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Sample records for 2h solid state

  1. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  2. High-resolution solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy of polymorphs of glycine.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Rahman, Aisha S; McMillan, Paul F; Corà, Furio; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-11-10

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H MAS NMR studies of the α and γ polymorphs of fully deuterated glycine (glycine-d(5)) are reported. Analysis of spinning sideband patterns is used to determine the (2)H quadrupole interaction parameters, and is shown to yield good agreement with the corresponding parameters determined from single-crystal (2)H NMR measurements (the maximum deviation in quadrupole coupling constants determined from these two approaches is only 1%). From analysis of simulated (2)H MAS NMR sideband patterns as a function of reorientational jump frequency (κ) for the -N(+)D(3) group in glycine-d(5), the experimentally observed differences in the (2)H MAS NMR spectrum for the -N(+)D(3) deutrons in the α and γ polymorphs is attributed to differences in the rate of reorientation of the -N(+)D(3) group. These simulations show severe broadening of the (2)H MAS NMR signal in the intermediate motion regime, suggesting that deuterons undergoing reorientational motions at rates in the range κ ≈ 10(4)-10(6) s(-1) are likely to be undetectable in (2)H MAS NMR measurements for materials with natural isotopic abundances. The (1)H NMR chemical shifts for the α and γ polymorphs of glycine have been determined from the (2)H MAS NMR results, taking into account the known second-order shift. Further quantum mechanical calculations of (2)H quadrupole interaction parameters and (1)H chemical shifts reveal the structural dependence of these parameters in the two polymorphs and suggest that the existence of two short intermolecular C-H···O contacts for one of the H atoms of the >CH(2) group in the α polymorph have a significant influence on the (2)H quadrupole coupling and (1)H chemical shift for this site. PMID:21939265

  3. Low-temperature solid-state phase transformations in 2H silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Single crystals of 2H SiC were observed to undergo phase transformations at temperatures as low as 400 C. Some 2H crystals transformed to a structure with one-dimensional disorder along the crystal c axis. Others transformed to a faulted cubic/6H structure. The transformation is time and temperature dependent and is greatly enhanced by dislocations. Observations indicate that the transformation takes place by means of a slip process perpendicular to the c axis. Cubic SiC crystals were observed to undergo a solid state transformation above 1400 C.

  4. Low-temperature solid-state phase transformations in 2H silicon carbide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.; Will, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the phase transformations taking place in 2H SiC single crystals at temperatures as low as 400 C. Some crystals transformed to a structure with one-dimensional disorder along the crystal c axis. Others transformed to a faulted cubic/6H structure. The transformation is time and temperature dependent, and is greatly enhanced by dislocations. The transformation takes place by means of a slip process perpendicular to the c axis. Cubic SiC crystals were observed to undergo a solid-state transformation above 1400 C.

  5. Grasping hydrogen adsorption and dynamics in metal-organic frameworks using (2)H solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Bryan E G; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Kelly J; Lu, Yuanjun; Huang, Yining

    2016-06-18

    Record greenhouse gas emissions have spurred the search for clean energy sources such as hydrogen (H2) fuel cells. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising H2 adsorption and storage media, but knowledge of H2 dynamics and adsorption strengths in these materials is lacking. Variable-temperature (VT) (2)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments targeting (2)H2 gas (i.e., D2) shed light on D2 adsorption and dynamics within six representative MOFs: UiO-66, M-MOF-74 (M = Zn, Mg, Ni), and α-M3(COOH)6 (M = Mg, Zn). D2 binding is relatively strong in Mg-MOF-74, Ni-MOF-74, α-Mg3(COOH)6, and α-Zn3(COOH)6, giving rise to broad (2)H SSNMR powder patterns. In contrast, D2 adsorption is weaker in UiO-66 and Zn-MOF-74, as evidenced by the narrow (2)H resonances that correspond to rapid reorientation of the D2 molecules. Employing (2)H SSNMR experiments in this fashion holds great promise for the correlation of MOF structural features and functional groups/metal centers to H2 dynamics and host-guest interactions. PMID:27181834

  6. Solid State 2H NMR Analysis of Furanose Ring Dynamics in DNA Containing Uracil

    PubMed Central

    Kinde-Carson, Monica N.; Ferguson, Crystal; Oyler, Nathan A.; Harbison, Gerard S.; Meints, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage has been implicated in numerous human diseases, particularly cancer, and the aging process. Single-base lesions, such as uracil, in DNA can be cytotoxic or mutagenic and are recognized by a DNA glycosylase during the process of base excision repair. Increased dynamic properties in lesion-containing DNAs have been suggested to assist recognition and specificity. Deuterium solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) has been used to directly observe local dynamics of the furanose ring within a uracil: adenine (U:A) base pair and compared to a normal thymine:adenine (T:A) base pair. Quadrupole echo lineshapes, ⟨T1Z⟩, and ⟨T2e⟩ relaxation data were collected, and computer modeling was performed. The results indicate that the relaxation times are identical within the experimental error, the solid lineshapes are essentially indistinguishable above the noise level, and our lineshapes are best fit with a model that does not have significant local motions. Therefore, U:A base pair furanose rings appear to have essentially identical dynamic properties as a normal T:A base pair, and the local dynamics of the furanose ring are unlikely to be the sole arbiter for uracil recognition and specificity in U:A base pairs. PMID:20151717

  7. Hydration properties of regioselectively etherified celluloses monitored by 2H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Flemming H; Schöbitz, Michael; Schaller, Jens

    2012-06-20

    The hydration properties of 2,3-O-hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and 2,3-O-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were analyzed by multi-nuclear solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. By 13C single-pulse (SP) MAS and cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, differences between the immobile regions and all parts of the polysaccharides were detected as a function of hydration. Complementary information about the water environments was observed by 2H MAS NMR. By this approach it was demonstrated that side chains in 2,3-O-HPC and 2,3-O-HEC were easier to hydrate than the cellulose backbone. Furthermore the motion of water was more restricted (slower) in 2,3-O-HPC than in 2,3-O-HEC. For both polysaccharides the hydration could be explained by a two-step process: in step one increased ordering of the immobile regions occurs after which the entire polymer is hydrated in step two.

  8. Selective photochemistry at stereogenic metal and ligand centers of cis-[Ru(diphosphine)2(H)2]: preparative, NMR, solid state, and laser flash studies.

    PubMed

    Câmpian, Marius V; Perutz, Robin N; Procacci, Barbara; Thatcher, Robert J; Torres, Olga; Whitwood, Adrian C

    2012-02-22

    Three ruthenium complexes Λ-[cis-Ru((R,R)-Me-BPE)(2)(H)(2)] Λ-R,R-Ru1H(2), Δ-[cis-Ru((S,S)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(H)(2)] Δ-S,S-Ru2H(2), and Λ-[cis-Ru((R,R)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(H)(2)] Λ-R,R-Ru2H(2) (1 = (Me-BPE)(2), 2 = (Me-DuPHOS)(2)) were characterized by multinuclear NMR and CD spectroscopy in solution and by X-ray crystallography. The chiral ligands allow the full control of stereochemistry and enable mechanistic studies not otherwise available. Oxidative addition of E-H bonds (E = H, B, Si, C) was studied by steady state and laser flash photolysis in the presence of substrates. Steady state photolysis shows formation of single products with one stereoisomer. Solid state structures and circular dichroism spectra reveal a change in configuration at ruthenium for some Δ-S,S-Ru2H(2)/Λ-R,R-Ru2H(2) photoproducts from Λ to Δ (or vice versa) while the configuration for Λ-R,R-Ru1H(2) products remains unchanged as Λ. The X-ray structure of silyl hydride photoproducts suggests a residual H(1)···Si(1) interaction for Δ-[cis-Ru((R,R)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(Et(2)SiH)(H)] and Δ-[cis-Ru((R,R)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(PhSiH(2))(H)] but not for their Ru(R,R-BPE)(2) analogues. Molecular structures were also determined for Λ-[cis-Ru((R,R)-Me-BPE)(2)(Bpin)(H)], Λ-[Ru((S,S)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(η(2)-C(2)H(4))], Δ-[Ru((R,R)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(η(2)-C(2)H(4))], and trans-[Ru((R,R)-Me-DuPHOS)(2)(C(6)F(5))(H)]. In situ laser photolysis in the presence of p-H(2) generates hyperpolarized NMR spectra because of magnetically inequivalent hydrides; these experiments and low temperature photolysis with D(2) reveal that the loss of hydride ligands is concerted. The reaction intermediates [Ru(DuPHOS)(2)] and [Ru(BPE)(2)] were detected by laser flash photolysis and have spectra consistent with approximate square-planar Ru(0) structures. The rates of their reactions with H(2), D(2), HBpin, and PhSiH(3) were measured by transient kinetics. Rate constants are significantly faster for [Ru(BPE)(2)] than for [Ru(DuPHOS)(2

  9. Short hydrogen bonds in salts of dicarboxylic acids; structural correlations from solid-state 13C and 2H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsbeek, Nicoline; Schaumburg, Kjeld; Larsen, Sine

    1993-10-01

    Solid-state 13C and 2H NMR spectra are found to very suitable for characterizing the short Osbnd H...O hydrogen bonds observed in acid salts of dicarboxylic acids. The majority of the investigated compounds are acid salts of malonic, succinic and tartaric acid with monovalent cations derived from alkali metals and small aliphatic amines. They include systems with symmetric and asymmetric hydrogen bonds. Accurate structural information about their geometry is available from low-temperature X-ray diffraction data. The 13C chemical shifts of the C atoms in the different carboxy groups display a linear variation with the absolute difference between the two Csbnd O bond lengths. Theoretical ab initio calculations for model systems showed that the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant NQCC for 2H increases with increasing asymmetry of the hydrogen-bonded system. NQCC values for 2H in the short symmetric hydrogen-bonded systems are in the range 53-59 kHz compared with the larger values of up to 166kHz found in systems with longer asymmetric hydrogen bonds. The 2H NQCC values display a perfect linear dependence on the asymmetry of the hydrogen bond. 2H NQCC decreases with decreasing temperature in the symmetric hydrogen bonds showing that the corresponding potential has a single well.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of solid C2H4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shao-mu; Eyring, Henry

    1979-01-01

    The significant structures procedure of liquids has been used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of solid C2H4. Two degeneracy terms were used to describe the behavior in the vicinities of the two phase transitions. The calculated entropy and specific heat agree well with experimental results from a few kelvins to the melting point. Less satisfactory agreement is obtained for compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients. This simple model represents surprisingly well the phase transitions in the solid state. PMID:16592659

  11. Capturing Guest Dynamics in Metal-Organic Framework CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) by (2)H Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Sinelnikov, Regina; Huang, Yining

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising porous materials for gas separation and storage as well as sensing. In particular, a series of isostructural MOFs with coordinately unsaturated metal centers, namely, CPO-27-M or M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), have shown exceptional adsorption capacity and selectivity compared to those of classical MOFs that contain only fully coordinated metal sites. Although it is widely accepted that the interaction between guest molecules and exposed metal centers is responsible for good selectivity and large maximum uptake, the investigation of such guest-metal interaction is very challenging because adsorbed molecules are usually disordered in the pores and undergo rapid thermal motions. (2)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is one of the most extensively used techniques for capturing guest dynamics in porous materials. In this work, variable-temperature (2)H wide-line SSNMR experiments were performed on CPO-27-M (M = Mg, Zn) loaded with four prototypical guest molecules: D2O, CD3CN, acetone-d6, and C6D6. The results indicate that different guest molecules possess distinct dynamic behaviors inside the channel of CPO-27-M. For a given guest molecule, its dynamic behavior also depends on the nature of the metal centers. The binding strength of guest molecules is discussed on the basis of the (2)H SSNMR data.

  12. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid-state

  13. The interaction of cannabinoid receptor agonists, CP55940 and WIN55212-2 with membranes using solid state 2H NMR

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Pavlopoulos, Spiro; Yang, De-Ping; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Two key commonly used cannabinergic agonists, CP55940 and WIN55212-2, are investigated for their effects on the lipid membrane bilayer using 2H solid state NMR, and the results are compared with our earlier work with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). To study the effects of these ligands we used hydrated bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) deuterated at the 2′ and 16′ positions of both acyl chains with deuterium atoms serving as probes for the dynamic and phase changes at the membrane interface and at the bilayer center respectively. All three cannabinergic ligands lower the phospholipid membrane phase transition temperature, increase the lipid sn-2 chain order parameter at the membrane interface and decrease the order at the center of the bilayer. Our studies show that the cannabinoid ligands induce lateral phase separation in the lipid membrane at physiological temperatures. During the lipid membrane phase transition, the cooperative dynamic process whereby the C-2H segments at the interface and center of the bilayer spontaneously reach the fast exchange regime (2H NMR timescale) is distinctively modulated by the two cannabinoids. Specifically, CP55940 is slightly more efficient at inducing liquid crystalline-type 2H NMR spectral features at the membrane interface compared to WIN55212-2. In contrast, WIN55212-2 has a far superior ability to induce liquid crystalline-type spectral features at the center of the bilayer, and it increases the order parameter of the sn-1 chain in addition to the sn-2 chain of the lipids. These observations suggest the cannabinoid ligands may influence lipid membrane domain formations and there may be contributions to their cannabinergic activities through lipid membrane microdomain related mechanisms. Our work demonstrates that experimental design strategies utilizing specifically deuterium labeled lipids yield more detailed insights concerning the properties of lipid bilayers. PMID:21129361

  14. Effects of pH and cholesterol on DMPA membranes: a solid state 2H- and 31P-NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Pott, T; Maillet, J C; Dufourc, E J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of pH and cholesterol on the dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) model membrane system has been investigated by solid state 2H- and 31P-NMR. It has been shown that each of the three protonation states of the DMPA molecule corresponds to a 31P-NMR powder pattern with characteristic delta sigma values; this implies additionally that the proton exchange on the membrane surface is slow on the NMR time scale (millisecond range). Under these conditions, the 2H-labeled lipid chains sense only one magnetic environment, indicating that the three spectra detected by 31P-NMR are related to charge-dependent local dynamics or orientations of the phosphate headgroup or both. Chain ordering in the fluid phase is also found to depend weakly on the charge at the interface. In addition, it has also been found that the first pK of the DMPA membrane is modified by changes in the lipid lateral packing (gel or fluid phases or in the presence of cholesterol) in contrast to the second pK. The incorporation of 30 mol% cholesterol affects the phosphatidic acid bilayer in a way similar to what has been reported for phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol membranes, but to an extent comparable to 10-20 mol % sterol in phosphatidylcholines. However, the orientation and molecular order parameter of cholesterol in DMPA are similar to those found in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. PMID:8580333

  15. Formation of Al2H7- anions--indirect evidence of volatile AlH3 on sodium alanate using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Zibrowius, Bodo

    2011-10-14

    After more than a decade of intense research on NaAlH(4) doped with transition metals as hydrogen storage material, the actual mechanism of the decomposition and rehydrogenation reaction is still unclear. Early on, monomeric AlH(3) was named as a possible transport shuttle for aluminium, but never observed experimentally. Here we report for the first time the trapping of volatile AlH(3) produced during the decomposition of undoped NaAlH(4) by an adduct of sodium alanate and crown ether. The resulting Al(2)H(7)(-) anion was identified by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy. Based on this indirect evidence of volatile alane, we present a simple description of the processes occurring during the reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4). PMID:21879065

  16. The investigation of membrane binding by amphibian peptide agonists of CCK2R using (31)P and (2)H solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Patrick J; Separovic, Frances; Bowie, John H

    2014-05-01

    It has been proposed that some neuropeptides may be anchored to the cell membranes prior to attaching to the adjacent active sites of transmembrane receptors. The three amphibian skin neuropeptides signiferin 1 [RLCIPYIIPC(OH)] (smooth muscle active and immunomodulator), riparin 1.1 [[RLCIPVIFPC(OH)] (immunomodulator) and rothein 1 [SVSNIPESIGF(OH)] (immunomodulator) act via CCK2 transmembrane receptors. A combination of (31)P and (2)H solid state NMR studies of each of these three peptides in eukaryotic phospholipid models at 25°C shows that rothein 1 does not interact with the membrane at all. In contrast, both of the cyclic disulfides signiferin 1 and riparin 1.1 interact with phospholipid head groups and partially penetrate into the upper leaflet of the model bilayer, but to different extents. These interactions are not sufficiently effective to cause disruption of the lipid bilayer since the peptides are not antimicrobial, anticancer, antifungal nor active against enveloped viruses. PMID:24582625

  17. Action of melittin on the DPPC-cholesterol liquid-ordered phase: a solid state 2H-and 31P-NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Pott, T; Dufourc, E J

    1995-01-01

    Solid-state deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of deuterium-labeled beta--[2,2',3,4,4',6-2H6]-cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine have been undertaken to monitor the action of melittin on model membranes containing 30 mol% cholesterol, both at the molecular and macroscopic level. Cholesterol totally inhibits the toxin-triggered formation of large unilamellar vesicles and strongly restricts the appearance of small discs. The latter remain stable over a wide temperature range (20-60 degrees C) because of an increase in their cholesterol content as the temperature increases. This process is related to a constant disc hydrophobic thickness of approximately 29 A. The system, when not in the form of discs, appears to be composed of very large vesicles on which melittin promotes magnetically induced ellipsoidal deformation. This deformation is the greatest when the maximum of discs is observed. A model to describe both the disc formation and stability is proposed. PMID:7756559

  18. Solid state decomposition studies on fluoroperoxo species of transition metals. IV. Photodecomposition of K 3Zr 2(O 2) 2F 7 · 2H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jere, G. V.; Kaushik, S. M.

    1980-07-01

    The kinetics of photodecomposition of solid K 3Zr 2(O 2) 2F 7 · 2H 2O have been studied under vacuum as a function of intensity and temperature by measuring the evolved oxygen with the help of a McLeod Gauge. Pressure-time curves are parabolic in nature and the data fit the empirical equation p = kt {1}/{2}. The rate of photodecomposition is a linear function of intensity. The activation energy determined from an Arrhenius plot, in the temperature range 15-55°C, of the title compound is 2.15 kcal mole -1 (9.00 kJ mole -1).

  19. The C2H2-type transcription factor, FlbC, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of Aspergillus oryzae glucoamylase and protease genes specifically expressed in solid-state culture.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Yoshimura, Midori; Ogawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Yasuji; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a large amount of secreted proteins in solid-state culture, and some proteins such as glucoamylase (GlaB) and acid protease (PepA) are specifically produced in solid-state culture, but rarely in submerged culture. From the disruption mutant library of A. oryzae transcriptional regulators, we successfully identified a disruption mutant showing an extremely low production level of GlaB but a normal level of α-amylase production. This strain was a disruption mutant of the C2H2-type transcription factor, FlbC, which is reported to be involved in the regulation of conidiospore development. Disruption mutants of other upstream regulators comprising a conidiation regulatory network had no apparent effect on GlaB production in solid-state culture. In addition to GlaB, the production of acid protease in solid-state culture was also markedly decreased by flbC disruption. Northern blot analyses revealed that transcripts of glaB and pepA were significantly decreased in the flbC disruption strain. These results suggested that FlbC is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes specifically expressed under solid-state cultivation conditions, possibly independent of the conidiation regulatory network.

  20. Unprecedented solid-state chemical reaction-from (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}Oto(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. From centrosymmetric to non-centrosymmetric crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Gagor, A.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2010-12-15

    Tris(imidazolium) hexabromoantimonate(III) hydrate, (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O, (abbreviated as TIBA) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray (at 295, 225, 160, and 110 K), differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, and dielectric spectroscopy. At room temperature (phase I), the structure consists of discrete SbB{sub 6}{sup -} anions, disordered imidazolium cations, and water molecules forming a 3D array of hydrogen bonds. Below room temperature, TIBA was found to undergo isostructural discontinuous phase transition at 212/221 K (cooling-heating) (P2{sub 1}/c{r_reversible}P2{sub 1}/c). The phase transition mechanism is characterized by two contributions: an order-disorder (cationic substructure) and a displacive (water molecules) one. At high temperatures, the TIBA crystal was found to undergo an unprecedented in situ solid-state chemical reaction: (1)2(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O{sub (S)}{yields}(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11(S)}+(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5})Br{sub (S)}+2H{sub 2}O This chemical transformation leads to multiphase crystallites dominated by an amorphous phase of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. The creation of ferroelectric crystallites - (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} - in an 'annealed' sample of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O was confirmed by X-ray diffraction phase analysis, dielectric spectroscopy, and pyroelectric measurements. The dielectric response of the electric permittivity and the critical slowing down of the process observed near 140 K in the 'annealed' sample of TIBA are treated as a 'fingerprint' of a neat (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} ferroelectric. -- Graphical Abstract: Chemical reaction taking place in (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O at 328 K. Display Omitted

  1. Multiple locations of peptides in the hydrocarbon core of gel-phase membranes revealed by peptide (13)C to lipid (2)H rotational-echo double-resonance solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Weliky, David P

    2015-01-27

    Membrane locations of peptides and proteins are often critical to their functions. Solid-state rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to probe the locations of two peptides via peptide (13)CO to lipid (2)H distance measurements. The peptides are KALP, an α-helical membrane-spanning peptide, and HFP, the β-sheet N-terminal fusion peptide of the HIV gp41 fusion protein that plays an important role in HIV-host cell membrane fusion. Both peptides are shown to have at least two distinct locations within the hydrocarbon core of gel-phase membranes. The multiple locations are attributed to snorkeling of lysine side chains for KALP and to the distribution of antiparallel β-sheet registries for HFP. The relative population of each location is also quantitated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clear experimental support of multiple peptide locations within the membrane hydrocarbon core. These data are for gel-phase membranes, but the approach should work for liquid-ordered membranes containing cholesterol and may be applicable to liquid-disordered membranes with appropriate additional analysis to take into account protein and lipid motion. This paper also describes the methodological development of (13)CO-(2)H REDOR using the lyophilized I4 peptide that is α-helical and (13)CO-labeled at A9 and (2)Hα-labeled at A8. The I4 spins are well-approximated as an ensemble of isolated (13)CO-(2)H spin pairs each separated by 5.0 Å with a 37 Hz dipolar coupling. A pulse sequence with rectangular 100 kHz (2)H π pulses results in rapid and extensive buildup of REDOR (ΔS/S0) with a dephasing time (τ). The buildup is well-fit by a simple exponential function with a rate of 24 Hz and an extent close to 1. These parameter values reflect nonradiative transitions between the (2)H spin states during the dephasing period. Each spin pair spends approximately two-thirds of its time in the (13)CO-(2)H (m = ±1) states and

  2. Protein Dynamics in the Solid State from 2H NMR Line Shape Analysis. II. MOMD Applied to C–D and C–CD3 Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium line shape analysis from mobile C–D and C–CD3 groups has emerged as a particularly useful tool for studying dynamics in the solid state. The theoretical models devised so far consist typically of sets of independent dynamic modes. Each such mode is simple and usually case-specific. In this scenario, model improvement entails adding yet another mode (thereby changing the overall model), comparison of different cases is difficult, and ambiguity is unavoidable. We recently developed the microscopic order macroscopic disorder (MOMD) approach as a single-mode alternative. In MOMD, the local spatial restrictions are expressed by an anisotropic potential, the local motion by a diffusion tensor, and the local molecular geometry by relative (magnetic and model-related) tensor orientations, all of adjustable symmetry. This approach provides a consistent method of analysis, thus resolving the issues above. In this study, we apply MOMD to PS-adsorbed LKα14 peptide and dimethylammonium tetraphenylborate (C–CD3 and N–CD3 dynamics, respectively), as well as HhaI methyltransferase target DNA and phase III of benzene-6-hexanoate (C–D dynamics). The success with fitting these four disparate cases, as well as the two cases in the previous report, demonstrates the generality of this MOMD-based approach. In this study, C–D and C–CD3 are both found to execute axial diffusion (rates R⊥ and R∥) in the presence of a rhombic potential given by the L = 2 spherical harmonics (coefficients c02 and c22). R⊥ (R∥) is in the 102–103 (104–105) s–1 range, and c02 and c22 are on the order of 2–3 kBT. Specific parameter values are determined for each mobile site. The diffusion and quadrupolar tensors are tilted at either 120° (consistent with trans–gauche isomerization) or nearly 110.5° (consistent with methyl exchange). Future prospects include extension of the MOMD formalism to include MAS, and application to 15N and 13C nuclei. PMID:26402431

  3. Single-crystal XRD and solid-state NMR structural resolution of a layered fluorinated gallium phosphate: RbGa3(PO4)(2)(HPO4)F4·C5N2H16·2H2O (MIL-145).

    PubMed

    Martineau, Charlotte; Loiseau, Thierry; Beitone, Lionel; Férey, Gérard; Bouchevreau, Boris; Taulelle, Francis

    2013-01-14

    A new two-dimensional fluorinated gallium phosphate RbGa(3)(PO(4))(2)(HPO(4))F(4)·C(5)N(2)H(16)·2H(2)O (MIL-145) has been hydrothermally synthesized (180 °C for 36 h) in the presence of 1,5-diaminopentane and rubidium fluoride. Its structural model has been determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure contains corrugated infinite ribbons of GaO(3)F(3) and GaO(4)F(2) octahedra linked through edge- and corner-sharing mode via fluoride anions. These chains are then connected to each other via phosphate groups to create a layered network delimiting 6-ring channels trapping rubidium cations. The inorganic sheets are intercalated by diprotonated 1,5-diaminopentane and water molecules, ensuring the three-dimensional cohesion via hydrogen bond scheme. (1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (87)Rb solid-state NMR spectra show the presence of two inequivalent amines as well as two Rb cations, confirming the choice of the space group, which was ambiguous from the diffraction data. (71)Ga NMR spectra, acquired at several magnetic fields, contain two different sets of Ga signals, corresponding to the two types of gallium environments in the structure. One-dimensional (19)F and (31)P and (19)F-(31)P two-dimensional NMR experiments have been recorded, which are in full agreement with the proposed structural model. Finally, possible assignments of the (19)F and (31)P resonances to the crystallographic sites in RbGa(3)(PO(4))(2)(HPO(4))F(4)·C(5)N(2)H(16)·2H(2)O have been determined by comparing adjacency matrices build-up from 2D NMR correlation spectra and from the structural data. PMID:23069866

  4. Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Properties of H(2) Binding in Solid State Dihydrogen Complexes [M(η(2)-H(2))(CO)dppe(2)][BArF(24)] (M = Mn, Tc, Re): an Experimental and First Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Abrecht, David G; Fultz, Brent

    2012-10-25

    The solid state complex [Mn(CO)dppe(2)][BArF(24)] was synthesized and the thermodynamic behavior and properties of the hydrogen absorption reaction to form the dihydrogen complex [Mn(η(2)-H(2))dppe(2)][BArF(24)] were measured over the temperature range 313K-373K and pressure range 0-600 torr using the Sieverts method. The absorption behavior was accurately described by Langmuir isotherms, and enthalpy and entropy values of ΔH(∘)=-52.2 kJ/mol and ΔS(∘)=-99.6 J/mol-K for the absorption reaction were obtained from the Langmuir equilibrium constant. The observed binding strength was similar to metal hydrides and other organometallic complexes, despite rapid kinetics suggesting a site-binding mechanism similar to physisorption materials. Electronic structure calculations using the LANL2DZ-ECP basis set were performed for hydrogen absorption over the organometallic fragments [M(CO)dppe(2)](+) (M= Mn, Tc, Re). Langmuir isotherms derived from calculation for absorption onto the manganese fragment successfully simulated both the pressure-composition behavior and thermodynamic properties obtained from experiment. Results from calculations for the substitution of the metal center reproduced qualitative binding strength trends of 5d > 3d > 4d previously reported for the group 6 metals. PMID:23243479

  5. Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Properties of H(2) Binding in Solid State Dihydrogen Complexes [M(η(2)-H(2))(CO)dppe(2)][BArF(24)] (M = Mn, Tc, Re): an Experimental and First Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Abrecht, David G; Fultz, Brent

    2012-10-25

    The solid state complex [Mn(CO)dppe(2)][BArF(24)] was synthesized and the thermodynamic behavior and properties of the hydrogen absorption reaction to form the dihydrogen complex [Mn(η(2)-H(2))dppe(2)][BArF(24)] were measured over the temperature range 313K-373K and pressure range 0-600 torr using the Sieverts method. The absorption behavior was accurately described by Langmuir isotherms, and enthalpy and entropy values of ΔH(∘)=-52.2 kJ/mol and ΔS(∘)=-99.6 J/mol-K for the absorption reaction were obtained from the Langmuir equilibrium constant. The observed binding strength was similar to metal hydrides and other organometallic complexes, despite rapid kinetics suggesting a site-binding mechanism similar to physisorption materials. Electronic structure calculations using the LANL2DZ-ECP basis set were performed for hydrogen absorption over the organometallic fragments [M(CO)dppe(2)](+) (M= Mn, Tc, Re). Langmuir isotherms derived from calculation for absorption onto the manganese fragment successfully simulated both the pressure-composition behavior and thermodynamic properties obtained from experiment. Results from calculations for the substitution of the metal center reproduced qualitative binding strength trends of 5d > 3d > 4d previously reported for the group 6 metals.

  6. Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Properties of H2 Binding in Solid State Dihydrogen Complexes [M(η2-H2)(CO)dppe2][BArF24] (M = Mn, Tc, Re): an Experimental and First Principles Study

    PubMed Central

    Abrecht, David G.; Fultz, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The solid state complex [Mn(CO)dppe2][BArF24] was synthesized and the thermodynamic behavior and properties of the hydrogen absorption reaction to form the dihydrogen complex [Mn(η2-H2)dppe2][BArF24] were measured over the temperature range 313K-373K and pressure range 0–600 torr using the Sieverts method. The absorption behavior was accurately described by Langmuir isotherms, and enthalpy and entropy values of ΔH∘=−52.2 kJ/mol and ΔS∘=−99.6 J/mol-K for the absorption reaction were obtained from the Langmuir equilibrium constant. The observed binding strength was similar to metal hydrides and other organometallic complexes, despite rapid kinetics suggesting a site-binding mechanism similar to physisorption materials. Electronic structure calculations using the LANL2DZ-ECP basis set were performed for hydrogen absorption over the organometallic fragments [M(CO)dppe2]+ (M= Mn, Tc, Re). Langmuir isotherms derived from calculation for absorption onto the manganese fragment successfully simulated both the pressure-composition behavior and thermodynamic properties obtained from experiment. Results from calculations for the substitution of the metal center reproduced qualitative binding strength trends of 5d > 3d > 4d previously reported for the group 6 metals. PMID:23243479

  7. Spin-State Effects on the Thermal Dihydrogen Release from Solid-State [MH(η2-H2)dppe2]+ (M = Fe, Ru, Os) Organometallic Complexes for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, experimental thermodynamic measurements, and computational studies were performed to investigate the properties of molecular hydrogen binding to the organometallic fragments [MHdppe2]+ (M = Fe, Ru, Os; dppe =1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) to form the dihydrogen complex fragments [MH(η2-H2)dppe2]+. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the dehydrogenated complex [FeHdppe2]+ adopts a geometry consistent with the triplet spin state, transitioning to a singlet state complex upon addition of the dihydrogen molecule in a manner similar to the previously studied dinitrogen complexes. From simulations, this spin transition behavior was found to be responsible for the strong binding behavior experimentally observed in the iron complex. Spin-singlet to spin-singlet transitions were found to exhibit thermodynamics consistent with the 5d > 3d > 4d binding trend observed for other transition metal dihydrogen complexes. Finally, the method for distinguishing between dihydrogen and dihydride complexes based on partial quadrupole splittings observed in Mössbauer spectra was confirmed, providing a tool for further characterization of these unique species for Mössbauer active compounds. PMID:24803973

  8. Spin-State Effects on the Thermal Dihydrogen Release from Solid-State [MH(η(2)-H 2)dppe2](+) (M = Fe, Ru, Os) Organometallic Complexes for Hydrogen Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Abrecht, David G; Muñoz, Jorge A; Smith, Hillary L; Fultz, Brent

    2014-01-30

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, experimental thermodynamic measurements, and computational studies were performed to investigate the properties of molecular hydrogen binding to the organometallic fragments [MHdppe2](+) (M = Fe, Ru, Os; dppe =1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) to form the dihydrogen complex fragments [MH(η(2)-H2)dppe2](+). Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the dehydrogenated complex [FeHdppe2](+) adopts a geometry consistent with the triplet spin state, transitioning to a singlet state complex upon addition of the dihydrogen molecule in a manner similar to the previously studied dinitrogen complexes. From simulations, this spin transition behavior was found to be responsible for the strong binding behavior experimentally observed in the iron complex. Spin-singlet to spin-singlet transitions were found to exhibit thermodynamics consistent with the 5d > 3d > 4d binding trend observed for other transition metal dihydrogen complexes. Finally, the method for distinguishing between dihydrogen and dihydride complexes based on partial quadrupole splittings observed in Mössbauer spectra was confirmed, providing a tool for further characterization of these unique species for Mössbauer active compounds.

  9. Dynamics of molecular hydrogen in the complex trans-(Fe(. eta. sup 2 -H sub 2 )(H)(PPh sub 2 CH sub 2 CH sub 2 PPh sub 2 ) sub 2 )BF sub 4 in the solid state as revealed by neutron-scattering experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J.; Blank, H. ); Bautista, M.T.; Morris, R.H. )

    1990-02-21

    The vibrational spectrum of the Fe({sup eta}{sup 2}-H{sub 2})H fragment in trans-(FeH(H{sub 2})(PPh{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2})BF{sub 4} has been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering in the range 200-1,000 cm{sup {minus}1}. High-resolution neutron spectroscopy was also utilized to observe the rotational tunnel splitting of the librational ground state of the dihydrogen ligand at 2.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. This and the torsional transitions assigned at 225 and 255 cm{sup {minus}1} are consistent with a modulated double-minimum potential for rotation with one angular degree of freedom. The resulting barrier to rotation of about 2.3 kcal/mol is discussed in terms of its origin in electronic and steric factors and compared with similar results on other molecular hydrogen complexes. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Solid-State NMR Study of Paramagnetic Bis(alaninato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) and Bis(1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) Complexes: Reflection of Stereoisomerism and Molecular Mobility in (13)C and (2)H Fast Magic Angle Spinning Spectra.

    PubMed

    Szalontai, Gábor; Csonka, Róbert; Speier, Gábor; Kaizer, József; Sabolović, Jasmina

    2015-05-18

    Solid-state stereochemistry and mobility of paramagnetic copper(II) complexes formed by aliphatic amino acids (l-alanine, d,l-alanine, 1-amino-2-methyl-alanine) and 1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylic acids (alkane = propane, butane, pentane, hexane) as bidentate ligands has been studied by (13)C and (2)H solid-state fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. We examined the prospective method to characterize solid-state paramagnetic compounds in a routine way. Both (13)C and (2)H MAS spectra can distinguish d,l and l,l diastereomers of natural and polydeuterated bis([Dn]alaninato)copper(II) (n = 0, 2, 8) complexes with axial and/or equatorial methyl positions (conformations) primarily due to different Fermi-contact (FC) contributions. The three-bond hyperfine couplings clearly show Karplus-like dependence on the torsional angles which turned out to be a useful assignment aid. Density functional theory calculations of the FC term and crystal structures were also used to aid the final assignments. The correlations obtained for bis(alaninato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) complexes were successfully used to characterize other complexes. The usefulness of the (2)H MAS spectra of the deuterated complexes was underlined. Even the spectra of the easily exchangeable amine protons contained essential stereochemical information. In the case of a dimer structure of bis(1-aminohexane-1-carboxylato-κ(2)N,O)copper(II) both the (13)C and (2)H resolutions were good enough to confirm the presence of the cis and trans forms in the asymmetric unit. With regard to the internal solid-state motions in the crystal lattice, the obtained quadrupolar tensor parameters were similar for the d,l- and l,l-alaninato isomers and also for the cis-trans forms suggesting similar crystal packing effects, static amine deuterons involved in hydrogen bonding, and fast rotating methyl groups.

  11. The infrared spectra of C2H4(+) and C2H3 trapped in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E

    2011-02-14

    When a mixture of ethylene in a large excess of neon is codeposited at 4.3 K with a beam of neon atoms that have been excited in a microwave discharge, two groups of product absorptions appear in the infrared spectrum of the deposit. Similar studies using C(2)H(4)-1-(13)C and C(2)D(4) aid in product identification. The first group of absorptions arises from a cation product which possesses two identical carbon atoms, giving the first infrared identification of two fundamentals of C(2)H(4)(+) and three of C(2)D(4)(+), as well as a tentative identification of ν(9) of C(2)H(4)(+). The positions of these absorptions are consistent with the results of density functional calculations and of earlier photoelectron studies. All of the members of the second group of product absorptions possess two inequivalent carbon atoms. They are assigned to the vinyl radical, C(2)H(3), and to C(2)D(3), in agreement with other recent infrared assignments for those species.

  12. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  13. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, P.; Tremblay, B.

    2015-12-01

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  14. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed. PMID:26671379

  15. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  16. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  17. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  18. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  19. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  20. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  1. Primary branching ratios for the low-temperature reaction of state-prepared N2+ with CH4, C2H2, and C2H4.

    PubMed

    Gichuhi, Wilson K; Suits, Arthur G

    2011-06-30

    Product branching ratios (BRs) are reported for ion-molecule reactions of state-prepared nitrogen cation (N(2)(+)) with methane (CH(4)), acetylene (C(2)H(2)). and ethylene (C(2)H(4)) at low temperature using a modified ion imaging apparatus. These reactions are performed in a supersonic nozzle expansion characterized by a rotational temperature of 40 ± 5K. For the N(2)(+) + CH(4) reaction, a BR of 0.83:0.17 is obtained for the dissociative charge-transfer (CT) reaction that gives rise to the formation of CH(3)(+) and CH(2)(+) product ions, respectively. The N(2)(+) + C(2)H(2) ion-molecule reaction proceeds through a nondissociative CT process that results in the sole formation of C(2)H(2)(+) product ions. The reaction of N(2)(+) with C(2)H(4) leads to the formation of C(2)H(3)(+) and C(2)H(2)(+) product ions with a BR of 0.74:0.26, respectively. The reported BR for the N(2)(+) + C(2)H(4) reaction is supportive of a nonresonant dissociative CT mechanism similar to the one that accompanies the N(2)(+) + CH(4) reaction. No dependence of the branching ratios on N(2)(+) rotational level was observed. In addition to providing direct insight into the dynamics of the state-prepared N(2)(+) ion-molecule reactions with the target neutral hydrocarbon molecules, the reported low-temperature BRs are also important for accurate modeling of the nitrogen-dominated upper atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan.

  2. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  3. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  4. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  5. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  6. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  7. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  8. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  9. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  10. 2Q NMR of 2H2O ordering at solid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivokhizhina, Tatiana V.; Wittebort, R. J.

    2014-06-01

    Solvent ordering at an interface can be studied by multiple-quantum NMR. Quantitative studies of 2H2O ordering require clean double-quantum (2Q) filtration and an analysis of 2Q buildup curves that accounts for relaxation and, if randomly oriented samples are used, the distribution of residual couplings. A pulse sequence with absorption mode detection is extended for separating coherences by order and measuring relaxation times such as the 2Q filtered T2. Coherence separation is used to verify 2Q filtration and the 2Q filtered T2 is required to extract the coupling from the 2Q buildup curve when it is unresolved. With our analysis, the coupling extracted from the buildup curve in 2H2O hydrated collagen was equivalent to the resolved coupling measured in the usual 1D experiment and the 2Q to 1Q signal ratio was in accord with theory. Application to buildup curves from 2H2O hydrated elastin, which has an unresolved coupling, revealed a large increase in the 2Q signal upon mechanical stretch that is due to an increase in the ordered water fraction while changes in the residual coupling and T2 are small.

  11. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  12. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  13. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  14. Solid state cell with anolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Barnette, L. H.; Liang, C. C.

    1985-06-25

    A solid state cell having a solid cathode, a solid electrolyte, and a solid anolyte comprised of at least 50% by volume of ionically conductive materials such as the electrolye and 50% or less by volume of an active metal. The anolyte is either the cell anode or alternatively the anolyte is an additional structural member within said cell positioned between an anode, comprised of the same active metal, and the solid electrolyte.

  15. Position sensitive solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnatterly, S. E.; Husk, D.

    1986-05-01

    Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described.

  16. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  17. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  18. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  19. Isomerization, Perturbations, Calculations and the S_{1} State of C_{2}H_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Berk, J. R. P.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary analysis of the energy region of the cis-trans isomerization transition state on the S_{1} surface of C_{2}H_{2} has revealed novel patterns and surprising perturbations, including unusually large (and high-order) anharmonicities, as well as K-staggerings of several vibrational levels. These effects complicate the analysis considerably, and require new models and calculations to account for and predict features of the observed spectra. The ˜{A}-˜{X} spectrum of acetylene has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for almost a century, and this cycle of unexpected phenomena eliciting innovative responses is found throughout its history. Especially in the last ten years, progress in understanding the S_{1} state rovibrational level structure and cis-trans isomerization has been accelerated by combining the information available from both ab initio computation and spectroscopic observations. The resulting dialogue has then frequently suggested fruitful avenues for further experiments and calculations. Current challenges and recent results in understanding the cis-trans isomerization transition state region will be discussed in this context.

  20. The state of solid state.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L

    1994-03-01

    This talk about future communications technology is all well and good, but what about the things we already have? What's going on with current technology? And if things are going to change, what will the transition be like? For an overview, JEMS talked to a group of EMS communications experts: Bruce Jackson, president of EMSAT: Advanced Technology for EMS, in the Los Angeles area; Mark Johnson, chief of Alaska's EMS Section, chairman of the National Association of State EMS Directors' Communications Committee; and Steven Buckley, communications and facilities planning manager of the Warner Group, a public safety communications consulting company in Woodland Hills, Calif. The following summarizes their views on current issues and their projections for the near future.

  1. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Full Dimensional Rovibrational Variational Calculations of the S_1 State of C_2H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changala, Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-06-01

    Rovibrational variational calculations on global potential energy surfaces are often essential for investigating large amplitude vibrational motion and isomerization between multiple stable conformers, as well as for understanding the spectroscopic signatures of such dynamics. The efficient and accurate representation of high dimensional potential energy surfaces and the diagonalization of large rovibrational Hamiltonians make these calculations a technically non-trivial task. The first excited singlet electronic state of acetylene (C_2H_2) is an ideal model isomerizing system. The S_1 state supports both a trans conformer and a higher energy cis conformer (Tecis-Tetrans ≈ 2700 wn), separated by a planar near-half-linear transition state (TeTS-Tetrans ≈ 5000 wn). The low-energy structure of the trans well is complicated by strong Coriolis and Darling-Dennison interactions between the near-resonant torsion and asymmetric bending modes. The resulting polyad patterns are eventually broken as the internal vibrational energy approaches that of the barrier to isomerization. In this region, qualitatively new spectroscopic patterns emerge, such as rotational K-staggering and vibrational effective frequency dips. We examine these effects with an efficient ab initio variational treatment. Our global potential energy surface is constructed as a hybrid of a high-level reduced dimension surface, which excludes the two rCH bond lengths, and a lower-level full dimensional surface incorporating the effects of rtext{CH} displacement. Diagonalization of the large, sparse Hamiltonian, which contains an exact internal coordinate rovibrational kinetic energy operator, is achieved with an efficient restarted Lanczos algorithm that generates variational energies and wavefunctions. We discuss how our results elucidate the S_1 state's rich variety of spectroscopic features and the insights they provide into the isomerization process.

  5. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  6. Reactions of vanadium dioxide molecules with acetylene: infrared spectra of VO2(η(2)-C2H2)(x) (x = 1, 2) and OV(OH)CCH in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2013-07-01

    Reactions of vanadium dioxide molecules with acetylene have been studied by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Reaction intermediates and products are identified on the basis of isotopic substitutions as well as density functional frequency calculations. Ground state vanadium dioxide molecule reacts with acetylene in forming the side-on-bonded VO2(η(2)-C2H2) and VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complexes spontaneously on annealing in solid neon. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) complex is characterized to have a (2)B2 ground state with C2v symmetry, whereas the VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complex has a (2)A ground state with C2 symmetry. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) and VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complexes are photosensitive. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) complex rearranges to the OV(OH)CCH molecule upon UV-vis light excitation.

  7. Rotational jumps of the tyrosine side chain in crystalline enkephalin. /sup 2/H NMR line shapes for aromatic ring motion in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.N.; Wittebort, R.J.; Griffin, R.G.; Meirovitch, E.; Stimson, E.R.; Meinwald, Y.C.; Freed, J.H.; Scheraga, H.A.

    1981-12-30

    Deuterium NMR spectra of polycrystalline (tyrosine-3,5-/sup 2/H/sub 2/)(Leu/sup 5/)enkephalin show that the aromatic tyrosyl ring of this pentapeptide is executing 180/sup 0/ flips about the C/sup ..beta../-C/sup ..gamma../ axis in the solid state. Specifically, the axially symmetric powder pattern observed at low temperature collapses to an axially asymmetric pattern with eta approx. = 0.6 at high temperature. Computer simulation of the NMR line shapes, which account for spectral distortions induced by the quadrupole echo technique, indicate that at room temperature the flipping rate is approximately 5 x 10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/ and that it increases to about 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/ at 101 /sup 0/C.

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of [Ga(phen)(H{sub 1.5}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O and [Ga(phen)(HPO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})].1.5H{sub 2}O (phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), two organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with 1-D chain structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.-J.; Chang, P.-C.; Kao, H.-M.; Lii, K.-H. . E-mail: liikh@cc.ncu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Ga(phen)(H{sub 1.5}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O (1) and [Ga(phen)(HPO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})].1.5H{sub 2}O (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Their structures consist of 1-D chains of strictly alternating GaO{sub 4}N{sub 2} octahedra and phosphate tetrahedra. The phen ligands in both compounds bind in a bidentate fashion to the gallium atoms and the 1-D structures extend into 3-D supramolecular arrays via {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions of phen ligands and hydrogen bonds. {sup 2}H MAS NMR spectroscopy was applied to study the deuterated sample of 1 which contains very short hydrogen bonds with an O-O distance of 2.406(2) A. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15), a=11.077(1) A, b=21.496(2) A, c=7.9989(7) A, {beta}=127.211(2){sup o}, and Z=4. The crystal symmetry is the same for 2 as for 1 except a=27.555(2) A, b=6.3501(5) A, c=21.327(2) A, {beta}=122.498(1){sup o}, and Z=8.

  9. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  10. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  11. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  12. Versatile solid-state relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Solid-state relay (SSR), containing multinode control logic, is operated as normally open, normally closed, or latched. Moreover several can be paralleled to form two-pole or double-throw relays. Versatile unit ends need to design custom control circuit for every relay application. Technique can be extended to incorporate selectable time delay, on operation or release, or pulsed output.

  13. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  14. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  15. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  16. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  17. Radiation sensitive solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A mechanically operable solid state switch suited for use in achieving a variable circuit-switching function is described. This switch is characterized by an annular array of photoresponsive switching devices, disposed in communication with an included source of radiation, and a plurality of interchangeable, mechanically operable interrupter disks. Each disk has a predetermined pattern of transparent and opaque portions. Operative displacement of each disk serves to make and break selected electrical circuits through the photo responsive devices of said array.

  18. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Site-resolved 2H relaxation experiments in solid materials by global line-shape analysis of MAS NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.

  20. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  1. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  2. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  3. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  4. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  5. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  6. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  7. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  8. The unusual normal state and charge-density-wave order in 2H-NbSe2.

    PubMed

    Koley, S; Mohanta, N; Taraphder, A

    2015-05-13

    Competition between collective states like charge-density-wave and superconductivity, unencumbered by the spin degrees of freedom, is played out in some of the transition metal dichalcogenides. Although 2H-NbSe2 has received much less attention than some of the other members of the family (such as 1T-TiSe2 and 2H-TaSe2) of late, it shows superconductivity at 7.2 K and incommensurate charge ordering at 33 K. Recent experiments, notably angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, have cast serious doubts on the theories based on Fermi surface nesting and electron-phonon interaction. The normal state has been found to be a poor, incoherent metal and remarkably, the coherence increases in the broken symmetry state. From a preformed excitonic liquid scenario, we show that there exists a natural understanding of the experimental data on 2H-NbSe2, based on electron-electron interaction. The collective instabilities, in this scenario, are viewed as a condensation of an incoherent excitonic liquid already present at high temperature. PMID:25880453

  9. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Water interactions with varying molecular states of bovine casein: 2H NMR relaxation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kumosinski, T.F.; Pessen, H.; Prestrelski, S.J.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    The caseins occur in milk as spherical colloidal complexes of protein and salts with an average diameter of 1200 A, the casein micelles. Removal of Ca2+ is thought to result in their dissociation into smaller protein complexes stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and called submicelles. Whether these submicelles actually occur within the micelles as discrete particles interconnected by calcium phosphate salt bridges has been the subject of much controversy. A variety of physical measurements have shown that casein micelles contain an inordinately high amount of trapped water (2 to 7 g H/sub 2/O/g protein). With this in mind it was of interest to determine if NMR relaxation measurements could detect the presence of this trapped water within the micelles, and to evaluate whether it is a continuum with picosecond correlation times or is associated in part with discrete submicellar structures with nanosecond motions. For this purpose the variations in /sup 2/H NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates of water with protein concentration were determined for bovine casein at various temperatures, under both submicellar and micellar conditions. D/sub 2/O was used instead of H/sub 2/O to eliminate cross-relaxation effects. From the protein concentration dependence of the relaxation rates, the second virial coefficient of the protein was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis. Using either an isotropic tumbling or an intermediate asymmetry model, degrees of hydration, v, and correlation times, tau c, were calculated for the caseins; from the latter parameter the Stokes radius, r, was obtained. Next, estimates of molecular weights were obtained from r and the partial specific volume. Values were in the range of those published from other methodologies for the submicelles.

  11. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  12. Magnetostriction-driven ground-state stabilization in 2H perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. G.; Senn, M. S.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Cortese, A.; Waterfield-Price, N.; Radaelli, P. G.; Manuel, P.; zur-Loye, H.-C.; Mazzoli, C.; Bombardi, A.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic ground state of Sr3A RuO6 , with A =(Li ,Na ) , is studied using neutron diffraction, resonant x-ray scattering, and laboratory characterization measurements of high-quality crystals. Combining these results allows us to observe the onset of long-range magnetic order and distinguish the symmetrically allowed magnetic models, identifying in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and a small ferromagnetic component along the c axis. While the existence of magnetic domains masks the particular in-plane direction of the moments, it has been possible to elucidate the ground state using symmetry considerations. We find that due to the lack of local anisotropy, antisymmetric exchange interactions control the magnetic order, first through structural distortions that couple to in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and second through a high-order magnetoelastic coupling that lifts the degeneracy of the in-plane moments. The symmetry considerations used to rationalize the magnetic ground state are very general and will apply to many systems in this family, such as Ca3A RuO6 , with A =(Li ,Na ) , and Ca3LiOsO6 whose magnetic ground states are still not completely understood.

  13. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  14. Solid state sciences committee forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Philip

    1992-05-01

    The 1991 SSSC Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy's Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) and cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The Forum was the culmination of a year-long dissemination effort following up the NCR study Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s that was released in September of 1989 and successfully brought together experts and policy makers in the field of advanced materials processing to discuss issues pertinent to the field. Support for the Forum was provided by the Air Force office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the office of Naval Research (ONR).

  15. Novel solid state sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Arthur E., Jr.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Phillips, Terry E.; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Givens, Robert B.

    1998-05-01

    A unique solid-state optical sensor configuration has been invented that can serve as a development platform for a host of chemical and biochemical sensors in either gaseous or liquid environments. We present results from measurements from the first adaptation of the device to oxygen sensing via fluorescence quenching and note the distinct advantages over existing electrochemical and more recent fiber-optic methods. The platform technology itself features greatly enhanced energy efficiency, high sensitivity, low-power consumption, ease of miniaturization, low cost, high-volume manufacturability using standard methods, very fast response/recovery profiles, and high reliability. The oxygen sensor embodiment has been demonstrated to operate well over the temperature range from -20 to 50 degrees C, not to be interfered with by other common gases including water vapor at high levels, and capable of response times less than 100 milliseconds.

  16. Elastic positron scattering by C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Differential cross sections and virtual state formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Claudia R.C. de; Varella, Marcio T. do N; Lima, Marco A.P.; Silva, Euclimar P. da

    2003-12-01

    We present calculated elastic differential cross sections for positron-acetylene scattering, obtained by using the Schwinger multichannel method. Our results are in very good agreement with quasielastic experimental data of Kauppila et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 192, 162 (2002)]. We also discuss the existence of a virtual state (zero-energy resonance) in e{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} collisions, based on the behavior of the integral cross section and of the s-wave phase shift. As expected the fixed-nuclei cross section and annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff}) present the same energy dependence at very low impact energies. As the virtual state energy approaches zero, the magnitude of both cross section and Z{sub eff} are extremely enhanced (at zero impact energy). The possibility of shifting from a low-lying virtual state to a shallow bound state is not expected to significantly affect room-temperature annihilation rates.

  17. Solid state electrochromic smart windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    The structure under development at EIC Laboratories consists of a multilayer stack of thin films, incorporating the two principal electrochemically active elements, the electrochromic (EC) and counter electrode (CE) layers, respectively. The EC layer changes from colorless to a state of reduced transmission on reduction while the CE layer has the opposite (complementary) behavior (or is colorless in both oxidized and reduced states). These are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. The stack is completed with top and bottom transparent electrodes. The major achievements are as follows: (1) Tunable thermal emittance for the EC layer over a range of 0.2 to 0.8 was demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of surfaces with adjustable heat transfer properties. (2) Thin film ion conductors based on the Li2O/B2O3 and LiNbO3 were developed using thermal and electron beam evaporation with ionic conductivities greater than 10(exp -8) S/cm, fulfilling a major requirement for this component. (3) A variety of improved vanadium oxide-based counter electrode materials were demonstrated and patented which undergo reversible electrochemical Li insertion reactions and which increase their solar transmission on reduction. (4) Devices incorporating a laminated Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte were demonstrated with bleached state visible transmittance of greater than 65 percent and colored state transmittance of less than 15 percent. These devices were tested for greater than 10(exp 4) complete cycles. (5) An all thin film solid state device was demonstrated with a visible transmission range of 65/13 percent, using the component materials developed on this program. The device was tested for greater than 3000 complete cycles without degradation. A fabrication sequence was specified which forms the basis of initial production cost estimates. (6) Window modeling studies have been used to compare the relative performance of amorphous and crystalline WO3-based electrochromic

  18. Deactivation and reaction of excited states of Rb in collisions with H2, CH4 and C2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, Valeriy N.; Torbin, Aleksei P.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Bresler, Sean; Heaven, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Alkali vapor lasers commonly use methane (CH4) or ethane (C2H6) to induce energy transfer between the optically pumped level (n2P3/2) and the upper laser level (n2P1/2). A complication is that the alkali metal eventually reacts with the hydrocarbons. The reaction becomes exothermic for alkali atoms that have been excited by energy pooling processes such as Rb(5p)+Rb(5p)→Rb(*)+Rb(5s), where * indicates 6s, 6p or 4d. We have used laser pump-probe methods to examine the reactions of Rb(n2P) with CH4, and C2H6 for states with n=6 and 7. Pump-probe measurements indicated a loss of Rb due to a reaction. Surprisingly, the RbH product was not detected with CH4, and C2H6. High-level ab initio calculations have been used to study the reactive interactions between Rb, methane and ethane.

  19. A new analytical potential energy surface for the singlet state of He2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing-Juan; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Li-Zhi; Zhang, Qing-Gang

    2012-03-01

    The analytic potential energy surface (APES) for the exchange reaction of HeH+ (X1Σ+) + He at the lowest singlet state 11A/ has been built. The APES is expressed as Aguado-Paniagua function based on the many-body expansion. Using the adaptive non-linear least-squares algorithm, the APES is fitted from 15 682 ab initio energy points calculated with the multireference configuration interaction calculation with a large d-aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. To testify the new APES, we calculate the integral cross sections for He + H+He (v = 0, 1, 2, j = 0) → HeH+ + He by means of quasi-classical trajectory and compare them with the previous result in literature.

  20. Electronic structure of 2H-NbSe2 single-layers in the CDW state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Silva-Guillén, José; Ordejón, Pablo; Guinea, Francisco; Canadell, Enric

    2016-09-01

    A density functional theory study of NbSe2 single-layers in the normal non-modulated and the 3 × 3 CDW states is reported. We show that, in the single layer, the CDW barely affects the Fermi surface of the system, thus ruling out a nesting mechanism as the driving force for the modulation. The CDW stabilizes levels lying around 1.35 eV below the Fermi level within the Se-based valence band but having a substantial Nb-Nb bonding character. The absence of interlayer interactions leads to the suppression of the pancake-like portion of the bulk Fermi surface in the single-layer. We perform scanning tunneling microscopy simulations and find that the images noticeably change with the sign and magnitude of the voltage bias. The atomic corrugation of the Se sublayer induced by the modulation plays a primary role in leading to these images, but the electronic reorganization also has an important contribution. The analysis of the variation of these images with the bias voltage does not support a Fermi surface nesting mechanism for the CDW. It is also shown that underlying graphene layers (present in some of the recent experimental work) do not modify the conduction band, but do affect the shape of the valence band of NbSe2 single-layers. The relevance of these results in understanding recent physical measurements for NbSe2 single-layers is discussed.

  1. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  2. Experimental determination and model simulation of the solid-liquid equilibria in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoya; Yin, Xia; Chen, Zifang; Yu, Xiuli; Zeng, Dewen; Tan, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    The solubility data and pH of the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system were elaborately measured at T = 291.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 323.15 K, and the solid phases were determined by XRD to be ZnSO4 · 3Zn(OH)2 · 5H2O. The Pitzer model was applied to simulate thermodynamically and predict the relationship between mass percent of ZnSO4 and pH in the ZnSO4-Zn(OH)2-H2O system taking account of the equilibrium of ions over the temperature from 273.15 to 323.15 K. Based on the experimental data and the calculation results, a theoretical direction of avoiding base zinc sulfate forming in industrial processes was advised.

  3. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Out-Of Bending State ν_{20} of C_2H_5CN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.

    2009-06-01

    Propionitrile is a well known interstellar molecule that is a closely associated with warm dust near ultra compact H_{II} regions. In these regions the C_2H_5CN column can reach 10^{17} and the rotational temperature often equals the vibrational temperature and exceeds 200 K, populating all the low-lying vibrational states. The rotational spectrum of the third lowest excited vibrational state, the 378 cm^{-1} out-of-plane bending state, ν_{20}, of propionitrile, which was previously identified at millimeter wavelengths in both the laboratory and the interstellar medium, has been characterized to high angular momentum quantum numbers. This state is surprisingly isolated considering its proximity to the overtone of the in-plane bend, 2ν_{13}, the excited torsional state of the in-plane bend, ν_{13}+ν_{21}, and the second excited torsional state, 2ν_{21}, which lie approximately 35 cm^{-1} higher. The only surprising aspect is the presence of significantly larger torsional A-E splitting than observed in either the ground state or the ν_{13} in the absence of a resonance with ν_{21}. Because ν_{20} has been observed in high mass star forming cores in the millimeter, its higher angular momentum lines are known to be a major source of line confusion in high mass star forming cores. The spectrum, constants and determined barriers will be presented.

  4. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  5. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  6. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  7. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  8. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  9. Spectroscopy and dynamics of the Rydberg states of C2H2 and their relevance to astrophysical photochemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, N.; Fillion, J.-H.; Gauyacq, D.; Couris, S.

    1997-08-01

    In order to understand the role of the Rydberg states in the photodestruction of acetylene in circumstellar envelopes, the authors have investigated the spectroscopy of some of the ungerade and gerade states by resonant multiphoton ionization in a magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The ungerade ns+nd Rydberg supercomplexes of C2H2 have been investigated by one-colour (3+1) multiphoton ionization, in the energy region 79500 - 87000 cm-1. The highly excited gerade nf Rydberg states have been observed for the first time, by two-colour (3+1') multiphoton ionization. A value for the adiabatic ionization potential, 91956 cm-1, has been obtained from the observed series limit and from earlier high-resolution infrared data on the ground state of the ion. This value is 4 cm-1 higher than the one measured by ZEKE spectroscopy. The apparent broadening of the observed Rydberg features may originate both from Zeeman 'broadening' of the non-penetrating nf complexes and from predissociation. The np Rydberg states, for which observation is fully allowed in the same spectral region, do not appear in the ionization signal at least in the low-n range, most probably because of their very short lifetime. In the high-energy region, spectral congestion, probably involving p-f mixing, occurs.

  10. Spectroscopy and Dynamics of the Rydberg States of C2H2 and their Relevance to Astrophysical Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gauyacq, Dolores; Couris, Stelios

    1997-08-01

    In order to understand the role of the Rydberg states in the photodestruction of acetylene in circumstellar envelopes, we have investigated the spectroscopy of some of the ungerade and gerade states by resonant multiphoton ionization in a magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The ungerade ns + nd Rydberg supercomplexes of C2H2 have been investigated by one-colour (3 + 1) multiphoton ionization, in the energy region 79 500-87 000 cm-1. Our spectral data show a very different behaviour of the various components of these supercomplexes towards predissociation. The highly excited gerade nf Rydberg states have been observed for the first time, by two-colour (3+1') multiphoton ionization. A value for the adiabatic ionization potential, 91 956 cm-1, has been obtained from the observed series limit and from earlier high-resolution infrared data on the ground state of the ion. This value is 4 cm-1 higher than the one measured by ZEKE spectroscopy. The apparent broadening of the observed Rydberg features may originate both from Zeeman `broadening' of the non-penetrating nf complexes and from predissociation. The np Rydberg states, for which observation is fully allowed in the same spectral region, do not appear in the ionization signal at least in the low-n range, most probably because of their very short lifetime. In the high-energy region, spectral congestion, probably involving p-f mixing, occurs.

  11. A solid state streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Shah, Ashish

    2005-03-01

    A monolithic solid-state streak camera has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm, 3.3V, thin-oxide digital CMOS process. It consists of a 1-D linear array of 150 integrated photodiodes, followed by fast analog buffers and on-chip, 150-deep analog frame storage. Each pixel's front-end consists of an n-diffusion / p-well photodiode, with fast complementary reset transistors, and a source-follower buffer. Each buffer drives a line of 150 sample circuits per pixel, with each sample circuit consisting of an n-channel sample switch, a 0.1 pF double-polysilicon sample capacitor, a reset switch to definitively clear the capacitor, and a multiplexed source-follower readout buffer. Fast on-chip sample clock generation was designed using a self-timed break-before-make operation that insures the maximum time for sample settling. The electrical analog bandwidth of each channels buffer and sampling circuits was designed to exceed 1 GHz. Sampling speeds of 400 M-frames/s have been achieved using electrical input signals. Operation with optical input signals has been demonstrated at 100 MHz sample rates. Sample output multiplexing allows the readout of all 22,500 samples (150 pixels times 150 samples per pixel) in about 3 ms. The chip"s output range was a maximum of 1.48 V on a 3.3V supply voltage, corresponding to a maximum 2.55 V swing at the photodiode. Time-varying output noise was measured to be 0.51 mV, rms, at 100 MHz, for a dynamic range of ~11.5 bits, rms. Circuit design details are presented, along with the results of electrical measurements and optical experiments with fast pulsed laser light sources at several wavelengths.

  12. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  13. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  14. Covariance mapping of two-photon double core hole states in C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 produced by an x-ray free electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Mucke, M; Zhaunerchyk, V; Frasinski, L J; Squibb, R J; Siano, M; Eland, J H D; Linusson, P; Salén, P; Meulen, P v d; Thomas, R D; et al

    2015-07-01

    Few-photon ionization and relaxation processes in acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) were investigated at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at SLAC, Stanford using a highly efficient multi-particle correlation spectroscopy technique based on a magnetic bottle. The analysis method of covariance mapping has been applied and enhanced, allowing us to identify electron pairs associated with double core hole (DCH) production and competing multiple ionization processes including Auger decay sequences. The experimental technique and the analysis procedure are discussed in the light of earlier investigations of DCH studies carried out at the same FEL and at thirdmore » generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, we demonstrate the capability of the covariance mapping technique to disentangle the formation of molecular DCH states which is barely feasible with conventional electron spectroscopy methods.« less

  15. Kinetics of CO/CO2 and H2/H2O reactions at Ni-based and ceria-based solid-oxide-cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens B

    2015-01-01

    The solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC) is an energy conversion technology that can be operated reversibly, to efficiently convert chemical fuels to electricity (fuel cell mode) as well as to store electricity as chemical fuels (electrolysis mode). The SOC fuel-electrode carries out the electrochemical reactions CO2 + 2e(-) ↔ CO + O(2-) and H2O + 2e(-) ↔ H2 + O(2-), for which the electrocatalytic activities of different electrodes differ considerably. The relative activities in CO/CO2 and H2/H2O and the nature of the differences are not well studied, even for the most common fuel-electrode material, a composite of nickel and yttria/scandia stabilized zirconia (Ni-SZ). Ni-SZ is known to be more active for H2/H2O than for CO/CO2 reactions, but the reported relative activity varies widely. Here we compare AC impedance and DC current-overpotential data measured in the two gas environments for several different electrodes comprised of Ni-SZ, Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO), and CGO nanoparticles coating Nb-doped SrTiO3 backbones (CGOn/STN). 2D model and 3D porous electrode geometries are employed to investigate the influence of microstructure, gas diffusion and impurities.Comparing model and porous Ni-SZ electrodes, the ratio of electrode polarization resistance in CO/CO2vs. H2/H2O decreases from 33 to 2. Experiments and modelling suggest that the ratio decreases due to a lower concentration of impurities blocking the three phase boundary and due to the nature of the reaction zone extension into the porous electrode thickness. Besides showing higher activity for H2/H2O reactions than CO/CO2 reactions, the Ni/SZ interface is more active for oxidation than reduction. On the other hand, we find the opposite behaviour in both cases for CGOn/STN model electrodes, reporting for the first time a higher electrocatalytic activity of CGO nanoparticles for CO/CO2 than for H2/H2O reactions in the absence of gas diffusion limitations. We propose that enhanced surface reduction at the

  16. Emergence of coherence in the charge-density wave state of 2H-NbSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, U.; Zhao, J.; Iavarone, M.; Di Capua, R.; Castellan, J. P.; Karapetrov, G.; Malliakas, C. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Claus, H.; Ruff, J. P. C.; et al

    2015-02-17

    A charge-density wave (CDW) state has a broken symmetry described by a complex order parameter with an amplitude and a phase. The conventional view, based on clean, weak-coupling systems, is that a finite amplitude and long-range phase coherence set in simultaneously at the CDW transition temperature Tcdw. Here we investigate, using photoemission, X-ray scattering and scanning tunnelling microscopy, the canonical CDW compound 2H-NbSe2 intercalated with Mn and Co, and show that the conventional view is untenable. We find that, either at high temperature or at large intercalation, CDW order becomes short-ranged with a well-defined amplitude, which has impacts on themore » electronic dispersion, giving rise to an energy gap. The phase transition at Tcdw marks the onset of long-range order with global phase coherence, leading to sharp electronic excitations. As a result, our observations emphasize the importance of phase fluctuations in strongly coupled CDW systems and provide insights into the significance of phase incoherence in ‘pseudogap’ states.« less

  17. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  18. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Zarkadoula, E.; Dove, M. T.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  19. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support

  20. Reconfigurable Ion Gating of 2H-MoTe2 Field-Effect Transistors Using Poly(ethylene oxide)-CsClO4 Solid Polymer Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilong; Fathipour, Sara; Kinder, Erich W; Seabaugh, Alan C; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan K

    2015-05-26

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are relevant for electronic devices owing to their sizable band gaps and absence of dangling bonds on their surfaces. For device development, a controllable method for doping these materials is essential. In this paper, we demonstrate an electrostatic gating method using a solid polymer electrolyte, poly(ethylene oxide) and CsClO4, on exfoliated, multilayer 2H-MoTe2. The electrolyte enables the device to be efficiently reconfigured between n- and p-channel operation with ON/OFF ratios of approximately 5 decades. Sheet carrier densities as high as 1.6 × 10(13) cm(-2) can be achieved because of a large electric double layer capacitance (measured as 4 μF/cm(2)). Further, we show that an in-plane electric field can be used to establish a cation/anion transition region between source and drain, forming a p-n junction in the 2H-MoTe2 channel. This junction is locked in place by decreasing the temperature of the device below the glass transition temperature of the electrolyte. The ideality factor of the p-n junction is 2.3, suggesting that the junction is recombination dominated. PMID:25877681

  1. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  2. Transverse mode control in solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bobeck, A.H.; Harriott, L.R.; Hartman, R.L.; Kaplan, D.R.; Przybylek, G.J.; Tabor, W.J.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a solid state laser. It comprises a solid state body including an optical resonator, a waveguide in which laser radiation propagates in TE and TM modes. The radiation being incident on a region of a first surface of the body, characterized by a reflection filter disposed on the first surface so as to preferentially reflect either TE or TM modes and to suppress oscillation within the resonator of the non-reflected modes.

  3. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  4. Modular nonvolatile solid state recorder (MONSSTR) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.; Small, Martin B.; Beams, Tom

    2001-12-01

    Solid state recorders have begun replacing traditional tape recorders in fulfilling the requirement to record images on airborne platforms. With the advances in electro-optical, IR, SAR, Multi and Hyper-spectral sensors and video recording requirements, solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice. Solid state recorders provide the additional storage, higher sustained bandwidth, less power, less weight and smaller footprint to meet the current and future recording requirements. CALCULEX, Inc., manufactures a non-volatile flash memory solid state recorder called the MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used to record images from many different digital sensors on high performance aircraft such as the RF- 4, F-16 and the Royal Air Force Tornado. MONSSTR, with its internal multiplexer, is also used to record instrumentation data. This includes multiple streams of PCM and multiple channels of 1553 data. Instrumentation data is being recorded by MONSSTR systems in a range of platforms including F-22, F-15, F-16, Comanche Helicopter and US Navy torpedos. MONSSTR can also be used as a cockpit video recorder. This paper will provide an update of the MONSSTR.

  5. Isothermal Equation Of State For Compressed Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Same equation with three adjustable parameters applies to different materials. Improved equation of state describes pressure on solid as function of relative volume at constant temperature. Even though types of interatomic interactions differ from one substance to another, form of equation determined primarily by overlap of electron wave functions during compression. Consequently, equation universal in sense it applies to variety of substances, including ionic, metallic, covalent, and rare-gas solids. Only three parameters needed to describe equation for given material.

  6. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  7. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  8. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-07-01

    The reaction of UO3 and H3PO3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH2(CH3)2)[UO2(HPO2OH)(HPO3)]. This compound crystallizes in space group P21/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO2OH)4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite-phosphite U(HPO3)(HPO2OH)2(H2O)·2(H2O). α- and β-An(HPO2OH)4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P21/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO3)(HPO2OH)2(H2O)2·(H2O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized.

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  10. Solid state physics of transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Terminello, L J; Allen, P G; Shuh, D K; Terry, J

    2000-08-22

    The experimental validation of first principals calculations of plutonium and its alloys is an important part of LLNL's science-based stockpile stewardship mission. This project has addressed this issue in the following ways. We have measured the electronic structure of U, Pu, and their alloys using valence band photoemission (PES), Soft X-Ray fluorescence (SXF), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). In the long term, this will allow a direct comparison between calculated and measured density of electronic states, identifying the degree of f-electron localization in the alloys, and thus, permit selection of the best modeling code.

  11. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  12. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  13. Density functional theory in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Hasnip, Philip J.; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I. J.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Clark, Stewart J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure–property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program. PMID:24516184

  14. Density functional theory in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Philip J; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I J; Yates, Jonathan R; Clark, Stewart J; Pickard, Chris J

    2014-03-13

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure-property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program.

  15. Equations of state for H2, H2O, and H2-H2O fluid mixtures at temperatures above 0.01° C and at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbach, Helmut; Chatterjee, Niranjan D.

    1987-11-01

    Modified Redlich-Kwong (MRK) equations of state have been derived for the pure fluid species H2 and H2O by expressing the parameter a as a function of T and P, and b as as a function of P only. These equations are valid above 0° and 0.01° C, respectively. For H2O, the prediction of volumes is successful not only in the supercritical, but also in the subcritical range. As a result of this, the saturation curve of H2O can be calculated with a maximum deviation of ±1.4 bar in the range 100 350° C. Between 350° C and the critical point (374.15° C), the uncertainty increases somewhat; this is due to a fundamental inadequacy of the Redlich-Kwong equation itself. These equations of state permit extrapolations to pressures of 100 kbar for H2 and at least 200 kbar for H2O and are, therefore, eminently suited for geochemical applications. Formulation of the MRK of the binary H2-H2O mixtures was achieved by assuming the quadratic mixing rule for the parameters a mix and b+mix. To derive the cross coefficients, aH2-H2Oand b H 2-H 2O, adjustable corrective factors ɛ and τ had to be introduced. The T- and P-dependences of ɛ and τ are based on P-V-T-X H 2 data (Seward and Franck 1981) to 440° C and 2500 bar. The resulting equation of state very satisfactorily reproduces the volumes observed experimentally at various sets of T, P, and X H 2. At a total pressure of 2 kbar, positive deviation from ideal mixing behaviour is still perceptible at as high a temperature as 1000° C. At some temperature around 380° C, phase separation sets in, an aqueous solution with dissolved H2 coexisting in equilibrium with an H2-rich fluid with dissolved H2O. The computed P-T-X H 2 surface of this two-phase region agrees well with that observed in Seward and Franck's (1981) experiments. An independent proof of the validity of this equation of state is the accuracy with which H {m/ex}can be predicted. Calorimetric measurements of H {m/ex}(Smith et al. 1983, Wormald and Colling 1985

  16. Thermal conductivity of solid monohydroxyl alcohols in polyamorphous states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivchikov, A. I.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Sharapova, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    New measurements of the thermal conductivity of solid ethyl alcohol C2H5OH in the interval from 2 K to the melting temperature are presented. An annealing effect in the thermal conductivity of the orientationally ordered phase of the alcohol has been observed over a wide range of temperatures. This phase was obtained as a result of an irreversible first-order phase transition from an orientationally disordered crystal with a cubic structure at T = 109 K. The thermal conductivity was observed to increase as the monoclinic lattice changed from a less stable phase to a more stable one. The growth may be due to the improved quality of the completely ordered crystal. A comparative analysis of the temperature dependences of the thermal conductivity κ(T) is made for the solid monohydroxyl alcohols CH3OH, C2H5OH, С2D5OD, C3H7OH, and C4H9OH in their disordered orientational and structural states. At low temperatures the thermal conductivity of the series of monohydroxyl structural glasses of the alcohols increases linearly with the mass of the alcohol molecule.

  17. Solid State Lasers from an Efficiency Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2007-01-01

    Solid state lasers have remained a vibrant area of research because several major innovations expanded their capability. Major innovations are presented with emphasis focused on the laser efficiency. A product of efficiencies approach is developed and applied to describe laser performance. Efficiency factors are presented in closed form where practical and energy transfer effects are included where needed. In turn, efficiency factors are used to estimate threshold and slope efficiency, allowing a facile estimate of performance. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical data are provided for common solid state laser materials.

  18. Recent Results of Solid-State Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Cornelia; Posch, Thomas; Mutschke, Harald; Zeidler, Simon; Tamanai, Akemi; de Vries, Bernard L.

    2011-12-01

    Solid state spectroscopy continues to be an important source of information on the mineralogical composition and physical properties of dust grains both in space and on planetary surfaces. With only a few exceptions, artificially produced or natural terrestrial analog materials, rather than `real' cosmic dust grains, are the subject of solid state astrophysics. The Jena laboratory has provided a large number of data sets characterizing the UV, optical and infrared properties of such cosmic dust analogs. The present paper highlights recent developments and results achieved in this context, focussing on `non-standard conditions' such as very low temperatures, very high temperatures and very long wavelengths.

  19. Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.

  20. RF-controlled implantable solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature, totally implantable, solid state RF-controlled switching circuit for biotelemetry systems consumes zero power in off condition and turns on or off by pulse of RF energy. Switch, the size of small coin, is reducible by integrated circuit techniques.

  1. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An accessory for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  2. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized. PMID:27519021

  3. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2005-01-01

    Packing efficiency and crystal density can be calculated from basic geometric principles employing the Pythagorean theorem, if the unit-cell structure is known. The procedures illustrated have applicability in courses such as general chemistry, intermediate and advanced inorganic, materials science, and solid-state physics.

  4. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  5. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  6. Solid state lasers - The next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-10-01

    Major advances in solid state laser technology historically have been preceded by advances in pumping technology. The helical lamp used to pump the early ruby lasers was superseded by the linear flashlamp now used to pump Nd:YAG lasers. The next advance in pumping technology is the diode laser array. The improvements in power and efficiency of the diode laser coupled with the fortuitous spectral overlap of the diode laser emission wavelength with the Nd ion absorption bands near 805 nm have led to a revolution in solid state laser capability. Progress has been rapid with new ions and wavelengths reported in the near infrared from 946 nm to 2010 nm. Frequency extension via nonlinear interactions has led to green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Linewidths of less than 10 kHz have been demonstrated. Overall electrical efficiencies of greater than 10% have been achieved. As diode laser sources decrease in cost, high average power diode laser pumped solid state laser sources will become available. Power levels exceeding 1 kW appear possible. Potential applications of these compact all solid state laser sources to spectroscopy, quantum noise limited sensors, astronomy, and materials processing will be discussed.

  7. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  8. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal–semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto–Peltier and Nernst–Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  9. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  10. Solid-state NMR analyses of the structure and dynamics of polymers in the different states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Fumitaka; Kaji, Hironori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Kenji; Tai, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent investigations of the structure and molecular motions of synthetic polymers in the different states, which were mainly carried out by solid-state 13C or 2H NMR spectroscopy. First, the crystalline-noncrystalline structure is characterized in detail for metallocene-catalyzed linear low density polyethylene, which was isothermally crystallized from the melt. Secondly, the characteristic chain conformation, the alternate trans and rapid trans-gauche exchange conformation, is revealed for the spacer methylene sequence in the frozen liquid crystalline region for thermotropic liquid crystalline polyurethane, which was crystallized from the isotropic phase through the nematic liquid crystalline phase. Thirdly, different types of splittings of CH resonance lines, which will be induced mainly by the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the triad sequence, are shown in the frozen solution states for poly(vinyl alcohol) samples with different tacticities. It is finally pointed out by solid-state 2H NMR analyses that both distributions in flip frequency and in flip angle should be taken into account for the precise characterization of the phenylene flip motion in glassy poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  11. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  12. Solid-state dimer method for calculating solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme; Sheppard, Daniel; Rogal, Jutta

    2014-05-07

    The dimer method is a minimum mode following algorithm for finding saddle points on a potential energy surface of atomic systems. Here, the dimer method is extended to include the cell degrees of freedom for periodic solid-state systems. Using this method, reaction pathways of solid-solid phase transitions can be determined without having to specify the final state structure or reaction mechanism. Example calculations include concerted phase transitions between CdSe polymorphs and a nucleation and growth mechanism for the A15 to BCC transition in Mo.

  13. The δ2H and δ18O of tap water from 349 sites in the United States and selected territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Because the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) of animal (including human) tissues, such as hair, nail, and urine, reflect the δ2H and δ18O of water and food ingested by an animal or a human and because the δ2H and δ18O of environmental waters vary geographically, δ2H and δ18O values of tap water samples collected in 2007-2008 from 349 sites in the United States and three selected U.S. territories have been measured in support of forensic science applications, creating one of the largest databases of tap water δ2H and δ18O values to date. The results of replicate isotopic measurements for these tap water samples confirm that the expanded uncertainties (U = 2μc) obtained over a period of years by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory from δ2H and δ18O dual-inlet mass spectrometric measurements are conservative, at ±2‰ and ±0.2 ‰, respectively. These uncertainties are important because U.S. Geological Survey data may be needed for forensic science applications, including providing evidence in court cases. Half way through the investigation, an isotope-laser spectrometer was acquired, enabling comparison of dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometric results with isotope-laser spectrometric results. The uncertainty of the laser-based δ2H measurement results for these tap water samples is comparable to the uncertainty of the mass spectrometric method, with the laser-based method having a slightly lower uncertainty. However, the δ18O uncertainty of the laser-based method is more than a factor of ten higher than that of the dual-inlet isotoperatio mass spectrometric method.

  14. Photochromic molecular gyroscope with solid state rotational states determined by an azobenzene bridge.

    PubMed

    Commins, Patrick; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2014-02-21

    We describe the synthesis, characterization, photochemical isomerization, and rotational dynamics of a crystalline molecular gyroscope containing an azobenzene bridge (trans-2) that spans from one end of the stator to other, with the intention of exploring its function as a molecular brake. While single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a photochemically inactive dichloromethane solvate was used to confirm the molecular and packing structures of trans-2, a nanocrystalline pseudopolymorph was shown to be photoactive, and it was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy, and variable temperature solid state (2)H NMR before and after photoisomerization. It was shown that the nanocrystalline suspension irradiated with λ = 340 nm reaches a photostationary state with 34% of cis-isomer, as compared to that observed in solution where the corresponding value is 74%. Line shape analysis of solid state (2)H NMR spectra of a phenylene-d4 isotopologue, obtained as a function of temperature, indicated that rotation in crystals of the trans-2 isomer, with a mean activation energy of 4.6 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a pre-exponential factor exp(29.4 ± 1.7), is ten times faster than that of samples containing the cis-2 isomer, which has a higher mean activation energy of 5.1 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a lower pre-exponential factor of exp(27.9 ± 1.3). PMID:24428572

  15. Photochromic molecular gyroscope with solid state rotational states determined by an azobenzene bridge.

    PubMed

    Commins, Patrick; Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A

    2014-02-21

    We describe the synthesis, characterization, photochemical isomerization, and rotational dynamics of a crystalline molecular gyroscope containing an azobenzene bridge (trans-2) that spans from one end of the stator to other, with the intention of exploring its function as a molecular brake. While single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a photochemically inactive dichloromethane solvate was used to confirm the molecular and packing structures of trans-2, a nanocrystalline pseudopolymorph was shown to be photoactive, and it was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy, and variable temperature solid state (2)H NMR before and after photoisomerization. It was shown that the nanocrystalline suspension irradiated with λ = 340 nm reaches a photostationary state with 34% of cis-isomer, as compared to that observed in solution where the corresponding value is 74%. Line shape analysis of solid state (2)H NMR spectra of a phenylene-d4 isotopologue, obtained as a function of temperature, indicated that rotation in crystals of the trans-2 isomer, with a mean activation energy of 4.6 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a pre-exponential factor exp(29.4 ± 1.7), is ten times faster than that of samples containing the cis-2 isomer, which has a higher mean activation energy of 5.1 ± 0.6 kcal/mol and a lower pre-exponential factor of exp(27.9 ± 1.3).

  16. Dissolution of aragonite-strontianite solid solutions in nonstoichiometric Sr (HCO3)2-Ca (HCO3)2-CO2-H2O solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Glynn, P.D.; Blum, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic strontianite-aragonite solid-solution minerals were dissolved in CO2-saturated non-stoichiometric solutions of Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 at 25??C. The results show that none of the dissolution reactions reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Congruent dissolution in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions either attains or closely approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the dissolving solid. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions the reactions usually become incongruent, precipitating a Sr-rich phase before reaching stoichiometric saturation. Dissolution of mechanical mixtures of solids approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the least stable solid in the mixture. Surface uptake from subsaturated bulk solutions was observed in the initial minutes of dissolution. This surficial phase is 0-10 atomic layers thick in Sr(HCO3)2 solutions and 0-4 layers thick in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, and subsequently dissolves and/or recrystallizes, usually within 6 min of reaction. The initial transient surface precipitation (recrystallization) process is followed by congruent dissolution of the original solid which proceeds to stoichiometric saturation, or until the precipitation of a more stable Sr-rich solid. The compositions of secondary precipitates do not correspond to thermodynamic equilibrium or stoichiometric saturation states. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate the formation of solid solutions on surfaces of aragonite and strontianite single crystals immersed in Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, respectively. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions, the XPS signal from the outer ~ 60 A?? on aragonite indicates a composition of 16 mol% SrCO3 after only 2 min of contact, and 14-18 mol% SrCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. The strontianite surface averages approximately 22 mol% CaCO3 after 2 min of contact with Ca(HCO3)2 solution, and is 34-39 mol% CaCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. XPS analysis suggests the surface composition is zoned with somewhat greater enrichment in the outer ~25

  17. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming; Strassburg, Martin; Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T.

    2006-06-01

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well.

  18. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  19. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations continue of diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes using them as sources. Diode laser array pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass lasers have been demonstrated. Theoretical studies of non-planar oscillators have been advanced, producing new designs which should be more resistant to feedback and offer better frequency stability. A monolithic, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in MgO:LiNbO3 has been operated.

  20. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  1. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  2. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    We recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. We summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. We take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  4. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.

    1999-07-12

    We recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. We summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. We take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  5. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  6. Flexible solid-state fabric based supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, S.; Owen, J. R.; Tudor, M. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of a solid- state fabric supercapacitor device. The proposed supercapacitors were based on fabric electrodes fabricated with low cost carbon materials via a spray coating technique. The two layer supercapacitors achieved a specific capacitances of 10.6 F.g-1, area capacitance of 71.8 mF.cm-2 and maintained 99% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  7. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A concept for a solar power satellite antenna power combiner which utilizes solid state dc-rf converters is described. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it is proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure. A significant feature of the antenna configuration selected is that the radiated energy is summed to yield a single radiated output phase which represents the average insertion phase of the four power amplifiers. This energy may be sampled and, by comparison with the input signal, one can phase error correct to maintain the insertion phase of all solid state power combining modules at exactly the same value. This insures that the insertion phase of each SPS power combining antenna module is identical. An experiment verification program is described.

  8. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  10. A full-dimensional quantum dynamical study of H2+H2 collisions: coupled-states versus close-coupling formulation.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Alex; Paolini, Stephen; Forrey, Robert C; Balakrishnan, N; Stancil, P C

    2014-02-14

    Collision-induced energy transfer involving H2 molecules plays an important role in many areas of physics. Kinetic models often require a complete set of state-to-state rate coefficients for H2+H2 collisions in order to interpret results from spectroscopic observations or to make quantitative predictions. Recent progress in full-dimensional quantum dynamics using the numerically exact close-coupling (CC) formulation has provided good agreement with existing experimental data for low-lying states of H2 and increased the number of state-to-state cross sections that may be reliably determined over a broad range of energies. Nevertheless, there exist many possible initial states (e.g., states with high rotational excitation) that still remain elusive from a computational standpoint even at relatively low collision energies. In these cases, the coupled-states (CS) approximation offers an alternative full-dimensional formulation. We assess the accuracy of the CS approximation for H2+H2 collisions by comparison with benchmark results obtained using the CC formulation. The results are used to provide insight into the orientation effects of the various internal energy transfer mechanisms. A statistical CS approximation is also investigated and cross sections are reported for transitions which would otherwise be impractical to compute.

  11. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  12. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Resnati, Giuseppe; Boldyreva, Elena; Bombicz, Petra; Kawano, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1) an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2) exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3) the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4) strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials. PMID:26594375

  13. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  14. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Resnati, Giuseppe; Boldyreva, Elena; Bombicz, Petra; Kawano, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1) an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2) exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3) the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4) strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  15. Solid state dye laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldag, Henry R.

    1994-06-01

    The development of solid state dye lasers could lead to a major breakthrough in the cost and compactness of a medical device. Advantages include: elimination of the flow system for the gain medium; ease with which to implement wavelength agility or the replacement of a degraded rod or sheet; and toxicity and flammability become a non-issue. Dye lasers have played a role in cardiology, dermatology, and urology. Of these cardiology is of interest to Palomar. The Palomar Model 3010 flashlamp-pumped dye laser medical device was used during phase 1 FDA clinical trials to break-up blood clots that cause heart attacks, a process known as coronary laser thrombolysis. It is the objective of this research and development effort to produce solid matrix lasers that will replace liquid dye lasers in these medical specialties.

  16. Solid-state phased array (SSPA) performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Robert C., Jr.; Hull, W. Porter, Jr.; Lamb, Franklin D.

    The solid-state phased-array (SSPA) is an active electronically scanned array (AESA) designed and built for airborne radar applications using transmit/receive module hybrid technology. Details of its subassemblies and results of testing the array and its subassemblies are presented. The SSPA T/R (transmit/receive) modules used a hybrid construction that is labor-intensive and leads to parameter variations. The next generation of modules uses monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) devices, which will result in more uniform parameters and lower manufacturing cost.

  17. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-07-22

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300$sup 0$C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO$sub 4$:Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot- pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150$sup 0$C prior to first use dosimeters. (auth)

  18. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  19. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  20. Network control architecture for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Morgan, Fritz

    2001-12-01

    At the current time most of the attention in the solid-state lighting field has been placed on the blue and white light emitting diodes (LEDs). It has and will continue to be extremely important to concentrate on increasing the efficiencies of these devices. However, one of the most overlooked benefits of LEDs is that they are intrinsically simple to control. In this paper, the authors will discuss a technology that is currently being developed to enable fixtures incorporating LED light engines to be connected to a digital lighting network. A description of such a network enabling device and the results from a technology demonstration of a prototype system are provided.

  1. The solid state area scanner photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakos, K. D.

    The design and operation of a solid-state area-scanner photometer for observations of binaries are reported. Tracking and seeing errors are shown to be more significant than photoelectron statistics in determining overall accuracy; hence a system using individually recorded short scans and computer processing is adopted. A linear self-scanned photodiode array comprising 128 discrete Si photodiodes arranged on a 2.5 x 3.2-mm surface with virtually no dead space and having 80-percent quantum efficiency is used on a 1-m telescope at 1-sec integration time with thermoelectric cooling to -30 C. Good accuracy is obtained for binaries of magnitude 10 or less.

  2. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Clary, Maurice C.; Anderson, James L.; Anger, Clifford D.; Carr, Michael H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Davies, Merton E.; Greeley, Ronald; Anderson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo Orbiter's Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment uses a 1.5-m focal length TV camera with 800 x 800 pixel, virtual-phase CCD detector in order to obtain images of Jupiter and its satellites which possess a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolutions, geometric fidelity, and spectral range that are unmatched by earlier imaging data. After describing the performance of this equipment on the basis of ground calibrations, attention is given to the SSI experiment's Jupiter system observation objectives; these encompass atmospheric science, satellite surfaces, ring structure, and 'darkside' experiments.

  3. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, E. Fred; Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian; Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  4. Solid-state-based analog of optomechanics

    DOE PAGES

    Naumann, Nicolas L.; Droenner, Leon; Carmele, Alexander; Chow, Weng W.; Kabuss, Julia

    2016-06-21

    In this study, we investigate a semiconductor quantum dot as a microscopic analog of a basic optomechanical setup. We show that optomechanical features can be reproduced by the solid-state platform, arising from parallels of the underlying interaction processes, which in the optomechanical case is the radiation pressure coupling and in the semiconductor case the electron–phonon coupling. We discuss bistabilities, lasing, and phonon damping, and recover the same qualitative behaviors for the semiconductor and the optomechanical cases expected for low driving strengths. However, in contrast to the optomechanical case, distinct signatures of higher order processes arise in the semiconductor model.

  5. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  6. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  7. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  8. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-07-01

    The reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·2(H{sub 2}O). α- and β-An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2{sub 1}/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite

  9. Solid state lighting and photobiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soskind, Y. G.; Campin, J. A.; Hopler, M. D.; Pettit, G. H.

    2007-02-01

    Recent advancements in Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology have led to significant proliferation of solid-state lighting in our every-day life. White light and monochrome LED-based solid-state sources provide a small size, lower power consumption, and longer life alternative to several types of traditional light sources, such as incandescent lights. However, the spectral characteristics of LEDs are significantly different from the spectra of self-luminous objects that human eyes are adapted to through evolution and, therefore, may pose a real threat of photic-induced eye injury. In this paper the spectral characteristics of individual sources are considered from a photobiological safety perspective, and are used to estimate the retinal hazard potential of LEDs relative to that for daylight and blackbody radiators. The presented LED source retinal hazard exposure ranking considerations could be accounted for during illumination system design to minimize photic-induced eye injury risk. The importance of the material presented herein can not be underestimated since high power LED sources are found in a variety of high volume lighting applications and systems including automotive lamps, signal lighting, flash lights and other illumination devices.

  10. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  11. Characterization of Solid State Ultracold Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaska, Anne; Garcia, Alejandro; Sjue, Sky; Hoedl, Seth; Melconian, Dan; Young, Albert; Holley, Adam; Geltenbort, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The reflective properties of ultracold neutrons (UCN) enable easy transport and bottling but make neutron detection a technical challenge. Typically, UCN are allowed to accelerate in the Earth's gravitational field to sufficient velocity to penetrate an aluminum entrance window of a ^3He proportional counter. Here we describe the construction and characterization at the ILL of two kinds of prototype solid-state detectors which can be used to monitor the UCN density inside the UCNA spectrometer at LANL without gravitational acceleration, and perhaps more critically, without the danger of ^3He leaks. The first type consists of 300 μg/cm^2 of LiF evaporated onto 200 nm thick Ni foils. The second type consists of ˜ 10^18 ^10B ions implanted in a 200 nm thick V layer, also evaporated onto Ni foils. From monte carlo simulations, we find that LiF has a critical velocity nearly equal to that of aluminum, whereas the boron foils do indeed have a lower cutoff. Because of these cutoffs and the small size of the detectors, our solid-state detectors, thus, equal (for LiF) or outperform (for Boron) aluminum window proportional counters for in-situ density measurements.

  12. Astrophysically Important 19Ne States Studied with the 2H(18F,alpha+15O)n Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Adekola, Aderemi S; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Brune, C.; Chae, K. Y.; Champagne, A. E.; Domizioli, Carlo P; Greife, U.; Heinen, Z.; Hornish, M.; Johnson, Micah; Jones, K. L.; Kapler, R.; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Massey, T.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Pain, Steven D; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Thomas, J. S.; Smith, Nathan A; Smith, Michael Scott; Visser, D. W.; Voinov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear structure of {sup 19}Ne near the proton threshold is of interest for understanding the rates of proton-induced reactions on {sup 18}F in novae. Analogues for several states in the mirror nucleus {sup 19}F have not yet been identified in {sup 19}Ne indicating the level structure of {sup 19}Ne in this region is incomplete. The {sup 18}F(d;n){sup 19}Ne and {sup 18}F(d,p){sup 19}F reactions have been measured simultaneously at E{sub c.m.} = 14.9 MeV. The experiments were performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by bombarding a 720-mg/cm{sub 2} CD{sub 2} target with a radioactive {sup 18}F beam. The {sup 19}Ne states of interest near the proton threshold decay by breakup into a and {sup 15}O particles. These decay products were detected in coincidence with position-sensitive E-{Delta}E silicon telescopes. The {alpha} and {sup 15}N particles from the break up of the mirror nucleus {sup 19}F were also measured with these detectors. Particle identification, coincidence, and Q-value requirements enable us to distinguish the reaction of interest from other reactions. The reconstruction of relative energy of the detected particles reveals the excited states of {sup 19}Ne and {sup 19}F which are populated. The neutron (proton) angular distributions for states in {sup 19}Ne ({sup 19}F) were extracted using momentum conservation. The observed states in {sup 19}Ne and {sup 19}F will be presented.

  13. A new analytical potential energy surface for the singlet state of He{sub 2}H{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Jingjuan; Zhang Qinggang; Yang Chuanlu; Wang Lizhi

    2012-03-07

    The analytic potential energy surface (APES) for the exchange reaction of HeH{sup +} (X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) + He at the lowest singlet state 1{sup 1}A{sup /} has been built. The APES is expressed as Aguado-Paniagua function based on the many-body expansion. Using the adaptive non-linear least-squares algorithm, the APES is fitted from 15 682 ab initio energy points calculated with the multireference configuration interaction calculation with a large d-aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. To testify the new APES, we calculate the integral cross sections for He + H{sup +}He (v= 0, 1, 2, j= 0) {yields} HeH{sup +}+ He by means of quasi-classical trajectory and compare them with the previous result in literature.

  14. An active solid state ring laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of an active, solid state ring laser gyroscope were investigated. Two laser diode pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPRO), forced to lase in opposite directions, formed the NPRO-Gyro. It was unique in being an active ring laser gyroscope with a homogeneously broadened gain medium. This work examined sources of technical and fundamental noise. Associated calculations accounted for aspects of the NPRO-Gyro performance, suggested design improvements, and outlined limitations. The work brought out the need to stabilize the NPRO environment in order to achieve performance goals. Two Nd:YAG NPROs were mounted within an environment short term stabilized to microdegrees Celsius. The Allan variance of the NPRO-Gyro beat note was 500 Hz for a one second time delay. Unequal treatment of the NPROs appeared as noise on the beat frequency, therefore reducing its rotation sensitivity. The sensitivity to rotation was limited by technical noise sources.

  15. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  16. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  17. Solid-state spectral transmissometer and radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Steward, R. G.; Payne, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in situ instrument designed to measure the spectral attenuation coefficient of seawater and the ocean remote-sensing reflectance from 400 to 750 nm is in the test and development stage. It employs a 256 channel, charge-coupled type of linear array measuring the spectral intensities diffracted by a grating. Examples of the types of data delivered by this instrument have been simulated using a breadboard laboratory instrument and an above-water, solid-state radiometer. Algorithms developed using data from these instruments provide measures of chlorophyll a plus phaeophytin a concentrations from less than 0.1 to 77.0 mg/cu m, gelbstoff spectral absorption coefficients, and detrital spectral backscattering coefficients for waters of the west Florida shelf.

  18. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. ); Swinehart, P. )

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  19. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  20. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  1. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  2. Nuclear-driven solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelas, Mark A.

    A total system efficiency of 3 percent is calculated for very high average power active mirror solid-state laser amplifiers of co-doped material, such as Nd:Cr:GSGG, pumped by visible nuclear-driven alkali metal excimer fluorescence. The fluorescence is transported around a radiation shield, separating the fluorescer and the laser, by a large diameter-to-length ratio hollow lightpipe. Parameters for a system with peak power of 6 MW for 1 ms pulse at 1 Hz for an average power output of 6 kW are presented. This type of system would require the development of a small 200-kW thermal nuclear reactor (similar in size to small university research reactors). A much larger system can be developed as well.

  3. Dual mode solid state power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Louis C. (Inventor); Williams, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solid state amplifier has an output transistor stage and an input transistor stage interconnected as a Darlington circuit. An interstage transistor interconnecting the collectors of the two stages of the Darlington circuit is connected with the first stage transistor in a compound configuration. When the load current furnished by the amplifier is less than a predetermined value, the output stage operates as a simple saturated switch with its base drive current flowing through the emitter-base junction of the first stage which produces no collector current because the base-emitter junction of the interstage transistor is reverse-biased. When the load current exceeds said predetermined value, the interstage transistor begins to conduct allowing the input and output stages to operate as a Darlington amplifier and diverting a significant portion of the base drive current of the output transistor back into the load.

  4. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector.

    PubMed

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a (6)Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m(2), is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security. PMID:26133869

  5. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a {sup 6}Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m{sup 2}, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  6. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  7. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a 6Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m2, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  8. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  9. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  10. Solid-State Spectral Light Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maffione, Robert; Dana, David

    2011-01-01

    A solid-state light source combines an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with advanced electronic control and stabilization over both the spectrum and overall level of the light output. The use of LEDs provides efficient operation over a wide range of wavelengths and power levels, while electronic control permits extremely stable output and dynamic control over the output. In this innovation, LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs. Optical feedback and digital control are used to monitor and regulate the output of each LED. Because individual LEDs generate light within narrower ranges of wavelengths than incandescent bulbs, multiple LEDs are combined to provide a broad, continuous spectrum, or to produce light within discrete wavebands that are suitable for specific radiometric sensors.

  11. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. PMID:26974032

  12. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered.

  13. Crossed beam study of the atom-radical reaction of ground state carbon atoms (C(3P)) with the vinyl radical (C2H3(X2A')).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antony V; Parker, Dorian S N; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2012-01-14

    The atom-radical reaction of ground state carbon atoms (C((3)P)) with the vinyl radical (C(2)H(3)(X(2)A')) was conducted under single collision conditions at a collision energy of 32.3 ± 2.9 kJ mol(-1). The reaction dynamics were found to involve a complex forming reaction mechanism, which is initiated by the barrier-less addition of atomic carbon to the carbon-carbon-double bond of the vinyl radical forming a cyclic C(3)H(3) radical intermediate. The latter has a lifetime of at least 1.5 times its rotational period and decomposes via a tight exit transition state located about 45 kJ mol(-1) above the separated products through atomic hydrogen loss to the cyclopropenylidene isomer (c-C(3)H(2)) as detected toward cold molecular clouds and in star forming regions.

  14. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  15. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    SciTech Connect

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t{prime}-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t{prime}-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies.

  16. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being done at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) developing new kinds of batteries that do not depend on a solution. Currently, batteries use liquid electrolytes containing lithium. Problems with the liquid electrolyte are (1) solvents used can leak out of the battery, so larger, more restrictive, packages have to be made, inhibiting the diversity of application and decreasing the power density; (2) the liquid is incompatible with the lithium metal anode, so alternative, less efficient, anodes are required. The Materials Department at GRC has been working to synthesize polymer electrolytes that can replace the liquid electrolytes. The advantages are that polymer electrolytes do not have the potential to leak so they can be used for a variety of tasks, small or large, including in the space rover or in space suits. The polymers generated by Dr. Mary Ann Meador's group are in the form of rod -coil structures. The rod aspect gives the polymer structural integrity, while the coil makes it flexible. Lithium ions are used in these polymers because of their high mobility. The coils have repeating units of oxygen which stabilize the positive lithium by donating electron density. This aids in the movement of the lithium within the polymer, which contributes to higher conductivity. In addition to conductivity testing, these polymers are characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, and solid state NMR. Solid state NMR is used in classifying materials that are not soluble in solvents, such as polymers. The NMR spins the sample at a magic angle (54.7') allowing the significant peaks to emerge. Although solid state NMR is a helpful technique in determining bonding, the process of preparing the sample and tuning it properly are intricate jobs that require patience; especially since each run takes about six hours. The NMR allows for the advancement of polymer synthesis by showing if the expected results were achieved. Using the NMR, in addition to looking at polymers, allows for

  17. Internal dynamics of DNA - a solid state deuterium NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wen-Chang.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, solid state {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the dynamics of the sodium salt oligonucleotide, (d(CGCGAATTCGCG)){sub 2}, which contains the Eco R1 binding site. Deuterium quadrupole echo line shape and spin-lattice relaxation times were obtained as a function of hydration on three different deuterated samples. In the first sample, (d{sub 12}-(d(CG*CG*A*A*TTCG*CG*)){sub 2}), the C8 proton of all purine in the self-complementary dodecamer were exchanged for deuterons. Specifically labeled thymidine (C6 deuterated) was also synthetically incorporated at the seventh position (counting 5{prime} to 3{prime}) in the sequence (d{sub 2}-(d(CGCGAAT*TCGCG)){sub 2}). In the third sample the C2{double prime} position of the furanose ring of adenosine at the fifth and sixth positions in the same sequence (d{sub 4}-(d(CGCGA*A*TTCGCG)){sub 2}) was deuterium labeled. The static quadrupole coupling constant (e{sup 2}qQ/h) and asymmetry parameter ({eta}) were obtained through the analysis of appropriative motional models from the corresponding monomers studies.

  18. Protein structure by solid-state NMR of oriented systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    A method for determining protein backbone structure from angular information obtainable by solid state NMR spectroscopy is presented. Various spin interactions including quadrupole, dipole, and chemical shift interactions and nuclei including /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, and /sup 2/H may be observed. Angularly dependent measurements can be made when the sample has at least one direction of order along the externally applied magnetic field. Several NMR parameters are used to determine the orientation of each peptide plane with respect to the magnetic field vector, B/sub O/, to within a few symmetry related possibilities. The computer program Totlink can then be used to perform the necessary coordinate transformations and to evaluate the possible backbone structures and select for the most chemically reasonable. Experimental /sup 14/N NMR structural studies of the model peptides n-acetyl-d,l-valine, n-acetyl-l-valyl-l-leucine, and l-alanyl-glycyl-glycine and preliminary /sup 14/N NMR results on a large single crystal of orthorhombic lysozyme are presented.

  19. Solid-state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie Kirkland

    Amplification of low-light-level optical images is important for extending the range of lidar systems that image and detect objects in the atmosphere and underwater. The use of range-gating to produce images of particular range bins is also important in minimizing the image degradation due to light that is scattered backward from aerosols, smoke, or water along the imaging path. For practical lidar systems that must be operated within sight of unprotected observers, eye safety is of the utmost importance. This dissertation describes a new type of eye-safe, range-gated lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid- state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level images in the eye-safe infrared at 1.556 μm with gains up to 106 with the addition of only quantum- limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30-100 cm, using pump pulses of 2-6.7 nsec FWHM. A rate equation theoretical model is derived to help in the design of short pulsed Raman lasers. A theoretical model for the quantum noise properties of SSRIA is presented. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCD's. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCD's. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR. Lastly, SSRIA can be combined with optical pre-filtering to perform optical image processing functions such as high-pass filtering and automatic target detection/recognition. The application of this technology to underwater imaging, called Marine Raman Image Amplification (MARIA) is also discussed. MARIA

  20. Solid state and solution nitrate photochemistry: photochemical evolution of the solid state lattice.

    PubMed

    Asher, Sanford A; Tuschel, David D; Vargson, Todd A; Wang, Luling; Geib, Steven J

    2011-05-01

    We examined the deep UV 229 nm photochemistry of NaNO(3) in solution and in the solid state. In aqueous solution excitation within the deep UV NO(3)¯ strong π → π* transition causes the photochemical reaction NO(3)¯ → NO(2)¯ + O·. We used UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to examine the photon dose dependence of the NO(2)¯ band intensities and measure a photochemical quantum yield of 0.04 at pH 6.5. We also examined the response of solid NaNO(3) samples to 229 nm excitation and also observe formation of NO(2)¯. The quantum yield is much smaller at ∼10(-8). The solid state NaNO(3) photochemistry phenomena appear complex by showing a significant dependence on the UV excitation flux and dose. At low flux/dose conditions NO(2)¯ resonance Raman bands appear, accompanied by perturbed NO(3)¯ bands, indicating stress in the NaNO(3) lattice. Higher flux/dose conditions show less lattice perturbation but SEM shows surface eruptions that alleviate the stress induced by the photochemistry. Higher flux/dose measurements cause cratering and destruction of the NaNO(3) surface as the surface layers are converted to NO(2)¯. Modest laser excitation UV beams excavate surface layers in the solid NaNO(3) samples. At the lowest incident fluxes a pressure buildup competes with effusion to reach a steady state giving rise to perturbed NO(3)¯ bands. Increased fluxes result in pressures that cause the sample to erupt, relieving the pressure.

  1. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  2. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  3. Solid state watt-hour meter

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.R.; Gilker, C.S.

    1984-08-21

    A watt-hour meter is disclosed which includes: a microprocessor coupled to a solid-state Hall-Effect sensor; an electrically alterable ROM coupled to the microprocessor; a power supply; a power outage timing means using the discharge characteristic of a capacitor; apparatus for supplying a 60 Hz clock signal to the microprocessor; a readout device coupled to the microprocessor to provide an indication of the power consumed; an output on the microprocessor for controlling a circuit breaker; and a switch for overriding the microprocessor controlled circuit breaker. The microprocessor and the electrically alterable ROM are connected and programmed: to sense the time of day as determined from an initial time of day and setting the 60 Hz clock signal; to sense and compute the power used by the consumer; to automatically open the circuit breaker when power demand on the electric power source is high and/or the cost per kilowatt hour is high; to automatically close the circuit breaker when the power demand on the source of electric power is low and/or the cost per kilowatt power is low; and to allow a consumer to override the microprocessor's control of the circuit breaker.

  4. Solid state photomultiplier for astronomy, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers with varying donor concentration profiles were grown on silicon substrate wafers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, and solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) devices were fabricated from the wafers. Representative detectors were tested in a low background photon flux, low temperature environment to determine the device characteristics for comparison to NASA goals for astronomical applications. The SSPM temperatures varied between 6 and 11 K with background fluxes in the range from less than 5 x 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 13th power photons/square cm per second at wavelengths of 3.2 and 20 cm. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, dark count rate and bias current. Temperature for optimal performance is 10 K, the highest ever obtained for SSPMs. The devices exhibit a combination of the lowest dark current and highest quantum efficiency yet achieved. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed and used to generate recommendations for future studies. The background and present status of the microscopic theory of SSPM operation were reviewed and summarized. Present emphasis is on modeling of the avalanche process which is the basis for SSPM operation. Approaches to the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation are described and the treatment of electron scattering mechanisms is presented. The microscopic single-electron transport theory is ready to be implemented for large-scale computations.

  5. Introduction to cryogenic solid state cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Joseph P.

    2016-05-01

    Thermoelectric (Peltier) coolers have historically not been used for cooling to temperatures much below 200 K, because of limitations with existing thermoelectric materials. There are many advantages to solid-state coolers: they have no moving parts, are compact, vibration-free, inherently durable, and scalable to low power levels. A significant drawback is their low coefficient of performance. The figure of merit, zT, is the materials characteristic that sets this efficiency in Peltier coolers. The zT decreases rapidly with temperature, roughly following a T7/2 law. However, new material developments have taken place in the last decade that have made it possible to reach zT>0.5 down to 50 K. Many new ideas have also been put forward that enable better ZT's and lower temperatures. This article reviews the difficulties associated with Peltier cooling at cryogenic temperatures, as an introduction to the following presentations and proceeding entries that will present solutions that have been developed since 2010.

  6. Solid state transmitters for spaceborne radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turlington, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A synthetic aperture radar, the first spaceborne SAR, utilized an all solid state RF signal synthesizer and L-band transmitter to drive a corporately fed flat plate array. The RF signal synthesizer generated a linear FM ""CHIRP'' waveform and provided stable CW reference signals used to upconvert the received signal to a unified S-band downlink channel, and to synchronize satellite control logic. The transmitter generated 1200 watts peak RF power (66 watts average) at a center frequency of 1.275 GHz from 354 watts of DC prime power. Linear FM CHIRP swept symmetrically around the center frequency with a bandwidth of 19.05 MHz and a pulse duration of 33.8 sec. Pulse repetition rate was variable from 1647 to 1944 pps. These transmitter signal parameters combined with the flat plate 34 x 7.5 ft aperture at an orbital altitude of 498 miles and a look angle 20 deg off nadir gave the SAR an 85 foot resolution over a 15.5 mile wide swath.

  7. Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

  8. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  9. SOLID-STATE CERAMIC LIGHTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Brown

    2003-06-01

    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  10. Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N2), (H5N8), and (H5N1) among birds--United States, December 2014-January 2015.

    PubMed

    Jhung, Michael A; Nelson, Deborah I

    2015-02-01

    During December 15, 2014-January 16, 2015, the U.S. Department of Agriculture received 14 reports of birds infected with Asian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) (H5N2), (H5N8), and (H5N1) viruses. These reports represent the first reported infections with these viruses in U.S. wild or domestic birds. Although these viruses are not known to have caused disease in humans, their appearance in North America might increase the likelihood of human infection in the United States. Human infection with other avian influenza viruses, such as HPAI (H5N1) and (H5N6) viruses and (H7N9) virus, has been associated with severe, sometimes fatal, disease, usually following contact with poultry.

  11. The quenching effect of hydrogen on the nitrogen in metastable state in atmospheric-pressure N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shou-Zhe Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yong-Xing; Xia, Guang-Qing

    2014-07-15

    The atmospheric-pressure microwave N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} plasma torch is generated and diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that a large amount of N atoms and NH radicals are generated in the plasma torch and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is the strongest over the spectra. The mixture of hydrogen in nitrogen plasma torch causes the morphology of the plasma discharge to change with appearance that the afterglow shrinks greatly and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band decreases with more hydrogen mixed into nitrogen plasma. In atmospheric-pressure microwave-induced plasma torch, the hydrogen imposes a great influence on the characteristics of nitrogen plasma through the quenching effect of the hydrogen on the metastable state of N{sub 2}.

  12. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  13. Reaction Pathways and Excited States in H2O2+OH → HO2+H2O : A New ab initio Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-08-28

    The mechanism of the hydrogen abstraction reaction H2O2+OH→ HO2+H2O in gas phase was studied, using DFT (MPW1K) level of theory. We located 2 pathways for the reaction, both going through the same intermediate complex OH-H2O2, but via two distinct transition state structures that differ by the orientation of the hydroxyl hydrogen relative to the incipient hydroperoxy hydrogen. In one case, these hydrogens are on same side of the plane made by the 3 oxygen atoms and in the other these hydrogens are on opposite sides of the plane. The first two excited states were calculated for selected points of both pathways using time-dependent DFT, multiconfigurational quasi-degenerate-perturbation theory (MCQDPT2/ CASSCF) and equation of motion coupled cluster singles, doubles model (EOM-CCSD) EOMCCSD energies and completely renormalized EOM-CCSD(T)(IA) correction. An avoided crossing between the two excited states was found on both reaction pathways, on the product side of the barrier to H-transfer on the ground state surface, near the transition states. Further more, we report on the calculation of the rate of the reaction in the gas phase for temperatures in the range of 250-500 K, and suggest that the strong temperature dependence of the rate at high temperatures is due to reaction on the low-lying excited state surface over a barrier that is much larger than on the ground state surface. This work was supported in part by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE), Chemical Sciences program (BG and MD) and in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Environmental Management Science Program (BG and DMC). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute.

  14. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    DOE PAGES

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-05

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  15. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature.

  16. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature. PMID:26847703

  17. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, Seth D; Albrecht, Alexander R; Hehlen, Markus P; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-05

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature.

  18. Characterization of the solid-state: spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bugay, D E

    2001-05-16

    The physical characterization of pharmaceutical solids is an integral aspect of the drug development process. This review summarizes the use of solid-state spectroscopy techniques used in the physical characterization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, excipients, physical mixtures, and the final dosage form. A brief introduction to infrared, Raman, and solid-state NMR experimental techniques are described as well as a more thorough description of qualitative and quantitative applications. The use of solid-state imaging techniques such as IR, Raman, and TOF-SIMS is also introduced to the reader.

  19. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  20. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  1. Metal speciation of phosphorus derived from solid state spectroscopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant improvements have been made in the last decade towards understanding metal species associated with manure P using XANES and solid-state 31P NMR techniques. Both solid-state techniques are particularly sensitive to inorganic forms of P associated with metals in manure samples. In unamen...

  2. Solid state NMR study of bone mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.

    1992-01-01

    In high field (9.4 T) CP MASS (cross polarization magic angle sample spinning) studies, in contrast to the scheme in the literature that infers the presence of minor constituents in spectra, we developed a new scheme to suppress the main part of the spectra to show the minor constituents. In order to perform in vivo solid state NMR studies, a double tuned two port surface coil probe was constructed. This probe is a modified version of the traditional Cross probe, which utilizes two 1/4 wave length 50 ohm transmission line, one with open ended and the other with shorted end, to isolate the high and low frequency circuits. The two resonance frequencies in Cross probe were proton and carbon. Our probe is designed to resonate at the proton and phosphorus frequencies, which are much closer to each other and hence more difficult to be tuned and matched simultaneously. Our approach to solve this problem is that instead of using standard 50 ohm transmission lines, we constructed a low capacity open end coaxial transmission line and low inductance shorted end coaxial transmission line. The Q of the phosphorus channel is high. We developed a short contact time cross polarization technique for non-MASS spectroscopy which reduces the signal of the major component of bone mineral to emphasize the minor component. By applying this technique on intact pork bone samples with our home made surface coil, we observed the wide line component, acid phosphate, for the first time. Hydroxyapatite, brushite and octacalcium are considered in the literature to be the model compounds for bone mineral. Cross polarization dynamics has been studied on hydroxyapatite and brushite, which yielded an NMR value for the distance between proton and phosphorus. One and two dimensional CP MASS spectroscopy of octacalcium phosphate were also studied, which revealed the different cross polarization rates and anisotropic channel shifts of acid phosphate and phosphate ions in octacalcium phosphate.

  3. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  4. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  5. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  6. Solid-State NMR Studies of Amyloid Fibril Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Current interest in amyloid fibrils stems from their involvement in neurodegenerative and other diseases and from their role as an alternative structural state for many peptides and proteins. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have the unique capability of providing detailed structural constraints for amyloid fibrils, sufficient for the development of full molecular models. In this article, recent progress in the application of solid-state NMR to fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease, prion fibrils, and related systems is reviewed, along with relevant developments in solid-state NMR techniques and technology.

  7. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  8. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  9. Solid-state impact-ionization multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Wei

    This dissertation presents an innovative solid-state current amplifier based on impact-ionization. Unlike avalanche photodetectors which use the same amplification principle, this device can be integrated with any external current source. A discrete amplifier was built on a silicon surface using standard CMOS fabrication processes including lithography, oxidation, ion implantation, diffusion, chemical wet etching, metal deposition, annealing, and rapid thermal processing. Testing was performed by connecting the device to a silicon photodiode, indium-gallium-arsenide photodiodes, and a function generator to demonstrate its compatibility with arbitrary current sources. Current gains above 100 along with pre-amplified leakage currents of less than 10 nA were measured. This amplifier can also be cascaded to achieve very high gains similar to the photomultiplier tube but with much smaller size and no vacuum environment required. Testing was done by amplifying the output signal from an external silicon photodiode. Current gains over 600 were measured when two amplifying devices were cascaded. Additionally, the gain saturation phenomenon of the amplifier due to the space-charge effect is investigated. The measured gain saturation is observed to match very well with the theoretical based predictions. We also present a design rule for obtaining high current gain from the cascaded structure without experiencing gain saturation. Initial bandwidth of the SIM when connected to a silicon photodiode was measured to be about 300 kHz. As we replace the photodiode by a function generator, the bandwidth improved to 450 kHz which is the frequency limit of the system. These results were made on the first generation of SIM devices. We discovered that the space-charge resistance Rsc plays a significant role in determining frequency response. In future generations of the device, we can begin with optimizing the device geometry to reduce this resistance. Also, we can reduce the size of the

  10. Steady-state studies of the reactions of H2O-CO and CO2-H2 mixtures with liquid iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Belton, G. R.

    1998-08-01

    Studies have been made of the steady-stata composition of liquid iron exposed to high flow rates of H2O-CO mixtures at 1550 °C to 1700 °C and CO2-H2 mixtures at 1600 °C. Values of the steady-state activity of oxygen have been established by measurement of either the carbon concentration or the silicon concentration when the iron was held in a silica crucible. Additions of sulfur or selenium to the iron have been found to result in steady-state oxygen activities, which differ significantly from those expected from water-gas equilibrium. The results are interpreted to show that the ratio of the apparent first-order rate constants for the reactions of H2O and CO2 with liquid iron is about 3 at 1600 °C. It is shown that the dependencies of the rate constants on the activities of sulfur, oxygen, and selenium must, even if complex, be similar for the H2O and CO2 reactions with liquid iron, to a good approximation.

  11. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S{sub 1} state of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. I. Methodology and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Changala, P. Bryan

    2014-01-14

    The bending and torsional degrees of freedom in S{sub 1} acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, are subject to strong vibrational resonances and rovibrational interactions, which create complex vibrational polyad structures even at low energy. As the internal energy approaches that of the barrier to cis-trans isomerization, these energy level patterns undergo further large-scale reorganization that cannot be satisfactorily treated by traditional models tied to local minima of the potential energy surface for nuclear motion. Experimental spectra in the region near the cis-trans transition state have revealed these complicated new patterns. In order to understand near-barrier spectroscopic observations and to predict the detailed effects of cis-trans isomerization on the rovibrational energy level structure, we have performed reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S{sub 1} state. In this paper, we present the methodological details, several of which require special care. Our calculation uses a high accuracy ab initio potential surface and a fully symmetrized extended complete nuclear permutation inversion group theoretical treatment of a multivalued internal coordinate system that is appropriate for large amplitude bending and torsional motions. We also discuss the details of the rovibrational basis functions and their symmetrization, as well as the use of a constrained reduced dimension rovibrational kinetic energy operator.

  12. Modeling solid-state transformations occurring in dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Timo; Aaltonen, Jaakko

    2013-04-15

    Changes in the solid-state form can occur during dissolution testing of drugs. This can often complicate interpretation of results. Additionally, there can be several mechanisms through which such a change proceeds, e.g. solvent-mediated transformation or crystal growth within the drug material itself. Here, a mathematical model was constructed to study the dissolution testing of a material, which undergoes such changes. The model consisted of two processes: the recrystallization of the drug from a supersaturated liquid state caused by the dissolution of the more soluble solid form and the crystal growth of the stable solid form at the surface of the drug formulation. Comparison to experimental data on theophylline dissolution showed that the results obtained with the model matched real solid-state changes and that it was able to distinguish between cases where the transformation was controlled either by solvent-mediated crystallization or solid-state crystal growth. PMID:23506958

  13. Cavity approach to the random solid state.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M; Mézard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

    2005-09-30

    The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin. PMID:16241698

  14. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  15. Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Tso Yee; Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, interest in diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers has increased due to their advantages over flashlamp-pumped solid-state lasers. A historical overview is presented of semiconductor diode-pumped solid-state lasers beginning with work in the early 1960s and continuing through recent work on wavelength extension of these devices by laser operation on new transitions. Modeling of these devices by rate equations to obtain expressions for threshold, slope efficiency, and figures of merit is also given.

  16. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, J.; Sansinena, J. M.; Gao, J.; Wang, H. L.

    2004-01-01

    We report here the fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators. The electrochemical activity of polyaniline (PANI) thin film coated with solid-state polyelectrolyte is very similar to the polyaniline thin film in an aqueous solution. The solid-state actuator is adhere to a lever arm of an force transducer and the force generation is measured in real time. The force generated by the actuator is found to be length dependent. However, the overall torques generated by the actuators with different lengths remains essentially the same. The effect of stimulation signals such as voltage, current, on the bending angle and displacement is also studied using square wave potential.

  18. A 2H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the state of water in neat silica and zwitterionic stationary phases and its influence on the chromatographic retention characteristics in hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Erika; Sparrman, Tobias; Viklund, Camilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

    2011-09-23

    2H NMR has been used as a tool for probing the state of water in hydrophilic stationary phases for liquid chromatography at temperatures between -80 and +4 °C. The fraction of water that remained unfrozen in four different neat silicas with nominal pore sizes between 60 and 300 Å, and in silicas with polymeric sulfobetaine zwitterionic functionalities prepared in different ways, could be determined by measurements of the line widths and temperature-corrected integrals of the 2H signals. The phase transitions detected during thawing made it possible to estimate the amount of non-freezable water in each phase. A distinct difference was seen between the neat and modified silicas tested. For the neat silicas, the relationship between the freezing point depression and their pore size followed the expected Gibbs-Thomson relationship. The polymeric stationary phases were found to contain considerably higher amounts of non-freezable water compared to the neat silica, which is attributed to the structural effect that the sulfobetaine polymers have on the water layer close to the stationary phase surface. The sulfobetaine stationary phases were used alongside the 100 Å silica to separate a number of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode, and the retention characteristics could be explained in terms of the surface water structure, as well as by the porous properties of the stationary phases. This provides solid evidence supporting a partitioning mechanism, or at least of the existence of an immobilized layer of water into which partitioning could be occurring. PMID:21855078

  19. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Chris; Menkara, Hisham; Wagner, Brent

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  20. Underlying theory of a model for the Renner-Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules: X(2)Πu electronic state of C2H2(+).

    PubMed

    Perić, M; Jerosimić, S; Mitić, M; Milovanović, M; Ranković, R

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we prove the plausibility of a simple model for the Renner-Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules with linear equilibrium geometry by ab initio calculations of the electronic energy surfaces and non-adiabatic matrix elements for the X(2)Πu state of C2H2 (+). This phenomenon is considered as a combination of the usual Renner-Teller effect, appearing in triatomic species, and a kind of the Jahn-Teller effect, similar to the original one arising in highly symmetric molecules. Only four parameters (plus the spin-orbit constant, if the spin effects are taken into account), which can be extracted from ab initio calculations carried out at five appropriate (planar) molecular geometries, are sufficient for building up the Hamiltonian matrix whose diagonalization results in the complete low-energy (bending) vibronic spectrum. The main result of the present study is the proof that the diabatization scheme, hidden beneath the apparent simplicity of the model, can safely be carried out, at small-amplitude bending vibrations, without cumbersome computation of non-adiabatic matrix elements at large number of molecular geometries.

  1. Solid-state NMR structures of integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR is unique for its ability to obtain three-dimensional structures and to measure atomic-resolution structural and dynamic information for membrane proteins in native lipid bilayers. An increasing number and complexity of integral membrane protein structures have been determined by solid-state NMR using two main methods. Oriented sample solid-state NMR uses macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers to obtain orientational restraints that define secondary structure and global fold of embedded peptides and proteins and their orientation and topology in lipid bilayers. Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR uses unoriented rapidly spinning samples to obtain distance and torsion angle restraints that define tertiary structure and helix packing arrangements. Details of all current protein structures are described, highlighting developments in experimental strategy and other technological advancements. Some structures originate from combining solid- and solution-state NMR information and some have used solid-state NMR to refine X-ray crystal structures. Solid-state NMR has also validated the structures of proteins determined in different membrane mimetics by solution-state NMR and X-ray crystallography and is therefore complementary to other structural biology techniques. By continuing efforts in identifying membrane protein targets and developing expression, isotope labelling and sample preparation strategies, probe technology, NMR experiments, calculation and modelling methods and combination with other techniques, it should be feasible to determine the structures of many more membrane proteins of biological and biomedical importance using solid-state NMR. This will provide three-dimensional structures and atomic-resolution structural information for characterising ligand and drug interactions, dynamics and molecular mechanisms of membrane proteins under physiological lipid bilayer conditions.

  2. Solid-state NMR structures of integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR is unique for its ability to obtain three-dimensional structures and to measure atomic-resolution structural and dynamic information for membrane proteins in native lipid bilayers. An increasing number and complexity of integral membrane protein structures have been determined by solid-state NMR using two main methods. Oriented sample solid-state NMR uses macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers to obtain orientational restraints that define secondary structure and global fold of embedded peptides and proteins and their orientation and topology in lipid bilayers. Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR uses unoriented rapidly spinning samples to obtain distance and torsion angle restraints that define tertiary structure and helix packing arrangements. Details of all current protein structures are described, highlighting developments in experimental strategy and other technological advancements. Some structures originate from combining solid- and solution-state NMR information and some have used solid-state NMR to refine X-ray crystal structures. Solid-state NMR has also validated the structures of proteins determined in different membrane mimetics by solution-state NMR and X-ray crystallography and is therefore complementary to other structural biology techniques. By continuing efforts in identifying membrane protein targets and developing expression, isotope labelling and sample preparation strategies, probe technology, NMR experiments, calculation and modelling methods and combination with other techniques, it should be feasible to determine the structures of many more membrane proteins of biological and biomedical importance using solid-state NMR. This will provide three-dimensional structures and atomic-resolution structural information for characterising ligand and drug interactions, dynamics and molecular mechanisms of membrane proteins under physiological lipid bilayer conditions. PMID:26857803

  3. Theoretical Solid and Liquid State Shock Hugoniots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Rao, R. S.; Godwal, B. K.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    Shock Hugoniots of Al, Cu, Ta, Mo, and W up to 1 TPa were reported by Wang et al[Phys. Rev. Lett.,84, 3220 (2000)], in which the Helmholtz free energy was obtained from the mean field theories using the ab initio 0K electronic structure calculations. However, the irreversible heating along the shock Hugoniot leads to melting at pressures below 0.5 TPa. Hence we calculated the Hugoniots in the liquid phase based on the CRIS (corrected rigid spheres) model to estimate the effect of liquid disorder. The required 0K isotherm of the solid phase was obtained by the full potential LAPW method with GGA for exchange-correlation. The melting curve under pressure was estimated according to dislocation mediated melting, and compared with that based on Lindemann law. The solid and liquid phase Hugoniots were calculated for Al, Mo, and Be. The shock melting was found to take place at about 0.1 TPa in Al, 0.4 TPa in Mo, and 0.15 TPa in Be. Our solid phase Hugoniot calculations are in agreement with those of Wang et al, but substantial effects of melting have been obtained; especially the shock temperatures are significantly different. Comparison with available shock data reveals that there is need for more experimental shock temperature data in resolving this disagreement.

  4. Solid-state characterization of tacrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Bruni, Giovanna; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica; Bettinetti, Giampiero

    2012-04-01

    The present study deals with the physicochemical characterization of solid forms of tacrine monohydrochloride (TCR), a centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for treating the symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, obtained by recrystallization of hot saturated solutions from different solvents. Recrystallization of the commercially available hydrate, TCR·H₂O, from water, hydroalcoholic solutions with ethanol, n-propanol, methanol and isopropanol (1:1, v/v) and isopropanol/water (8:2, v/v) afforded a new dihydrate phase TCR·2H₂O form I. The TCR samples obtained by desolvation of TCR·H₂O and TCR·2H₂O show temperature and melting enthalpy values very similar, thus confirming the existence of a unique anhydrous crystalline phase. Exposure of anhydrous TCR powder samples under different atmospheric conditions at room temperature, resulted in rehydration to TCR·H₂O at 32% relative humidity (RH), whereas at 100% RH a new solid form of TCR·2H₂O (TCR·2H₂O form II), i.e. a polymorph of the dihydrate isolated by recrystallization, was obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DSC), and thermo optical analysis (TOA) with support from X-ray powder diffractometry (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), were used for the characterization of the isolated solid forms of TCR and monitoring the water uptake of anhydrous TCR.

  5. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  6. Solid state technology: A compilation. [on semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A compilation, covering selected solid state devices developed and integrated into systems by NASA to improve performance, is presented. Data are also given on device shielding in hostile radiation environments.

  7. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications. PMID:26751848

  8. Flexible solid-state paper based carbon nanotube supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan; Rajamani, Rajesh; Yu, Xun

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a flexible solid-state supercapacitor of high energy density. The electrodes of the supercapacitor are made of porous and absorbent cotton paper coated with single-wall carbon nanotubes. To ensure all solid-state configuration, a solid-state polymer-based electrolyte (poly (vinyl alcohol)/phosphoric acid) is used. The as-fabricated supercapacitor can be charged to over 3 V. It has high specific capacitance and high energy density of 115.8301 F/g carbon and 48.8587 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is comparable to that of commercial supercapacitors, which need to utilize liquid electrolytes. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors offer several significant advantages for use in hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications.

  10. Solid State Photochemical Isomerization: A Convenient Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of benzophenone in the role of a solid state sensitizer in a photochemical isomerization and as an indicator in preparative layer chromatography for purification of the isomeride. (Author/SA)

  11. Assignment of phantom bands in the solid-state infrared and Raman spectra of coronene: The importance of a minute out-of-plane distortion.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Petar D; Jenneskens, Leonardus W; van Lenthe, Joop H

    2010-01-21

    The molecular geometry and the normal modes properties of coronene are investigated by means of DFT(B3LYP) and restricted/Hartree-Fock calculations utilizing basis sets of triple zeta+polarization quality. The interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of coronene, especially in solid state, is critically revised. The phantom bands in the solid state, previously not understood, are readily assigned after considering a minute out-of-plane molecular distortion from D(6h) to C(2h).

  12. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.

  13. Solid-state X-band Combiner Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitzalis, O., Jr.; Russell, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of developing solid-state amplifiers at 4 and 10 GHz for application in spacecraft altimeters was studied. Bipolar-transistor, field-effect-transistor, and Impatt-diode amplifier designs based on 1980 solid-state technology are investigated. Several output power levels of the pulsed, low-duty-factor amplifiers are considered at each frequency. Proposed transistor and diode amplifier designs are illustrated in block diagrams. Projections of size, weight, and primary power requirements are given for each design.

  14. SOLID STATE NMR AS A PROBE OF AMYLOID STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has developed into one of the most informative and direct experimental approaches to the characterization of the molecular structures of amyloid fibrils, including those associated with Alzheimer's disease. In this article, essential aspects of solid state NMR methods are described briefly and results obtained to date regarding the supramolecular organization of amyloid fibrils and the conformations of peptides within amyloid fibrils are reviewed. PMID:16515450

  15. Semiclassical atom theory applied to solid-state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Lucian A.; Terentjevs, Aleksandrs; Della Sala, Fabio; Cortona, Pietro; Fabiano, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Using the semiclassical neutral atom theory, we extend to fourth order the modified gradient expansion of the exchange energy of density functional theory. This expansion can be applied both to large atoms and solid-state problems. Moreover, we show that it can be employed to construct a simple and nonempirical generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functional competitive with state-of-the-art GGAs for solids, but also reasonably accurate for large atoms and ordinary chemistry.

  16. Darling-Dennison resonance and Coriolis coupling in the bending overtones of the A 1A(u) state of acetylene, C2H2.

    PubMed

    Merer, Anthony J; Yamakita, Nami; Tsuchiya, Soji; Steeves, Adam H; Bechtel, Hans A; Field, Robert W

    2008-08-01

    Rotational analyses have been carried out for the overtones of the nu(4) (torsion) and nu(6) (in-plane cis-bend) vibrations of the A (1)A(u) state of C(2)H(2). The v(4)+v(6)=2 vibrational polyad was observed in high-sensitivity one-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectra and the v(4)+v(6)=3 polyad was observed in IR-UV double resonance spectra via the ground state nu(3) (Sigma(+) (u)) and nu(3)+nu(4) (Pi(u)) vibrational levels. The structures of these polyads are dominated by the effects of vibrational angular momentum: Vibrational levels of different symmetry interact via strong a-and b-axis Coriolis coupling, while levels of the same symmetry interact via Darling-Dennison resonance, where the interaction parameter has the exceptionally large value K(4466)=-51.68 cm(-1). The K-structures of the polyads bear almost no resemblance to the normal asymmetric top patterns, and many local avoided crossings occur between close-lying levels with nominal K-values differing by one or more units. Least squares analysis shows that the coupling parameters change only slightly with vibrational excitation, which has allowed successful predictions of the structures of the higher polyads: A number of weak bands from the v(4)+v(6)=4 and 5 polyads have been identified unambiguously. The state discovered by Scherer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6315 (1986)], which appears to interact with the K=1 levels of the 3(3) vibrational state at low J, is identified as the second highest of the five K=1 members of the v(4)+v(6)=4 polyad. After allowing for the Darling-Dennison resonance, the zero-order bending structure can be represented by omega(4)=764.71, omega(6)=772.50, x(44)=0.19, x(66)=-4.23, and x(46)=11.39 cm(-1). The parameters x(46) and K(4466) are both sums of contributions from the vibrational angular momentum and from the anharmonic force field. For x(46) these contributions are 14.12 and -2.73 cm(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for K(4466) are -28.24 and -23

  17. Waste-free solid-state syntheses with quantitative yield.

    PubMed

    Kaupp, G; Schmeyers, J; Boy, J

    2001-04-01

    Unexpected organic solid-state reactions in the gas-solid and stoichiometric solid-solid versions are highly promising new tools for solvent-free sustainable synthesis and production if they occur with 100% yield. Costly workup is obsolete, no wastes are formed and resources and energy saved. More than 500 published 100%-yield, solid-state reactions in 25 reaction types cover virtually all fields of synthetic organic chemistry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that solid-state reactions require long-range molecular movements and are strictly and sensibly guided by the crystal packing. Three steps govern the issue: phase rebuilding, phase transformation, and crystal disintegration (detachment). If one of these fails, or if liquid phases are not avoided, the reaction will usually not run to completion. Repeated creation of fresh contacts of crystallites is essential in solid-solid reactions. New, otherwise inaccessible and highly reactive products are most easily obtained. Cooling below eutectic temperatures, but also thermal activation above room temperature, may be necessary. Liquids may be solidified by cooling or inclusion complexation. Typical single-step, multi-step and cascade reactions have been performed with 100% yield using commonly available starting materials in various fields. Upscaling to the kilogram scale has been achieved under various conditions. Further upscaling to technical size productions seems possible.

  18. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  19. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  20. Ultra-wideline solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schurko, Robert W

    2013-09-17

    Although solid-state NMR (SSNMR) provides rich information about molecular structure and dynamics, the small spin population differences between pairs of spin states that give rise to NMR transitions make it an inherently insensitive spectroscopic technique in terms of signal acquisition. Scientists have continuously addressed this issue via improvements in NMR hardware and probes, increases in the strength of the magnetic field, and the development of innovative pulse sequences and acquisition methodologies. As a result, researchers can now study NMR-active nuclides previously thought to be unobservable or too unreceptive for routine examination via SSNMR. Several factors can make it extremely challenging to detect signal or acquire spectra using SSNMR: (i) low gyromagnetic ratios (i.e., low Larmor frequencies), (ii) low natural abundances or dilution of the nuclide of interest (e.g., metal nuclides in proteins or in organometallic catalysts supported on silica), (iii) inconvenient relaxation characteristics (e.g., very long longitudinal or very short transverse relaxation times), and/or (iv) extremely broad powder patterns arising from large anisotropic NMR interactions. Our research group has been particularly interested in efficient acquisition of broad NMR powder patterns for a variety of spin-1/2 and quadrupolar (spin > 1/2) nuclides. Traditionally, researchers have used the term "wideline" NMR to refer to experiments yielding broad (1)H and (2)H SSNMR spectra ranging from tens of kHz to ∼250 kHz in breadth. With modern FT NMR hardware, uniform excitation in these spectral ranges is relatively easy, allowing for the acquisition of high quality spectra. However, spectra that range in breadth from ca. 250 kHz to tens of MHz cannot be uniformly excited with conventional, high-power rectangular pulses. Rather, researchers must apply special methodologies to acquire such spectra, which have inherently low S/N because the signal intensity is spread across such

  1. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  2. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range h..nu.. = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission.

  3. Universal features of the equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Rose, James H.; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the energetics of solids leads to the conclusion that the equation of state for all classes of solids in compression can be expressed in terms of a universal function. The form of this universal function is determined by scaling experimental compression data for measured isotherms of a wide variety of solids. The equation of state is thus known (in the absence of phase transitions), if zero-pressure volume and isothermal compression and its pressure derivative are known. The discovery described in this paper has two immediate consequences: first, despite the well known differences in the microscopic energetics of the various classes of solids, there is a single equation of state for all classes in compression; and second, a new method is provided for analyzing measured isotherms and extrapolating high-pressure data from low-pressure (e.g. acoustic) data.

  4. Current status of solid-state lithium batteries employing solid redox polymerization cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1991-03-01

    The rapidly growing demand for secondary batteries having high specific energy and power has naturally led to increased efforts in lithium battery technology. Still, the increased safety risks associated with high energy density systems has tempered the enthusiasm of proponents of such systems for use in the consumer marketplace. The inherent advantages of all-solid-state batteries in regards to safety and reliability are strong factors in advocating their introduction to the marketplace. However, the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes relative to non-aqueous liquid electrolytes implies low power densities for solid-state systems operating at ambient temperatures. Recent advances in polymer electrolytes have led to the introduction of solid electrolytes having conductivities in the range of 10{sup {minus}4} (ohm cm){sup {minus}1} at room temperature; this is still two orders of magnitude lower than liquid electrolytes. Although these improved ambient conductivities put solid-state batteries in the realm of practical devices, it is clear that solid-state batteries using such polymeric separators will be thin-film devices. Fortunately, thin-film fabrication techniques are well established in the plastics and paper industry, and present the possibility of continuous web-form manufacturing. This style of battery manufacture should make solid polymer batteries very cost- competitive with conventional secondary cells. In addition, the greater geometric flexibility of thin-film solid-state cells should provide benefits in terms of the end-use form factor in device design. This work discusses the status of solid redox polymerization cathodes. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Workshop on Solid State Switches for Pulsed Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; Kristiansen, M.

    1983-05-01

    A Workshop on Solid State Pulsed Power Switching was conducted by Texas Tech U at Tamarron, Colorado, in January, 1983 for the US Army Research Office. The Workshop addressed the state-of-the-art in solid state switching, particularly semiconductor switches, and new solid state related switching concepts for pulsed power applications. An important objective of the Workshop was to establish research priorities. Group discussions were augmented by invited presentations. The principal topics included opening switches, high power closing switches, extremely fast risetime closing switches and state transition switches; devices of particular interest were thyristors, avalanche switches and the optically triggered intrinsic switch. The invited papers, along with summaries of the Working Group discussions and recommendations, are presented in this report. A general summary, including suggested research topics, is included.

  6. Equation of state of solid nickel aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Paisley, Dennis L.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2007-10-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of the intermetallic compound NiAl was calculated theoretically, and compared with experimental measurements. Electron ground states were calculated for NiAl in the CsCl structure, using ab initio pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), and were used to predict the cold compression curve and the density of phonon states. It was desirable to interpolate and smooth the cold compression states; the Rose form of compression curve was found to reproduce the ab initio calculations well in compression but exhibited significant deviations in expansion. A thermodynamically complete equation of state was constructed for NiAl, which overpredicted the mass density at standard temperature and pressure (STP) by 4%, fairly typical for predictions based on DFT. A minimally adjusted equation of state was constructed by tilting the cold compression energy-volume relation by ˜7GPa to reproduce the observed STP mass density. Shock waves were induced in crystals of NiAl by the impact of laser-launched Cu flyers and by launching NiAl flyers into transparent windows of known properties. The TRIDENT laser was used to accelerate the flyers, 5mm in diameter and 100-400μm thick, to speeds between 100 and 600m/s . Point and line-imaging laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the acceleration of the flyer and the surface velocity history of the target. The velocity histories were used to deduce the stress state, and hence states on the principal Hugoniot and the flow stress. Flyers and targets were recovered from most experiments. The effect of elasticity and plastic flow in the sample and window was assessed. The ambient isotherm reproduced static compression data very well, and the predicted Hugoniot was consistent with shock compression data.

  7. Investigating albendazole desmotropes by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chattah, Ana K; Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H; Pfund, Laura Y; Longhi, Marcela R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Garnero, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Characterization of the molecular structure and physicochemical solid-state properties of the solid forms of pharmaceutical compounds is a key requirement for successful commercialization as potential active ingredients in drug products. These properties can ultimately have a critical effect on the solubility and bioavailability of the final drug product. Here, the desmotropy of Albendazole forms I and II was investigated at the atomic level. Ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed on polycrystalline samples of the two solids in order to fully characterize and distinguish the two forms. High-resolution one-dimensional (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N together with two-dimensional (1)H/(1)H single quantum-single quantum, (1)H/(1)H single quantum-double quantum, and (1)H/(13)C chemical shift correlation solid-state NMR experiments under MAS conditions were extensively used to decipher the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions present in both solid forms. These experiments enabled the unequivocal identification of the tautomers of each desmotrope. Our results also revealed that both solid forms may be described as dimeric structures, with different intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the tautomers in each dimer. PMID:25584993

  8. Solid state chemistry of nitrogen oxides--part II: surface consumption of NO2.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, S; Fedoseev, G; Minissale, M; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Linnartz, H

    2014-05-14

    Nitrogen oxides are considered to be important astrochemical precursors of complex species and prebiotics. However, apart from the hydrogenation of solid NO that leads to the surface formation of hydroxylamine, little is known about the full solid state reaction network involving both nitrogen and oxygen. Our study is divided into two papers, hereby called Part I and Part II. In the accompanying paper, we investigate the surface reactions NO + O/O2/O3 and NO + N with a focus on the formation of NO2 ice. Here, we complement this study by measurements of the surface destruction of solid NO2, e.g., NO2 + H/O/N. Experiments are performed in two separate ultra-high vacuum setups and therefore under different experimental conditions to better constrain the experimental results. Surface reaction products are monitored by means of Fourier Transform Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) techniques using mass spectrometry. The surface destruction of solid NO2 leads to the formation of a series of nitrogen oxides such as NO, N2O, N2O3, and N2O4 as well as HNO, NH2OH, and H2O. When NO2 is mixed with an interstellar more relevant apolar (i.e., CO) ice, solid CO2 and HCOOH are also formed due to interactions between different reaction routes. The astrophysical implications of the full nitrogen and oxygen reaction network derived from Parts I and II are discussed.

  9. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  10. Interaction Study of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Cyclosporin A in Poly-Alpha-Cyclodextrin with Model Membranes by 1H-, 2H-, 31P-NMR and Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Bourbon, Fréderic; Lahiani-Skiba, Malika; Skiba, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The properties of an amorphous solid dispersion of cyclosporine A (ASD) prepared with the copolymer alpha cyclodextrin (POLYA) and cyclosporine A (CYSP) were investigated by 1H-NMR in solution and its membrane interactions were studied by 1H-NMR in small unilamellar vesicles and by 31P 2H NMR in phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) in comparison with those of POLYA and CYSP alone. 1H-NMR chemical shift variations showed that CYSP really interacts with POLYA, with possible adduct formation, dispersion in the solid matrix of the POLYA, and also complex formation. A coarse approach to the latter mechanism was tested using the continuous variations method, indicating an apparent 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Calculations gave an apparent association constant of log Ka = 4.5. A study of the interactions with phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC showed that only limited interactions occurred at the polar head group level (31P). Conversely, by comparison with the expected chain rigidification induced by CYSP, POLYA induced an increase in the fluidity of the layer while ASD formation led to these effects almost being overcome at 298 K. At higher temperature, while the effect of CYSP seems to vanish, a resulting global increase in chain fluidity was found in the presence of ASD. PMID:24883210

  11. Electrochemical properties of all solid state Li/S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Wang, Qing; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kang, Yongku; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2012-10-15

    All-solid-state lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is prepared using siloxane cross-linked network solid electrolyte at room temperature. The solid electrolytes show high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability with lithium and sulfur. In the first discharge curve, all-solid-state Li/S battery shows three plateau potential regions of 2.4 V, 2.12 V and 2.00 V, respectively. The battery shows the first discharge capacity of 1044 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur at room temperature. This first discharge capacity rapidly decreases in 4th cycle and remains at 512 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur after 10 cycles.

  12. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Daniel; Sibisan, Rodica; Rasmussen, Mike

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤$400/kW.

  13. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Daniel; Sibisan, Rodica; Rasmussen, Mike

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤ $400/kW.

  14. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  15. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  16. All-Solid-State Conductive Polymer Miniaturized Reference Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien Cheng; Chou, Jung Chuan

    2009-11-01

    A novel, stable, and all-solid-state miniaturized reference electrode (MRE) prepared by changing the properties of a conductive polymer for potentiometric applications is presented in this study. A monomer of a conductive polymer, pyrrole, was electrodeposited to form polypyrrole on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass at a DC power of 5 V. The difference of the solid-state MRE from the Ag/AgCl glass reference electrode is that the former requires no inner electrolyte and can be preserved without any storage solution (such as saturated KCl solution). In this study, the potentiometric characteristics of the solid-state MRE are investigated using the current-voltage (I-V) measurement system. The solid-state MRE exhibits sufficient stability and reproducibility in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions. Furthermore, the solid-state MRE can collocate successfully with H+-, Na+-, and K+-ion selective electrodes to measure H+, Na+, and K+ ion concentrations in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions, respectively.

  17. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-26

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm(-3) at 0.8 A cm(-3) with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm(-3), representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors.

  18. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm-3 at 0.8 A cm-3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm-3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors.

  19. Solid state and solution 43Ca NMR of calcium peroxides involved in the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide by calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Trokiner, Arlette; Bessière, Aurélie; Thouvenot, René; Hau, Damien; Marko, Jean; Nardello, Véronique; Pierlot, Christel; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2004-06-01

    In order to get some insight into the mechanism of the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by calcium hydroxide, 43Ca NMR spectra of enriched samples of calcium peroxides and of their precursors have been studied in both solution and solid state. This study demonstrates that no well-defined peroxidized calcium species are formed in solution, showing that the catalytic role of calcium is likely restricted to the solid state. Most of the calcium compounds that could be involved in the catalytic process have been investigated with solid state NMR. The shift and quadrupolar parameters of Ca(OH)2, CaO2.8H2O and CaO2.2H2O2 are reported for the first time. These parameters are different enough to allow the quantitative analysis of a complex mixture of these compounds by NMR.

  20. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  1. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  2. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  3. Solid state stability studies of model dipeptides: aspartame and aspartylphenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Leung, S S; Grant, D J

    1997-01-01

    Some solid-state pharmaceutical properties and the solid-state thermal stability of the model dipeptides aspartame (APM) and aspartylphenylalanine (AP), have been investigated. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), high-performance liquid chromatography, powder X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy have shown that the dipeptides undergo solid state intramolecular aminolysis of the type, solid --> solid + gas. This reaction was observed for APM at 167-180 degrees C with the liberation of methanol and for AP at 186-202 degrees C with the liberation of water. The exclusive solid product of the degradation reaction of both dipeptides is the cyclic compound 3-(carboxymethyl)-6-benzyl-2,5-dioxopiperazine. The rates of the degradation reactions were monitored by isothermal TGA and by temperature-ramp DSC and were found to follow kinetics based on nucleation control with activation energies of about 266 kJ mol(-1) for APM and 234 kJ mol(-1) for AP.

  4. Membrane Interactions of Phylloseptin-1, -2, and -3 Peptides by Oriented Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Jarbas M.; Verly, Rodrigo M.; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Cesar, Amary; Bertani, Philippe; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Phylloseptin-1, -2, and -3 are three members of the family of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides found in tree frogs. The highly homologous peptides encompass 19 amino acids, and only differ in the amino acid composition and charge at the six most carboxy-terminal residues. Here, we investigated how such subtle changes are reflected in their membrane interactions and how these can be correlated to their biological activities. To this end, the three peptides were labeled with stable isotopes, reconstituted into oriented phospholipid bilayers, and their detailed topology determined by a combined approach using 2H and 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Although phylloseptin-2 and -3 adopt perfect in-plane alignments, the tilt angle of phylloseptin-1 deviates by 8° probably to assure a more water exposed localization of the lysine-17 side chain. Furthermore, different azimuthal angles are observed, positioning the amphipathic helices of all three peptides with the charged residues well exposed to the water phase. Interestingly, our studies also reveal that two orientation-dependent 2H quadrupolar splittings from methyl-deuterated alanines and one 15N amide chemical shift are sufficient to unambiguously determine the topology of phylloseptin-1, where quadrupolar splittings close to the maximum impose the most stringent angular restraints. As a result of these studies, a strategy is proposed where the topology of a peptide structure can be determined accurately from the labeling with 15N and 2H isotopes of only a few amino acid residues. PMID:25140425

  5. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heat transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.

  6. 13C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2005-12-01

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by 13C and 1H solid-state NMR. Two strong 13C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH2)] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of 13C spin-lattice relaxation [T1(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. 1H spin-lattice relaxation [T1(H)] values for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T1(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short 1H spin-spin relaxation [T2(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 °C.

  7. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  8. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  9. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, Clifford B.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  10. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  11. Advances in actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C; Ikeda, Y.; Czerwinski, K.

    2011-01-31

    Actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry has advanced through unexpected results that have further revealed the complex nature of the 5f elements. Nanoscale control of actinide materials is emerging, as shown by the creation of a considerable range of cluster and tubular topologies. Departures from established structural trends for actinyl ions are provided by cation-cation interactions in which an O atom of one actinyl ion is an equatorial ligand of a bipyramid of another actinyl ion. The solid-state structural complexity of actinide materials has been further demonstrated by open framework materials with interesting properties. The U(VI) tetraoxide core has been added to this cation's repertoire of coordination possibilities. The emergence of pentavalent uranium solid-state and coordination chemistry has resulted from the prudent selection of ligands. Finally, analogues of the uranyl ion have challenged our understanding of this normally unreactive functional group.

  12. Interface Limited Lithium Transport in Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Qian, Danna; McGilvray, Thomas; Wang, Ziying; Wang, Feng; Camino, Fernando; Graetz, Jason; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-01-16

    Understanding the role of interfaces is important for improving the performance of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. To study these interfaces, we present a novel approach for fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries using focused ion beams and their characterization by analytical electron microscopy. Morphological changes by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and correlated elemental concentration changes by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping are presented. We provide first evidence of lithium accumulation at the anode/current collector (Si/Cu) and cathode/electrolyte (LixCoO2/LiPON) interfaces, which can be accounted for the irreversible capacity losses. Interdiffusion of elements at the Si/LiPON interface was also witnessed with a distinct contrast layer. These results highlight that the interfaces may limit the lithium transport significantly in solid-state batteries. Fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries also enables in situ electron microscopy observation of electrochemical phenomena in a variety of solid-state battery chemistries.

  13. Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials for supramolecular encryption

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Bruns, Carson J.; McGonigal, Paul R.; Pettman, Roger B.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials are ideal for applications in security printing technologies. A document possesses a high level of security if its encrypted information can be authenticated without being decoded, while also being resistant to counterfeiting. Herein, we describe a heterorotaxane with tunable solid-state fluorescent emissions enabled through reversible manipulation of its aggregation by supramolecular encapsulation. The dynamic nature of this fluorescent material is based on a complex set of equilibria, whose fluorescence output depends non-linearly on the chemical inputs and the composition of the paper. By applying this system in fluorescent security inks, the information encoded in polychromic images can be protected in such a way that it is close to impossible to reverse engineer, as well as being easy to verify. This system constitutes a unique application of responsive complex equilibria in the form of a cryptographic algorithm that protects valuable information printed using tunable solid-state fluorescent materials. PMID:25901677

  14. Lanthanide Series And Transition Metal Solid-State Lasers Meeting New Objectives With Solid-State Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    1986-06-01

    Ater the initial introduction of the first solid-state laser, there was a flurry of research directed toward the discovery of new lasers. Activity during this period of time produced the Cr:Al2O3 laser and the Nd:YAG laser. For a relatively long time after this, research directed toward the discovery of new solid-state lasers appeared to subside. Over the past several years, this trend seemed to reverse itself. Cr:BeAl2O4 was one of the first of the new lasers to be introduced. Rather than concentrate either on this laser or on Nd-based lasers, this talk will be directed toward other new solid-state lasers. New lasers, or rediscovery of old lasers, has concentrated on two groups of elements, the lanthanide series elements and the transition metal elements. A substantial difference exists between the solid-state lasers depending on the group of elements of which the active atom is a member. Differences and similarities will be highlighted as the methods used in solid-state laser engineering to meet new objectives are explored.

  15. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  16. Modelling and simulation of large solid state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.; Warren, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of numerical methods to simulate the several physical processes (e.g., diffraction, self-focusing, gain saturation) that are involved in coherent beam propagation through large laser systems is discussed. A comprehensive simulation code for modeling the pertinent physical phenomena observed in laser operations (growth of small-scale modulation, spatial filter, imaging, gain saturation and beam-induced damage) is described in some detail. Comparisons between code results and solid state laser output performance data are presented. Design and performance estimation of the large Nova laser system at LLNL are given. Finally, a global design rule for large, solid state laser systems is discussed.

  17. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  18. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  19. Concept of a solid-state drift chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Rehak, P.

    1983-03-01

    The operation of a solid state drift chamber is described, and its use in a high rate, high multiplicity environment is discussed. The Solid State Drift Chamber (SSDCH) is a thin wafer of a high purity n-type silicon (few cm/sup 2/ x a few hundreds ..mu..m thick) with a single small-area, small-capacitance anode readout. The drift voltage is supplied to an array of drift electrodes on both sides of the wafer to produce a uniform drift field parallel to the surface of the wafer and to ensure the complete depletion of the wafer. (WHK)

  20. Solid-State Source of Subcycle Pulses in the Midinfrared.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E A; Lanin, A A; Voronin, A A; Fedotov, A B; Zheltikov, A M

    2016-07-22

    We demonstrate a robust, all-solid-state approach for the generation of microjoule subcycle pulses in the midinfrared through a cascade of carefully optimized parametric-amplification, difference-frequency-generation, spectral-broadening, and chirp-compensation stages. This method of subcycle waveform generation becomes possible due to an unusual, ionization-assisted solid-state pulse self-compression dynamics, where highly efficient spectral broadening is enabled by ultrabroadband four-wave parametric amplification phase matched near the zero-group-velocity wavelength of the material.

  1. Solid-state greenhouses and their implications for icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Brown, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The 'solid-state greenhouse effect' model constituted by the subsurface solar heating of translucent, high-albedo materials is presently applied to the study of planetary surfaces, with attention to frost and ice surfaces of the solar system's outer satellites. Temperature is computed as a function of depth for an illustrative range of thermal variables, and it is discovered that the surfaces and interiors of such bodies can be warmer than otherwise suspected. Mechanisms are identified through which the modest alteration of surface properties can substantially change the solid-state greenhouse and force an interior temperature adjustment.

  2. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    -energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

  3. Evidence for a superglass state in solid 4He.

    PubMed

    Hunt, B; Pratt, E; Gadagkar, V; Yamashita, M; Balatsky, A V; Davis, J C

    2009-05-01

    Although solid helium-4 (4He) may be a supersolid, it also exhibits many phenomena unexpected in that context. We studied relaxation dynamics in the resonance frequency f(T) and dissipation D(T) of a torsional oscillator containing solid 4He. With the appearance of the "supersolid" state, the relaxation times within f(T) and D(T) began to increase rapidly together. More importantly, the relaxation processes in both D(T) and a component of f(T) exhibited a complex synchronized ultraslow evolution toward equilibrium. Analysis using a generalized rotational susceptibility revealed that, while exhibiting these apparently glassy dynamics, the phenomena were quantitatively inconsistent with a simple excitation freeze-out transition because the variation in f was far too large. One possibility is that amorphous solid 4He represents a new form of supersolid in which dynamical excitations within the solid control the superfluid phase stiffness.

  4. Superior ion-conducting hybrid solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Scheers, Johan; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we developed a high-performance lithium ion conducting hybrid solid electrolyte, consisted of LiTFSI salt, Py14 TFSI ionic liquid, and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hybrid solid electrolyte prepared by a facile method had high room temperature ionic conductivity, excellent thermal stability and low interface resistance with good contact. In addition, the lithium transference number was highly increased by the scavenger effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. With the hybrid solid electrolyte, the pouch-type solid-state battery exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 150 mA h g(-1) at room temperature, and even at 1 C, the reversible capacity was as high as 106 mA h g(-1) .

  5. Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Minoru

    2012-11-01

    The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of

  6. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J

    2016-03-16

    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer.

  7. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  8. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  9. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  10. Solid-state Nanopore for Detecting Individual Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiali; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been fabricated and used to characterize single DNA and protein molecules. Here we describe the details on how these nanopores were fabricated and characterized, the nanopore sensing system setup, and the protocols of using these nanopores to characterize DNA and protein molecules. PMID:19488695

  11. The development of solid-state NMR of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Most biological functions are carried out in supramolecular assemblies. As a result of their slow reorientation in solution, these assemblies have been resistant to the widely employed solution NMR approaches. The development of solid-state NMR to first of all overcome the correlation time problem and then obtain informative high-resolution spectra of proteins in supramolecular assemblies, such as virus particles and membranes, is described here. High resolution solid-state NMR is deeply intertwined with the history of NMR, and the seminal paper was published in 1948. Although the general principles were understood by the end of the 1950s, it has taken more than fifty years for instrumentation and experimental methods to become equal to the technical problems presented by the biological assemblies of greatest interest. It is now possible to obtain atomic resolution structures of viral coat proteins in virus particles and membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers by oriented sample solid-state NMR methods. The development of this aspect of the field of solid-state NMR is summarized in this review article. PMID:26069880

  12. Solid State Technology Branch of NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of papers written by the members of the Solid State Technology Branch of NASA LeRC from Jun. 1991 - Jun. 1992 is presented. A range of topics relating to superconductivity, Monolithic Microwave Circuits (MMIC's), coplanar waveguides, and material characterization is covered.

  13. Nanoparticle size and shape characterization with Solid State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandivada, Santoshi; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Jiali

    2015-03-01

    Solid State Nanopores are widely used in a variety of single molecule studies including DNA and biomolecule detection based on the principle of Resistive Pulse technique. This technique is based on electrophoretically driving charged particles through 35-60 nm solid state nanopores. The translocation of these particles produces current blockage events that provide an insight to the properties of the translocation particles and the nanopore. In this work we study the current blockage events produced by ~ 30nm negatively charged PS nanoparticles through Silicon Nitride solid state nanopores. We show how the current blockage amplitudes and durations are related to the ratio of the volume of the particle to the volume of the pore, the shape of the particle, charge of the particle and the nanopore surface, salt concentration, solution pH, and applied voltage. The solid-state nanopores are fabricated by a combination of Focus Ion Beam and low energy Ion beams in silicon nitride membranes. High resolution TEM is used to measure the 3D geometry of the nanopores and a finite element analysis program (COMSOL) is used to simulate the experimental results.

  14. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test results obtained have confirmed the practicality of the solid state electro-optic filters as an optical control element in a television system. Neutral-density control range in excess of 1000:1 has been obtained on sample filters. Test results, measurements in a complete camera system, discussions of problem areas, analytical comparisons, and recommendations for future investigations are included.

  15. Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

  16. Conceptual design of 100-TW solid state laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMordie, John A.

    1995-12-01

    Currently the main solid state laser facilities used for plasma physics research in the United Kingdom are the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the HELEN facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment. In the future it is proposed to replace HELEN with a new 100 TW facility to come on line early in the next century.

  17. Screening Plastic-Encapsulated Solid-State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldhaupt, L.

    1984-01-01

    Suitability of plastic-encapsulated solid-state electronic devices for use in spacecraft discussed. Conclusion of preliminary study was plasticencapsulated parts sufficiently reliable to be considered for use in lowcost equipment used at moderate temperature and low humidity. Useful to engineers as guides to testing or use of plastic encapsulated semiconductors in severe terrestrial environments.

  18. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianqi

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  19. Equation Of State With Temperature Effects For Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior at high temperature predicted from only four parameters. Equations derived to express thermodynamical properties of compressed solids at high temperatures. New equations based on fundamental considerations of thermodynamics, isothermal equation of state, and assumption thermal pressure independent of volume and varies linearly with temperature near and about Debye temperature. Using only four parameters (three are those of isothermal equation of state), new equations describe thermodynamic behavior of material over range of temperatures from approximately Debye temperature to melting point.

  20. Solid-state gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride optical switch

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, R.; Rubin, M.; Richardson, T.; OBrien, N.; Chen, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The optical switching properties of gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride have been demonstrated in a solid-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35{percent} with virtually zero transmission, while with negative polarization, the visible transmission exceeds 25{percent} at 650 nm. The switching is reversible, with intermediate optical properties between the transparent and reflecting states. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    All-solid-state electrochemical power cells have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments for use in environments as hot as 500 C. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus, and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal and oil wells, processing furnaces, and combustion engines. In the state-of-the-art predecessors of the present solid-state power cells, fully packaged molten eutectic salts are used as electrolytes. The molten-salt-based cells can be susceptible to significant amounts of self-discharge and corrosion when used for extended times at elevated temperatures. In contrast, all-solid-state cells such as the present ones are expected to be capable of operating for many days at temperatures up to 500 C, without significant self-discharge. The solid-state cell described here includes a cathode made of FeS2, an electrolyte consisting of a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and Li4SiO4, and an anode made of an alloy of Li and Si (see figure). The starting material for making the solid electrolyte is a stoichiometric mixture of Li3PO4, SiO2, and Li3CO2. This mixture is ball-milled, then calcined for two hours at a temperature of 1,100 C, then placed in a die atop the cathode material. Next, the layers in the die are squeezed together at a pressure between 60 and 120 MPa for one hour at a temperature of 600 C to form a unitary structure comprising the solid electrolyte and cathode bonded together. Finally, the lithium-alloy anode is pressure-bonded to the solid electrolyte layer, using an intermediate layer of pure lithium. In one test of a cell of this type, a discharge rate of about 1 mA per gram of cathode material was sustained for 72 hours at a temperature of about 460 C. This is about three times the discharge rate required to support some of the longer duration Venus-exploration mission scenarios.

  2. Analysis of measurements for solid state laser remote lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1995-01-01

    The merits of using lidar systems for remote measurements of various atmospheric processes such as wind, turbulence, moisture, and aerosol concentration are widely recognized. Although the lidar technology has progressed considerably over the past two decades, significant research particularly in the area of solid state lidars remains to be conducted in order to fully exploit this technology. The work performed by the UAH (University of Alabama in Huntsville) personnel under this Delivery Order concentrated on analyses of measurements required in support of solid state laser remote sensing lidar systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. UAH personnel has studied and recommended to NASA/MSFC the requirements of the optical systems needed to characterize the detection devices suitable for solid state wavelengths and to evaluate various heterodyne detection schemes. The 2-micron solid state laser technology was investigated and several preliminary laser designs were developed and their performance for remote sensing of atmospheric winds and clouds from a spaceborne platform were specified. In addition to the laser source and the detector, the other critical technologies necessary for global wind measurements by a spaceborne solid state coherent lidar systems were identified to be developed and demonstrated. As part of this work, an analysis was performed to determine the atmospheric wind velocity estimation accuracy using the line-of-sight measurements of a scanning coherent lidar. Under this delivery order, a computer database of materials related to the theory, development, testing, and operation of lidar systems was developed to serve as a source of information for lidar research and development.

  3. Frequency stabilization of diode-laser-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Sunlite program is to fly two diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers on the space shuttle and while doing so to perform a measurement of their frequency stability and temporal coherence. These measurements will be made by combining the outputs of the two lasers on an optical radiation detector and spectrally analyzing the beat note. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers have several characteristics that will make them useful in space borne experiments. First, this laser has high electrical efficiency. Second, it is of a technology that enables scaling to higher powers in the future. Third, the laser can be made extremely reliable, which is crucial for many space based applications. Fourth, they are frequency and amplitude stable and have high temporal coherence. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers are inherently efficient. Recent results have shown 59 percent slope efficiency for a diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser. As for reliability, the laser proposed should be capable of continuous operation. This is possible because the diode lasers can be remote from the solid state gain medium by coupling through optical fibers. Diode lasers are constructed with optical detectors for monitoring their output power built into their mounting case. A computer can actively monitor the output of each diode laser. If it sees any variation in the output power that might indicate a problem, the computer can turn off that diode laser and turn on a backup diode laser. As for stability requirements, it is now generally believed that any laser can be stabilized if the laser has a frequency actuator capable of tuning the laser frequency as far as it is likely to drift in a measurement time.

  4. Negativity in the generalized Valence Bond Solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul A.; Korepin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Using a graphical presentation of the spin S one-dimensional Valence Bond Solid (VBS) state, based on the representation theory of the SU(2) Lie algebra of spins, we compute the spectrum of a mixed-state reduced density matrix. This mixed state of two blocks of spins A and B is obtained by tracing out the spins outside A and B, in the pure VBS state density matrix. We find in particular that the negativity of the mixed state is nonzero only for adjacent subsystems. The method introduced here can be generalized to the computation of entanglement properties in Levin-Wen models, that possess a similar algebraic structure to the VBS state in the ground state.

  5. How to control solid state dewetting: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Borowik, Ł.; Cheynis, F.; Almadori, Y.; Curiotto, S.; Trautmann, M.; Barbé, J. C.; Müller, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade there have been many theoretical and experimental efforts to study the mechanisms of solid state dewetting, that means the spontaneous agglomeration of a thin solid film on a substrate into an assembly of 3D islands. The dewetting studies of solid films on solid substrates have not yet reached the degree of maturity achieved for liquids but there is now enough experimental data to consider the possibility of a future "dewetting engineering". By dewetting engineering we mean all the ways to tune and/or control the kinetics of dewetting as well as the morphology of the final dewetted state. The ultimate goal is to avoid dewetting when it complicates the fabrication of thin film-based devices or to use it for the spontaneous production of an assembly of nanoscaled islands on solid substrates. For this purpose we review the different parameters that influence the dewetting then illustrate how the dewetted state may be tuned by varying the thickness of the film, the annealing temperature, or the state of strain in the film. Moreover, adsorbed or absorbed species (by deposition or ionic impingement/ion bombardment) may modify the surface properties of the film or the mobility properties of the contact line film/substrate and thus the dewetting properties. Anisotropic properties of the film may also be used to initiate the dewetting from perfectly oriented edge fronts, leading to highly ordered 3D islands. New approaches using substrate pre-patterning or film patterning are very promising to achieve the dewetting engineering. Ideal systems for studying solid state dewetting are single crystalline films deposited or bonded on amorphous substrates, so that, among the numerous dewetting systems reported in the literature, ultra-thin crystalline silicon-on-insulator (SOI) film (a Si film bonded on an amorphous SiO2 substrate) is considered as a model system for studying how to control solid state dewetting. Other systems, as Ni epitaxially grown on MgO, are

  6. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Policianova, Olivia; Brus, Jiri; Hruby, Martin; Urbanova, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusova, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-02-01

    Solid dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients are of increasing interest due to their versatile use. In the present study polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-metacrylamide] (pHPMA), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), each in three Mw, were used to demonstrate structural diversity of solid dispersions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as a model drug. Four distinct types of the solid dispersions of ASA were created using a freeze-drying method: (i) crystalline solid dispersions containing nanocrystalline ASA in a crystalline PEG matrix; (ii) amorphous glass suspensions with large ASA crystallites embedded in amorphous pHPMA; (iii) solid solutions with molecularly dispersed ASA in rigid amorphous PVP; and (iv) nanoheterogeneous solid solutions/suspensions containing nanosized ASA clusters dispersed in a semiflexible matrix of PEOx. The obtained structural data confirmed that the type of solid dispersion can be primarily controlled by the chemical constitutions of the applied polymers, while the molecular weight of the polymers had no detectable impact. The molecular structure of the prepared dispersions was characterized using solid-state NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By applying various (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H correlation experiments combined with T1((1)H) and T1ρ((1)H) relaxation data, the extent of the molecular mixing was determined over a wide range of distances, from intimate intermolecular contacts (0.1-0.5 nm) up to the phase-separated nanodomains reaching ca. 500 nm. Hydrogen-bond interactions between ASA and polymers were probed by the analysis of (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra combined with the measurements of (1)H-(15)N dipolar profiles. Overall potentialities and limitations of individual experimental techniques were thoroughly evaluated.

  7. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, N. A.

    2011-03-01

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  8. Solid State Physics in the People's Republic of China. A Trip Report of the American Solid State Physics Delegation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Anne; Slichter, Charles P.

    This is the fifth chapter of a six chapter report which discusses Chinese research and education in solid state physics, and their relations to technology and the other sciences. This specific chapter concerns the communication of information in the scientific community and the transfer of information to students and practical users…

  9. An accurate equation of state for fluids and solids.

    PubMed

    Parsafar, G A; Spohr, H V; Patey, G N

    2009-09-01

    A simple functional form for a general equation of state based on an effective near-neighbor pair interaction of an extended Lennard-Jones (12,6,3) type is given and tested against experimental data for a wide variety of fluids and solids. Computer simulation results for ionic liquids are used for further evaluation. For fluids, there appears to be no upper density limitation on the equation of state. The lower density limit for isotherms near the critical temperature is the critical density. The equation of state gives a good description of all types of fluids, nonpolar (including long-chain hydrocarbons), polar, hydrogen-bonded, and metallic, at temperatures ranging from the triple point to the highest temperature for which there is experimental data. For solids, the equation of state is very accurate for all types considered, including covalent, molecular, metallic, and ionic systems. The experimental pvT data available for solids does not reveal any pressure or temperature limitations. An analysis of the importance and possible underlying physical significance of the terms in the equation of state is given. PMID:19678647

  10. Optical metrology for LEDs and solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yoshi

    2006-02-01

    The performance of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), including efficiency, flux level, lifetime, and the variation of color, is advancing at a remarkable pace. LEDs are increasingly used for many applications including automotive, aviation, display, transportation and special lighting applications. White LEDs are expected for general lighting applications (solid state lighting) in the near future. Thus, accurate measurements of LEDs and appropriate standards are increasingly important. This paper reviews photometric, radiometric, and colorimetric quantities used for LEDs, and discusses the current state of optical measurements of LEDs and standardization efforts in International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The paper also touches on the issue of color quality (e.g., Color Rendering Index) of light expected from solid state lighting, and the need for a new metric. The calibration facilities and services for LEDs established at NIST are also discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste...) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1)...

  12. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

    2011-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5–7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity. PMID:24031761

  13. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  14. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  15. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  16. Solid-State Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei for Cellulase Production

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Cellulase yields of 250 to 430 IU/g of cellulose were recorded in a new approach to solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Trichoderma reesei QMY-1. This is an increase of ca. 72% compared with the yields (160 to 250 IU/g of cellulose) in liquid-state fermentation reported in the literature. High cellulase activity (16 to 17 IU/ml) per unit volume of enzyme broth and high yields of cellulases were attributed to the growth of T. reesei on a hemicellulose fraction during its first phase and then on a cellulose fraction of wheat straw during its later phase for cellulase production, as well as to the close contact of hyphae with the substrate in solid-state fermentation. The cellulase system obtained by the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw contained cellulases (17.2 IU/ml), β-glucosidase (21.2 IU/ml), and xylanases (540 IU/ml). This cellulase system was capable of hydrolyzing 78 to 90% of delignified wheat straw (10% concentration) in 96 h, without the addition of complementary enzymes, β-glucosidase, and xylanases. PMID:16346697

  17. Solid-state fermentation with Trichoderma reesei for cellulase production

    SciTech Connect

    Chahal, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cellulase yields of 250 to 430 IU/g of cellulose were recorded in a new approach to solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Trichoderma reesei QMY-1. This is an increase of ca. 72% compared with the yields (160 to 250 IU/g of cellulose) in liquid-state fermentation reported in the literature. High cellulase activity (16 to 17 IU/ml) per unit volume of enzyme broth and high yields of cellulases were attributed to the growth of Trichoderma reesei on a hemicellulose fraction during its first phase and then on a cellulose fraction of wheat straw during its later phase for cellulase production, as well as to the close contact of hyphae with the substrate in solid-state fermentation. The cellulase system obtained by the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw contained cellulases (17.2 IU/ml), ..beta..-glucosidase (21.2 IU/ml), and xylanases (540 IU/ml). This cellulase system was capable of hydrolyzing 78 to 90% of delignified wheat straw (10% concentration) in 96 h, without the addition of complementary enzymes, ..beta..-glucosidase, and xylanases. 29 references.

  18. Dipyrrolylquinoxaline difluoroborates with intense red solid-state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changjiang; Hao, Erhong; Li, Tingting; Wang, Jun; Sheng, Wanle; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Jiao, Lijuan

    2015-08-21

    A set of organic fluorescent dyes of dipyrrolylquinoxalines (PQs ) and their BF2 complexes (BPQs ) were synthesized from commercial reagents, and were characterized by their X-ray structural analysis, and optical and electrochemical properties. BPQs showed intense broad absorption in the visible region in the solution-state. In comparison with that of PQs , there is an over 110 nm red-shift of the absorption maximum in the BPQs (up to 583 nm). Interestingly, dyes all exhibit red solid-state fluorescence with moderate to high fluorescence quantum yields except for PQ which showed bright yellow solid-state fluorescence. X-ray structures of BPQs showed the planar structure of quinoxaline with one pyrrole unit via the BF2 chelation and the almost perpendicular orientation of the uncoordinated pyrrole to the NBN core plane (the dihedral angle of 70-73°). The extended π-conjugation was in good agreement with the observed red-shift of the spectra. These dyes formed well-ordered intermolecular packing structures via the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N atoms of quinoxaline moieties and the NH units of adjacent pyrroles. The lack of π-π stacking in their crystal packing structures may explain the interestingly intense solid-state fluorescence of these dyes.

  19. Electrical control of a solid-state flying qubit.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michihisa; Takada, Shintaro; Bäuerle, Christopher; Watanabe, Kenta; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state approaches to quantum information technology are attractive because they are scalable. The coherent transport of quantum information over large distances is a requirement for any practical quantum computer and has been demonstrated by coupling super-conducting qubits to photons. Single electrons have also been transferred between distant quantum dots in times shorter than their spin coherence time. However, until now, there have been no demonstrations of scalable 'flying qubit' architectures-systems in which it is possible to perform quantum operations on qubits while they are being coherently transferred-in solid-state systems. These architectures allow for control over qubit separation and for non-local entanglement, which makes them more amenable to integration and scaling than static qubit approaches. Here, we report the transport and manipulation of qubits over distances of 6 µm within 40 ps, in an Aharonov-Bohm ring connected to two-channel wires that have a tunable tunnel coupling between channels. The flying qubit state is defined by the presence of a travelling electron in either channel of the wire, and can be controlled without a magnetic field. Our device has shorter quantum gates (<1 µm), longer coherence lengths (∼86 µm at 70 mK) and higher operating frequencies (∼100 GHz) than other solid-state implementations of flying qubits. PMID:22426515

  20. The solid state lighting initiative: An industry/DOE collaborativeeffort

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Steve

    2000-10-01

    A new era of technology is emerging in lighting. It is being propelled by the dramatic improvements in performance of solid state light sources. These sources offer an entirely new array of design aspects not achievable with current light sources. At the same time, their performance characteristics continue to improve and are expected to eclipse those of the most common light sources within the near future. High efficiency is one of these performance attributes motivating the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with the manufacturers of this new technology to create a program plan sufficiently comprehensive to support an industry-driven Solid State Lighting Initiative before Congress. The purpose of the initiative is to educate Congress about the potential of this technology to reduce the electric lighting load within the United States and, consequently, to realize the associated environmental benefits. The initiative will solicit congressional support to accelerate the development of solid state technology through investment in the research and development necessary to overcome the technical barriers that currently limit the products to niche markets. While there are multiple technologies being developed as solid state light sources, the two technologies which hold the most promise for application to general illumination are Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). The form of these sources can be quite different from current sources, allowing exciting new design uses for the products. Being diffuse sources, OLEDs are much lower in intensity per unit area than LEDs. The manufacturing process for OLEDs lends itself to shapes that can be formed to different geometries, making possible luminous panels or flexible luminous materials. Conversely, LEDs are very intense point sources which can be integrated into a small space to create an intense source or used separately for less focused applications. Both OLED and LED sources are expected

  1. An Analysis of the Torsion-Rotation-Vibration Rotational Spectrum of the Lowest In-Plane Bend and First Excited Torsional State of the C(3V) Internal Rotor C2H5CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2000-01-01

    C2H5CN (Propionitrile or ethyl cyanide) is a well known interstellar species abundantly observed in hot cores during the onset of star formation. The onset of star formation generally results in elevated temperature, which thermally populates may low lying vibrational states such as the 206/cm in-plane bend and the 212/cm first excited torsional state in C2H5CN. Unfortunately, these two states are strongly coupled through a complex series of torsion-vibration-rotation interactions, which dominate the spectrum. In order to understand the details of these interactions and develop models capable of predicting unmeasured transitions for astronomical observations in C2H5CN and similar molecules, several thousand rotational transitions in the lowest excited in-plane bend and first excited torsional state have been recorded, assigned and analyzed. The analysis reveals very strong a- and b-type Coriolis interactions and a number of other smaller interactions and has a number of important implications for other C3V torsion-rotation-vibration systems. The relative importance and the physical origins of the coupling among the rotational, vibrational and torsional motions will be presented along with a full spectroscopic analysis and supporting astronomical observations.

  2. High resolution difference bands of ethane C2H6 from torsionally excited lower states: rotation-torsion structure of the ν 2, ν 11 and ν 4 + ν 11 vibrational states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, Franca; di Lauro, Carlo; Horneman, Veli-Matti

    2011-10-01

    A high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrum of C2H6, measured at a pressure of 173.3 Pa and an optical path of 153.2 m, was analysed between 1050 and 1295 cm-1. Extensive absorption due to the difference bands ν 11-ν 4, and several rotation-torsion lines of the difference band ν 2-ν 4, in the region of the x, y-Coriolis resonance of ν 2 and ν 11, were observed. This allowed a detailed rotation-torsion analysis of the upper states ν 11 and ν 2. The anomalous torsional structure, found in the non-degenerate vibrational state ν 2, can be explained as the effect of an Hamiltonian term accounting for a strong dependence of the torsional barrier height on the normal vibrational coordinate q 2. The value of the barrier height derivative ? is estimated to be 127 ± 10 cm-1. Also detected and assigned were 'hot' difference transitions belonging to the (ν 4 + ν 11)-2ν 4 band, yielding information on the upper state ν 4 + ν 11. It is believed that transitions from 3ν 4 to 2ν 4 + ν 11 are also detectable in the investigated region.

  3. The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine in man. Direct measurement by continuous intravenous tracer infusions of L-(ring-/sup 2/H5)phenylalanine and L-(1-/sup 13/C) tyrosine in the postabsorptive state

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.T.; Bier, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    Steady state phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover and the rate of conversion of phenylalanine of tyrosine in vivo were determined in 6 healthy postabsorptive adult volunteers. Continuous infusions of tracer amounts of L-(ring-/sup 2/H5)phenylalanine were determined intravenously for 13-14 hr. After 9-10 hr, a priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 13/C)tyrosine was added and maintained, along with the (/sup 2/H5)phenylalanine infusion, for 4 hr. Venous plasma samples were obtained before the initiation of each infusion and every 30 min during the course of the combined (/sup 2/H5)phenylalanine and (/sup 13/C)tyrosine infusion for determination of isotopic enrichments of (/sup 2/H5)phenylalanine, (/sup 13/C)tyrosine, and (/sup 2/H4)tyrosine by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric analysis of the N-trifluoroacetyl-, methyl ester derivatives of the amino acids. Calculated from the observed enrichments, free phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover rates were 36.1 +/- 5.1 mumole . kg-1 . h-1 and 39.8 +/- 3.5 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, respectively. Phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine at the rate of 5.83 +/- 0.59 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, accounting for approximately 16% of either the phenylalanine or the tyrosine flux. The results indicate that the normal basal steady state phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo in man is lower than that obtained from phenylalanine loading studies. This supports the existence of some type of substance activation of the enzyme as reflected in the previously reported exponential relationship between phenylalanine concentration and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vitro. The use of continuous simultaneous infusions of tracer amounts of stable isotope-labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine provides a direct means for studying physiological regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo.

  4. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  5. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  6. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel), revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An all solid state television camera was designed which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (1) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (2) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (3) automatic light control and video gain control techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  7. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  8. Detection of pulsed neutrons with solid-state electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzakis, J.; Rigakis, I.; Hassan, S. M.; Clark, E. L.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the spatial and time-resolved characteristics of pulsed neutron sources require large area detection materials and fast circuitry that can process the electronic pulses readout from the active region of the detector. In this paper, we present a solid-state detector based on the nuclear activation of materials by neutrons, and the detection of the secondary particle emission of the generated radionuclides’ decay. The detector utilizes a microcontroller that communicates using a modified SPI protocol. A solid-state, pulse shaping filter follows a charge amplifier, and it is designed as an inexpensive, low-noise solution for measuring pulses measured by a digital counter. An imaging detector can also be made by using an array of these detectors. The system can communicate with an interface unit and pass an image to a personal computer.

  9. Tunable solid state laser system for dermatology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Zion; Bank, Alexander; Donskoy, Dmitri M.; Nechitailo, Vladimir S.

    1994-12-01

    The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is the most recent in a series of pulsed laser systems for plastic surgery. The 532 nm wavelength has been shown to be absorbed by a variety of chromophores. These include tattoo pigments, oxygenated hemoglobin and melanin-containing epidermal cells. A simple multi-line solid state laser module pumped by double-frequency Q- switched YAG laser is presented. This solid state multi-line module enables tuning of the wavelength in the yellow spectral range to 560 nm or to 580 nm for dermatology applications. Conversion efficiency in excess of 70% was achieved at 10 Hz pulse repetition frequency and output energy per pulse of approximately 200 mJ.

  10. Solid state amorphization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling.

    PubMed

    Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Lefort, Ronan; Derollez, Patrick; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2011-11-29

    It has been previously reported that α-lactose could be totally amorphized by ball milling. In this paper we report a detailed investigation of the structural and microstructural changes by which this solid state amorphization takes place. The investigations have been performed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP-MAS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results reveal the structural complexity of the material in the course of its amorphization so that it cannot be considered as a simple mixture made of a decreasing crystalline fraction and an increasing amorphous fraction. Heating this complexity can give rise to a fully nano-crystalline material. The results also show that chemical degradations upon heating are strongly connected to the melting process. PMID:21983262

  11. Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

  12. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  13. Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the consequences for solid-state lasers of novel diode laser-pumping technology. Diode laser-pumped neodymium lasers have operated at an electrical-to-optical efficiency of 10 percent in a single spatial mode, with linewidths of less than 10 kHz, and with a spectral power brightness sufficiently great to allow frequency extension by harmonic generation in nonlinear crystals; this has yielded green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Q-switched operation with kW peak powers and mode-locked operation with 10-picosec pulse widths have also been demonstrated. All-solid-state lasers at prices comparable to those of current flash-lamp-pumped laser systems are foreseen, as are power levels exceeding 1 kW, for coherent radar, global satellite sensing, and micromachining.

  14. Characterizations of BT Ceramics Synthesized by Modified Solid State Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonia, Sonia; Patel, R. K.; Prakash, C.; Kumar, P.

    2011-11-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3/BT) ferroelectric system was synthesized in single perovskite phase by modified solid state reaction (MSSR) and solid state reaction (SSR) routes. With the modification of SSR route, calcination temperature lowered down by 200 °C. Dense packing of grains with average grain size ˜12μm was observed in BT samples synthesized by MSSR route. Room temperature (RT) dielectric constant (ɛr) and dielectric loss (tanδ) at 1 kHz frequency of BT samples synthesized by MSSR route were found to be ˜1630 and 0.008. Transition temperature (Tc) is lowered and remnant polarization is increased of BT samples synthesized by MSSR route.

  15. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  16. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim; Kini, Arvind; Kelley, Dick

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  17. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  18. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  19. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  20. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Weinger, Paul; Ling, Xinsheng Sean

    2010-08-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  1. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  2. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  3. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ; Tighe, TB; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cell with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.

  4. Fabrication of solid-state nanopores and its perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Skalickova, Sylvie; Nejdl, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-10-01

    Nanofluidics is becoming an extensively developing technique in the field of bioanalytical chemistry. Nanoscale hole embed in an insulating membrane is employed in a vast variety of sensing platforms and applications. Although, biological nanopores have several attractive characteristics, in this paper, we focused on the solid-state nanopores due to their advantages as high stability, possibility of diameter control, and ease of surface functionalizing. A detection method, based on the translocation of analyzed molecules through nanochannels under applied voltage bias and resistive pulse sensing, is well established. Nevertheless, it seems that the new detection methods like measuring of transverse electron tunneling using nanogap electrodes or optical detection can offer significant additional advantages. The aim of this review is not to cite all related articles, but highlight the steps, which in our opinion, meant important progresses in solid-state nanopore analysis.

  5. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, Daniel V; Jonsson, Magnus P; Dekker, Cees

    2015-06-12

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm diameter silicon nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades [Formula: see text] and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and [Formula: see text] are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process.

  6. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling.

  7. Solid-state ice volcanism on the satellites of uranus.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, D G; Squyres, S W

    1988-09-01

    Voyager images of the uranian satellites Ariel and Miranda show flow features with morphologies indicating that ice has been extruded to the satellites' surfaces in the solid state. These images provide the first observational evidence for solid-state ice volcanism in the solar system. Topographic profiles have been measured across a number of flow features on Ariel. With a simple model of extrusion, spreading, and cooling of a viscous flow, the initial viscosity of the flow material is found to have been no more than about 10(16) poise, far lower than expected for H(2)O ice at the ambient surface temperatures in the uranian system. Sharply reduced viscosities may have resulted from incorporation of ices like NH(3) or CH(4) in the uranian satellites.

  8. Semimetal cascades - Solid state precursors to spacecraft slush hydrogen refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalla, C. A.

    The design of an energy conversion system for the refrigeration of stored propellant during a spacecraft mission represents a challenging problem. The utilization of cascaded semimetal elements for the development of solid-state propellant refrigerators for interplanetary spacecraft is, in this connection, considered. The present investigation gives attention to a hypothetical cooling device to show the viability of a thermomaganetic cooling system and to give direction to semimetals development. Problems of propellant storage heat absorption during a 405-day Mars mission are discussed. It is concluded that solid-state refregeration is the most reliable and light-weight means for thermal control of the stored hydrogen. The use of a cascaded series of thermomagnetic cooling elements could maintain a slush hydrogen temperature of 13.6 K, 0.2 K below the triple point. Attention is given to figure of merit improvement goals, semimetal cascade staging requirements, and aspects of magnetic enhancement and other improvements with high-temperature superconductors.

  9. High power continuous wave injection-locked solid state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nabors, C.D.; Byer, R.L.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes an injection locked laser system. It comprises a master laser, the master laser including a solid state gain medium and having a continuous wave, single frequency output; a slave laser including a solid state gain medium located in a resonant cavity and having a continuous wave output at a power at least ten times greater than the master laser, with the output of the master laser being injected into the slave laser in order to cause the slave laser to oscillate at the same frequency as the output of the master laser; and means for actively stabilizing the slave laser so that its output frequency remains locked with the output frequency of the master laser.

  10. Spatially resolved solid-state MAS-NMR-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scheler, U; Schauss, G; Blümich, B; Spiess, H W

    1996-07-01

    A comprehensive account of spatially resolved solid-state MAS NMR of 13C is given. A device generating field gradients rotating synchronously with the magic angle spinner is described. Spatial resolution and sensitivity are compared for phase and frequency encoding of spatial information. The suppression of spinning sidebands is demonstrated for both cases. Prior knowledge about the involved materials can be used for the reduction of data from spatially resolved spectra to map chemical structure. Indirect detection via 13C NMR gives access to the information about mobility from proton-wideline spectra. Two-dimensional solid-state spectroscopy with spatial resolution is demonstrated for a rotor synchronized MAS experiment which resolves molecular order as a function of space. By comparison of different experiments the factors affecting the spatial resolution are investigated.

  11. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, C. E.; Benson, D. K.; Ruth, M. R.

    1984-12-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  12. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Ruth, Marta R.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  13. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-12-21

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  14. Multimode pumped continuous-wave solid-state Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Grabtchikov, A S; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Schmitt, M; Maksimenka, R; Kiefer, W

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrate the continuous-wave operation of a solid-state Raman laser containing a barium nitrate crystal as the Raman medium. The Raman laser, which has a singly resonant cavity, is pumped by multimode radiation. The Raman oscillation threshold is reached at approximately 2 W of pump power. As much as 500 kW/cm2 of Stokes power density at 60-kW/cm2 pump power density is obtained in the cavity. PMID:15584282

  15. Solid-state memcapacitive device based on memristive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flak, J.; Lehtonen, E.; Laiho, M.; Rantala, A.; Prunnila, M.; Haatainen, T.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the implementation of a solid-state memcapacitor based on combination of a memristor and traditional metal-insulator-metal capacitor. A device with an area of 5 μ M× 5 μ M has been fabricated and tested. The structure has been simulated and analyzed using circuit equivalents with parameters obtained from measurements. The memristor is represented by a sinh (\\cdot )-type model. The performance of the memcapacitor is discussed, and some methods to improve it are proposed.

  16. Multimode pumped continuous-wave solid-state Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Grabtchikov, A S; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Schmitt, M; Maksimenka, R; Kiefer, W

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrate the continuous-wave operation of a solid-state Raman laser containing a barium nitrate crystal as the Raman medium. The Raman laser, which has a singly resonant cavity, is pumped by multimode radiation. The Raman oscillation threshold is reached at approximately 2 W of pump power. As much as 500 kW/cm2 of Stokes power density at 60-kW/cm2 pump power density is obtained in the cavity.

  17. Kilovolt dc solid state remote power controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in developing and applying solid state power controller (SSPC) technology at high voltage dc (HVDC) potentials and power levels of up to 25 kilowatts is summarized. The HVDC switching devices, power switching concepts, drive circuits, and very fast acting overcurrent protection circuits were analyzed. A 25A bipolar breadboard with Darlington connected switching transistor was built. Fault testing at 900 volts was included. A bipolar transistor packaged breadboard design was developed. Power MOSFET remote power controller (RPC) was designed.

  18. Solid-state Terahertz Sources for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Pearson, John C.; Ward, John S.; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Ferber, R.; Tsang, Raymond; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Finamore, B.; Chun, William W.; Baker, John J.; Dengler, Robert J.; Javadi, Hamid H.; Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of solid-state frequency multiplier chains utilized far teraherz receiver applications such as the Herschel Space Observatory . Emphasis will he placed on the specific requirements to be met and challenges that were encountered. The availability of high power amplifiers at 100 GHz makes it possible to cascade frequency doublers and triplers with sufficient RF power to pump heterodyne receivers at THz frequencies. The environmental and mechanical constraints will be addressed as well as reliability issues.

  19. Advances in Theory of Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Mananga, Eugene S.; Moghaddasi, Jalil; Sana, Ajaz; Akinmoladun, Andrew; Sadoqi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in theory of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) such as Floquet-Magnus expansion and Fer expansion, address alternative methods for solving a time-dependent linear differential equation which is a central problem in quantum physics in general and solid-state NMR in particular. The power and the salient features of these theoretical approaches that are helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times are presented. This review article presents a broad view of manipulations of spin systems in solid-state NMR, based on milestones theories including the average Hamiltonian theory and the Floquet theory, and the approaches currently developing such as the Floquet-Magnus expansion and the Fer expansion. All these approaches provide procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Applications of these theoretical methods to stroboscopic and synchronized manipulations, non-synchronized experiments, multiple incommensurated frequencies, magic-angle spinning samples, are illustrated. We also reviewed the propagators of these theories and discussed their convergences. Note that the FME is an extension of the popular Magnus Expansion and Average Hamiltonian Theory. It aims is to bridge the AHT to the Floquet Theorem but in a more concise and efficient formalism. Calculations can then be performed in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space instead of an infinite dimensional space within the so-called Floquet theory. We expected that the FME will provide means for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation and for devising new RF pulse sequence. PMID:26878063

  20. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  1. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  2. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  3. Solid state remote power controllers for 120 Vdc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Baker, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Solid state Remote Power Controllers (RPCs) developed for use in any dc power system with voltage up to 120 Vdc and distributed power up to 3.6 kW per bus are described. The RPCs were demonstrated to be reliable, 99 percent efficient, comparatively simple, and potentially low in cost. Advantages of the RPCs include: contactless switching; controlled rates of current rise and fall; current limiting; and fast, well-defined, repeatable response to overloads and faults.

  4. Position sensitive solid-state photomultipliers, systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kanai S; Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Dokhale, Purushottam; McClish, Mickel

    2014-11-11

    An integrated silicon solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) device includes a pixel unit including an array of more than 2.times.2 p-n photodiodes on a common substrate, a signal division network electrically connected to each photodiode, where the signal division network includes four output connections, a signal output measurement unit, a processing unit configured to identify the photodiode generating a signal or a center of mass of photodiodes generating a signal, and a global receiving unit.

  5. Solid-State and Solution Characterization of Myricetin.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stephen J; Myrdal, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Myricetin (MYR) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventative agent. MYR has been shown to suppresses ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and reduce the incidence of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. Despite MYR's promise as a therapeutic agent, minimal information is available to guide the progression of formulations designed for future drug development. Here, data is presented describing the solid-state and solution characterization of MYR. Investigation into the solid-state properties of MYR identified four different crystal forms, two hydrates (MYR I and MYR II) and two metastable forms (MYR IA and MYR IIA). From solubility studies, it was evident that all forms are very insoluble (<5 μg/ml) in pure water. MYR I was found to be the most stable form at 23, 35, and 56°C. Stability determination indicated that MYR undergoes rapid apparent first-order degradation under basic pH conditions, and that degradation was influenced by buffer species. Apparent first-order degradation was also seen when MYR was introduced to an oxidizing solution. Improved stability was achieved after introducing 0.1% antioxidants to the solution. MYR was found to have good stability following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which is a consideration for topical applications. Finally, a partitioning study indicated that MYR possess a log P of 2.94 which, along with its solid-state properties, contributes to its poor aqueous solubility. Both the solid-state properties and solution stability of MYR are important to consider when developing future formulations.

  6. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  7. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  8. Static multislit dispersive optical spectrometers for solid-state spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Martynovich, E. F.

    2008-09-01

    Multislit entrance apertures and corresponding sequences of numbers, which are simpler and more efficient than available analogs, are proposed for application in static multislit dispersive optical spectroscopy. The use of reflective multislit entrance apertures based on the proposed sequences allows one to achieve a two-fold increase in the light flux in a spectrometer in comparison with nonreflective apertures. The proposed apertures are of interest for studying low-intensity radiations and time-dependent processes in solid-state spectroscopy.

  9. Solid state power systems for DC and RF accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, R. J.; Richter-Sand, R. J.

    1999-06-01

    Modern accelerator applications require high average and peak powers—particularly RF accelerators and DC accelerators. In many of these applications, it is possible to replace tubes in the power systems with solid state power supplies. In this paper we outline work which we have performed in developing solid state pulsed and CW pulsed power systems for RF linacs and for DC accelerators. We have built and successfully tested a 125 kV, 2.5 MW peak, 60 kW average pulsed power system which is well suited to driving ion beam linacs. This system is modular, with 3 modules capable of driving a large Klystron. The system has been extensively tested with both resistive and fault loads. This type of power supply promises to be less than half as expensive as a conventional thyratron modulator, with considerably more flexibility in pulse duration. We have also powered our Nested High Voltage (NHV) accelerators with a solid state power supply using IGBTs. This type of supply is suitable for both NHV machines, and other Dynamitron style accelerators. Pulsed burst mode excitation of this type of power supply allows us to maintain 1 MV in the NHV accelerator with less than three hundred watts of idling power.

  10. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    DOEpatents

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  11. Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Howansky, Adrian; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Levéille, Sébastien; Tanioka, K.; Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 +/- 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 +/- 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.

  12. 15N chemical shift referencing in solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Philippe; Raya, Jésus; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has much advanced during the last decade and provides a multitude of data that can be used for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules, polymers, inorganic compounds or macromolecules. In some cases the chemical shift referencing has become a limiting factor to the precision of the structure calculations and we have therefore evaluated a number of methods used in proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy adamantane is generally accepted as an external standard, but to calibrate the (15)N chemical shift scale several standards are in use. As a consequence the published chemical shift values exhibit considerable differences (up to 22 ppm). In this paper we report the (15)N chemical shift of several commonly used references compounds in order to allow for comparison and recalibration of published data and future work. We show that (15)NH4Cl in its powdered form (at 39.3 ppm with respect to liquid NH3) is a suitable external reference as it produces narrow lines when compared to other reference compounds and at the same time allows for the set-up of cross-polarization NMR experiments. The compound is suitable to calibrate magic angle spinning and static NMR experiments. Finally the temperature variation of (15)NH4Cl chemical shift is reported.

  13. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  14. Solid state power systems for DC and RF accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R. J.; Richter-Sand, R. J.

    1999-06-10

    Modern accelerator applications require high average and peak powers - particularly RF accelerators and DC accelerators. In many of these applications, it is possible to replace tubes in the power systems with solid state power supplies. In this paper we outline work which we have performed in developing solid state pulsed and CW pulsed power systems for RF linacs and for DC accelerators. We have built and successfully tested a 125 kV, 2.5 MW peak, 60 kW average pulsed power system which is well suited to driving ion beam linacs. This system is modular, with 3 modules capable of driving a large Klystron. The system has been extensively tested with both resistive and fault loads. This type of power supply promises to be less than half as expensive as a conventional thyratron modulator, with considerably more flexibility in pulse duration. We have also powered our Nested High Voltage (NHV) accelerators with a solid state power supply using IGBTs. This type of supply is suitable for both NHV machines, and other Dynamitron style accelerators. Pulsed burst mode excitation of this type of power supply allows us to maintain 1 MV in the NHV accelerator with less than three hundred watts of idling power.

  15. Comparison with industrial oxysulfide phosphors for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pote, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Y2O2S:Eu3+ was prepared by the flux method which is different from conventional solid state reaction and has many advantages over the conventional method in terms of ease of preparation and yield also. In this paper we have reported the crystal structure, XRD and method of preparation of Y2O2S:Eu3+ along with Eu3+ mechanism of emission and excitation with reference to solid state lighting. In the emission spectra, the strongest red-emission lines at 626 and 616 nm are due to transition from 5D0 → 7F2 level. The stronger emission at λem=626 nm confirms the formation of the oxysulfide host. We also made a comparison of our prepared sample with commercial sample from NICHIA Corporation Japan in terms of PL intensity which results that our sample is equally intense as that of NICHIA's sample. It is suggested that these characteristics can be useful for obtaining a low cost, red phosphor for the solid state lighting using near UV LED.

  16. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; McDonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-02-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  17. Dissolved Solids in Streams of the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anning, D. W.; Flynn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to improve the understanding of dissolved solids in streams of the United States. Using the SPARROW model, annual dissolved-solids loads from 2,560 water-quality monitoring stations were statistically related to several spatial datasets serving as surrogates for dissolved-solids sources and transport processes. Sources investigated in the model included geologic materials, road de-icers, urban lands, cultivated lands, and pasture lands. Factors affecting transport from these sources to streams in the model included climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, population, irrigation, and artificial-drainage characteristics. The SPARROW model was used to predict long-term mean annual conditions for dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in about 66,000 stream reaches and corresponding incremental catchments nationwide. The estimated total amount of dissolved solids delivered to the Nation's streams is 272 million metric tons (Mt) annually, of which 194 million Mt (71%) are from geologic sources, 38 million Mt (14%) are from road de-icers, 18 million Mt (7%) are from pasture lands, 14 million Mt (5 %) are from urban lands, and 8 million Mt (3%) are from cultivated lands. The median incremental-catchment yield delivered to local streams is 26 metric tons per year per square kilometer [(Mt/yr)/km2]. Ten percent of the incremental catchments yield less than 4 (Mt/yr)/km2, and 10 percent yield more than 90 (Mt/yr)/km2. In 13% of the reaches, predicted flow-weighted concentrations exceed 500 mg/L—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary non-enforceable drinking-water standard.

  18. Octafluorodirhenate(III) Revisited: Solid-State Preparation, Characterization, and Multiconfigurational Quantum Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari; Todorova, Tanya K; Pham, Chien Thang; Hartmann, Thomas; Abram, Ulrich; Sattelberger, Alfred P; Poineau, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    A simple method for the high-yield preparation of (NH4)2[Re2F8]·2H2O has been developed that involves the reaction of (n-Bu4N)2[Re2Cl8] with molten ammonium bifluoride (NH4HF2). Using this method, the new salt [NH4]2[Re2F8]·2H2O was prepared in ∼90% yield. The product was characterized in solution by ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance ((19)F NMR) spectroscopies and in the solid-state by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Multiconfigurational CASSCF/CASPT2 quantum chemical calculations were performed to investigate the molecular and electronic structure, as well as the electronic absorption spectrum of the [Re2F8](2-) anion. The metal-metal bonding in the Re2(6+) unit was quantified in terms of effective bond order (EBO) and compared to that of its [Re2Cl8](2-) and [Re2Br8](2-) analogues.

  19. Solid-State Electrode Engineering and Material Processing for All-Solid-State Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersak, Thomas A.

    In this dissertation we demonstrate the full rechargeability of a FeS 2/lithium metal battery at 60°C. To enable the reversibility of the FeS2 redox chemistry we utilize a bulk all-solid-state battery architecture based upon the Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. The glass-ceramic electrolyte's non-volatility and non-flammability allows us to use a lithium metal anode safely, while its solid nature confines FeS2's intermediate electroactive species to prevent active material loss and capacity fade. Based only on the weight of the active materials our battery stands to triple the specific energy (Wh kg-1) of conventional state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. We also observe ortho-FeS2 as a charge product and propose a new discharge mechanism which revises 30 years of research on the subject. Unfortunately, our laboratory FeS2/Li battery could not achieve a practical cell-level specific energy because the composite electrode was nearly 70 wt. % glass-ceramic electrolyte and carbon black. We also found that our batteries were not durable because the formation of lithium dendrites through the glass-ceramic electrolyte separator membrane frequently internally shorted test cells upon charge. The remainder of this dissertation outlines our work to develop an all-solid-state Li-ion battery to address the shorting issue and the work done to engineer better active material-electrolyte solid-solid interfaces in the composite electrode for high cell-level specific energy.

  20. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.; Havener, C.; Liu, Y.; Lassen, J.; Rothe, S.

    2010-02-15

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  1. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  2. Solid-State NMR/Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Polypeptides in Planar Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Salnikov, Evgeniy S; Sarrouj, Hiba; Reiter, Christian; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Purea, Armin; Aussenac, Fabien; Ouari, Olivier; Tordo, Paul; Fedotenko, Illya; Engelke, Frank; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2015-11-19

    Dynamic nuclear polarization has been developed to overcome the limitations of the inherently low signal intensity of NMR spectroscopy. This technique promises to be particularly useful for solid-state NMR spectroscopy where the signals are broadened over a larger frequency range and most investigations rely on recording low gamma nuclei. To extend the range of possible investigations, a triple-resonance flat-coil solid-state NMR probe is presented with microwave irradiation capacities allowing the investigation of static samples at temperatures of 100 K, including supported lipid bilayers. The probe performance allows for two-dimensional separated local field experiments with high-power Lee-Goldberg decoupling and cross-polarization under simultaneous irradiation from a gyrotron microwave generator. Efficient cooling of the sample turned out to be essential for best enhancements and line shape and necessitated the development of a dedicated cooling chamber. Furthermore, a new membrane-anchored biradical is presented, and the geometry of supported membranes was optimized not only for good membrane alignment, handling, stability, and filling factor of the coil but also for heat and microwave dissipation. Enhancement factors of 17-fold were obtained, and a two-dimensional PISEMA spectrum of a transmembrane helical peptide was obtained in less than 2 h. PMID:26487390

  3. Solid-state NMR and computational investigation of solvent molecule arrangement and dynamics in isostructural solvates of droperidol.

    PubMed

    Bērziņš, Agris; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2015-02-01

    (13)C, (15)N and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy have been used to rationalize arrangement and dynamics of solvent molecules in a set of isostructural solvates of droperidol. The solvent molecules are determined to be dynamically disordered in the methanol and ethanol solvates, while they are ordered in the acetonitrile and nitromethane solvates. (2)H NMR spectra of deuterium-labelled samples allowed the characterization of the solvent molecule dynamics in the alcohol solvates and the non-stoichiometric hydrate. The likely motion of the alcohol molecules is rapid libration within a site, plus occasional exchange into an equivalent site related by the inversion symmetry, while the water molecules are more strongly disordered. DFT calculations strongly suggest that the differences in dynamics between the solvates are related to differences in the energetic penalty for reversing the orientation of a solvent molecule. PMID:25282618

  4. Studies of the fundamentals of solids state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Alamgir, M.

    1990-11-01

    Several methods have been developed to dimensionally stabilize polymer electrolytes based on poly-(bis (methoxy ethoxy ethoxide) phosphazene), known as MEEP. In contrast to the poor dimensional stability exhibited by complexes of MEEP with most Li salts, those prepared with LiAlCl4 have been isolated as the first example of free-standing MEEP-(LiX)n films. The mechanical properties of dimensionally unstable MEEP-(LIX)n complexes can be significantly improved by forming composites with polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide), poly(propylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone). The conductivity of 6.7 x 10(exp -5) ohm(exp -1) cm(exp -1) at 25 C exhibited by 55 w/o MEEP/45 w/o PEO-(LiN(CF3SO2)2)0.13 is among the highest values reported to date for a dimensionally stable electrolyte. The preparation, and conductivity, calorimetric and electrochemical studies of these electrolytes are described. Cyclic voltammetric data indicated that these electrolytes have anodic stability at least up to 4.5V versus Li(+)/Li. They have shown excellent compatibility with Li metal making them suitable for use as Li(+) conductive solid electrolytes in solid-state Li batteries. Li/TiS2 solid-state cells utilizing some of these electrolytes have exceeded 200 cycles.

  5. Phenomena of solid state grain boundaries phase transition in technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minaev, Y. A.

    2015-03-30

    The results of study the phenomenon, discovered by author (1971), of the phase transition of grain boundary by the formation of two-dimensional liquid or quasi-liquid films have been done. The described phenomena of the first order phase transition (two-dimensional melting) at temperatures 0.6 – 0.9 T{sub S0} (of the solid state melting point) is a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials, which has allowed to revise radically scientific representations about a solid state of substance. Using the mathematical tools of the film thermodynamics it has been obtained the generalized equation of Clausius - Clapeyron type for two-dimensional phase transition. The generalized equation has been used for calculating grain boundary phase transition temperature T{sub Sf} of any metal, which value lies in the range of (0.55…0.86) T{sub S0}. Based on these works conclusions the develop strategies for effective forming of coatings (by thermo-chemical processing) on surface layers of functional alloys and hard metals have been made. The short overview of the results of some graded alloys characterization has been done.

  6. Quasiparticle density of states of 2H-NbSe{sub 2} single crystals revealed by low-temperature specific heat measurements according to a two-component model.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J.; Shan, L.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, Z. L.; Wen, H. H.

    2008-06-01

    Low-temperature specific heat in a dichalcogenide superconductor 2H-NbSe{sub 2} is measured in various magnetic fields. It is found that the specific heat can be described very well by a simple model concerning two components corresponding to vortex normal core and ambient superconducting region, separately. For calculating the specific heat outside the vortex core region, we use the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) formalism under the assumption of a narrow distribution of the superconducting gaps. The field-dependent vortex core size in the mixed state of 2H-NbSe{sub 2}, determined by using this model, can explain the nonlinear field dependence of specific heat coefficient {gamma}(H), which is in good agreement with the previous experimental results and more formal calculations. With the high-temperature specific heat data, we can find that, in the multi-band superconductor 2H-NbSe{sub 2}, the recovered density of states (or Fermi surface) below T{sub c} under a magnetic field seems not to be gapped again by the charge density wave (CDW) gap, which suggests that the superconducting gap and the CDW gap may open on different Fermi surface sheets.

  7. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  8. Variational Calculations for Hydrogen in Introductory Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbun, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Molecular hydrogen is very important in the introductory solid state physics course because it is used as one of the simplest molecular realistic models where bonding and anti-bonding takes place. This system is one of the first examples in which interactions among the ions and the electrons is incorporated realistically. To this end, we approach the system starting from the hydrogen atom. Here we introduce a numerical approach that reproduces the known analytic result for the ground state. The idea is to expand the hydrogenic wavefunction in terms of Gaussians (four of them) with variational parameters. As the parameters are varied the numerical approach stops when the energy is a minimum. The scheme is consistently extended through the ionized hydrogen molecule and the reproduction of its analytically known ground state energy result. We finally culminate with the hydrogen molecule using a variational wavefunction, a la Hartree, and proceed to repeat the process with a particular flavor of a Hartree-Fock wavefunction [1] and finally obtaining a hydrogen molecule total ground state energy of -31.10 eV with a bond length of 1.37 Bohr radius.[4pt] [1] ``Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids,'' Efthimios Kaxiras (Cambridge UP, Cambridge UK, 2003).

  9. An all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using two solid electrolytes having different functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Chikusa, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries are expected to be valuable next generation batteries. To improve the performance of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries, it is essential to raise both the reactivity of sulfur and the ionic conductivity of the positive composite electrode. For achieving this, we investigate a positive composite electrode prepared using P2S5 and a solid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity. As a result, we have found that the lithium-sulfur cell exhibits a relatively low activation energy together with high ionic conductivity. The positive composite electrode exhibits an extremely high capacity of 1550 mA h g-1 (sulfur) at 1.3 mA cm-2 and 25 °C. Moreover, when using the positive electrode, the energy densities at the cell level (18650) are 540 W h kg-1 and 990 W h L-1, estimated from the equivalent structure of a current lithium-ion battery.

  10. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  11. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A

    2014-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation.

  12. Triple line kinetics in solid-state dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ashwani; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    Solid-state dewetting has been studied in a large number of experimental systems, such as SOI (Si on amorphous SiO2), or metal films on various substrates. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed in the past 10 years to understand this phenomena, ranging from Kinetic Monte Carlo to phase field, and continuum Mullins-like models. We present a continuum model which addresses the question of the limit of validity of the usual approximation of a constant contact angle at the triple line between the solid, the film, and the vacuum (or vapor). Our results suggest that the Young relation is subject to systematic deviations, which could be measured in experiments. In addition, the so-called mass shedding effect, which leads to the breakup of the film at a finite distance from the triple-line, can be accelerated by orders of magnitude due to wetting effects. Supported by LOTUS Grant 11-13AP20.

  13. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion. PMID:27090844

  14. Single ion implantation for solid state quantum computer development

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Meijers, Jan; Persaud, Arun; McDonald, Joseph W.; Holder, Joseph P.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-12-18

    Several solid state quantum computer schemes are based on the manipulation of electron and nuclear spins of single donor atoms in a solid matrix. The fabrication of qubit arrays requires the placement of individual atoms with nanometer precision and high efficiency. In this article we describe first results from low dose, low energy implantations and our development of a low energy (<10 keV), single ion implantation scheme for {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions. When {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions impinge on a wafer surface, their potential energy (9.3 keV for P{sup 15+}) is released, and about 20 secondary electrons are emitted. The emission of multiple secondary electrons allows detection of each ion impact with 100% efficiency. The beam spot on target is controlled by beam focusing and collimation. Exactly one ion is implanted into a selected area avoiding a Poissonian distribution of implanted ions.

  15. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  16. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  17. Crystal Structures and Vibrational and Solid-State (CPMAS) NMR Spectroscopy of Some Bis(triphenylphosphine)silver(I) Sulfate, Selenate and Phosphate Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowmaker, Graham A.; Hanna, John V.; Rickard, Clifton E.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2001-01-01

    The complexes [Ag2(PPh3)4EO4].2H2O(E=S, Se) (1,2), [Ag(PPh3)2HEO4].H2O (E=S, Se)(3,4) and [Ag9PPh3)2H2PO4].2EtOH (5) have been prepared and studied by X-ray crystallography and by infrared and solid-state 13C and 31 P cross-polarization, magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Protein structure determination with paramagnetic solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ishita; Nadaud, Philippe S; Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2013-09-17

    Many structures of the proteins and protein assemblies that play central roles in fundamental biological processes and disease pathogenesis are not readily accessible via the conventional techniques of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the other hand, many of these challenging biological systems are suitable targets for atomic-level structural and dynamic analysis by magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that has far less stringent limitations on the molecular size and crystalline state. Over the past decade, major advances in instrumentation and methodology have prompted rapid growth in the field of biological solid-state NMR. However, despite this progress, one challenge for the elucidation of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures via conventional MAS NMR methods is the relative lack of long-distance data. Specifically, extracting unambiguous interatomic distance restraints larger than ∼5 Å from through-space magnetic dipole-dipole couplings among the protein (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N nuclei has proven to be a considerable challenge for researchers. It is possible to circumvent this problem by extending the structural studies to include several analogs of the protein of interest, intentionally modified to contain covalently attached paramagnetic tags at selected sites. In these paramagnetic proteins, the hyperfine couplings between the nuclei and unpaired electrons can manifest themselves in NMR spectra in the form of relaxation enhancements of the nuclear spins that depend on the electron-nucleus distance. These effects can be significant for nuclei located up to ∼20 Å away from the paramagnetic center. In this Account, we discuss MAS NMR structural studies of nitroxide and EDTA-Cu(2+) labeled variants of a model 56 amino acid globular protein, B1 immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G (GB1), in the microcrystalline solid phase. We used a set of six EDTA-Cu(2

  19. High-Pressure, Solid-State Experiments for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B; Belak, J; Colvin, J; Edwards, J; Kalantar, D; Lasinski, B; Pollaine, S; Shay, H; Weber, S; Wolfer, B

    2001-02-15

    In this report, we summarize our plan for using NIF for measuring solid-state deformation physics at very high pressures, P >> 1 Mbar. There are several key uncertainties, the strength and phase being two of them. The deformation mechanisms at high pressure and high strain rate are also uncertain. The state, as well as strength, of a material that has first been melted, then dynamically refrozen by high-pressure compression is very uncertain. There is no single facility that can address all of these issues at all parameter regimes of interest. Rather, a coordinated plan involving multiple laboratories and universities and multiple facilities will ultimately be needed. We present here our first thoughts for the NIF component of this effort. In Sec. I, we motivate the physics of this regime, and point out the uncertainties, then describe in Sec. II the development work that we have done over the last 5 years in this area. In Sec. III, we describe several NIF designs we have developed to probe solid-state deformation physics at very high pressures.

  20. Precise quantum control on solid-state spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianpei

    Precise quantum control is of great importance for quantum information processing, high resolution spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. One of the key obstacles to realizing precise quantum control on solid-state spins is the noises arising from both environment and control field. Here, we design a composite pulse to realize precise quantum control on a single electron spin in diamond by suppressing the effect of both noises simultaneously. The control is experimentally demonstrated to be with a low error rate of 4.8E-5. We improve quantum optimal control method to realize precise two-qubit quantum control on a system comprised by a single electron spin and 14N nuclear spin. With the improved quantum optimal control method, we design a pulse sequence for CNOT gate to suppress the noises simultaneously. The error rate of CNOT gate is measured to be 8E-3. To the best of our knowledge, the control we have realized stands for the state of art in precise quantum control on solid-state spins.

  1. 1D quantum simulation using a solid state platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkendall, Megan; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom

    Understanding the properties of large quantum systems can be challenging both theoretically and numerically. One experimental approach-quantum simulation-involves mapping a quantum system of interest onto a physical system that is programmable and experimentally accessible. A tremendous amount of work has been performed with quantum simulators formed from optical lattices; by contrast, solid-state platforms have had only limited success. Our experimental approach to quantum simulation takes advantage of nanoscale control of a metal-insulator transition at the interface between two insulating complex oxide materials. This system naturally exhibits a wide variety of ground states (e.g., ferromagnetic, superconducting) and can be configured into a variety of complex geometries. We will describe initial experiments that explore the magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional superlattices with spatial periods as small as 4 nm, comparable to the Fermi wavelength. The results demonstrate the potential of this solid-state quantum simulation approach, and also provide empirical constraints for physical models that describe the underlying oxide material properties. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL), FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  2. Pressure-induced activity loss in solid state catalase.

    PubMed

    Wurster, D E; Ternik, R L

    1995-02-01

    The pressure-induced reductions in the activities of a number of enzymes in the solution state, and more recently in the solid state, have been reported. To further investigate the effect of pressure on proteins in the solid state, the enzyme catalase was used as a model. Compacts containing 150.0 +/- 0.2 mg of catalase powder were prepared on instrumented laboratory presses using various compaction pressures between 0 and 669 MPa. After compaction, a spectrophotometric assay was utilized to determine the pseudo-first-order rate constants for the catalase-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. These rate constants were used to calculate the change in catalase activity. Results indicated a loss in catalase activity of up to 30% at compaction pressures of 251 MPa or greater. While the mechanism which produces the loss of enzyme activity is not clear, a strong linear correlation between enzyme activity and compaction pressure was seen over the range of pressures (0-251 MPa) where the decrease in activity occurred. In addition, compact densities were calculated and correlated to enzyme activity values. This correlation did not appear to be as strong. PMID:7738799

  3. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate.

  4. Circumventing Diffusion in Kinetically Controlled Solid-State Metathesis Reactions.

    PubMed

    Martinolich, Andrew J; Kurzman, Joshua A; Neilson, James R

    2016-08-31

    Solid-state diffusion is often the primary limitation in the synthesis of crystalline inorganic materials and prevents the potential discovery and isolation of new materials that may not be the most stable with respect to the reaction conditions. Synthetic approaches that circumvent diffusion in solid-state reactions are rare and often allow the formation of metastable products. To this end, we present an in situ study of the solid-state metathesis reactions MCl2 + Na2S2 → MS2 + 2 NaCl (M = Fe, Co, Ni) using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Depending on the preparation method of the reaction, either combining the reactants in an air-free environment or grinding homogeneously in air before annealing, the barrier to product formation, and therefore reaction pathway, can be altered. In the air-free reactions, the product formation appears to be diffusion limited, with a number of intermediate phases observed before formation of the MS2 product. However, grinding the reactants in air allows NaCl to form directly without annealing and displaces the corresponding metal and sulfide ions into an amorphous matrix, as confirmed by pair distribution function analysis. Heating this mixture yields direct nucleation of the MS2 phase and avoids all crystalline binary intermediates. Grinding in air also dissipates a large amount of lattice energy via the formation of NaCl, and the crystallization of the metal sulfide is a much less exothermic process. This approach has the potential to allow formation of a range of binary, ternary, or higher-ordered compounds to be synthesized in the bulk, while avoiding the formation of many binary intermediates that may otherwise form in a diffusion-limited reaction. PMID:27490369

  5. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  6. Analysis of Technology for Solid State Coherent Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable advances have been made in the areas of the diode-pumped, eye-safe, solid state lasers, wide bandwidth, semiconductor detectors operating in the near-infrared region. These advances have created new possibilities for the development of low-cost, reliable, and compact coherent lidar systems for measurements of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscattering from a space-based platform. The work performed by the UAH personnel concentrated on design and analyses of solid state pulsed coherent lidar systems capable of measuring atmospheric winds from space, and design and perform laboratory experiments and measurements in support of solid state laser radar remote sensing systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used by NASA to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. A lidar testbed system was designed and analyzed by considering the major space operational and environmental requirements, and its associated physical constraints. The lidar optical system includes a wedge scanner and the compact telescope designed by the UAH personnel. The other major optical components included in the design and analyses were: polarizing beam splitter, routing mirrors, wave plates, signal beam derotator, and lag angle compensator. The testbed lidar optical train was designed and analyzed, and different design options for mounting and packaging the lidar subsystems and components and support structure were investigated. All the optical components are to be mounted in a stress-free and stable manner to allow easy integration and alignment, and long term stability. This lidar system is also intended to be used for evaluating the performance of various lidar subsystems and components that are to be integrated into a flight unit and for demonstrating the integrity of the signal processing algorithms by performing actual atmospheric measurements from a ground station.

  7. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate. PMID:20944744

  8. Coherent-states dynamics of the H + + C 2H 2 reaction at ELab = 30 eV: A complete electron nuclear dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jorge A.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Yan, Yunan; Tsereteli, Kakha; Laraque, Jennifer; Addepalli, Srirangam; Myers, Chris

    2005-10-01

    Preliminary results of an exhaustive study of H + + HC tbnd CH at ELab = 30 eV within the electron nuclear dynamics (END) and coherent state dynamics (CSD) theories are herein presented. Current END-CSD method employs frozen Gaussian wave packets in the semiclassical limit of ℏ → 0 for the nuclei and a single-determinantal Thouless coherent state (CS) for the electrons. The simulated 6800 trajectories from 68 independent HC tbnd CH target orientations provide a definite description of all the reactive processes, including H 2 formation and charge transfers. Differential and integral cross-sections are evaluated via a novel CS S-matrix formulation in conjunction with semiclassical techniques. Calculated cross-sections show a good agreement with both experimental and previous END results.

  9. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1987-02-24

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device is described comprising layers including cathode contact means, anode contact means, means including a layer of dielectric material and means including an electrochromic oxide layer. The means is arranged and oriented such that the application of a predetermined potential to the transition metal oxide device is effective for actuating blue coloration within the electrochromic oxide layer and wherein the coloration action sweeps across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer from the cathode contact means to the anode contact means.

  10. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  11. Explosively produced megagauss fields and recent solid state applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Smith, J.L.; Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    Large magnetic fields may be generated by compression of an initial magnetic flux generated over a large area at relatively low magnetic field into a region of smaller area. Following a discussion of flux compression principles, the authors discuss megagauss field systems in use at Los Alamos where chemical explosives are used to compress the flux. Their use in some solid state experiments will be discussed briefly, including a planned set of experiments on YBCO to be done jointly with a Russian team, whose aim is to determine the low temperature, critical magnetic field of YBCO.

  12. Method for joining metal by solid-state bonding

    DOEpatents

    Burkhart, L. Elkin; Fultz, Chester R.; Maulden, Kerry A.

    1979-01-01

    The present development is directed to a method for joining metal at relatively low temperatures by solid-state bonding. Planar surfaces of the metal workpieces are placed in a parallel abutting relationship with one another. A load is applied to at least one of the workpieces for forcing the workpieces together while one of the workpieces is relatively slowly oscillated in a rotary motion over a distance of about 1.degree.. After a preselected number of oscillations, the rotary motion is terminated and the bond between the abutting surfaces is effected. An additional load may be applied to facilitate the bond after terminating the rotary motion.

  13. On the role of twinning in solid-state reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akchurin, M. Sh. Zakalyukin, R. M.

    2013-05-15

    A new concept of the role of twinning in processes of plastic deformation is proposed which suggests mechanical twinning to be the main mechanism of solid-state reactions under the deformation mixing of components, in particular, the grinding of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders, as a result of which yttrium-aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) particles are formed.

  14. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  15. An evaluation of solid state video frame recorders

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked Sandia with conducting a market survey to identify and evaluate pertinent solid state recorders. This report identifies the chosen recorders and explains why they were selected. It details test procedures and provides the results of the evaluation. Our main focus in this evaluation was to determine whether the frame grabber altered signal quality. To determine the effect on the signal, we evaluated specific parameters: sensitivity, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and intrascene dynamic range. These factors were evaluated at the input and output of the frame grabber.

  16. Mid-infrared solid-state lasers and laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Byvik, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of NASA-Langley's objectives for the development of advanced lasers and laser materials systems applicable to remote sensing in the mid-IR range. Prominent among current concerns are fiber-optic spectroscopy, eye-safe solid-state lasers for both Doppler sensing and mid-IR wavelength-generation laser pumping, and nonlinear optics generating tunable mid-IR radiation. Ho:YAG lasers are noted to exhibit intrinsic advantages for the desired applications, and are pumpable by GaAlAs laser diodes with a quantum efficiency approaching 2.

  17. Solid-State NMR Studies of Chemically Lithiated CFx

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, N. D.; Johnson, V. S.; Ben-Ari, R.; Gan, H.; Lehnes, J. M.; Guo, R.; Lu, W.; Muffoletto, B. C.; Reddy, T.; Stallworth, P. E.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Three types of fluorinated carbon, all in their original form and upon sequential chemical lithiations via n-butyllithium, were investigated by 13C and 19F solid-state NMR methods. The three starting CFx materials [where x = 1 (nominally)] were fiber based, graphite based, and petroleum coke based. The aim of the current study was to identify, at the atomic/molecular structural level, factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among the different kinds of CFx. Differences were noted in the covalent F character among the starting compounds and in the details of LiF production among the lithiated samples. PMID:20676233

  18. Solid-State NMR Studies of Chemically Lithiated CF.

    PubMed

    Leifer, N D; Johnson, V S; Ben-Ari, R; Gan, H; Lehnes, J M; Guo, R; Lu, W; Muffoletto, B C; Reddy, T; Stallworth, P E; Greenbaum, S G

    2010-01-01

    Three types of fluorinated carbon, all in their original form and upon sequential chemical lithiations via n-butyllithium, were investigated by (13)C and (19)F solid-state NMR methods. The three starting CF(x) materials [where x = 1 (nominally)] were fiber based, graphite based, and petroleum coke based. The aim of the current study was to identify, at the atomic/molecular structural level, factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among the different kinds of CF(x). Differences were noted in the covalent F character among the starting compounds and in the details of LiF production among the lithiated samples.

  19. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.; Egert, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  20. Solid-state lasers for coherent communication and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Work in the stabilization of monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and the application of these lasers to nonlinear optical frequency conversion is discussed. The intrinsic stability of semiconductor diode laser pumped solid state lasers has facilitated a number of demonstration in external resonant cavity harmonic generation and stable optical parametric oscillation. Relative laser frequency stabilization of 0.3 Hz was achieved, and absolute stability of a few hundred hertz is anticipated. The challenge is now to reproduce this frequency stability in the output of tunable nonlinear optical devices. Theoretical and experimental work toward this goal are continuing.

  1. Detecting DNA Depurination with Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michael M.; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Taylor, Ethan W.; Hall, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the different types of DNA damage that occur endogenously in the cell, depurination is especially prevalent. These lesions can initiate mutagenesis and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for the detection of depurination at the single-molecule scale using solid-state nanopores. We induce depurination in short duplex DNA using acidic conditions and observe that the presence of apurinic sites results in significantly slower dynamics during electrokinetic translocation. This procedure may be valuable as a diagnostic for in situ quantification of DNA depurination. PMID:24988437

  2. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  3. A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.

  4. Bloodstain age analysis: toward solid state fluorescent lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kevin; Zhegalova, Natalia; Achilefu, Samuel; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-03-01

    One of the most pressing unsolved challenges in forensic science is the determination of time since deposition (TSD) of bloodstains at crime scenes. Despite a number of high profile cases over the past couple hundred years involving controversy over TSD methods, no reliable quantitative method has been established. We present here an approach that has yet to be explored by forensic scientist: measuring the fluorescence lifetime of solid-state blood. Such a method would allow for on-site measurements of bloodstains utilizing the appropriate device, and would allow for rapid results returned in real-time to investigators.

  5. Some studies on a solid-state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of a program for the development of a sulfur probe for monitoring the sulfur potential in coal gasification reactors, an investigation was conducted regarding the efficiency of the solid electrolyte cell Ar+H2+H2S/CaS+CaF2+(Pt)//CaF2//Pt)+CaF2+CaS/H2S+H2+Ar. A demonstration is provided of the theory, design, and operation of a solid-state sulfur probe based on CaF2 electrolyte. It was found that the cell responds to changes in sulfur potential in a manner predicted by the Nernst equation. The response time of the cell at 1225 K, after a small change in temperature or gas composition, was 2.5 Hr, while at a lower temperature of 990 K the response time was approximately 9 hr. The cell emf was insensitive to a moderate increase in the flow rate of the test gas and/or the reference gas. The exact factors affecting the slow response time of galvanic cells based on a CaF2 electrolyte have not yet been determined. The rate-limiting steps may be either the kinetics of electrode reactions or the rate of transport through the electrolyte.

  6. Probing cis-trans isomerization in the S{sub 1} state of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} via H-atom action and hot band-pumped IR-UV double resonance spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Field, Robert W.; Merer, Anthony J.

    2015-08-28

    We report novel experimental strategies that should prove instrumental in extending the vibrational and rotational assignments of the S{sub 1} state of acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, in the region of the cis-trans isomerization barrier. At present, the assignments are essentially complete up to ∼500 cm{sup −1} below the barrier. Two difficulties arise when the assignments are continued to higher energies. One is that predissociation into C{sub 2}H + H sets in roughly 1100 cm{sup −1} below the barrier; the resulting quenching of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) reduces its value for recording spectra in this region. The other difficulty is that tunneling through the barrier causes a staggering in the K-rotational structure of isomerizing vibrational levels. The assignment of these levels requires data for K values up to at least 3. Given the rotational selection rule K′ − ℓ{sup ′′} = ± 1, such data must be obtained via excited vibrational levels of the ground state with ℓ{sup ′′} > 0. In this paper, high resolution H-atom resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra are demonstrated to contain predissociated bands which are almost invisible in LIF spectra, while preliminary data using a hyperthermal pulsed nozzle show that ℓ{sup ′′} = 2 states can be selectively populated in a jet, giving access to K′ = 3 states in IR-UV double resonance.

  7. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P = 0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2) its P = 0 pressure derivative; (3) the P = 0 volume; and (4) the P = 0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  8. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P=0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2)it P=0 pressure derivative; (3) the P=0 volume; and (4) the P=0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  9. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  10. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  11. REDOR solid-state NMR as a probe of the membrane locations of membrane-associated peptides and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Sackett, Kelly; Xie, Li; Ghosh, Ujjayini; Weliky, David P.

    2015-04-01

    Rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) solid-state NMR is applied to probe the membrane locations of specific residues of membrane proteins. Couplings are measured between protein 13CO nuclei and membrane lipid or cholesterol 2H and 31P nuclei. Specific 13CO labeling is used to enable unambiguous assignment and 2H labeling covers a small region of the lipid or cholesterol molecule. The 13CO-31P and 13CO-2H REDOR respectively probe proximity to the membrane headgroup region and proximity to specific insertion depths within the membrane hydrocarbon core. One strength of the REDOR approach is use of chemically-native proteins and membrane components. The conventional REDOR pulse sequence with 100 kHz 2H π pulses is robust with respect to the 2H quadrupolar anisotropy. The 2H T1's are comparable to the longer dephasing times (τ's) and this leads to exponential rather than sigmoidal REDOR buildups. The 13CO-2H buildups are well-fitted to A × (1 - e-γτ) where A and γ are fitting parameters that are correlated as the fraction of molecules (A) with effective 13CO-2H coupling d = 3γ/2. The REDOR approach is applied to probe the membrane locations of the "fusion peptide" regions of the HIV gp41 and influenza virus hemagglutinin proteins which both catalyze joining of the viral and host cell membranes during initial infection of the cell. The HIV fusion peptide forms an intermolecular antiparallel β sheet and the REDOR data support major deeply-inserted and minor shallowly-inserted molecular populations. A significant fraction of the influenza fusion peptide molecules form a tight hairpin with antiparallel N- and C-α helices and the REDOR data support a single peptide population with a deeply-inserted N-helix. The shared feature of deep insertion of the β and α fusion peptide structures may be relevant for fusion catalysis via the resultant local perturbation of the membrane bilayer. Future applications of the REDOR approach may include samples that contain cell

  12. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S(1) state of C2H2. II. The S(1) rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization.

    PubMed

    Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier. PMID:24437883

  13. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S(1) state of C2H2. II. The S(1) rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization.

    PubMed

    Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.

  14. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  15. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  16. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace. PMID:26354801

  17. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  18. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  19. The 20 GHz spacecraft FET solid state transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band using GaAs field effect transistors (FETs) was detailed. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development, single-ended amplifier stage, balanced amplifier stage, cascaded stage and radial combiner designs, and amplifier integration and test. A multistage GaAs FET amplifier capable of 8.2 W CW output over the 17.9 to 19.1 GHz frequency band was developed. The GaAs FET devices developed represent state of the art FET power device technology. Further device improvements are necessary to increase the bandwidth to 2.5 GHz, improve dc-to-RF efficiency, and increase power capability at the device level. Higher power devices will simplify the amplifier combining scheme, reducing the size and weight of the overall amplifier.

  20. RNA structure determination by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marchanka, Alexander; Simon, Bernd; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the RNA three-dimensional structure, either in isolation or as part of RNP complexes, is fundamental to understand the mechanism of numerous cellular processes. Because of its flexibility, RNA represents a challenge for crystallization, while the large size of cellular complexes brings solution-state NMR to its limits. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach on the basis of solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We develop a suite of experiments and RNA labeling schemes and demonstrate for the first time that ssNMR can yield a RNA structure at high-resolution. This methodology allows structural analysis of segmentally labelled RNA stretches in high-molecular weight cellular machines—independent of their ability to crystallize— and opens the way to mechanistic studies of currently difficult-to-access RNA-protein assemblies. PMID:25960310

  1. Equation of state for shock compression of distended solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis; Fenton, Gregg; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-05-01

    Shock Hugoniot data for full-density and porous compounds of boron carbide, silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, uranium dioxide and playa alluvium are investigated for the purpose of equation-of-state representation of intense shock compression. Complications of multivalued Hugoniot behavior characteristic of highly distended solids are addressed through the application of enthalpy-based equations of state of the form originally proposed by Rice and Walsh in the late 1950's. Additive measures of cold and thermal pressure intrinsic to the Mie-Gruneisen EOS framework is replaced by isobaric additive functions of the cold and thermal specific volume components in the enthalpy-based formulation. Additionally, experimental evidence reveals enhancement of shock-induced phase transformation on the Hugoniot with increasing levels of initial distension for silicon dioxide, uranium dioxide and possibly boron carbide. Methods for addressing this experimentally observed feature of the shock compression are incorporated into the EOS model.

  2. Equation of State for Shock Compression of High Distension Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Shock Hugoniot data for full-density and porous compounds of boron carbide, silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, uranium dioxide and playa alluvium are investigated for the purpose of equation-of-state representation of intense shock compression. Complications of multivalued Hugoniot behavior characteristic of highly distended solids are addressed through the application of enthalpy-based equations of state of the form originally proposed by Rice and Walsh in the late 1950's. Additivity of cold and thermal pressure intrinsic to the Mie-Gruneisen EOS framework is replaced by isobaric additive functions of the cold and thermal specific volume components in the enthalpy-based formulation. Additionally, experimental evidence supports acceleration of shock-induced phase transformation on the Hugoniot with increasing levels of initial distention for silicon dioxide, uranium dioxide and possibly boron carbide. Methods for addressing this experimentally observed facet of the shock compression are introduced into the EOS model.

  3. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  4. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison H.; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-01-01

    In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based “fingerprints” of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust. PMID:26562833

  5. Chemical phenomena in solid-state voltammetry in polymer solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, L.; Reed, R.A.; Kim, M.H.; Wooster, T.T.; Oliver, B.N.; Egekeze, J.; Kennedy, R.T.; Jorgenson, J.W.; Parcher, J.F.; Murray, R.W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper, aimed at delineating significant chemical effects in solid-state voltammetry, describes electrochemical oxidations and reductions of electroactive monomer solutes dissolved in and diffusing through rigid and semirigid polymer electrolyte solvents. Sorption of organic monomer vapors into poly(ethylene oxide) films yields polymer solvents whose chemistry is dominated by that of the sorbed monomer as shown by coordination and precipitation effects. The dynamics of plasticization-induced changes in transport rates are quite rapid. Physical diffusion in the polymer solvent in slow enough that electron hopping reactions measurably enhance charge transport rates; the effect was used to estimate a lower limit for the (Co(bpy)/sub 3/)/sup 2+/+/ self-exchange rate constant of 2 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/ s/sup /minus/1/. It is possible to erect polymeric film transport barriers at the electrode/polymer solvent interface and to measure the rate of permeation of monomer complexes from the polymer solvent into the polymer transport barrier film. Polymeric films of Os and Ru polypyridine complexes can be electropolymerized from polymer solutions of the corresponding monomers. Solid-state voltammetry can be extended to other polymer solvents including sulfonated polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), Nafion, and poly(acrylamide) gel.

  6. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  7. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm-in-diameter silicon-nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades ΔG and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and ΔG are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process. PMID:25994084

  8. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shangjin; Han, Yun; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Yan, Si; Siglin, Amanda E.; Williams, John C.; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are vital for many biological processes. These interactions often result in the formation of protein assemblies that are large in size, insoluble and difficult to crystallize, and therefore are challenging to study by structure biology techniques, such as single crystal X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a promising technique for studies of such protein assemblies because it is not limited by molecular size, solubility or lack of long-range order. In the past several years, we have applied magic angle spinning SSNMR based methods to study several protein complexes. In this chapter, we discuss the general solid-state NMR methodologies employed for structural and dynamics analyses of protein complexes with specific examples from our work on thioredoxin reassemblies, HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies and microtubule-associated protein assemblies. We present protocols for sample preparation and characterization, pulse sequences, SSNMR spectra collection and data analysis. PMID:22167681

  9. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

  10. Solid state light source for wavelength multiplex 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junejei

    2012-10-01

    A solid state light source provided for wavelength multiplex 3D Display is proposed. The system of solid state light source includes blue laser arrays of two wavelengths, a 2-ring phosphor wheel, a multi-band filter and a TIR prism. Green and red phosphors excited by blue lasers provide the original green and red lights of wide bandwidth. By passing through or reflected by a multi-band filter, two groups of green and red lights of narrow bandwidth for left or right eyes are selected. Blue lasers of two wavelengths also provide two blue lights for left and right eyes. Instead of using a second rotated narrow band filters that synchronized with the first phosphor wheel, a wheel having two rings coated with mirrors and phosphors is used to replace the synchronization existing in the conventional two wheels method. After passing the 2-ring wheel, the light source switches between two light paths that lead to be reflected or transmitting through the multiband filter. The multi-band filter can be disposed in a telecentric optical path to secure a high efficiency for the filter. A compact spectral multiplex light source is realized and can be directly attached to any existing optical engine.

  11. Quadrichromatic white solid state lamp with digital feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukauskas, Arturas; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Ivanauskas, Felikas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Krupic, Jevgenij; Rupsys, Andrius; Novickovas, Algirdas; Vitta, Pranciskus; Navickas, Alvydas; Raskauskas, Vytautas; Shur, Michael S.; Gaska, Remis

    2004-01-01

    White light with high color rendering indices can be produced by additive color mixing of emissions from several light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having different primary colors. White Versatile Solid-State Lamps (VSSLs) with variable color temperature, constant-chromaticity dimming, and efficiency/color-rendering trade-off can be developed using pulse-width modulation (PWM) driving technique. However, such lamps exhibit chromaticity shifts caused by different temperature and aging coefficients of the optical output for primary LEDs of different colors. To overcome this drawback, we developed a polychromatic white solid-state lamp with an internal digital feedback. The lamp features a quadrichromatic (red-amber-green-blue) design based on commercially available high-power LEDs. The design is optimized to achieve high values of the general color rendering index (69 to 79 points) in the color-temperature range of 2856 to 6504 K. A computer-controlled driving circuit contains a pulse-width modulator and a photodiode-based meter. The software performs periodical measurement of the radiant flux from primary LEDs of each color and adjusts the widths of the driving pulses. These VSSLs with feedback found application in phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

  12. Low temperature solid-state synthesis of nanocrystalline gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shi, Liang; Li, Qianwen; Si, Lulu; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN nanocrystalline was prepared via a solid-state reacion at relatively low temperature. ► The sizes and crystallinities of the GaN samples obtained at the different temperatures are investigated. ► The GaN sample has oxidation resistance and good thermal stability below 1000 °C. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline gallium nitride was synthesized by a solid-state reaction of metallic magnesium powder, gallium sesquioxide and sodium amide in a stainless steel autoclave at a relatively low temperature (400–550 °C). The structures and morphologies of the obtained products were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns indicated that the products were hexagonal GaN (JCPDS card no. 76-0703). The influence of reaction temperature on size of the products was studied by XRD and TEM. Furthermore, the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the nanocrystalline GaN were also investigated. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 800 °C in air.

  13. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  14. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  15. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison H; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-01-01

    In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust. PMID:26562833

  16. Improved Detection of Fast Neutrons with Solid-State Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzakis, J.; Hassan, S. M.; Clark, E. L.; Talebitaher, A.; Lee, P.

    2014-02-01

    There is an increasing requirement for alternative and improved detection of fast neutrons due to the renewed interest in neutron diagnostics applications. Some applications require heavily shielded neutron sources that emit a substantial proportion of their emission as fast neutrons and so require high performance fast neutron detectors. In some applications, the detection of neutron bursts from pulsed neutron sources has to be synchronized to the repetition rate of the source. Typical fast neutron detectors incorporate scintillators that are sensitive to all kinds of ionizing radiations as well as neutrons, and their efficiency is low. In this paper, we present a device based on the principle of neutron activation coupled to solid-state p-i-n diodes connected to a charge amplifier. The charge amplifier is specially developed to operate with high capacitance detectors and has been optimized by the aid of the SPICE program. A solid-state pulse shaping filter follows the charge amplifier, as an inexpensive solution, capable to provide pulses that can be counted by a digital counter.

  17. Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

    SciTech Connect

    Pelekhov, D. V.; Martin, I.; Suter, A.; Reagor, D. W.; Hammel, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.

  18. Optical and noise performance of CMOS solid-state photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao Jie; Johnson, Erik B.; Staples, Christopher J.; Chapman, Eric; Alberghini, Guy; Christian, James F.

    2010-08-01

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPM) are photodetectors composed of avalanche photodiode pixel arrays operating in Geiger mode (biased above diode breakdown voltage). They are built using CMOS technology and can be used in a variety of applications in high energy and nuclear physics, medical imaging and homeland security related areas. The high gain and low cost associated with the SSPM makes it an attractive alternative to existing photodetectors such as the photomultiplier tube (PMT). The capability of integrating CMOS on-chip readout circuitry on the same substrate as the SSPM also provides a compact and low-power-consumption solution to photodetector applications with stringent area and power requirements. The optical performance of the SSPM, specifically the detection and quantum efficiencies, can depend on the geometry and the doping profile associated with each photodiode pixel. The noise associated with the SSPM not only includes dark noise from each pixel, but also consists of excess noise terms due to after pulsing and inter-pixel cross talk. The magnitude of the excess noise terms can depend on biasing conditions, temperature, as well as pixel and inter-pixel dimensions. We present the optical and noise performance of SSPMs fabricated in a conventional CMOS process, and demonstrate the dependence of the SSPM performance on pixel/inter-pixel geometry, doping profile, temperature, as well as bias conditions. The continuing development of CMOS SSPM technology demonstrated here shows that low cost and high performance solid state photodetectors are viable solutions for many existing and future optical detection applications.

  19. Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E Fred

    2008-12-22

    The field of photonics starts with the efficient generation of light. The generation of efficient yet highly controllable light can indeed be accomplished with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are, in principle, capable of generating white light with a 20 times greater efficiency than conventional light bulbs. Deployed on a global scale to replace conventional sources, such solid-state light sources will result in enormous benefits that, over a period of 10 years, include (1) gigantic energy savings of 1.9 x 1020 joule, (2) a very substantial reduction in global-warming CO2 emissions, (3) a strong reduction in the emission of pollutants such as acid-rain-causing SO2, mercury (Hg), and uranium (U), and (4) financial savings exceeding a trillion (10(12)) US$. These benefits can be accomplished by the "replacement paradigm" in which conventional light sources are replaced by more energy efficient, more durable, and non-toxic light sources. However, it will be shown that solid-state light sources can go beyond the replacement paradigm, by providing new capabilities including the control of spectrum, color temperature, polarization, temporal modulation, and spatial emission pattern. We will show that such future, "smart" light sources, can harness the huge potential of LEDs by offering multi-dimensional controllability that will enhance the functionality and performance of light sources in a wide range of applications. These applications include optical microscopy, imaging, display technologies, communications, networking, and transportation systems.

  20. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.