyrrolidin-2-one (WEB-1868): X-ray crystal structures, theoretical MO calculations (AM-1) and 600 MHZ 1H NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Maria E.; Bandoli, Giuliano; Djedaïni, Florence; Dolmella, Alessandro; Grassi, Antonio; Pappalardo, Giuseppe C.

    1990-05-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of the cognition activators 1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinepropanoic acid (CI-933) ( 1) and 4-hydroxymethyl-1-benzyl-pyrrolidin-2-one (WEB-1868) ( 2) have been determined by X-ray analysis. The conformations of the isolated molecules 1 and 2 have been deduced from AM1-type theoretical calculations. Whilst in 1 there are no hydrogen bonds, in 2 stabilization of the crystal occurs through effective inter- and intramolecular ? bonds. The five-membered ring in both 1 and 2 adopts an envelope conformation in the solid with C(3) at the flap displaced from the C(1), C(2), C(4), N(5) mean plane. Bond distances and angles are normal and comparable with previously known similar structures. In the crystal, the torsion angles C(1)-N(5)-C(6)-C(7) and N(5)-C(6)-C(7)-C(8) in 1 are 43.1° and 44.8°, respectively; the same torsion angles in 2 are -101° and 42°, respectively. Results of theoretical calculations correlate well with the conformation of 1 in the solid, whilst in the case of 2 these indicate that the conformation in the crystal should not be retained by the isolated molecule. The complete analysis of the very high field (600 MHz) 1H NMR spectra of both compounds in CDCl 3, gives results well in line with the above established conformational features.

  18. Orientation and dynamics of an antimicrobial peptide in the lipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, S; Huster, D; Waring, A; Lehrer, R I; Kearney, W; Tack, B F; Hong, M

    2001-01-01

    The orientation and dynamics of an 18-residue antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, has been investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Ovispirin is a cathelicidin-like model peptide (NH(2)-KNLRRIIRKIIHIIKKYG-COOH) with potent, broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. (15)N NMR spectra of oriented ovispirin reconstituted into synthetic phospholipids show that the helical peptide is predominantly oriented in the plane of the lipid bilayer, except for a small portion of the helix, possibly at the C-terminus, which deviates from the surface orientation. This suggests differential insertion of the peptide backbone into the lipid bilayer. (15)N spectra of both oriented and unoriented peptides show a reduced (15)N chemical shift anisotropy at room temperature compared with that of rigid proteins, indicating that the peptide undergoes uniaxial rotational diffusion around the bilayer normal with correlation times shorter than 10(-4) s. This motion is frozen below the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature of the lipids. Ovispirin interacts strongly with the lipid bilayer, as manifested by the significantly reduced (2)H quadrupolar splittings of perdeuterated palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine acyl chains upon peptide binding. Therefore, ovispirin is a curved helix residing in the membrane-water interface that executes rapid uniaxial rotation. These structural and dynamic features are important for understanding the antimicrobial function of this peptide. PMID:11566791

  19. Enantiotopic discrimination in the deuterium NMR spectrum of solutes with S4 symmetry in chiral liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Aroulanda, Christie; Zimmermann, Herbert; Luz, Zeev; Lesot, Philippe

    2011-04-07

    Enantiotopic discrimination in the NMR spectra of prochiral rigid solutes in chiral liquid crystals (CLC), by the ordering mechanism, is limited to molecules possessing one of the four, so called, "allowed" symmetries, D(2d), C(2v), C(s), and S(4). So far, such spectral discrimination was demonstrated only for solutes possessing one of the first three symmetries. In this work, we present deuterium NMR measurements on a rigid S(4) compound dissolved in a chiral nematic solvent and demonstrate, for the first time, enantiotopic discrimination in such symmetry. The measurements were performed on the isotopically normal icosane derivative (1) and on its isotopomer (1-d(8)), specifically deuterated in its four core methylene groups. As a CLC solvent, a lyotropic mesophase, consisting of a solution of poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) in pyridine, was employed. For comparison with a corresponding achiral liquid crystal (ALC) solvent, a solution of a racemic mixture of poly-γ-benzylglutamate (PBG) of similar composition in the same co-solvent was used. The spectra were recorded at 92.1 MHz using the 2D Q-COSY Fz sequence with proton decoupling. In the CLC solvents they exhibited clear discrimination due to different enantiotopic sites, with components displaced symmetrically, at frequencies below and above those in the corresponding ALC, as expected for discrimination by ordering. Two procedures were employed for correlating the enantiotopic sites in the CLC spectra. For 1-d(8) the dipolar cross-peaks in a 2D (2)H-(2)H COSY-90 experiment provided identification of signals belonging to the same methylene (and hence the same enantiotopic) groups. For 1 the correlation was achieved using a least-square-deviation fitting of the experimental quadrupole splittings with respect to those expected from the molecular geometry. These results, with appropriate symmetry considerations were used to determine the symmetric (S(zz)) and antisymmetric (S(xy) and S(xx)-S(yy)) components of

  20. Enantiotopic discrimination in the deuterium NMR spectrum of solutes with S4 symmetry in chiral liquid crystalsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroulanda, Christie; Zimmermann, Herbert; Luz, Zeev; Lesot, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Enantiotopic discrimination in the NMR spectra of prochiral rigid solutes in chiral liquid crystals (CLC), by the ordering mechanism, is limited to molecules possessing one of the four, so called, "allowed" symmetries, D2d, C2v, Cs, and S4. So far, such spectral discrimination was demonstrated only for solutes possessing one of the first three symmetries. In this work, we present deuterium NMR measurements on a rigid S4 compound dissolved in a chiral nematic solvent and demonstrate, for the first time, enantiotopic discrimination in such symmetry. The measurements were performed on the isotopically normal icosane derivative (1) and on its isotopomer (1-d8), specifically deuterated in its four core methylene groups. As a CLC solvent, a lyotropic mesophase, consisting of a solution of poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) in pyridine, was employed. For comparison with a corresponding achiral liquid crystal (ALC) solvent, a solution of a racemic mixture of poly-γ-benzylglutamate (PBG) of similar composition in the same co-solvent was used. The spectra were recorded at 92.1 MHz using the 2D Q-COSY Fz sequence with proton decoupling. In the CLC solvents they exhibited clear discrimination due to different enantiotopic sites, with components displaced symmetrically, at frequencies below and above those in the corresponding ALC, as expected for discrimination by ordering. Two procedures were employed for correlating the enantiotopic sites in the CLC spectra. For 1-d8 the dipolar cross-peaks in a 2D 2H-2H COSY-90 experiment provided identification of signals belonging to the same methylene (and hence the same enantiotopic) groups. For 1 the correlation was achieved using a least-square-deviation fitting of the experimental quadrupole splittings with respect to those expected from the molecular geometry. These results, with appropriate symmetry considerations were used to determine the symmetric (Szz) and antisymmetric (Sxy and Sxx-Syy) components of the Saupe ordering matrix

  1. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  2. Synthesis, structure and physicochemical characterization of the hybrid material [C6H16N2O]2 SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaj Salah, S.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.; Ammar, S.; Mrad, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The current study reports the chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel compound [C6H16N2O]2SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O. This compound crystallizes in the triclinic system (space group P - 1, Z = 1) with the following unit cell dimensions: a = 7.9764(9), b = 8.2703(9), c = 12.1103(14)Å, α = 84.469(6), β = 75.679(6), and γ = 64.066(5)°. The structure was solved using 3093 independent reflections down to R = 0.020. The atomic arrangement shows alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is ensured by Nsbnd H…Cl and Osbnd H…Cl hydrogen bonds that build a three-dimensional network. The 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and the associated 2D fingerprint plots were investigated for intermolecular interactions. The 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands. X-ray powder, XPS and UV spectrum have been carried out. The DSC profile shows that the title material exhibits dehydration at 339 K.

  3. Radiation damping in microcoil NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V. V.

    2006-04-01

    Radiation damping arises from the field induced in the receiver coil by large bulk magnetization and tends to selectively drive this magnetization back to equilibrium much faster than relaxation processes. The demand for increased sensitivity in mass-limited samples has led to the development of microcoil NMR probes that are capable of obtaining high quality NMR spectra with small sample volumes (nL-μL). Microcoil probes are optimized to increase sensitivity by increasing either the sample-to-coil ratio (filling factor) of the probe or quality factor of the detection coil. Though radiation damping effects have been studied in standard NMR probes, these effects have not been measured in the microcoil probes. Here a systematic evaluation of radiation damping effects in a microcoil NMR probe is presented and the results are compared with similar measurements in conventional large volume samples. These results show that radiation-damping effects in microcoil probe is much more pronounced than in 5 mm probes, and that it is critically important to optimize NMR experiments to minimize these effects. As microcoil probes provide better control of the bulk magnetization, with good RF and B0 inhomogeneity, in addition to negligible dipolar field effects due to nearly spherical sample volumes, these probes can be used exclusively to study the complex behavior of radiation damping.

  4. Radiation damping in microcoil NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V V

    2006-04-01

    Radiation damping arises from the field induced in the receiver coil by large bulk magnetization and tends to selectively drive this magnetization back to equilibrium much faster than relaxation processes. The demand for increased sensitivity in mass-limited samples has led to the development of microcoil NMR probes that are capable of obtaining high quality NMR spectra with small sample volumes (nL-microL). Microcoil probes are optimized to increase sensitivity by increasing either the sample-to-coil ratio (filling factor) of the probe or quality factor of the detection coil. Though radiation damping effects have been studied in standard NMR probes, these effects have not been measured in the microcoil probes. Here a systematic evaluation of radiation damping effects in a microcoil NMR probe is presented and the results are compared with similar measurements in conventional large volume samples. These results show that radiation-damping effects in microcoil probe is much more pronounced than in 5 mm probes, and that it is critically important to optimize NMR experiments to minimize these effects. As microcoil probes provide better control of the bulk magnetization, with good RF and B0 inhomogeneity, in addition to negligible dipolar field effects due to nearly spherical sample volumes, these probes can be used exclusively to study the complex behavior of radiation damping.

  5. Labeling strategy and signal broadening mechanism of Protein NMR spectroscopy in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yansheng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Yanhua; Xu, Guohua; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zeting; Yao, Chendie; Liu, Maili; Li, Conggang

    2015-06-08

    We used Xenopus laevis oocytes, a paradigm for a variety of biological studies, as a eukaryotic model system for in-cell protein NMR spectroscopy. The small globular protein GB1 was one of the first studied in Xenopus oocytes, but there have been few reports since then of high-resolution spectra in oocytes. The scarcity of data is at least partly due to the lack of good labeling strategies and the paucity of information on resonance broadening mechanisms. Here, we systematically evaluate isotope enrichment and labeling methods in oocytes injected with five different proteins with molecular masses of 6 to 54 kDa. (19) F labeling is more promising than (15) N, (13) C, and (2) H enrichment. We also used (19) F NMR spectroscopy to quantify the contribution of viscosity, weak interactions, and sample inhomogeneity to resonance broadening in cells. We found that the viscosity in oocytes is only about 1.2 times that of water, and that inhomogeneous broadening is a major factor in determining line width in these cells.

  6. Faster and cleaner real-time pure shift NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Mauhart, Johannes; Glanzer, Simon; Sakhaii, Peyman; Bermel, Wolfgang; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Real-time pure shift experiments provide highly resolved proton NMR spectra which do not require any special processing. Although being more sensitive than their pseudo 2D counterparts, their signal intensities per unit time are still far below regular NMR spectra. In addition, scalar coupling evolution during the individual data chunks produces decoupling sidebands. Here we show that faster and cleaner real-time pure shift spectra can be obtained through the implementation of two parameter alterations. Variation of the FID chunk lengths between individual transients significantly suppresses decoupling sidebands for any kind of real-time pure shift spectra and thus allows for example the analysis of minor components in compound mixtures. Shifting the excitation frequency between individual scans of real-time slice-selective pure shift spectra increases their sensitivity obtainable in unit time by allowing faster repetitions of acquisitions.

  7. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  8. Dynamics of Antibody Domains Studied by Solution NMR

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Bang K.; Walsh, Joseph D.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Ishima, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    Information on local dynamics of antibodies is important to evaluate stability, to rationally design variants, and to clarify conformational disorders at the epitope binding sites. Such information may also be useful for improved understanding of antigen recognition. NMR can be used for characterization of local protein dynamics at the atomic level through relaxation measurements. Due to the complexity of the NMR spectra, an extensive use of this method is limited to small protein molecules, for example, antibody domains and some scFv. Here, we describe a protocol that was used to study the dynamics of an antibody domain in solution using NMR. We describe protein preparation for NMR studies, NMR sample optimization, signal assignments, and dynamics experiments. PMID:19252840

  9. Phenol-formaldehyde resins: A quantitative NMR study of molecular structure and molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottenbourgs, Benjamin Tony

    criteria to follow the curing evolution. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed to be complementary to 13C NMR for the determination of the degree of polymerization and of conversion in PF prepolymers or in cured PF resins. In the last part of this work it was shown that 1H wideline and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR relaxometry provides interesting information concerning the molecular dynamics of cured novolak resins and resole/novolak copolymers. The relaxation times investigated were the spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1H), the spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1pH), and the spin-spin relaxation time (T 2H). It was noticed that these relaxation times of the PF resins, at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, were ascertained not only by dynamic phenomena, but also a contribution from the spin diffusion mechanism should be implemented. Measurements as a function of the temperature indicated for a reversible hydrogen bond deformation, confirmed by FT-IR measurements. 13C CP/MAS and 1H wideline NMR can be applied as complementary techniques in order to investigate phenol-formaldehyde resins in the solid state. The chemical structure and the molecular dynamics of these resins can be studied in an adequate manner. Correlations can be made between their relaxation times, their chemical structure and their macroscopic properties.

  10. Osmium(IV) complexes with 1H- and 2H-indazoles: tautomer identity versus spectroscopic properties and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Stepanenko, Iryna N; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-08-01

    A one-pot synthesis of osmium(IV) complexes with two different tautomers of indazole, 1H-indazole and 2H-indazole, namely (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(2H-ind)] (1) and (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(1H-ind)] (2) is reported. Both compounds have been comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI (electrospray ionization) mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SW480 (colon carcinoma), as well as in vivo in a Hep3B SCID mouse xeno-transplantation model. 2H-Indazole tautomer stabilization in 1 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Ligand-induced substrate steering and reshaping of [Ag2(H)](+) scaffold for selective CO2 extrusion from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Zavras, Athanasios; Khairallah, George N; Krstić, Marjan; Girod, Marion; Daly, Steven; Antoine, Rodolphe; Maitre, Philippe; Mulder, Roger J; Alexander, Stefanie-Ann; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Dugourd, Philippe; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2016-06-06

    Metalloenzymes preorganize the reaction environment to steer substrate(s) along the required reaction coordinate. Here, we show that phosphine ligands selectively facilitate protonation of binuclear silver hydride cations, [LAg2(H)](+) by optimizing the geometry of the active site. This is a key step in the selective, catalysed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications (for example, hydrogen storage). Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared and ultraviolet action spectroscopy and computational chemistry link structure to reactivity and mechanism. [Ag2(H)](+) and [Ph3PAg2(H)](+) react with formic acid yielding Lewis adducts, while [(Ph3P)2Ag2(H)](+) is unreactive. Using bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) reshapes the geometry of the binuclear Ag2(H)(+) scaffold, triggering reactivity towards formic acid, to produce [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) and H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) via CID regenerates [dppmAg2(H)](+). These gas-phase insights inspired variable temperature NMR studies that show CO2 and H2 production at 70 °C from solutions containing dppm, AgBF4, NaO2CH and HO2CH.

  12. Ligand-induced substrate steering and reshaping of [Ag2(H)]+ scaffold for selective CO2 extrusion from formic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Athanasios; Khairallah, George N.; Krstić, Marjan; Girod, Marion; Daly, Steven; Antoine, Rodolphe; Maitre, Philippe; Mulder, Roger J.; Alexander, Stefanie-Ann; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Dugourd, Philippe; O'Hair, Richard A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Metalloenzymes preorganize the reaction environment to steer substrate(s) along the required reaction coordinate. Here, we show that phosphine ligands selectively facilitate protonation of binuclear silver hydride cations, [LAg2(H)]+ by optimizing the geometry of the active site. This is a key step in the selective, catalysed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications (for example, hydrogen storage). Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared and ultraviolet action spectroscopy and computational chemistry link structure to reactivity and mechanism. [Ag2(H)]+ and [Ph3PAg2(H)]+ react with formic acid yielding Lewis adducts, while [(Ph3P)2Ag2(H)]+ is unreactive. Using bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) reshapes the geometry of the binuclear Ag2(H)+ scaffold, triggering reactivity towards formic acid, to produce [dppmAg2(O2CH)]+ and H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmAg2(O2CH)]+ via CID regenerates [dppmAg2(H)]+. These gas-phase insights inspired variable temperature NMR studies that show CO2 and H2 production at 70 °C from solutions containing dppm, AgBF4, NaO2CH and HO2CH. PMID:27265868

  13. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Chen, Michael J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; ter Horst, Marc

    2007-09-11

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  14. NMR studies on polyphosphide Ce6Ni6P17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.; Yamada, H.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report the result of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on Ce6Ni6P17. The observed NMR spectra show a Lorentzian-type and an asymmetric shapes, reflecting the local symmetry around each P site in the cubic unit cell. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to three inequivalent P sites and deduced the temperature dependence of the Knight shift for each site. The Knight shifts increase with decreasing temperature down to 1.5 K, indicating a localized spin system of Ce6Ni6P17. Antiferromagnetic correlation between 4f spins is suggested from the negative sign of the Weiss-temperature.

  15. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR.

    PubMed

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  16. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  17. Structural analysis of N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine by variable-temperature NMR and DFT calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiu-qing; Tan, Hong-bo; Yan, Hong; Chang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine derivatives (1) were prepared via an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis. 1 was isolated and unambiguously confirmed by NMR spectra and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The NMR spectra of 1 showed complicated rather than conventional spectroscopy. Variable-temperature experiments and DFT calculation (PES) were used to investigate this phenomenon. DFT calculations confirmed that the structures of the two rotamers of 1 correspond to those determined by NMR in solution, and gave the syn-anti interconversion barriers of rotamers. The results showed that two isomers exist in solution (deuterated solvent) at room temperature, resulting in complicated NMR spectra.

  18. NMR data visualization, processing, and analysis on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Cobas, Carlos; Iglesias, Isaac; Seoane, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Touch-screen computers are emerging as a popular platform for many applications, including those in chemistry and analytical sciences. In this work, we present our implementation of a new NMR 'app' designed for hand-held and portable touch-controlled devices, such as smartphones and tablets. It features a flexible architecture formed by a powerful NMR processing and analysis kernel and an intuitive user interface that makes full use of the smart devices haptic capabilities. Routine 1D and 2D NMR spectra acquired in most NMR instruments can be processed in a fully unattended way. More advanced experiments such as non-uniform sampled NMR spectra are also supported through a very efficient parallelized Modified Iterative Soft Thresholding algorithm. Specific technical development features as well as the overall feasibility of using NMR software apps will also be discussed. All aspects considered the functionalities of the app allowing it to work as a stand-alone tool or as a 'companion' to more advanced desktop applications such as Mnova NMR.

  19. Monoterpene Unknowns Identified Using IR, [to the first power]H-NMR, [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, and HETCOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.

    2005-01-01

    A study identifies a compound from a set of monoterpenes using infrared (IR) and one-dimensional (1D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. After identifying the unknown, each carbon and proton signal can be interpreted and assigned to the structure using the information in the two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra, correlation spectroscopy…

  20. Synthesis and properties of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, V. Yu; Sosnovskikh, V. Ya; Barkov, A. Yu

    2013-12-01

    Methods of synthesis and chemical properties of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes, including reactions with nucleophiles, cycloaddition, oxidation and reduction, have been reviewed. Enantioselective reactions involving 3-nitro-2H-chromenes, as well as the stereochemistry of the products, are discussed. The ways of practical use of these compounds are shown. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  1. NMR shielding calculations across the periodic table: diamagnetic uranium compounds. 2. Ligand and metal NMR.

    PubMed

    Schreckenbach, Georg

    2002-12-16

    In this and a previous article (J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 8244), the range of application for relativistic density functional theory (DFT) is extended to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings and chemical shifts in diamagnetic actinide compounds. Two relativistic DFT methods are used, ZORA ("zeroth-order regular approximation") and the quasirelativistic (QR) method. In the given second paper, NMR shieldings and chemical shifts are calculated and discussed for a wide range of compounds. The molecules studied comprise uranyl complexes, [UO(2)L(n)](+/-)(q); UF(6); inorganic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)Cl(n), n = 0-6; and organometallic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n), n = 0-5. Uranyl complexes include [UO(2)F(4)](2-), [UO(2)Cl(4)](2-), [UO(2)(OH)(4)](2-), [UO(2)(CO(3))(3)](4-), and [UO(2)(H(2)O)(5)](2+). For the ligand NMR, moderate (e.g., (19)F NMR chemical shifts in UF(6-n)Cl(n)) to excellent agreement [e.g., (19)F chemical shift tensor in UF(6) or (1)H NMR in UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n)] has been found between theory and experiment. The methods have been used to calculate the experimentally unknown (235)U NMR chemical shifts. A large chemical shift range of at least 21,000 ppm has been predicted for the (235)U nucleus. ZORA spin-orbit appears to be the most accurate method for predicting actinide metal chemical shifts. Trends in the (235)U NMR chemical shifts of UF(6-n)L(n) molecules are analyzed and explained in terms of the calculated electronic structure. It is argued that the energy separation and interaction between occupied and virtual orbitals with f-character are the determining factors.

  2. Collisions of slow polyatomic ions with surfaces: dissociation and chemical reactions of C2H2+*, C2H3+, C2H4+*, C2H5+, and their deuterated variants C2D2+* and C2D4+* on room-temperature and heated carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jasík, Juraj; Zabka, Jan; Feketeova, Linda; Ipolyi, Imre; Märk, Tilmann D; Herman, Zdenek

    2005-11-17

    Interaction of C2Hn+ (n = 2-5) hydrocarbon ions and some of their isotopic variants with room-temperature and heated (600 degrees C) highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces was investigated over the range of incident energies 11-46 eV and an incident angle of 60 degrees with respect to the surface normal. The work is an extension of our earlier research on surface interactions of CHn+ (n = 3-5) ions. Mass spectra, translational energy distributions, and angular distributions of product ions were measured. Collisions with the HOPG surface heated to 600 degrees C showed only partial or substantial dissociation of the projectile ions; translational energy distributions of the product ions peaked at about 50% of the incident energy. Interactions with the HOPG surface at room temperature showed both surface-induced dissociation of the projectiles and, in the case of radical cation projectiles C2H2+* and C2H4+*, chemical reactions with the hydrocarbons on the surface. These reactions were (i) H-atom transfer to the projectile, formation of protonated projectiles, and their subsequent fragmentation and (ii) formation of a carbon chain build-up product in reactions of the projectile ion with a terminal CH3-group of the surface hydrocarbons and subsequent fragmentation of the product ion to C3H3+. The product ions were formed in inelastic collisions in which the translational energy of the surface-excited projectile peaked at about 32% of the incident energy. Angular distributions of reaction products showed peaking at subspecular angles close to 68 degrees (heated surfaces) and 72 degrees (room-temperature surfaces). The absolute survival probability at the incident angle of 60 degrees was about 0.1% for C2H2+*, close to 1% for C2H4+* and C2H5+, and about 3-6% for C2H3+.

  3. Variations of δ2H in an idealised extratropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Numerical model simulations of stable water isotopes help to improve our understanding of the complex processes driving isotopic variability in atmospheric waters. We use the isotope-enabled COSMO model to study the governing mechanisms of δ2H variations in an idealised extratropical cyclone. A set of experiments with differing initial conditions of δ2H in vapour and partially deactivated isotopic fractionation allows us to quantify the relative roles of cloud fractionation and vertical and horizontal advection for the simulated δ2H signals associated with the cyclone and fronts. Horizontal transport determines the large-scale pattern of δ2H in both vapour and precipitation, while fractionation and vertical transport are more important on a smaller scale, near the fronts. During the passage of the cold front fractionation leads to a V-shaped trend of δ2H in precipitation and vapour, which is, for vapour, superimposed on a gradual decrease caused by horizontal advection.

  4. Computer compensation for NMR quantitative analysis of trace components

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-07-22

    A computer program has been written that determines trace components and separates overlapping components in multicomponent NMR spectra. This program uses the Lorentzian curve as a theoretical curve of NMR spectra. The coefficients of the Lorentzian are determined by the method of least squares. Systematic errors such as baseline/phase distortion are compensated and random errors are smoothed by taking moving averages, so that there processes contribute substantially to decreasing the accumulation time of spectral data. The accuracy of quantitative analysis of trace components has been improved by two significant figures. This program was applied to determining the abundance of 13C and the saponification degree of PVA.

  5. Ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR for a rapid and sensitive chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahola, Susanna; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V.; Mankinen, Otto; Zhang, Guannan; Kantola, Anu M.; Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian; Koptyug, Igor V.; Telkki, Ville-Veikko

    2015-09-01

    Traditional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy relies on the versatile chemical information conveyed by spectra. To complement conventional NMR, Laplace NMR explores diffusion and relaxation phenomena to reveal details on molecular motions. Under a broad concept of ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR, here we introduce an ultrafast diffusion-relaxation correlation experiment enhancing the resolution and information content of corresponding 1D experiments as well as reducing the experiment time by one to two orders of magnitude or more as compared with its conventional 2D counterpart. We demonstrate that the method allows one to distinguish identical molecules in different physical environments and provides chemical resolution missing in NMR spectra. Although the sensitivity of the new method is reduced due to spatial encoding, the single-scan approach enables one to use hyperpolarized substances to boost the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, significantly enhancing the overall sensitivity of multidimensional Laplace NMR.

  6. Isotope Labeling for Solution and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Raffaello; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Masterson, Larry R.; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize the isotopic labeling strategies used to obtain high-quality solution and solid-state NMR spectra of biological samples, with emphasis on integral membrane proteins (IMPs). While solution NMR is used to study IMPs under fast tumbling conditions, such as in the presence of detergent micelles or isotropic bicelles, solid-state NMR is used to study the structure and orientation of IMPs in lipid vesicles and bilayers. In spite of the tremendous progress in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, the homogeneity and overall quality of the sample is still a substantial obstacle to overcome. Isotopic labeling is a major avenue to simplify overlapped spectra by either diluting the NMR active nuclei or allowing the resonances to be separated in multiple dimensions. In the following we will discuss isotopic labeling approaches that have been successfully used in the study of IMPs by solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23076578

  7. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-02

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  8. Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massin, C.; Vincent, F.; Homsy, A.; Ehrmann, K.; Boero, G.; Besse, P.-A.; Daridon, A.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, N. F.; Popovic, R. S.

    2003-10-01

    Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120, and 470 nL. The achieved sensitivity enables acquisition of an 1H spectrum of 160 μg sucrose in D 2O, corresponding to a proof-of-concept for on-chip NMR spectroscopy. Increase of mass-sensitivity with coil diameter reduction is demonstrated experimentally for planar microcoils. Models that enable quantitative prediction of the signal-to-noise ratio and of the influence of microfluidic channel geometry on spectral resolution are presented and successfully compared to the experimental data. The main factor presently limiting sensitivity for high-resolution applications is identified as being probe-induced static magnetic field distortions. Finally, based on the presented model and measured data, future performance of planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes is extrapolated and discussed.

  9. Planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Massin, C; Vincent, F; Homsy, A; Ehrmann, K; Boero, G; Besse, P-A; Daridon, A; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, N F; Popovic, R S

    2003-10-01

    Microfabricated small-volume NMR probes consisting of electroplated planar microcoils integrated on a glass substrate with etched microfluidic channels are fabricated and tested. 1H NMR spectra are acquired at 300 MHz with three different probes having observed sample volumes of respectively 30, 120, and 470 nL. The achieved sensitivity enables acquisition of an 1H spectrum of 160 microg sucrose in D2O, corresponding to a proof-of-concept for on-chip NMR spectroscopy. Increase of mass-sensitivity with coil diameter reduction is demonstrated experimentally for planar microcoils. Models that enable quantitative prediction of the signal-to-noise ratio and of the influence of microfluidic channel geometry on spectral resolution are presented and successfully compared to the experimental data. The main factor presently limiting sensitivity for high-resolution applications is identified as being probe-induced static magnetic field distortions. Finally, based on the presented model and measured data, future performance of planar microcoil-based microfluidic NMR probes is extrapolated and discussed.

  10. Isolation and 2D NMR Studies of Alkaloids from Comptonella sessilifoliola1.

    PubMed

    Pusset, J; Lopez, J L; Pais, M; Neirabeyeh, M A; Veillon, J M

    1991-04-01

    Six known furanoquinoline alkaloids have been isolated from the wood and trunk bark of COMPTONELLA SESSILIFOLIOLA (Guillaumin) Hartley (Rutaceae). 2D NMR experiments gave the assignment of all the signals for both (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. Pteleine and kokusaginine were used as models. The two-dimensional carbon-proton correlation experiments, performed for the first time on furanoquinoline alkaloids, led us to correct (13)C-NMR assignments previously described in the literature.

  11. Three-Dimensional Maximum-Quantum Correlation HMQC NMR Spectroscopy (3D MAXY-HMQC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Maili; Mao, Xi-An; Ye, Chaohui; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Lindon, John C.

    1997-11-01

    The extension of two-dimensional maximum-quantum correlation spectroscopy (2D MAXY NMR), which can be used to simplify complex NMR spectra, to three dimensions (3D) is described. A new pulse sequence for 3D MAXY-HMQC is presented and exemplified using the steroid drug dexamethasone. The sensitivity and coherence transfer efficiency of the MAXY NMR approach has also been assessed in relation to other HMQC- and HSQC-based 3D methods.

  12. Development and applications of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) in low fields and zero field

    SciTech Connect

    Bielecki, A.

    1987-05-01

    This dissertation is about nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the absence of applied magnetic fields. NMR is usually done in large magnetic fields, often as large as can be practically attained. The motivation for going the opposite way, toward zero field, is that for certain types of materials, particularly powdered or polycrystalline solids, the NMR spectra in zero field are easier to interpret than those obtained in high field. 92 refs., 60 figs., 1 tab.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: NMR Imaging of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard

    2003-09-01

    spectroscopic methods to weight or filter the spin signals represents the core of the book. This is a subject where Blümich is deeply involved with substantial contributions. The chapter includes a lot of ideas to provide MR contrast between different regions based on their mobility, diffusion, spin couplings or NMR spectra. After describing NMR imaging methods for solids with broad lines, Blümich spends time on applications in the last two chapters of the book. This part is really fun to read. It underlines the effort to bring NMR into many kinds of manufacturing. Car tyres and high-voltage cables are just two such areas. Elastomeric materials, green-state ceramics and food science represent other interesting fields of applications. This part of the book represents a personal but nevertheless extensive compilation of modern applications. As a matter of course the MOUSE is presented, a portable permanent-magnet based NMR developed by Blümich and his co-workers. Thus the book is not only of interest to NMR spectroscopists but also to people in material science and chemical engineering. The bibliography and indexing are excellent and may serve as an attractive reference source for NMR spectroscopists. The book is the first on the subject and likely to become the standard text for NMR imaging of materials as the books by Abragam, Slicher and Ernst et al are for NMR spectroscopy. The purchase of this beautiful book for people dealing with NMR spectroscopy or medical MRI is highly recommended. Ralf Ludwig

  14. Theoretical study of the bonding of Nb(2+) to CH2, C2H2, and C2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    The bonding of Nb(2+) with CH2, C2H2, and C2H4 is studied by using electronic structure calculations that include high levels of electron correlation. The binding energy for NbCH2(2+) is in good agreement with the lower bound determined from the reaction with CH4 but is significantly smaller than the value determined from the binding energy and ionization potential of NbCH2(+). The calculations and a new interpretation of the experiment indicate that the larger value is in error primarily because the ionization potential of NbCH2(+) determined from bracketing charge-exchange reactions is too small. The computed binding energy of NbC2H2(2+) is in good agreement with experiment. The calculations show that the bonding is predominantly covalent in character for both NbCH2(2+) and NbC2H2(2+), whereas for NbC2H4(2+) the electronic states that are predominantly ionic and covalent are nearly degenerate. The trend in binding energies, CH2 greater than C2H2 greater than C2H4, is consistent with the energy required to prepare the ligands for bonding.

  15. Efficient C2 functionalisation of 2H-2-imidazolines.

    PubMed

    Bon, Robin S; Sprenkels, Nanda E; Koningstein, Manoe M; Schmitz, Rob F; de Kanter, Frans J J; Dömling, Alexander; Groen, Marinus B; Orru, Romano V A

    2008-01-07

    Alkylation and oxidation of 2H-2-imidazolines, followed by regioselective deprotection, thionation and microwave-assisted Liebeskind-Srogl reaction, efficiently led to 2-aryl-2-imidazolines as new analogues of p53-hdm2 interaction inhibitors (Nutlins).

  16. Photo- and thermochromic spirans. 16. * 2-oxo-3-phenyl-5,5-dimethylspiro(1,3-oxazolidine-4,2'-(2H) chromenes)

    SciTech Connect

    Luk'yanov, B.S.; Chernysh, Y.E.; Minkin, V.I.; Nivorozhkin, L.E.

    1986-02-01

    New spirans of the 5,5-dimethyl-3-phenyl-2-oxazolidone series that display photochromic properties in alcohol solutions at about-80/sup 0/C were synthesized. The photoinduced forms are characterized by the presence of two long-wave absorption bands at 350-420 nm and 500-650 nm. The /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectra were studied. Anisochronicity of the diastereotopic methyl groups of the oxazolidone ring shows up respectively. only in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra.

  17. Structure elucidation and NMR assignments of an unusual triterpene saponin derivative from Ilex kudincha.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wenjian; Wang, Qinghu; Li, Wen; Sha, Yi; Li, Xian; Wang, Jinhui

    2012-04-01

    One unusual triterpenoid derivative, ilekudinchoside E (1), was isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha. The structure was established by various spectroscopic techniques, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, HRTOFMS and CD spectra.

  18. NMR imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In the past several years, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has become an established technique in diagnostic medicine and biomedical research. Although much of the work in this field has been directed toward development of whole-body imagers, James Aguayo, Stephen Blackband, and Joseph Schoeninger of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine working with Markus Hintermann and Mark Mattingly of Bruker Medical Instruments, recently developed a small-bore NMR microscope with sufficient resolution to image a single African clawed toad cell (Nature 1986, 322, 190-91). This improved resolution should lead to increased use of NMR imaging for chemical, as well as biological or physiological, applications. The future of NMR microscopy, like that of many other newly emerging techniques, is ripe with possibilities. Because of its high cost, however, it is likely to remain primarily a research tool for some time. ''It's like having a camera,'' says Smith. ''You've got a way to look at things at very fine levels, and people are going to find lots of uses for it. But it is a very expensive technique - it costs $100,000 to add imaging capability once you have a high-resolution NMR, which itself is at least a $300,000 instrument. If it can answer even a few questions that can't be answered any other way, though, it may be well worth the cost.''

  19. Storm Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    portion is defined by the day/night boundary (known as the terminator).

    These two images illustrate only a small fraction of the information contained in a single LEISA scan, highlighting just one aspect of the power of infrared spectra for atmospheric studies.

  20. Advanced NMR characterization of zeolite catalysts. Third quarterly report, March 1-May 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, L.B.

    1984-06-01

    The program discussed in this report is a two-year two-phase joint UOP-University of Illinois study of the application of improved high resolution solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to the characterization of zeolite catalysts. During the first phase of this program very pure, and in some cases isotopically enriched faujasites will be prepared and studied by majic angle sample spinning NMR (MASS NMR) and variable angle sample spinning NMR (VASS NMR) on 500 and 360 MHz (Proton frequency) NMR spectrometers. During the second phase of this program these NMR techniques will be used to study the effects of impurity concentration, dealumination treatments and cation exchange on the NMR properties of faujasites. The initial emphasis of this program during Phase I is on the preparation and measurement of the NMR properties of /sup 17/O enriched Na-Y faujasites. The effort in each phase is broken into four tasks: (1) zeolite preparation. (2) standard zeolite characterization; (3) measurement of zeolite NMR properties; and (4) analysis of NMR data. The main efforts during the third three month period of the program have been the characterization of the /sup 17/O enriched zeolites, particularly X and Y zeolites, by high resolution sample spinning /sup 17/O NMR, and the preparation of additional /sup 17/O enriched zeolites. X and Y zeolites with Si/Al framework ratios from 1.22 to 7.6 have been prepared in either the Na, NH/sub 4/ or Ba form. MASS NMR and VASS NMR as well as static NMR measurements have been made on these materials for /sup 17/O NMR frequencies from 20.4 to 67.8 MHz. Computer simulations of the experimental NMR lineshapes are in progress. Results to date indicate that the observed spectra arise from two different types of oxygen sites, possibly O in Al-O-Si links and chemically bound OH groups. 2 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. An Analysis of a Commercial Furniture Refinisher: A Comprehensive Introductory NMR Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markow, Peter G.; Cramer, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment designed to introduce undergraduate organic chemistry students to measurement/interpretation of NMR parameters. Students investigate chemical shift analysis, spin-spin coupling, peak integrations, effect of deuterium oxide extraction, and comparisons with literature spectra;…

  2. Experimental Determination of pK[subscript a] Values by Use of NMR Chemical Shifts, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gift, Alan D.; Stewart, Sarah M.; Bokashanga, Patrick Kwete

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment, using proton NMR spectroscopy to determine the dissociation constant for heterocyclic bases, has been modified from a previously described experiment. A solution of a substituted pyridine is prepared using deuterium oxide (D[subscript 2]O) as the solvent. The pH of the solution is adjusted and proton NMR spectra are…

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of some 3-{[5-(6-methyl-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-imino}-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    George, Sonia; Parameswaran, Manoj Kumar; Chakraborty, Acharjee Raja; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2008-03-01

    Reaction of ethyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-carboxylates (1a-i) with hydrazine hydrate yielded 6-methyl-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-carbohydrazides (2a-i). These products, on reaction with cyanogen bromide, gave 5-(5-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-4-aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2 (1H)-ones (3a-i). The resultant aminooxadiazolylpyrimidinones were condensed with isatin to obtain various 3-{[5-(6-methyl-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-imino}-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones (4a-i). These products were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. Products (4a-i) revealed promising antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  4. High-Resolution NMR Studies of Human Tissue Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzio, Kristin M.; Watt, Eric D.; Boettcher, John M.; Gajsiewicz, Joshua M.; Morrissey, James H.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    In normal hemostasis, the blood clotting cascade is initiated when factor VIIa (fVIIa, other clotting factors are named similarly) binds to the integral membrane protein, human tissue factor (TF). The TF/fVIIa complex in turn activates fX and fIX, eventually concluding with clot formation. Several X-ray crystal structures of the soluble extracellular domain of TF (sTF) exist; however, these structures are missing electron density in functionally relevant regions of the protein. In this context, NMR can provide complementary structural information as well as dynamic insights into enzyme activity. The resolution and sensitivity for NMR studies are greatly enhanced by the ability to prepare multiple milligrams of protein with various isotopic labeling patterns. Here, we demonstrate high-yield production of several isotopically labeled forms of recombinant sTF, allowing for high-resolution NMR studies both in the solid and solution state. We also report solution NMR spectra at sub-mM concentrations of sTF, ensuring the presence of dispersed monomer, as well as the first solid-state NMR spectra of sTF. Our improved sample preparation and precipitation conditions have enabled the acquisition of multidimensional NMR data sets for TF chemical shift assignment and provide a benchmark for TF structure elucidation. PMID:27657719

  5. Highly strained 2,3-bridged 2H-azirines at the borderline of closed-shell molecules.

    PubMed

    Banert, Klaus; Meier, Barbara; Penk, Enrico; Saha, Biswajit; Würthwein, Ernst-Ulrich; Grimme, Stefan; Rüffer, Tobias; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Lang, Heinrich

    2011-01-24

    Substituted 1-azidocyclopentenes and 1-azidocyclohexenes were photolyzed to generate 2,3-bridged 2H-azirines. In the case of bridgehead azirines with a six-membered carbocycle, detection by NMR spectroscopic analysis was possible, whereas even kinetically stabilized bridgehead azirines with a five-membered ring could not be characterized by low-temperature NMR spectroscopic analysis. Thus, a recent report on the latter heterocycles was corrected. Depending on the substitution pattern, irradiation of 1-azidocyclopentenes either led to products that can be explained on the basis of short-lived 2,3-bridged 2H-azirines, or gave secondary products generated from triplet nitrenes. The diverse photoreactivity of 2,3-bridged 2H-azirines was also studied by quantum chemical methods (DFT, CCSD(T), CASSCF(6,6)) with respect to the singlet and triplet energy surfaces. The ring-opening processes leading to the corresponding vinyl nitrenes were identified as key steps for the observed reactivity.

  6. C2H observations toward the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Z.; Ossenkopf, V.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Faure, A.; Makai, Z.; Bergin, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The ethynyl radical (C2H) is one of the first radicals to be detected in the interstellar medium. Its higher rotational transitions have recently become available with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical parameters of the C2H emitting gas toward the Orion Bar. Methods: We analyze the C2H line intensities measured toward the Orion Bar CO+ Peak and Herschel/HIFI maps of C2H, CH, and HCO+ and a NANTEN map of [Ci]. We interpret the observed C2H emission using the combination of Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN data with radiative transfer and PDR models. Results: Five rotational transitions of C2H (from N = 6-5 up to N = 10-9) have been detected in the HIFI frequency range toward the CO+ peak of the Orion Bar. Based on the five detected C2H transitions, a single component rotational diagram analysis gives a rotation temperature of ~64 K and a beam-averaged C2H column density of 4 × 1013 cm-2. The rotational diagram is also consistent with a two-component fit, resulting in rotation temperatures of 43 ± 0.2 K and 123 ± 21 K and in beam-averaged column densities of ~8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ~2.3 × 1013 cm-2 for the three lower-N and for the three higher-N transitions, respectively. The measured five rotational transitions cannot be explained by any single parameter model. According to a non-LTE model, most of the C2H column density produces the lower-N C2H transitions and traces a warm (Tkin ~ 100-150 K) and dense (n(H2) ~ 105-106 cm-3) gas. A small fraction of the C2H column density is required to reproduce the intensity of the highest-N transitions (N = 9-8 and N = 10-9) originating in a high-density (n(H2) ~5 × 106 cm-3) hot (Tkin ~ 400 K) gas. The total beam-averaged C2H column density in the model is 1014 cm-2. A comparison of the spatial distribution of C2H to those of CH, HCO+, and [Ci] shows the best correlation with CH. Conclusions: Both the non-LTE radiative transfer model and a simple PDR model representing the Orion Bar

  7. Some nitrogen-14 NMR studies in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Pratum, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The first order quadrupolar perturbation of the /sup 14/N NMR spectrum yields information regarding the static and dynamic properties of the surrounding electronic environment. Signal to noise problems caused by long /sup 14/N longitudinal relaxation times (T/sub 1/) and small equilibrium polarizations are reduced by rotating frame cross polarization (CP) experiments between /sup 14/N and /sup 1/H. Using quadrupolar echo and CP techniques, the /sup 14/N quadrupolar coupling constants (e/sup 2/qQ/h) and asymmetry parameters (eta) have been obtained for a variety of tetraalkylammonium compounds by observation of their quadrupolar powder patterns at various temperatures. For choline chloride and iodide the /sup 14/N NMR powder patterns exhibit the effects of anisotropic molecular motion, while choline bromide spectra show no such effects.

  8. Nuclear spin noise in NMR revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrand, Guillaume; Luong, Michel

    2015-09-07

    The theoretical shapes of nuclear spin-noise spectra in NMR are derived by considering a receiver circuit with finite preamplifier input impedance and a transmission line between the preamplifier and the probe. Using this model, it becomes possible to reproduce all observed experimental features: variation of the NMR resonance linewidth as a function of the transmission line phase, nuclear spin-noise signals appearing as a “bump” or as a “dip” superimposed on the average electronic noise level even for a spin system and probe at the same temperature, pure in-phase Lorentzian spin-noise signals exhibiting non-vanishing frequency shifts. Extensive comparisons to experimental measurements validate the model predictions, and define the conditions for obtaining pure in-phase Lorentzian-shape nuclear spin noise with a vanishing frequency shift, in other words, the conditions for simultaneously obtaining the spin-noise and frequency-shift tuning optima.

  9. Ammonia Vapor Removal by Cu3(BTC)2 and Its Characterization by MAS NMR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    further confirmation of these assignments, Soxhlet - extracted (MeOH) Cu3(BTC)2 is totally devoid of both DMF peaks, leaving only the pristine methine...samples, 1H and 13C MAS NMR spectra for solvent extracted Cu3(BTC)2 and (NH4)3BTC, Figure 15. 1H MAS NMR spectra obtained for Cu3(BTC)2 exposed to NH3

  10. An NMR probe for the study of aerobic suspensions of cells and organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Balaban, R.S.; Gadian, D.G.; Radda, G.K.; Wong, G.G.

    1981-09-15

    The construction of an NMR probe and cell chamber with good mixing, pH buffering, and oxygenation characteristics, which can be used for relatively dilute cell and organelle suspension is described. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of acceptable signal-to-noise ratios are obtained from approximately 200 mg (protein) of tissues, and kinetic studies of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are demonstrated. Representative spectra from rabbit kidney cortical tubules and rabbit kidney cortical mitochondria are presented.

  11. Optimizing Adiabaticity in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermause, Jonathan; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    We demonstrate the utility of Berry's superadiabatic formalism for numerically finding control sequences that implement quasi-adiabatic unitary transformations. Using an iterative interaction picture, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity that reduces the time required to perform an adiabatic inversion pulse in liquid state NMR. We also show that it is possible to extend our scheme to two or more qubits to find adiabatic quantum transformations that are allowed by the control algebra, and demonstrate a two-qubit entangling operation in liquid state NMR. We examine the pulse lengths at which the fidelity of these adiabatic transitions break down and compare with the quantum speed limit.

  12. In-Phase Ultra High-Resolution In Vivo NMR.

    PubMed

    Fugariu, Ioana; Bermel, Wolfgang; Lane, Daniel; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre J

    2017-04-05

    Although current NMR techniques allow organisms to be studied in vivo, magnetic susceptibility distortions, which arise from inhomogeneous distributions of chemical moieties, prevent the acquisition of high-resolution NMR spectra. Intermolecular single quantum coherence (iSQC) is a technique that breaks the sample's spatial isotropy to form long range dipolar couplings, which can be exploited to extract chemical shift information free of perturbations. While this approach holds vast potential, present practical limitations include radiation damping, relaxation losses, and non-phase sensitive data. Herein, these drawbacks are addressed, and a new technique termed in-phase iSQC (IP-iSQC) is introduced. When applied to a living system, high-resolution NMR spectra, nearly identical to a buffer extract, are obtained. The ability to look inside an organism and extract a high-resolution metabolic profile is profound and should find applications in fields in which metabolism or in vivo processes are of interest.

  13. NMR and NQR study of the thermodynamically stable quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shastri, A.

    1995-02-10

    {sup 27}Al and {sup 61,65}Cu NMR measurements are reported for powder samples of stable AlCuFe and AlCuRu icosahedral quasicrystals and their crystalline approximants, and for a AlPdMn single grain quasicrystal. Furthermore, {sup 27}Al NQR spectra at 4.2 K have been observed in the AlCuFe and AlCuRu samples. From the quadrupole perturbed NMR spectra at different magnetic fields, and from the zero field NQR spectra, a wide distribution of local electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components and principal axis system orientations was found at the Al site. A model EFG calculation based on a 1/1 AlCuFe approximant was successful in explaining the observed NQR spectra. It is concluded that the average local gradient is largely determined by the p-electron wave function at the Al site, while the width of the distribution is due to the lattice contribution to the EFG. Comparison of {sup 63}Cu NMR with {sup 27}Al NMR shows that the EFG distribution at the two sites is similar, but that the electronic contribution to the EFG is considerably smaller at the Cu site, in agreement with a more s-type wave function of the conduction electrons.

  14. Affordable uniform isotope labeling with (2)H, (13)C and (15)N in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sitarska, Agnieszka; Skora, Lukasz; Klopp, Julia; Roest, Susan; Fernández, César; Shrestha, Binesh; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-06-01

    For a wide range of proteins of high interest, the major obstacle for NMR studies is the lack of an affordable eukaryotic expression system for isotope labeling. Here, a simple and affordable protocol is presented to produce uniform labeled proteins in the most prevalent eukaryotic expression system for structural biology, namely Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Incorporation levels of 80% can be achieved for (15)N and (13)C with yields comparable to expression in full media. For (2)H,(15)N and (2)H,(13)C,(15)N labeling, incorporation is only slightly lower with 75 and 73%, respectively, and yields are typically twofold reduced. The media were optimized for isotope incorporation, reproducibility, simplicity and cost. High isotope incorporation levels for all labeling patterns are achieved by using labeled algal amino acid extracts and exploiting well-known biochemical pathways. The final formulation consists of just five commercially available components, at costs 12-fold lower than labeling media from vendors. The approach was applied to several cytosolic and secreted target proteins.

  15. Probing the Role of Ceramide Headgroup Polarity in Short-Chain Model Skin Barrier Lipid Mixtures by ²H Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stahlberg, Sören; Lange, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Huster, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The thermoptropic phase behaviors of two stratum corneum model lipid mixtures composed of equimolar contributions of either Cer[NS18] or Cer[NP18] with stearic acid and cholesterol were compared. Each component of the mixture was specifically deuterated such that the temperature-dependent (2)H NMR spectra allowed disentanglement of the complicated phase polymorphism of these lipid mixtures. While Cer[NS] is based on the sphingosine backbone, Cer[NP] features a phytosphingosine, which introduces an additional hydroxyl group into the headgroup of the ceramide and abolishes the double bond. From the NMR spectra, the individual contributions of all lipids to the respective phases could be determined. The comparison of the two lipid mixtures reveals that Cer[NP] containing mixtures have a tendency to form more fluid phases. It is concluded that the additional hydroxyl group of the phytosphingosine-containing ceramide Cer[NP18] in mixture with chain-matched stearic acid and cholesterol creates a packing defect that destabilizes the orthorhombic phase state of canonical SC mixtures. This steric clash favors the gel phase and promotes formation of fluid phases of Cer[NP] containing lipid mixtures at lower temperature compared to those containing Cer[NS18].

  16. NMR studies of coupled low- and high-barrier hydrogen bonds in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate model systems in polar solution.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Shasad; Denisov, Gleb S; Toney, Michael D; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2007-05-16

    The 1H and 15N NMR spectra of several 15N-labeled pyridoxal-5'-phosphate model systems have been measured at low temperature in various aprotic and protic solvents of different polarity, i.e., dichloromethane-d2, acetonitrile-d3, tetrahydrofuran-d8, freon mixture CDF3/CDClF2, and methanol. In particular, the 15N-labeled 5'-triisopropyl-silyl ether of N-(pyridoxylidene)-tolylamine (1a), N-(pyridoxylidene)-methylamine (2a), and the Schiff base with 15N-2-methylaspartic acid (3a) and their complexes with proton donors such as triphenylmethanol, phenol, and carboxylic acids of increasing strength were studied. With the use of hydrogen bond correlation techniques, the 1H/15N chemical shift and scalar coupling data could be associated with the geometries of the intermolecular O1H1N1 (pyridine nitrogen) and the intramolecular O2H2N2 (Schiff base) hydrogen bonds. Whereas O1H1N1 is characterized by a series of asymmetric low-barrier hydrogen bonds, the proton in O2H2N2 faces a barrier for proton transfer of medium height. When the substituent on the Schiff base nitrogen is an aromatic ring, the shift of the proton in O1H1N1 from oxygen to nitrogen has little effect on the position of the proton in the O2H2N2 hydrogen bond. By contrast, when the substituent on the Schiff base nitrogen is a methyl group, a proton shift from O to N in O1H1N1 drives the tautomeric equilibrium in O2H2N2 from the neutral O2-H2...N2 to the zwitterionic O2-...H2-N(2+) form. This coupling is lost in aqueous solution where the intramolecular O2H2N2 hydrogen bond is broken by solute-solvent interactions. However, in methanol, which mimics hydrogen bonds to the Schiff base in the enzyme active site, the coupling is preserved. Therefore, the reactivity of Schiff base intermediates in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate enzymes can likely be tuned to the requirements of the reaction being catalyzed by differential protonation of the pyridine nitrogen.

  17. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    examined. An effect of a macrocyclic -ring current and an induced shift caused by lanthanide (III) ions were discussed. INTRODUCTION NMR studies of...reported some NMR results of lithium, zinc, 2 and uranyl phthalocyanines. Lanthanide complexes such as acethylacetonato- lanthanide (III) and its...University, College Station, TX 77843 (Received , 1980) The NHR spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide(III) complexes (La, Nd, Sm, and Eu) have been

  18. Metastable Polymeric Nitrogen From N2H2 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    pressure gas system described elsewhere [Mao et aI, 1986]. Raman spectra were obtained from an Ar- ion laser operating at 514.5 nm with an optical...G., 1966: Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules (van Nostrand, New York, pg. 416. Iota, Y., Yoo, C.-S., Klepeis, J.-H

  19. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  20. Autonomous driving in NMR.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The automatic analysis of NMR data has been a much-desired endeavour for the last six decades, as it is the case with any other analytical technique. This need for automation has only grown as advances in hardware; pulse sequences and automation have opened new research areas to NMR and increased the throughput of data. Full automatic analysis is a worthy, albeit hard, challenge, but in a world of artificial intelligence, instant communication and big data, it seems that this particular fight is happening with only one technique at a time (let this be NMR, MS, IR, UV or any other), when the reality of most laboratories is that there are several types of analytical instrumentation present. Data aggregation, verification and elucidation by using complementary techniques (e.g. MS and NMR) is a desirable outcome to pursue, although a time-consuming one if performed manually; hence, the use of automation to perform the heavy lifting for users is required to make the approach attractive for scientists. Many of the decisions and workflows that could be implemented under automation will depend on the two-way communication with databases that understand analytical data, because it is desirable not only to query these databases but also to grow them in as much of an automatic manner as possible. How these databases are designed, set up and the data inside classified will determine what workflows can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Clathration of Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymers: Synthesis and Structures of [M(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2).(2,4'-bpy)(2).H(2)O and [Cu(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(4).(4,4'-H(2)Bpy) (M = Cd(II), Zn(II) and bpy = Bipyridine).

    PubMed

    Tong, Ming-Liang; Ye, Bao-Hui; Cai, Ji-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Ng, Seik Weng

    1998-06-01

    In the presence of guest 2,4'-bpy molecules or under acidic conditions, three compounds, [Cd(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2).(2,4'-bpy)(2).H(2)O (1), [Zn(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2).(2,4'-bpy)(2).H(2)O (2), and [Cu(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(4).(4,4'-H(2)bpy) (3), were obtained from the reactions of the metal salts and 4,4'-bpy in an EtOH-H(2)O mixture. 1 has a 2-D square-grid network structure, crystallizing in the monoclinic space group P2/n, with a = 13.231(3) Å, b = 11.669(2) Å, c = 15.019(3) Å, beta = 112.82(3) degrees, Z = 2; 2 is isomorphous with 1, crystallizing in the monoclinic space group P2/n, with a = 13.150(3) Å, b = 11.368(2) Å, c = 14.745(3) Å, beta = 110.60(3) degrees, Z = 2. The square grids superpose on each other into a channel structure, in which each layer consists of two pairs of shared edges, perfectly square-planar with an M(II) ion and a 4,4'-bpy at each corner and side, respectively. The square cavity has dimensions of 11.669(2) x 11.788(2) and 11.368(2) x 11.488(2) Å for 1 and 2, respectively. Every two guest 2,4'-bpy molecules are clathrated in each hydrophobic host cavity and are further stabilized by pi-pi stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The NMR spectra clearly confirm that both 1 and 2 contain 4,4'-bpy and 2,4'-bpy molecules in a 1:1 ratio, which have stacking interaction with each other in the solution. 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Ibam, with a = 11.1283(5) Å, b = 15.5927(8) Å, c = 22.3178(11) Å, Z = 4. 3 is made up of two-dimensional square [Cu(4)(4,4'-bpy)(4)] grids, where the square cavity has dimensions of 11.13 x 11.16 Å. Each [4,4'-H(2)bpy](2+) cation is clathrated in a square cavity and stacks with one pair of opposite edges of the host square cavity in an offset fashion with the face-to-face distance of ca. 3.95 Å. Within each cavity, the [4,4'-H(2)bpy](2+) cation forms twin three-center hydrogen bonds with two pairs of ClO(4)(-) anions. The results suggest that the

  2. 2H 2O quadrupolar splitting used to measure water exchange in erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchel, Philip W.; Naumann, Christoph

    2008-05-01

    The 2H NMR resonance from HDO (D = 2H) in human red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in gelatin that was held stretched in a special apparatus was distinct from the two signals that were symmetrically arranged on either side of it, which were assigned to extracellular HDO. The large extracellular splitting is due to the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of the 2H nuclei with the electric field gradient tensor of the stretched, partially aligned gelatin. Lack of resolved splitting of the intracellular resonance indicated greatly diminished or absent ordering of the HDO inside RBCs. The separate resonances enabled the application of a saturation transfer method to estimate the rate constants of transmembrane exchange of water in RBCs. However both the theory and the practical applications needed modifications because even in the absence of RBCs the HDO resonances were maximally suppressed when the saturating radio-frequency radiation was applied exactly at the central frequency between the two resonances of the quadrupolar HDO doublet. More statistically robust estimates of the exchange rate constants were obtained by applying two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (2D EXSY), with back-transformation analysis. A monotonic dependence of the estimates of the efflux rate constants on the mixing time, tmix, used in the 2D EXSY experiment were seen. Extrapolation to tmix = 0, gave an estimate of the efflux rate constant at 15 °C of 31.5 ± 2.2 s -1 while at 25 °C it was ˜50 s -1. These values are close to, but less than, those estimated by an NMR relaxation-enhancement method that uses Mn 2+ doping of the extracellular medium. The basis for this difference is thought to include the high viscosity of the extracellular gel. At the abstract level of quantum mechanics we have used the quadrupolar Hamiltonian to provide chemical shift separation between signals from spin populations across cell membranes; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that this has been

  3. NMR observation of Tau in Xenopus oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodart, Jean-François; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Amniai, Laziza; Leroy, Arnaud; Landrieu, Isabelle; Rousseau-Lescuyer, Arlette; Vilain, Jean-Pierre; Lippens, Guy

    2008-06-01

    The observation by NMR spectroscopy of microinjected 15N-labelled proteins into Xenopus laevis oocytes might open the way to link structural and cellular biology. We show here that embedding the oocytes into a 20% Ficoll solution maintains their structural integrity over extended periods of time, allowing for the detection of nearly physiological protein concentrations. We use these novel conditions to study the neuronal Tau protein inside the oocytes. Spectral reproducibility and careful comparison of the spectra of Tau before and after cell homogenization is presented. When injecting Tau protein into immature oocytes, we show that both its microtubule association and different phosphorylation events can be detected.

  4. 1H, 13C NMR and DFT Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Balevičius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Džiaugys, Lukas; Kuliešius, Feliksas; Maršalka, Arūnas

    2011-09-01

    The ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide [C10mim][Br], the neat material, and also dissolved (~0.01 mole fraction) in various dielectric media (acetonitrile, benzene, chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol, 2-butanol and H2O) was studied using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The most important interaction in this compound is considered to be the Br-...H-C2+ hydrogen bond, which is formed between the anions and cations. The obtained results show that dielectric medium influence mostly the behavior of the Br-...H-C2+ bridge proton. The changes observed in 1H and 13C NMR spectra of [C10mim][Br] with increasing solvents polarity and temperature can be explained applying the model of the lengthening of the H2...Br- bond with the accompanying thickening of the solvation shell of bromine anion and C2-H bond contraction. The short-range order effects related to the configuration of neighboring dipoles of solvent molecules are more important for the solvation ability of small anions than the bulk solvent field effect. However, the solvents, molecules of which tend to associate via hydrogen bonding, can significantly affect the dynamics of anions.

  5. Simultaneously cycled NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Parish, David M; Szyperski, Thomas

    2008-04-09

    Simultaneously cycled (SC) NMR was introduced and exemplified by implementing a set of 2-D [1H,1H] SC exclusive COSY (E.COSY) NMR experiments, that is, rf pulse flip-angle cycled (SFC), rf pulse phase cycled (SPC), and pulsed field gradient (PFG) strength cycled (SGC) E.COSY. Spatially selective 1H rf pulses were applied as composite pulses such that all steps of the respective cycles were affected simultaneously in different slices of the sample. This increased the data acquisition speed for an n-step cycle n-fold. A high intrinsic sensitivity was achieved by defining the cycles in a manner that the receiver phase remains constant for all steps of the cycle. Then, the signal resulting from applying the cycle corresponded to the sum of the signals from all steps of the cycle. Hence, the detected free induction decay did not have to be separated into the contributions arising from different slices, and read-out PFGs, which not only greatly reduce sensitivity but also negatively impact lineshapes in the direct dimension, were avoided. The current implementation of SFC E.COSY reached approximately 65% of the intrinsic sensitivity of the conventional phase cycled congener, making this experiment highly attractive whenever conventional data acquisition is sampling limited. Highly resolved SC E.COSY yielding accurate 3J-coupling values was recorded for the 416 Da plant alkaloid tomatidine within 80 min, that is, 12 times faster than with conventional phase cycled E.COSY. SC NMR is applicable for a large variety of NMR experiments and thus promises to be a valuable addition to the arsenal of approaches for tackling the NMR sampling problem to avoid sampling limited data acquisition.

  6. Dispersed-fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled calcium ethoxide radical (CaOC2H5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anam C.; Reza, Md. Asmaul; Liu, Jinjun

    2016-12-01

    Dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra of the calcium ethoxide radical (CaOC2H5) have been obtained by pumping the A˜12 A‧ ←X˜2A‧ and the A˜22 A‧‧ ←X˜2A‧ origin bands in its laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. Dominant transitions in the vibrationally resolved DF spectra are well reproduced using Franck-Condon factors predicted by complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. Collision-induced population transfer between the A˜12 A‧ and the A22 A‧‧ states results in additional peaks in the experimental DF spectra. Differences between the intensities of vibronic bands in the A˜12 A‧ →X˜2A‧ and the A˜22 A‧‧ →X˜2A‧ DF spectra are attributed to different symmetries of the two excited electronic states.

  7. The PAW/GIPAW approach for computing NMR parameters: a new dimension added to NMR study of solids.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Thibault

    2011-07-01

    In 2001, Mauri and Pickard introduced the gauge including projected augmented wave (GIPAW) method that enabled for the first time the calculation of all-electron NMR parameters in solids, i.e. accounting for periodic boundary conditions. The GIPAW method roots in the plane wave pseudopotential formalism of the density functional theory (DFT), and avoids the use of the cluster approximation. This method has undoubtedly revitalized the interest in quantum chemical calculations in the solid-state NMR community. It has quickly evolved and improved so that the calculation of the key components of NMR interactions, namely the shielding and electric field gradient tensors, has now become a routine for most of the common nuclei studied in NMR. Availability of reliable implementations in several software packages (CASTEP, Quantum Espresso, PARATEC) make its usage more and more increasingly popular, maybe indispensable in near future for all material NMR studies. The majority of nuclei of the periodic table have already been investigated by GIPAW, and because of its high accuracy it is quickly becoming an essential tool for interpreting and understanding experimental NMR spectra, providing reliable assignments of the observed resonances to crystallographic sites or enabling a priori prediction of NMR data. The continuous increase of computing power makes ever larger (and thus more realistic) systems amenable to first-principles analysis. In the near future perspectives, as the incorporation of dynamical effects and/or disorder are still at their early developments, these areas will certainly be the prime target.

  8. Freezing of Molecular Motions Probed by Cryogenic Magic Angle Spinning NMR.

    PubMed

    Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Borsacchi, Silvia; Johannessen, Ole G; Mennucci, Benedetta; Yang, Yifeng; Geppi, Marco; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2014-02-06

    Cryogenic magic angle spinning makes it possible to obtain the NMR spectra of solids at temperatures low enough to freeze out most molecular motions. We have applied cryogenic magic angle spinning NMR to a crystalline small-molecule solid (ibuprofen sodium salt), which displays a variety of molecular dynamics. Magic angle (13)C NMR spectra are shown for a wide range of temperatures, including in the cryogenic regime down to 20 K. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of the molecular structure display different behavior in the cryogenic regime, with the hydrophilic region remaining well-structured, while the hydrophobic region exhibits a broad frozen conformational distribution.

  9. Enhancing NMR of insensitive nuclei by transfer of SABRE spin hyperpolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Zimmermann, Herbert; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the performance of methods for enhancing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signals of "insensitive", but important NMR nuclei, which are based on the SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) technique, i.e., on spin order transfer from parahydrogen (H2 molecule in its nuclear singlet spin state) to a substrate in a transient organometallic complex. Here such transfer is performed at high magnetic fields by INEPT-type NMR pulse sequences, modified for SABRE. Signal enhancements up to three orders of magnitude are obtained for 15N nuclei; the possibility of sensitive detection of 2D-NMR 1H-15N spectra of SABRE complexes and substrates is demonstrated.

  10. NMR study of mesomorphic solutions of cellulose derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dayan, S.; Fried, F.; Gilli, J.M.; Sixou, P.

    1983-01-01

    Highly concentrated solutions of hydroxypropylcellulose and cellulose acetate give mesomorphic phases in a precise range of temperatures and concentrations. The existence of an orientational anisotropy in such solutions induces typical parameters of the high-resolution NMR spectra (chemical shift, splitting) that are similar to those of liquid crystal spectra. In the present work, the high-resolution NMR spectra of nuclei belonging to the solute molecules (D/sub 2/O and trifluoroacetic acid) were recorded as a function of various physical parameters such as temperature, concentration, and temporal change of the solutions. The specific variation of the orientational degree of order for each mesophase is described. In the case of the cellulose acetate/trifluoroacetic acid solution, an order parameter is calculated and a model for the orientational organization of the solution is described. 34 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Analysis of Radiation Induced Degradation in FPC-461 Fluoropolymers by Variable Temperature Multinuclear NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Wilson, T S; Maxwell, R S

    2004-10-27

    Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been used to investigate aging mechanisms in a vinyl chloride:chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer, FPC-461, due to exposure to {gamma}-radiation. Solid state {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra revealed structural changes of the polymer upon irradiation under both air and nitrogen atmospheres. Considerable degradation is seen with {sup 1}H NMR in the vinyl chloride region of the polymer, particularly in the samples irradiated in air. {sup 19}F MAS NMR was used to investigate speciation in the chlorotrifluoroethylene blocks, though negligible changes were seen. {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR at elevated temperature revealed increased segmental mobility and decreased structural heterogeneity within the polymer, yielding significant resolution enhancement over room temperature solid state detection. The effects of multi-site exchange are manifest in both the {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR spectra as a line broadening and change in peak position as a function of temperature.

  12. [Proton magnetic resonance spectra of bound water in muscles].

    PubMed